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Mild to Moderate Pain Severe or Chronic Pain

 Squinting eyes  Eyes closed

 Porphyrin around eyes/nose  Poor skin tone

 Piloerection/rough coat  Muscle wasting

 Increased aggression  Dehydration

 Decreased exploratory behavior  Weight loss

 Vocalization when prodded (may or  Depressed


may not present)
 Unresponsive
 Licking/scratching/self-trauma
 Sunken/distended
 Guarding (protecting painful area) abdomen

 Reluctance to move  Hypothermia

 Grinding of teeth (not attributed to  PICA (eating of non-food


pleasure) substances)

 Reduce appetite  Self-trauma

Post-procedural Pain  Inappetence

 Squinting of eyes  Change in fluid intake

 Decreased activity  Hunched posture- Head


tucked
 Increased back arching
 Head pressing/bumping
 Horizontal stretching
 Vocalization- May or may
 Abdominal Writhing not be present (do not
rely on this sign alone)
 Abnormal gait
(e.g.,falling/teetering/staggering)  Abnormal gait
(e.g.,ataxia, limping)
 Guarding (protecting painful area)
 Poor grooming
 Twitching
 Incontinence
 Decreased grooming
 Labored breathing
 Porphyrin

 Piloerection of hair

 Decreased food and water intake

 Aggression

 Avoidance of contact with human

 Tachycardia (faster than normal


 Curling up biting own feet
heart rate)
(seen primarily with
 Tachypnia (faster than normal ureteral/bladder stones)
breathing)
 Avoidance of contact with
 PICA (eating of non-food human
substances, note: may be seen
 Huddled facing corner in
with the use of certain opioids)
cage

 Whimper (similar to dog