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Module 7: Hydraulics

1

Module 7: Hydraulics

Lesson 1: Hydraulic Pumps Lesson 2: Flow Velocity

Lesson 1: Learning Objectives Lesson 2: Learning Objectives

Pumps Class Activities: Calculations

Circulating System for Typical Rotary Required Flow Rate

Drilling Rig Geometry of the Well Bore

Formula for Volumetric Displacement Flow Rate of the Mud Pumps

for Cylinders Viscosity

Class Activities: Calculations Newtonian Fluid

Duplex Type Fanning Friction Factor vs. Reynolds

Pump Displacement and Output Flow Number

Rate

Double Acting Cylinder

Pump Displacement and Output

Volume Rates

Double Acting Duplex Pump

Horse Power Requirements

2

Module 7: Hydraulics Cont.

Lesson 5: Newtonian Fluids (Possible

Newtonian Models)

Homework)

Lesson 3: Learning Objectives

Lesson 5: Learning Objectives

Laminar and Turbulent Flow Patterns in

Calculation

Pipe

Plastic Fluid

Lesson 6 Plastic Fluids Calculation

Class Activity

(Possible Homework)

The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for

Lesson 6: Learning Objectives

Laminar Flow

Calculation

Optional: Density and Viscosity Video

Lesson 4: Learning Objectives

Flow in a Cylindrical Annulus

Pressure Drop

ΔP Parasitic Components

Critical Reynolds Number versus

Hedstrom Plot

Figure Reynolds Number versus Fanning

Friction Factor

Bit Nozzles

3

Lesson 1: Hydraulic Pumps

pump-and-spares

4

Lesson 1: Hydraulic Pumps Learning Objectives

In this lesson we will:

Distinguish two types of pumps

Define the circulating system for a typical rotary drilling

Identify a working drilling rig circulation system

Explain how the Double Acting Duplex Pump works

Explain how mud pumps work and label parts of a pump

Calculate the output flow rate

Note: Instructor will go through a series of examples and expect students to work

through remaining examples as homework or in class in groups.

http://

www.hddtrenchless.com.au/

product/Mud-Pump-Parts-

Pistons-and-Liners.cfm

5

Two Different Types of Pumps

6

Circulating System for Typical Rotary Drilling Rig

http://

www.conservation.ca.go

v/dog/picture_a_well/

PublishingImages/

DRILLING-RIGnew.gif 7

Mud Pumps

http://www.pacificoilfield.com/images/mud_pump_working.gif

8

How Single Acting, Single Cylinder Pumps Work

Suction Cycle and Discharge Cycle

9

Formula for Volumetric Displacement for Single Cylinder

Let D = inside the diameter of the cylinder (or piston diameter), inches

S = length of the stroke (or piston movement), inches

Then,

Volume displacement per stroke = (π) D2 s = in3/stroke

4

or,

Pump displacement = PD (.7854) (in2) (in) (7.48 gal)

(144 in2/ft2) (12 in/ft.) ft3

= gal/stroke

If N = strokes/min

then, PD = .7854(D2)(S )(7.48)(N) = gal/min where, PD = gal/min

144 12 D = in

S = in

N = strokes/min

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:

ANd9GcRoaogU8BSHWCMUImpZMihpjsE-s_yLfzuO8Do15O3Ms62pzu9oS

10

Formula for Volumetric Displacement for Double Cylinder

Let D = inside the diameter of the cylinder (or piston diameter), inches

S = length of the stroke (or piston movement), inches

144 12

Where,

q = gal/min

D = in

S = in

N = strokes/min

(2) = No. of cylinders

11

Class Activity: Example 1 Volumetric Displacement

What is the output flow rate for a 10“ × 20" Single-acting, Single- cylinder pump

operating at 40 strokes per minute?

12

Example 1 Solution

10"x 20" describes the pump as; D = 10"

S = 20"

then, PD = q =.7854(102)(20)(7.48)(40) = 272 gal/min

144 12

Since the placement of fluid in the cylinder by the piston and the operation of the

discharge and suction valves is not 100% efficient due to worn mechanical parts,

the output volume rate will be less than the calculated pump displacement. A

volumetric efficiency, ev, must be used,

or,

qoutput = (PD)(ev)

13

Class Activity: Example 2 Volumetric Displacement

What is the output flow rate in Example #1 if the volumetric efficiency of the pump

is 85%?

14

Example 2 Solution

qout = (PD)(ev) = 272(.85) = 231 gal/min

15

Class Activity: Example 3 Volumetric Displacement

Using a flow meter, the output flow rate for a 12" x 18" Single-acting, Single

cylinder pump operating at 30 strokes per minute was measured at 215 gal/min.

Calculate the volumetric efficiency of the pump.

16

Example 3 Solution

EV = qout

PD

qout = 215 gal/min

PD = .7854(122)(18)(7.48)(30) = 264 gal/min

144 12

Ev = 215 = 0.814 = 81.4%

264

17

Duplex Type

18

Pump Displacement and Output Flow Rate

Pump displacement and output flow rate can be calculated in the same manner as

for the single cylinder by multiplying by 2 cylinders, or,

qout = (PD)(ev) =.7854(D2)(S ) (7.48)(N)(2)(ev) = gal/min

(144) (12)

Where,

q = gal/min

D = in

S = in

N = strokes/min

(2) = No. of cylinders

19

Class Activity: Example 4 Calculate the Cylinder ID

Calculate the cylinder ID (or piston diameter) needed in a Single-acting, Duplex

pump needed to have an output of 125 gal/min if the stroke length 16" and

operates at 25 strokes per minute with a volumetric efficiency of 80%.

20

Example 4 Solution

144 12

D2 = 125 = 57

2.18

D = 7.58 in

21

Double Acting Cylinder

22

Pump Displacement and Output Volume Rates

Pump displacement and output volume rates can be calculated for each side of

the piston is the total volume of the cylinder, or,

144 12

The PD in the connector rod side of the cylinder is the total volume of the

cylinder minus the volume occupied by the connecting rod,

or,

144 12

Then,

qout = (PD1 + PD2)(ev) = .7854(D2 + D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(ev) = gal/min

144 12

23

Class Activity: Example 5 Calculate Output Flow

Calculate the output flow rate for a 7"x14", Double-acting, Single-cylinder pump

when operating at 45 strokes/min using a 2" connector rod and a volumetric

efficiency of 90%.

24

Example 5 Solution

qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(7² + 7² - 2²)(14 )(45)(7.48)(0.90) = 181 gal/min

144 12

25

Class Activity: Example 6 Length of Stroke

What length of stroke is needed to give 250 gal/min output when using a Double-

acting, Single cylinder pump with an 8" cylinder diameter and a 2.25" diameter

connector rod when operating at 40 strokes/min and 80% volumetric efficiency?

26

Example 6 Solution

qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(82 + 82 - 2.252)(S )(40)(7.48)(0.80) = 250 gal/min

144 12

S = 250 = 18.7"

1.34

13.4

27

Formula for Volumetric Displacement for Double-Acting, Single-Cylinder

Let D = inside the diameter of the cylinder (or piston diameter), inches

S = length of the stroke (or piston movement), inches

144 12

Or,

144 12

Then,

qout = (PD1 + PD2)(ev) = .7854(D2 + D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(ev) = gal/min

144 12

28

Double- Acting, Duplex Type

29

How the Double Acting Duplex Pump Works

Therefore, during this one-half of the stroke, the PD is equal to PD in front of the

piston + PD in connector rod side of the piston.

Since each one-half of the cycle the discharged volumes are equal, the PD for

one stroke is,

PD = PD of one cylinder x number of cylinders

or,

qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(2D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(2)(ev) = gal/min

144 12

Note: Since the two cylinders are driven by connector rods connected to a

common crank, 1 stroke is equivalent to 1 revolution of the crank, or, strokes/min

= RPM of the crank.

30

Class Activity: Example 7 Calculate the Output Flow Rate

Calculate the output flow rate of a 6"x12" Double-acting, Duplex pump using

1¾" (1.75 in) connector rods when operating at 35 RPM and a volumetric efficiency

of 90%.

31

Example 7 Solution

144 12

qout = 177 gal/min

32

Class Activity: Example 8 (Concept of RPM)

At what RPM of the crank should a 8"x16", Double-acting, Duplex pump be operated

to give a flow rate output of 400 gal/min when operating 85% volumetric efficiency

and using 2" diameter connecting rods?

33

Example 8 Solution

qout = (PD)(ev) = 400 gal/min = .7854(82 + 82 - 22)(16)(N)(7.48)(2)(0.85)

144 12

N = 400 = 35 RPM

11.5

To improve the efficiency of the operating conditions, a liner (or sleeve) can be

inserted in the pump cylinders to decrease the inside diameter of the cylinder (also

decreases the diameter of the piston).

34

Horse Power Requirements

Hydraulic horsepower can be calculated from the flow rate and the pressure, or,

Hp = q P

1714

where, Hp = hydraulic horsepower

q = flow rate, gal/min

P = pressure, psi

Therefore,

Pump output Hp = Hpout = qoutPp = (PD)(ev)(Pp)

1714 1714

Note: Pump output flow rate can be calculated from the required upward annular

circulating from the required upward annular circulating velocity and the pump output

pressure will be the pressure required to overcome the pressure drops around the

circulating system (inside the drill string, annulus around the drill string, etc.)

35

Class Activity: Example 9 (Diameter Liner)

What diameter liner (inside) and pistons would be needed for the pump in Example

#7 to maintain the same operating conditions with an output flow rate of 300 gal/

min?

(Ex. 7: Calculate the output flow rate of a 6"x12" Double-acting, Duplex pump using

1 3/4" connector rods when operating at 35 RPM and a volumetric efficiency of

90%.)

qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854 {(2)(62) - (1.752)} (12)(35)(7.48)(2)(0.90)

144 12

qout = 177 gal/min

36

Example 9 Solution

qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(2D2 - 22)(16)(35)(7.48)(2)(0.85) = 300 gal/min

144 12

D2 = 48.34; D = 6.95“

144 12.

D = 7.75

37

Class Activity: Example 10 (Calculate the Output Horsepower)

Calculate the output horsepower available from a 7“ x 14", Double-acting, duplex

pump with 2" connecting rods operating at 40 RPM with a volumetric efficiency of

85% and an output pressure of 1500 psi.

38

Example 10 Solution

1714 1714

= .7854(72+72-22)(14)(40)(7.48)(2)(0.85)(1500)( 1 )

144 12 1714

Hpout = 266Hp

In the above calculations, the volumetric efficiency is defined as qout

PD

39

Example 10 Solution Cont.

Therefore,

Hppump = HpPD = Hpout

ev

Pumps have a mechanical efficiency, em, also. The input Hp from the engine must

have overcome both mechanical and volumetric losses to produce a given output

Hp,

then,

Hpin = HPPD and HpPD = Hpout

em ev

or,

Hpin = Hpout

(em)(ev)

40

Class Activity: Example 11 (Engine Output)

What engine output horsepower will be needed to operate the pump in Example

# 9 and Example #10 if the mechanical efficiency is 80%?

41

Example 11 Solution

HpPD = Hpout = 266 = 313 Hp

ev (0.85)

and,

Hpin = HPPD = 313 = 391Hp

em (0.80)

or,

Hpin = Hpout = 266 = 391 Hp

(ev)(em)(0.85)(0.80)

42

Lesson Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 7.1: Self Study Review

Assignment 7.1: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.1

Introduction to Drilling, 5.2 Hydrostatic Pressure Calculations (pp. 179 -182);

Section 5.2.4 Equivalent Density Concept (pp. 187-189)

Assignment 7.1: Problem Solving: Complete Problems 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 on page

296; Show Your Work!

43

Lesson 2: Flow Velocity

44

Lesson 2: Flow Velocity Learning Objectives

In this lesson we will:

Interpret geometry of the well bore

Calculate the required output flow rate of the mud pumps

Perform a demonstration of viscosity using a rheometer

Define the ratio of viscosity of a fluid

Calculate types of flow

Define the Fanning Equation

Relate the Fanning Friction Factor to the Reynolds Number

Apply the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow

Calculate the equivalent Reynolds Number

45

Required Flow Rate

Since drilling fluid is incompressible, the volume or flow rate will be constant at

any point in the circulating system. The flow velocity will vary due to changes in

cross-sectional area,

or,

q = A v (in consistent units)

46

Geometry of the Well Bore

47

An Experience Factor to Determine the Required Output Flow Rate of

the Mud Pumps

To determine the required output flow rate of the mud pumps, an experience

factor is used to determine the required minimum upward velocity in the annulus

necessary for the efficient removal of the cuttings. This "experience" velocity is

usually given in ft./min and can be used to calculate the required flow rate,

or,

q = A v in consistent units or,

q = 2.448 (d2hole- d2OD pipe) v Note: 2.448 = (0.7854)×(1/122)×(60)×(7.48)

Note: 0.7854 = π/4

Where q = gal/min

d = in

v = ft./sec

48

Class Activity: Example 12 (Calculate Required Flow Rate)

If the bore hole is 8 ¾" and using 4 ½" OD drill pipe, what is the required flow rate

if the minimum upward velocity is 195 ft./min.?

49

Example 12 Solution

q=Av

Where, q = ft3/sec

A = ft2

v = ft./sec

Then Note: π = 0.7854

A = π (8.75)2 - π (4.5)2 = 0.3071ft2 4

4 12 4 12

v = 195 ft./min = 3.25 ft./sec

60 sec/min

And,

q = (0.3071) (3.25) = 1 ft3/sec = 449 gal/min

Or,

q = 2.448 (d2hole - d2OD pipe) v

q = 2.448 (8.752 - 4.52) (195) = 448 gal/min

60

50

Viscosity

51

Viscosity of a Fluid

Viscosity of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the shearing stress to the rate of shear,

or,

Force / Velocity [Pressure/Rate of velocity change]

Area Distance

then,

ft2 ft.

52

Types of Flow

Laminar flow occurs when all individual particles in the fluid flow in a straight line parallel to the axis of the

conductor. Under certain conditions (velocity, viscosity, density, and diameter of the conductor),

Turbulent flow occurs when the particles flow in a random manner.

The Reynolds Number, NR, relationship is used to determine the type of flow under given conditions,

Or,

NR = dρv = (diameter, ft) * (density, lbm/ft3) * (velocity, ft/sec)

µ viscosity, lbm/ft-sec

Where, NR = dimensionless number

d = diameter, ft.

v = velocity, ft./sec

µ = viscosity, lbm/ft.-sec

ρ = density, lbm/ft3

Or,

NR = (928) d ρ v (field units)

µ

Where, NR = dimensionless number

d = diameter, in

ρ = density, lbm/gal

v = velocity, ft./sec

µ = viscosity,cp

53

Types of Flow (Cont.)

Through experiment, laminar flow exists when the value of the Reynolds Number is

less than 2000 and turbulent flow exists when the value of the Reynolds Number

greater than 2000,

Or,

NR < 2000; laminar flow

NR > 2000; turbulent flow

54

Newtonian Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe

The Hagen-Poiseuille equation states the relationship between pressure drop due

to friction and other flow factors for a Newtonian fluid under laminar flow conditions

in a straight, circular pipe,

or,

Δpf = 32 µ L v (Basic units)

gc d2

Or,

Δpf = µ L v (Field units)

1500 d2

Where, Δ pf = psi L = ft. d = in

µ = cp v = ft./sec

55

Class Activity: Example 13 (Minimum Diameter of a Pipe)

What is the minimum diameter of a pipe needed to insure laminar flow in a pipe

carrying a Newtonian fluid (µ = 20 cp & Sp. Gr. = 0.80) at a rate of 40 gal/min?

56

Example 13 Solution

To insure laminar flow, NR = 2000 then,

NR = 2000 = 928 d ρ v;

µ

v= q = 40 .

2.448(d)2 2.448(d)2

µ = 20 cp

Then,

2000 = (928)(d)(6.67) ( 40 ) = (928)(6.67)(40)

20 2.448 d2 (20)(2.448)(d)

d = 5053 = 2.53"

2000

57

Class Activity: Example 14 Calculate the Pressure Drop

Calculate the pressure drop in 10 miles of the pipe in Example #13 if the 2.53" line

is replaced with a 6“ ID line.

58

Example 14 Solution

µ ρ = 6.67lbm / gal µ = 20 cp

v = 40 = 0.45 ft./sec

2.448d2

Then,

NR = (928)(6)(6.67)(0.45) = 836 ; 836<2000, ∴laminar flow

20

Or,

Δpf = µ L v = (20)(10)(5280)(0.45) = 9 psi

1500 d2 (1500) (6)2

59

Pipe, Turbulent Flow

The Fanning Equation states the relationship between pressure drop due to friction

and other flow factors for a Newtonian fluid under turbulent flow conditions in a

straight, circular pipe,

Or,

Δpf = 2 f ρ L v2 (Basic units) where, f = Fanning Friction Factor

gc d f = dimensionless

Or,

Δpf = f ρ L v2 (Field units) where, Δpf = psi

25.8 d f = dimensionless

ρ = lbm/gal

L = ft.

v = ft./sec

d = in

60

Fanning Friction Factor vs. Reynolds Number

Fanning Friction Factor Curves

II. Flow inside steel pipe Text Book p. 254

III. Annular flow between steel pipe

IV. Annular flow between open hole and steel pipe

61

Class Activity: Example 15 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in psi in 1500' of 4"ID pipe carrying oil (Sp.Gr. = 0.825

& viscosity = 12 cp) at a rate of 1550 gal/min. (The oil is a Newtonian fluid;

Newtonian fluid is only described with viscosity and does not have a yield point)

62

Example 15 Solution

NR = 928 d ρ v ;

µ

ρ = (0.825) (8.34) = 6.88 lbm/gal

d = 4"

v= q = 1550 = 39.5 ft./sec

2.448 (d)2 2.448 (4)2

µ = 12 cp

Then,

NR = (928)(6.88)(4)(39.5) = 84,064 > 2000, turbulent flow

12

Then,

Δpf =f ρ L v2 ; f = 0.0055 (from Curve II, f-Curves)

25.8(d)

ρ= 6.88 lbm/gal

L = 1500 ft.

v = 39.5 ft./sec

d = 4 in

Then,

Δpf = (0.0055) (6.88) (1500) (39.5)2 = 858psi

(25.8) (4)

63

Class Activity: Example 16 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in Example #15 if the pipe diameter is doubled.

64

Example 16 Solution

d = 8"

ρ = 6.88 lbm/gal

v = 1550 = 9.88 ft./sec

2.448(8)2

µ = 12 cp

Then,

NR = (928)(6.88)(8)(9.88) = 42,053 > 2000, turbulent flow

12

f = .0062 (from Curve II, f-Curves)

Then,

Δpf = (.0062)(6.88)(1500)(9.88)2 = 30 psi

(25.8)(8)

Note: For the same flow rate, doubling the diameter of the pipe decreases the

pressure drop from 858 psi to 30 psi or 97%.

65

Class Activity: Example 17 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in psi/100' of a 10" ID line carrying a 9 lbm/gal, 12 cP

Newtonian fluid at the rate of 53 gal/min.

66

Example 17 Solution

NR = 928 ρ d v ; ρ = 9 lbm/gal

µ d = 10"

v= 53 = 0.216 ft./sec

2.448 (10)2

µ = 12 cp

Then,

NR = (928)(9)(10)(0.216) = 1503 ; 1503 < 2000, therefore laminar flow

(12)

1500 d2 1500(10)2

67

Class Activity: Example 18 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop/100' for the line in Example #17 if the flow rate is

doubled.

68

Example 18 Solution

NR = 928 ρ d v ; ρ= 9 lbm/gal

µ d = 10"

2.448 (10)2

µ = 12 cp

Then,

NR = (928)(9)(100)(0.433)2 = 3014 ; 3014 > 2000, turbulent flow

(12)

Δpf = f ρ L v2 ; f = 0.0115 (equation or curve II)

25.8 d

Δpf = (0.0115)(9)(100)(0.4333)2 = 0.0075 psi/100'

(25.8)(10)

Note: Doubling the flow rate in Examples #16 & #17 changed the type of flow

from laminar to turbulent and increased the pressure drop by 4+ times.

69

Newtonian Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Annulus

d2 = inside diameter of the outside conductor

Therefore,

de = 4 rh = (4)(π/4)(d22 - d2i) = (d2 - di)

π(d2 + di)

The actual velocity, va, in an annulus

is,

va = q ft./sec

2.448 (d22 - d2i)

70

Laminar Flow in Pipe vs. Annulus

(a) (b)

71

Type of Flow in an Annulus

Calculate the equivalent Reynolds Number using the equivalent diameter and

the actual velocity.

Or,

Nre = 757×(d 2 - di) ρ va; Nr < 2000, laminar flow

µ

Nre =757 × ρ de va Nr > 2000, turbulent flow

µ

If laminar, use the Hagen-Poiseuille equation modified for annular flow to

calculate pressure drop,

Or,

Δpf = µ L va = µ L va (Field units)

1000(d 2 - di)2 1000(de)2

72

Class Activity: Example 19 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus per 1000' of 5"OD pipe suspended in a

15" hole when a Newtonian fluid (Sp.Gr. = 0.92 & viscosity = 8 cP) is flowing at a

rate of 100 gal/min.

73

Example 19 Solution

µ de = (d2 - di) = (15 - 5) = 10"

va = q = 100 __ = 0.204 ft./sec.

2.448(d22 - di2) 2.448(152 - 52)

µ = 8 cP

Then,

NR = (757)(7.67)(10)(0.204) = 1815; 1815 < 2000, Laminar flow

(8)

Then,

1000 d2e 1000(10)2

74

Newtonian Fluid - Turbulent Flow - In Annulus

The Fanning equation for turbulent flow applies only to a straight, circular pipe and cannot be used directly if

the cross-sectional area of flow is an annulus. To use this equation for an annulus, the annular cross-

sectional area must be expressed as an equivalent cross-sectional area of pipe which will have the same

pressure drop per length at the same flow rate. This expression is the diameter of a pipe which will have the

same pressure drop-flow rate relation as the equivalent cross section of the annulus,

Or,

de = (d2 – d1)

75

Type of Flow in an Annulus

Calculate the equivalent Reynolds Number using the equivalent diameter and the

actual velocity,

Or,

Nre = 757 de ρ vₐ ; NR < 2000, laminar flow

µ NR > 2000, turbulent flow

Or,

Δpf = f ρ L vₐ2 = (field units)(Determine f from NR and f-curves)

21.1 de

76

Class Activity: Example 20 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

With 3000' of 2“ nom. tubing (OD 2.375" & ID = 1.995") hung in 5", 18 lb./ft. (ID =

4.276") casing, salt water (Sp.Gr. = 1.05 & viscosity = 5 cP) is being pumped down

the tubing and back up the annulus at a rate of 400 gal/min. Calculate the

pressure drop in the annulus.

77

Example 20 Solution

Nre = 757 ρ de va ; ρ = (1.05)(8.34) = 8.76 lbm/gal

µ de = (d2 - di) = (4.276 - 2.375) = 1.901“

2.448(d22 - di2) 2.448(4.2762 - 2.3752)

µ = 5cP

Then,

5

f = 0.0070 (from Curve III, f-Curves)

Then,

21.1 de (21.1)(1.901)

78

Lesson Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 7.1: Self Study Review

Assignment 7.2: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.2.6

Effect of Well Deviation (pp. 192-194); Section 5.3 Steady Flow of Drilling

Fluids (pp. 194 – 206)

Assignment 7.2: Problem Solving, Complete Problems 5.10, 5.11, 5.12 on

page 296 - 297; Show Your Work!

79

Lesson 3: Rheology Models (non-Newtonian Models)

80

Lesson 3: Rheology Models Learning Objectives

In this lesson we will:

Interpret laminar and turbulent patterns in pipe

Solve the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flows

Determine where viscosity appears in the Fanning equation for turbulent flow

Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus

81

Laminar and Turbulent Flow Patterns in Pipe

Textbook p. 246

82

Plastic Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe (Will discuss)

Referring to the plastic fluid viscosity curve, the equation for the straight line portion of the

curve is,

Δpf = m v + YB

And the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow is,

Δpf = 32 µ v L

gc d2

Or,

Slope = m = Δpf = 32 µ L

v gc d2

Then,

Δpf = ( 32 µ L)(v) + YB

gc d2

And,

YB expressed in equivalent pressure terms = 4 YB L

d

Then,

Δpf = 32 µp L v + 4 YB L (Basic units)

gc d2 d

Or,

Δpf = µp L v + YB L (Field units)

1500 d2 300 d

83

Plastic Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe (Cont.)

The Reynolds Number equation and the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow

apply only to a Newtonian fluid flowing in a straight, circular pipe. If these equations

are to be used for a plastic fluid, an equivalent viscosity, µe, which is the viscosity a

plastic fluid would have if it were a Newtonian fluid, must be used,

And,

µe = 5 YB d + µp ( Field Units )

v

equation,

Or,

5 YB d + µp NR > 2000, turbulent flow

v

84

Plastic Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe (Cont.)

Setting Nr = 2000 and solving for velocity yields a critical velocity, vc, and an actual velocity

below which is laminar flow and an actual velocity above which is turbulent flow,

vact > vc , turbulent flow

Then,

NR = 2000 = 928 dρ v

5 YB d + µp

v

Or,

vc = 1.08 µp + 1.08 (µ2p + 9.3 ρd2 YB)0.5

ρd

Note: (Field Units) - is the minus portion discarded because a negative velocity

would be meaningless

And,

vact = q (Field units)

2.448 d2

85

Class Activity: Example 21 (Pressure Drop; non-Newtonian fluid)

What is the pressure drop in 4000' of 5 ½, 17 lb./ft. casing (ID = 4.892") when

carrying 9.2 lbm/gal drilling mud (Plastic viscosity = µp = 20 cP & Bingham Yield

point = YB = 25 lbf/100 ft²) at a rate of 150 gal/min?

86

Example 21 Solution

(9.2)(4.892)

And,

vact = 150 = 2.56 ft./sec

2.448(4.892)2

Therefore,

2.56 < 5.94 or v act < vc ; laminar flow

Then,

ΔPF = (20)(4000)(2.56) + (25)(4000) = 5.706 + 68.14

1500 (4.892)2 300(4.892)

ΔPF = 73.8 psi

87

Class Activity: Example 22 (Maximum Flow Rate)

What is the maximum flow rate allowable through 1000' of 3" ID line carrying a 10

lbm/gal plastic fluid (µ = 30 cP & Yt = 15 lbf/100 ft²) to insure laminar flow?

88

Example 22 Solution

(10)(3)

To insure laminar flow, vc = vact = 5.86 ft./sec

2.448(3)2

Or, q = 129.2 gal/min

89

Determine f

Determine f using the f-Curves and the Reynolds Number, NR, calculated using the

actual velocity, vact , and plastic viscosity, µP,

Or,

NR = 928 d ρ vact (Field units)

µP

Then,

Dpf = f ρ L v2act (Field units)

25.8 de

90

Plastic Fluid - Turbulent Flow - In Pipe

Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent by calculating the critical velocity, vc,

and comparing to the actual velocity, vact ,

or,

vact < vc ; laminar flow

vact > vc ; turbulent flow

If flow is turbulent, the Fanning Equation must be used to calculate the pressure in a

straight, circular pipe.

91

Class Activity: Example 23 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in 600' of 4“ ID pipe carrying 9.0 lb./gal mud (µP

= 18 cP & YB = 25 lbf/100 ft²) at a rate of 400 gal/min.

92

Example 23 Solution

(9.0)(4)

2.448(4)2

Then,

NR = (928)(4)(9.0)(10.2) = 18931 ; f = 0.0075

(18)

And,

Δpf = (0.0075)(9.0)(600)(10.2)2 = 41 psi

(25.8)(4)

93

The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for Laminar Flow

This expression is the diameter of a circular pipe which will have the

same pressure drop-flow rate relation as the equivalent diameter of the

annulus,

Or,

Equivalent diameter, de, is defined as , rh = Cross-sectional area of flow

Wetted perimeter

the fluid;

94

The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for Laminar Flow (Cont.)

conductor

conductor

Therefore,

de = 4 rh = (4)(π/4)(d2² - d2i) = (d² - di)

π(d² + di)

The actual velocity, va, in an annulus

is,

va = q ft./sec

2.448 (d2² - d2i)

95

Type of Flow in an Annulus

The expression for determining the critical velocity, vc, is modified when the flow

is in an annulus, or,

vc = 1.08µp + 1.08( µ2p + 6.98 ρd2e YB) 0.5 where, de = (d² - d1)

ρ de

Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent by calculating the critical velocity,

vc, using the equivalent diameter, (d² - d1), and comparing to the actual velocity,

vact,

Or,

vact < vc ; laminar flow

vact > vc ; turbulent flow

If laminar flow , the Hagen-Poiseuille equation modified for annular flow must be

used to calculate pressure drop using de, vact, and µp

Δpf = µp L vact + YB L (Field units)

1000 (d² - di) 200 (d² - d1)

96

Class Activity: Example 24 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus with 3000' of 4 ½" drill pipe suspended in

a 7 ⅞" hole. The mud is 10.2 lb./gal (µp = 30 cP & YB = 28 lbf/100 ft²) and the flow

rate is that required to give an upward annular velocity of 165 ft./min.

97

Example 24 Solution

vc = (1.08)(30) + (1.08) (30) 2 + (6.98)(10.2)(3.375)2(28) = 5.76 ft./sec

(10.2)(3.375)

60 sec/min

Then,

Δpf = (30)(3000)(2.75) + (28)(3000) = 21.73 + 93.22 = 115 psi

(1000)(3.375)2 (200)(3.375)

98

Type of Flow in an Annulus

Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent by calculating the critical velocity, vc,

and comparing to the actual velocity, vact or,

vact < vc ; laminar flow

vact > vc ; turbulent flow

If flow is turbulent, the Fanning equation must be used to calculate the pressure

in a straight, circular pipe.

99

Type of Flow in an Annulus (Cont.)

Note: Viscosity does not appear in the Fanning equation for turbulent flow except

in determining the friction factor, f, from the Reynolds Number equation and the

f-Curves and has little effect on the pressure drop calculation when turbulent

flow exists.

Determine f using the f-curves and the Reynolds Numbers, NR, calculated using

the actual velocity, vact, and plastic velocity, µp, and equivalent diameter, de

or

NR = 757 de ρvact (Field units)

µp

then,

Δpf = fρ L v2act (Field units)

21.1 de

100

Class Activity: Example 25 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus for 390' of 6 ⅝" OD drill collars

suspended in a 8 ½" hole. The mud is 9.0 lb./gal (µp = 15 cP & Yb = 22 lbf/100 ft²)

and the flow rate is 485 gal/min.

101

Example 25 Solution

vc = (1.08)(15) + (1.08) {(15)2 + (6.98)(9.0)(1.875)2(22)} 0.5 = 5.52 ft./sec

(9.0)(1.875)

(2.448)(8.52 - 6.6252)

Then,

NR = (757)(9.0)(1.875)(6.98) = 5,944; f = 0.0105 (Curve IV, f-Curves)

(15)

And,

Δpf = (0.0105)(9.0)(390)(6.98)2 = 44.9 psi

(21.1)(1.875)

102

Density and Viscosity Video (Optional if Lab is not Available or has

not been completed in Module 3)

Instructions

Review Video

Complete questions (Handout in SharePoint)

Prepare to discuss in class.

Additional questions regarding this video may be on a quiz or test.

This experiment will help you to:

Grasp the rheological models of drilling fluids, such as:

Newtonian Model

Bingham Plastic Model

Power Law Model

Use instruments, such as mud balance, Fann VG meter (Viscometer), pH scale and Beckman pH

meter, Stirrer, and Stopwatch

Know something about common chemicals used in drilling

Get familiar with flow and chemical parameters, such as:

Density

Viscosity

Gel strength

pH

103

Density and Viscosity Video—Questions and Answers

1. Bentonite clay is a gelling material and helps increase the viscosity of water.

a. True

b. False

a. 2.56

b. 2.65

c. 2.78

d. 2.85

a. True

b. False

104

Density and Viscosity Video—Questions and Answers

4. What is the reason for using 350 cc of water in lab for conducting such

experiments?

a. Short way of measuring things in lab

b. Corresponds to the oil filed units

c. All of the above

a. 8.5 lbm/gal

b. 8.6 lbm/gal

c. 8.7 lbm/gal

d. 8.8 lbm/gal

6. What does X denotes in the equation that describes the physical model of a

Bingham Plastic Fluid?

a. Density

b. Viscosity

c. Revolutions per minute (RPM)

d. Weight

105

Lesson Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 7.1: Self Study Review

Assignment 7.3: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.4

Rheological Models of Drilling Fluids (pp. 206-213 only)

Assignment 7.3: Problem Solving, Complete Problems 5.20, 5.21, 5.22. 5.23,

5.24, 5.25 on pages 297 - 298; Show Your Work!

106

Lesson 4: Pressure Drop in Pipe

107

Lesson 4: Pressure Drop in Pipe Learning Objectives

In this lesson we will:

Identify the primary type of pressure drops involved in drilling and production

operations

Calculate pressure drop in pipe and annuli

Compare turbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

Calculate summation pressure drop and cutting transport

108

Flow in a Cylindrical Annulus

Textbook p. 221

PT see notes: τ This is a tau (Font sy

109

Pressure Drop in Pipe and Annuli—Example Calculation

Given:

Pump: 3500 psi max surface pressure, 1600 hp max input, 0.85 efficiency

Surface Equipment: equivalent to 340 ft. of drillpipe

Drillpipe: 4.5 inch OD, 16.6 lb./ft., 3.78 inch ID, FH XH

Drill collars: 600 ft., 6.5 inch OD, 2.5 inch ID

Surface casing: 3000 ft., 8.835 inch ID

Bit: 8.5 inch

Minimum velocity to lift cuttings = 1 ft./sec

Determine the proper pump operating conditions and bit nozzle sizes for maximum bit

horsepower at 1000 ft. increments for an interval of the well between 8000 ft. and intermediate

casing at 12 000 ft.

Mud Plan:

Depth ρ µp ty n K

ft. lbm/gal cp lbf/100ft2 equiv. cp

110

Mud @ 8000 ft.

111

Pressure Drop Throughout the Circulation System

112

Calculate Pressure Drop in Friction in Seven Places

• 1 = Surface Equipment

• 2 = Inside Drill Pipe

• 3 = Inside Drill Collars

• 4 = Annulus between Open Hole and Drill Collars

• 5 = Annulus between Open Hole and Drill Pipe (may have 0 length)

• 6 = Annulus between Cased Hole and Drill Pipe

• 7 = Annulus between Cased Hole and Drill Collar (May have 0 length)

In this picture,

Position 5 has 0

length.

In the previous

slide, Position 7

has 0 length.

113

ΔP Parasitic Components

1 2 3 4 *5 6 *7

114

“Log of q versus Log of ΔP Parasitic”

115

ΔPressure Parasitic at qmax

We will now calculate Δpressure parasitic at qmax

This is called interval 1

This will have 7 steps

1. Δpressure through surface equipment, (pipe flow, turbulent)

2. Δpressure through drill pipe, (pipe flow, turbulent)

3. Δpressure through drill collars, (pipe flow, turbulent)

4. Δpressure in annulus between open hole and drill collars, (annular flow, laminar)

5. Δpressure in annulus between open hole and drill pipe, (annular flow, laminar)

6. Δpressure in annulus between cased hole and drill collars, (annular flow,

laminar)

7. Δpressure in annulus between cased hole and drill pipe, (annular flow, laminar)

116

Critical Reynolds Number versus Hedstrom Plot

117

Interval 1

qmaxpump = 1714 PHP E/Pmax

qmaxpump = 1714 * 1600 * 0.85 / 3500 = 666.0 gal/min

qmaxlaminar:

de = 0.8165 ( d2 - d1 ) Note: at smallest annular cross-section: open hole/collar

1.633 inch = 0.8165 * ( 8.5 - 6.5 )

NHEAnnulus = 37100 ρ ty de2 / mp2

215271 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 1.6332 / 26.77612

NReCAnnulus = 5004 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve

qmaxlaminar = 0.0026385 NREC Annulus mp (d2 + d1) / ρ

424.2 gal/min = 0.0026385 * 5004 * 26.7761 * ( 8.5 + 6.5 ) / 12.50

qmax = smallest of qmaxpump or qmax laminar

424.4 gal/min < 666.0 gal/min

118

Δp Surface Equipment @ qmax: Position 1

v = q / 2.448 / d2

12.13 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / 3.782 Note: drill pipe-equivalent

NHE = 37100 ty ρ d2 / µp2

115342 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.782 / 26.77612

NReC = 7000 Note: from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 115342

turbulent flow indicated

119

Compare f Position 1

flaminar = 16 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]

0.001405 = 16 [ 1 / 19864 + ( 115342 / 198642 ) / 7.9 ]

fturbulent = 0.006482 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve @ NRe = 19864 (See slide 118)

fturbulentDS = 0.057 / NRe0.2

0.007875 = 0.057 / 198640.2

fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25

0.006663 = 0.0791 / 198640.25

compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

use Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve value

compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value

0.006482 > 0.001405

120

Figure Reynolds Number versus Fanning Friction Factor

121

Critical Reynolds Numbers to Bingham Plastic Fluids

122

Turbulent Part of the Reynolds Number vs Fanning Friction Factor

123

Calculate ΔPressure Through Surface Equipment (Position 1)

Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / d

0.1222 = 0.03875 * 0.006482 * 12.50 * 12.132 / 3.78

Δp = Δp/ DL L

41.55 psi = 0.1222 * 340

124

ΔpDrillpipe @ qmax: Position 2

v = q / 2.448 / d2

12.13 ft./sec. = 424.2 / 2.448 / 3.782

NreBingham = 928 ρ v d / µp

19864 = 928 * 12.50 * 12.13 * 3.78 / 26.7761

turbulent flow indicated

NHE = 37100 ty ρ d2/µp2

115342 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.782 / 26.77612

NReC = 7000 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 115342 turbulent

flow indicated

125

Compare f Position 2

0.001405 = 16 [ 1 / 19864 + ( 115342 / 198642 ) / 7.9 ]

fturbulent = 0.006482 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve @ NRe = 19864

f turbulent DS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2

0.007875 = 0.057 / 198640.2

fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25

0.006663 = 0.0791 / 198640.25

compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

use Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve value

compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value

0.006482 > 0.001405

126

Calculate ΔPressure through Drill Pipe (Position 2)

Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / d

0.1222 = 0.03875 * 0.006482 * 12.50 * 12.132 / 3.78

Δp = Δp/DL L

904.2 psi = 0.1222 * 7400

127

ΔpDrill Collars @ qmax: Position 3

v = q / 2.448 / d2

27.74 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / 2.52

NReBingham = 928 ρ v d /mp

30043 = 928 * 12.50 * 27.74 * 2.5 / 26.7761

turbulent flow indicated

NHE = 37100 ty ρ d2 / µp2

50453 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 2.52 / 26.77612

NReC = 5000 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 50 453

turbulent flow indicated

128

Compare f Position 3

flaminar = 16 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]

0.0006457 = 16 [ 1 / 30043 + (50453 / 300432 ) / 7.9 ]

fturbulent = 0.006082 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve @ NRe = 19 864

fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2

0.007250 = 0.057 / 300430.2

fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25

0.006008 = 0.0791 / 300430.25

compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve curve fit value

compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value

0.006082 > 0.0006457

129

Calculate ΔPressure Through Drill Collars (Position 3)

Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / d

0.8743 = 0.03875 * 0.006082 * 12.50 * 27.242 / 2.5

Δp = Δp/DL L

524.6 psi = 0.8743 * 600

130

ΔpDrill Collar / Bit @ qmax: Position 4 – OPEN HOLE/DOLLAR

v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )

5.776 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.52 6.52 )

de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )

1.633 = 0.8165 * ( 8.5 6.5 )

NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /µp

4000 = 928 * 12.50 * 5.776 * 1.633 / 26.7761

laminar / turbulent flow indicated -

NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2

21527 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 1.6332 / 26.77612

NReC = 5004 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 21 527

laminar flow indicated

131

Friction Position 4 (more discussion)

flaminar = 24 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]

0.01010 = 24 [ 1 / 4000 + ( 21527 / 40002 ) / 7.9 ]

fturbulent = 0.01002 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit @ NRe = 4000

fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2

0.01085 = 0.057 / 40000.2

fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25

0.009946 = 0.0791 / 40000.25

compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value

compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value

0.01002 < 0.01010

132

Pressure Drop Calculation Position 4

Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de

0.09815 = 0.03875 * 0.01010 * 12.50 * 5.7762 / 1.663

Δp = Δp / DL L

58.89 psi = 0.09815 * 600

FLOW ???

133

ΔpDrill Collar / Csg @ qmax: Position 7

v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )

4.839 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.8352 6.52 )

de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )

1.907 = 0.8165 * ( 8.835 6.5 )

NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /mp

3998 = 928 * 12.50 * 4.839 * 1.907 / 26.7761

laminar / turbulent flow indicated

NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2

29357 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 1.9072 / 26.77612

NReC = 5400 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve curve fit @ NHe = 29357

laminar flow indicated

134

Friction Position 7

flaminar = 24 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]

0.01158 = 24 [ 1 / 3998 + ( 29357 / 39982 ) / 7.9 ]

fturbulent = 0.009988 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value @ NRe = 3998

fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2

0.01085 = 0.057 / 39980.2

fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25

0.009946 = 0.0791 / 39980.25

compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value

compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value

0.009988 < 0.01158

135

Pressure Position 7

Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de

0.06889 = 0.03875 * 0.01158 * 12.50 * 4.839**2 / 1.907

Δp = Δp/DL L

0.0 psi = 0.06889 * 0

136

ΔpDrillpipe / Bit @ qmax: Position 5

v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )

3.332 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.52 4.52 )

de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )

3.266 = 0.8165 * ( 8.5 4.5 )

NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /mp

4714 = 928 * 12.50 * 3.332 * 3.266 / 26.7761

laminar / turbulent flow indicated

NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2

86108 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.2662 / 26.77612

NReC = 6500 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve fit @ NHe = 86108

laminar flow indicated

137

Friction Position 6

flaminar = 24 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]

0.009514 = 24 [ 1 / 4714 + ( 86108 / 47142 ) / 7.9 ]

fturbulent = 0.009462 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value @ NRe = 4714

fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2

0.01050 = 0.057 / 47140.2

fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25

0.009546 = 0.0791 / 47140.25

compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value

compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value

0.009462 < 0.009514

138

Pressure Position 6

Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de

0.01567 = 0.03875 * 0.009514 * 12.50 * 3.3322 / 3.266

Δp = (Δp/ DL ) L

68.93 psi = 0.01567 * 4400

139

ΔpDrillpipe / Csg @ qmax: Position 6

v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )

2.998 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.8352 4.52 )

de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )

3.540 = 0.8165 * ( 8.835 4.5 )

NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /µp

4582 = 928 * 12.50 * 2.998 * 3.540 / 26.7761

laminar / turbulent flow indicated

NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2

101162 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.5402 / 26.77612

NReC = 7000 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve fit @ NHe = 101162

laminar flow indicated

140

Friction Position 6

flaminar = 16 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]

0.009709 = 16 [ 1 / 4582 + ( 101162 / 45822 ) / 7.9 ]

fturbulent = 0.009688 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value @ NRe = 4582

fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2

0.01056 = 0.057 / 45820.2

fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25

0.009614 = 0.0791 / 45820.25

compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002

use Figure 16 curve fit value

compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value

0.009988 < 0.01158 (0.009688 < 0.009709)

141

Pressure Position 6

Δp/ DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de

0.01194 = 0.03875 * 0.009709 * 12.50 * 2.9982 / 3.540

Δp = (Δp/ DL ) L

35.81 psi = 0.01194 * 3000

142

Summation of Parasitic Pressure Drops

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

143

Bit Nozzles

At each depth a like calculation is made. The results are shown below:

ft. gal/min ft./sec psi psi 32 inch ft./sec

psi

8000 378.68 2.68 1383 2129 3512 11 11 11 436.35

144

“Log of q versus Log of ΔP Parasitic”

145

Bit Nozzle Calculation

Δpbit = pmaxpump - Δd dopt

2083 psi = 3500 1417

AT = (0.00008311ρ qopt2 / Cd2 / Δp bit)0.5

0.2862 inch2 = (0.00008311*12.5*385.02 / 0.952 / 2083 )0.5

nozzle = ( AT 1.333 /p)0.5 * 32

11.1557 = ( 0.2862 * 1.333 / p) 0.5 * 32

146

Summary of the Calculation Process for all Depths

ft. gal/min ft./sec psi psi 32 inch ft./sec

psi

8000 378.68 2.68 1383 2129 3512 11 11 11 436.35

147

Lesson Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 7.1 Self Study Review

Assignment 7.4: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.5

Laminar Flow in Pipes and Annuli (pp. 218-240 only); Section 5.6 Turbulent

Flow in Pipes and Annuli (pp. 245-260 omit Hershel Bulkley Model), p. 267

only)

148

Lesson 5: Newtonian Fluids

149

Lesson 5: Newtonian Fluids Learning Objectives

Calculate summation of pressure drop in system and cutting transports for

Newtonian Fluids

150

Newtonian Fluid Calculation

For the following problems :

A 8.625" OD 24 lb./ft. 8.097" nominal ID 7.972" drift ID surface casing set and cemented at

2000 ft. TVD & MD;

The drilling string, currently at 10,000 ft. (TVD, MD), consists of a 7.875" tri-cone rock bit,

1000 ft. of 4.75" OD 2.25" ID 46.70 lb./ft., drill collars 4.5" OD 16.60 lb./ft. 3.826" ID drill

pipe.

The surface equipment is equivalent to 500 ft. of drill pipe.

The drilling mud is 9.0 lb. /gal, µ = 25 cp Newtonian fluid.

Note: May be assigned as homework and then review answers (next slide) or work on

calculation together in class

151

Newtonian Fluid Calculation (Answers)

1. Continuing with the information from the problems above, the mud pump is a 6” x 10” x 2”

single acting triplex, volumetric efficiency 0.95, maximum recommend pump pressure is

2200 psi. (Note 3 strokes per minute = 1 revolution per minute.) The number of strokes

per minute to pump at q min is most nearly:

a. a. 64

b. b. 129

c. c. 191

d. d. 222

2. The hydraulic horsepower used by the pump at q min and maximum pump pressure is

most nearly:

a. 285 b. 342 c. 469 d. 496

152

Lesson Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 7.1 Self Study Review

Assignment 7.5: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.9

Calculating Steady-State Pressures in a Wellbore (pp.267 – 269, omit 5.9.2)

Assignment 7.5: Problem Solving, Complete Problems 5.27, 5.28, 5.29. 5.30,

5.31on page 298; Show Your Work!

153

Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids

154

Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids Learning Objectives

Calculate summation of pressure drop in system and cutting transports from Plastic

Fluids

155

Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids Calculation

For problems 1 -11:

A 9.625" OD 36 lb./ft. 8.921" nominal ID 8.765" drift ID surface casing set and cemented at

3000 ft. TVD & MD;

The drilling string, currently at 10,000 ft. (TVD, MD), consists of a 7.875" tri-cone rock bit,

1000 ft. of 5.75" OD 2.25" ID 74.70 lb./ft., 4.5" OD 16.60 lb./ft. 3.826" ID drill pipe.

The surface equipment is equivalent to 500 ft. of drill pipe.

The drilling mud is 10.0 lb. /gal, µp = 20 cp & Yt = 25 lbf/100 ft2 Bingham Plastic fluid.

slide) or work on calculation together in class

156

Plastic Fluids Calculation (Answers)

1. The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the drill pipe is most nearly:

a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.110 d. 0.228 e. 0.324

2. The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the drill collars are most nearly:

a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.180 d. 0.228 e. 0.324

3. The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the open hole/drill collar annulus is most nearly:

a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.158 d. 0.310 e. 0.324

4. The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the open hole/drill pipe annulus is most nearly:

a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.158 d. 0.228 e. 0.324

157

1

Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids Calculation (Answers cont.)

5. The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the cased hole/drill pipe annulus is most nearly:

a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.158 d. 0.310 e. 0.324

6. If the minimum velocity in the annulus required to lift cutting is 1 ft./sec, q min (gal/min) is

most nearly:

a. 71 b. 102 c. 138 d. 145 e. 205 f. 222

7. The pressure drop, lbf/in2, through the surface equipment at q min is most nearly:

a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 193

8. The pressure drop, lbf/in2, through the drill pipe at q min is most nearly:

a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 193

9. The pressure drop, lbf/in2, through the drill collars at q min is most nearly:

a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 193

10. The pressure drop, lbf/in2, in the annulus around the drill collars at q min is most nearly:

a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 237

11. The pressure drop, lbf/in2, in the annulus around the drill pipe at q min is most nearly:

a. 8 b. 17 c. 69 d. 88 e. 138 f. 237

158

Lesson Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 7.1 Self Study Review

Assignment 7.6: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.11 Cutting

Transport (p.279 – 287, omit 5.11.4, read pp. 289 – 294, omit 5.11.6, read pp. 289 –

294, omit 5.11.6

Assignment 7.6: Complete Problems 5.32, 5.33, 5.34. 5.35,5.36, 5.37, and 5.40 on

page 298 - 299; Show Your Work!

159

Credits

Developer

Lloyd R. Heinze, Ph.D., Petroleum Engineering/Texas Tech University

Contributors:

Rui V. Sitoe, Ph.D., Department of Mechanical Engineering, UEM

Victoria Johnson, Instructional Designer

160

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