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IPv6 Over MPLS

Rajesh R A
rajeshra@cisco.com

First South Asian IPv6 Summit/SANOG III


15th – 22nd Jan 2004, Bangalore

© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1


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CISCO Systems 1
Agenda

• IPv6 Deployment Scenarios


• MPLS Technology Overview
• 6PE/6VPE (L3 MPLS Approach)
• AToM/VPLS (IPv6 over Layer 2 MPLS VPN)
• IPv6 over MPLS status in the field

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
IPv6 Transport over a Provider Backbone

• Dual-stack Backbone Supporting Native IPv4 & IPv6


Upgrade of entire backbone essential. Very Costly & Complex
• IPv4 Backbone without MPLS
IPv6 CE-to-CE over IPv4 tunnels (GRE, 6to4 etc)
Complex, Resource intensive & Requires Dual-stack

• IPv4 Backbone with MPLS


Tunneling Mechanisms (similar to IPv4 without MPLS)
Layer 3 Solution : IPv6 Provider Edge (6PE), IPv6 Virtual PE (6VPE)
Layer 2 Solution: Any Transport over MPLS (AToM), VPLS
• IPv6 Backbone
Long-term solution.

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
Why IPv6 over MPLS ?

• Many service providers have already deployed MPLS


in their IPv4 backbone for various reasons
MPLS VPN, MPLS QoS, MPLS TE, IP+ATM, Layer services
(AToM, VPLS)
• MPLS can be used to facilitate IPv6 Graceful
Proliferation and Integration. Provides an attractive
solution with very high benefits, but low overhead &
risk.
• Layer 3 MPLS Solution (6PE/6VPE) needs only PE
routers to have Dual-stack. Non-PE routers are IPv6
unaware.
• Layer 2 MPLS Solution (AToM/VPLS) does not need
any IPv6 awareness in the Provider network (P or PE
routers)
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
MPLS Technology Overview
PE Router (Ingress PE) In Core:
• Classify packets • Forward using labels (as
• Label them opposed to IP addr)
Label Imposition • Label indicates service class
and destination
Label Swapping or Switching
P
CE
At Edge: (Egress PE)*
PE Remove Labels and
PE P forward packets
Label Disposition

Label Distribution Protocol

• Create new services via flexible classification


• Provides the ability to setup bandwidth guaranteed paths
• Provides ATM-like Connection-orientedness to a Connection-
less IP Infrastructure
(* PHP Ignored for simplicity)

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
MPLS Architecture

Control Plane
Routing Info Exchange
IP Routing Protocols with other Routers
(RIP, OSPF, BGP etc)

IP Routing Table

Label Info Base MPLS IP Routing Control Label Binding


Exchange with other
Routers
(LDP,BGP, RSVP-TE)

Data Plane
IP Packets In IP Packets Out
Forwarding Info Base (FIB)

MPLS Packets In
Label Forwarding Info Base MPLS Packets Out
(LFIB)

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
MPLS and the evolving
Internet Architecture

“ MPLS is being deployed because it has an immediate and


direct benefit to the network.
The long-term impact of MPLS is difficult to anticipate
because of the innovations that it enables.
This is, in part, one of the indicators of an architectural
change, as opposed to an evolutionary change, which would have
clear, immediate, and foreseeable consequences.

Tony Li

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
” 7
Generic example of Two-level label
Cisco
200
Cisco 222 200 DAT
100

111 222
BLR Paris INTEL
210
INTEL

110
SFO
333 300
333 310 DAT

Cisco

310 INTEL

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 6PE 8
Application of Two-level label stack

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
IPv6 Provider Edge (6PE) Architecture
110.1.x.x
Dual-stack Routers Site D
Site A
eBGP 2001:0620::
MP-iBGP

eBGP
P P
2001:0620:: OSPFV6 180.2.x.x
eBGP
Site B 6PE 6PE Site E

RIPv6 ISISv6
Service Provider Network
(IGP – OSPF, RIP, IS-IS)
Site C Site F
2001:0421::

2001:0420:: 190.1.x.x
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
IPv6 Provider Edge Router (6PE)
over MPLS
MP-iBGP sessions
2001:0620:: v6 v6 2001:0420::

145.95.0.0 v4 v6 2001:0421::
6PE P P 6PE
Dual
Dual Stack
Stack IPv4-IPv6
IPv4-IPv6 routers
routers Dual
Dual Stack
Stack IPv4-IPv6
IPv4-IPv6 routers
routers

2001:0621:: v6
CE P P
6PE IPv4 6PE
192.76.10.0 MPLS v4 192.254.10.0
v4
CE CE

• IPv4 or MPLS Core Infrastructure is IPv6-unaware


• PEs are updated to support Dual Stack/6PE
• IPv6 reachability exchanged among 6PEs via iBGP (MP-BGP)
• IPv6 packets transported from 6PE to 6PE inside MPLS
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
6PE Overview
MP-BGP sessions
2001:0620:: v6 IPv6 v6 2001:0420::
IPv6

IPv4
145.95.0.0 v4 v6 2001:0421::
P IPv6
6PE P 6PE

2001:0621:: v6 IPv6 IPv4


P P v4 192.254.10.0
IPv4 6PE 6PE
192.76.10.0 v4 Dual Stack Dual Stack

V6: V6:
IGP/BGP IGPv4 IGP/BGP
MPLS V4:
- LDPv4
- (TE v4)

IPv6 unaware
No core upgrade
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
6PE Routing
MP-BGP advertises 2001:0421::::
and binds a (2nd level) label
IPv6 Next Hop is an IPv4 compatible IPv6 address
built from 192.254.10.17
2001:0420::
IGPv4 advertises
reachability of
192.254.10.17 2001:0421::
192.72.170.13

6PE-1
LDPv4 binds label
to 192.254.10.17
192.254.10.17
6PE-2
P1 P2
• Translation of v6 BGP
Next_Hop into v4address
• Recursion of this address
via IGPv4

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
6PE Routing/Label Distribution
IGPv6 or MP-BGP 6PE-2 sends MP-iBGP advertisement to 6PE-1 which says:
advertising 2001:0421:: is reachable
2001:0421::
via BGP Next Hop = 192.254.10.17 (6PE-2)
bind BGP label to 2001:0421:: (*)
2001:0420::

IGPv4 advertises reachability 2001:0421::


6PE-1 of 192.254.10.17

192.72.170.13

6PE-2

P1 P2 192.254.10.17

IGPv6 or MP-BGP
LDPv4 binds label
advertising
to 192.254.10.17
2001:0421::

(*) The 2nd label allows operations with Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP)
(which is typically used in current MPLS networks)- it is an Aggregate label
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
6PE Forwarding

2001:0420::

IPv6 packet 2001:0421::


to 2001:0421:: 192.72.170.13
6PE-1

6PE-2

192.254.10.17
P1 P2

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
6PE Forwarding (6PE-1)
IPv6 Forwarding and Label Imposition:
• 6PE-1 receives an IPv6 packet
2001:0420:: • Lookup is done on IPv6 prefix
• Result is:
Label binded by MP-BGP to
IPv6 packet 2001:0421::
192.72.170.13 2001:0421::
to 2001:0421:: Label1 binded by LDP/IGPv4 to the
6PE-1 IPv4 address of BGP Next Hop
(6PE-2)

6PE-2
LDP/IGPv4 MP-
MP-BGP label IPv6 packet
6PE-2 To 2001:421:: To 2001:421::
label1 to 6PE-
192.254.10.17
P1 P2

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
6PE Forwarding (P1)

IPv6-UNaware MPLS Label


2001:0420:: Switching:
•P1 receives an MPLS packet
•Lookup is done on Label1
IPv6 packet 2001:0421::
192.72.170.13
to 2001:0421:: •Result is Label2
6PE-1

6PE-2
LDP/IGPv4 MP-
MP-BGP label IPv6 packet
6PE-2 To 2001:421:: To 2001:421::
label1 to 6PE-
192.254.10.17
P1 P2
LDP/IGPv4 MP-
MP-BGP label IPv6 packet
label2 to 6PE-
6PE-2 To 2001:421:: To 2001:421::

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
6PE Forwarding (P2)

IPv6-UNaware MPLS Label


2001:0420:: Switching:
•P2 receives an MPLS packet
•Lookup is done on Label2
IPv6 packet 2001:0421::
192.72.170.13
to 2001:0421:: •Result includes Pop label (PHP)
6PE-1

6PE-2
LDP/IGPv4 MP-
MP-BGP label IPv6 packet
6PE-2 To 2001:421:: To 2001:421::
label1 to 6PE-
192.254.10.17
P1 P2
LDP/IGPv4 MP-
MP-BGP label IPv6 packet MP-BGP label IPv6 packet
MP-
label2 to 6PE-
6PE-2 To 2001:421:: To 2001:421:: To 2001:421:: To 2001:421::

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
6PE Forwarding (6PE-2)
MPLS Label Pop and IPv6
Forwarding :
2001:0420:: • 6PE-2 receives an MPLS packet
• Lookup is done on Label
IPv6 packet
• Result is:
192.72.170.13 2001:0421::
to 2001:0421:: Pop the label & do IPv6 lookup
6PE-1 on IPv6 destination

IPv6 packet
6PE-2 To 2001:421::
LDP/IGPv4 MP-
MP-BGP label IPv6 packet
6PE-2 To 2001:421:: To 2001:421::
label1 to 6PE-
192.254.10.17
P1 P2
LDP/IGPv4 MP-
MP-BGP label IPv6 packet MP-BGP label IPv6 packet
MP-
label2 to 6PE-
6PE-2 To 2001:421:: To 2001:421:: To 2001:421:: To 2001:421::

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
6PE Standardization

• <draft-ietf-ngtrans-bgp-tunnel-04.txt> : “BGP
Tunnelling”
6PE is Cisco IOS implementation of “BGP Tunnelling”
over MPLS
Co-authored by Cisco
Generic solution for transport of IPv6 over any tunnelling
technique (including MPLS) using MP-BGP
• <draft-lefaucheur-bgp-tunnel-transition-00.txt>
Operational Environments and Transition Scenarios
for 'Connecting IPv6 Islands across IPv4 Clouds with
BGP‘

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
6PE Benefits
For SPs already running MPLS, 6PE approach
has many benefits:
• Core Infrastructure needs no upgrade and no
configuration change
• Upgrade only on the required edge routers (ie
upgrade of existing PEs to 6PE, or add separate 6PEs)
• IPv6 supported simultaneously with existing MPLS
services (MPLS v4_VPNs, QoS, ATM, v4 Internet, …)

Î 6PE allows IPv6 to be deployed over existing


MPLS Multiservice infrastructure with marginal
operational impact/cost /risk
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
6PE Benefits
2001:0620:: v6 MP-BGP sessions v6 2001:0420::

145.95.0.0 v4 v6 2001:0421::
6PE P P 6PE

2001:0621:: v6
P P v4 192.254.10.0
6PE IPv4 6PE
192.76.10.0 v4 MPLS
v6IGP
MP-BGP

IPv6 CE only has a single Routing Peer (PE) regardless of how many
remote IPv6 CEs it communicates with
No change on an IPv6 CE when remote CEs are added/removed
(reachability automatically learnt)
No tunnel/”circuit” to be configured
Î6PE offers scalable and flexible solution (benefits are analogous to
RFC2547bis layer 3 VPN solution for IPv4)
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
6PE Benefits

2001:0620:: v6 MP-BGP sessions v6 2001:0420::


CE

145.95.0.0 v6 v6 2001:0421::
6PE P P 6PE

2001:0621:: v6
CE P P v4 192.254.10.0
6PE IPv4 6PE CE

192.76.10.0 v6 MPLS
CE

Æ6PE solution can be easily extended to support same


VPN services for IPv6 as currently supported for IPv4
with RFC2457bis (isolation, Internet access, QoS…)

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
6PE Cons

2001:0620:: v6 MP-BGP sessions v6 2001:0420::


CE

145.95.0.0 v4 v6 2001:0421::
6PE P P 6PE

2001:0621:: v6
CE P P v4 192.254.10.0
6PE IPv4 6PE CE

192.76.10.0 v4 MPLS
CE

• Only makes sense where network already runs MPLS


• Requires knowledge of MPLS and BGP technologies
• Requires dual-stack and software upgrade on
existing PE or deployment of dedicated 6PE routers

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
IPv6 Provider Virtual Edge (6VPE)

Each VPN has a separate Routing table (VRF) only on the PE routers.
Source: IEEE Communications, Jan 2004
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
IPv6 over Layer 2 MPLS VPN (AToM)

Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) – IETF Draft Martini Pt2Pt Based Solution
PE-router is AToM capable. The MPLS backbone is IPv6 Unaware
Source: IEEE Communications, Jan 2004
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
Packet Dumps

From CE Eth Header Layer 3 Header Data

From 6PE Eth Header L1 L2 Layer 3 Header Data

From 6VPE Eth Header L1 L2 Layer 3 Header Data

From AToM PE Eth Header L1 L2 CW Eth Hdr Layer 3 Hdr Data


From CE

LAN - EtherType
Control Word
•IPv4 : 0x0800
•IPv6 : 0x86dd
•MPLS : 0x8847

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 27
Comparison of IPv6 over MPLS Scenarios

Source: IEEE Communications, Jan 2004


IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
IPv6 over MPLS in the field

• AT&T Moon V6 Pilot Project


• France Telecom R&D (VHTD Network)
• Japan Advanced Institute of S&T
• Deutsche Telecom R & D
• NIIF IPv6, Hungary
• NRNs in EMEA
• Mobile ISPs

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
Observations on “IPv6 over MPLS” in the
field

• Performance of 6PE is
equivalent of Dual-stack
• AToM or Layer 2 MPLS VPN
during transition
• EoMPLS/VPLS for Metro
Ethernet environments
• Overheads & Limitations in
using Tunneling
mechanisms (GRE, 6to4 etc)
• Dual-stack as Long-term
solution, but 6PE/6VPE
preferred now for MPLS
backbones

IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
Conclusions

• IPv6 migration does not “need” MPLS … but,


where MPLS is deployed, it enables attractive
approaches for IPv6 integration
• Cisco IPv6 and MPLS solutions provides the
broadest deployment scenario feature set
• Cisco’s 6PE/6VPE is one such IPv6 integration
approach over IPv4 MPLS, which offers IPv6
deployment at marginal cost/risk:
no upgrade/reconfiguration in IPv4/MPLS core
IPv6 simultaneously with IPv4, IPv4 VPNs, L2
services, …
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
More Information
• CCO IPv6 - http://www.cisco.com/ipv6
• The ABC of IPv6
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/products_a
bc_ios_overview.html
• IPv6 e-Learning [requires CCO username/password]
http://www.cisco.com/warp/customer/732/Tech/ipv6/elearning/
• IPv6 Deployment Strategies
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/intsolns/ipv
6_sol/ipv6dswp.htm
• Implementing IPv6 over MPLS
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios
123/123cgcr/ipv6_c/sa_mpls6.pdf
• Cisco IOS IPv6 Product Manager – pgrosset@cisco.com
IPv6 over MPLS © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 32
Presentation_ID
IPv6 over MPLS © 1999, Cisco Systems,
© 2004,
Inc.
Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. www.cisco.com 33
© 2001,
IPv6Cisco
over MPLS
Systems, Inc. © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 34