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# Drilling and Completions Systems

Module 7: Hydraulics

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Module 7: Hydraulics
Lesson 1: Hydraulic Pumps Lesson 2: Flow Velocity
Lesson 1: Learning Objectives Lesson 2: Learning Objectives
Pumps Class Activities: Calculations
Circulating System for Typical Rotary Required Flow Rate
Drilling Rig Geometry of the Well Bore
Formula for Volumetric Displacement Flow Rate of the Mud Pumps
for Cylinders Viscosity
Class Activities: Calculations Newtonian Fluid
Duplex Type Fanning Friction Factor vs. Reynolds
Pump Displacement and Output Flow Number
Rate
Double Acting Cylinder
Pump Displacement and Output
Volume Rates
Double Acting Duplex Pump
Horse Power Requirements

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Module 7: Hydraulics Cont.

## Lesson 3: Rheology Models (non-

Lesson 5: Newtonian Fluids (Possible
Newtonian Models)
Homework)
Lesson 3: Learning Objectives
Lesson 5: Learning Objectives
Laminar and Turbulent Flow Patterns in
Calculation
Pipe
Plastic Fluid
Lesson 6 Plastic Fluids Calculation
Class Activity
(Possible Homework)
The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for
Lesson 6: Learning Objectives
Laminar Flow
Calculation
Optional: Density and Viscosity Video

## Lesson 4: Pressure Drop in Pipe

Lesson 4: Learning Objectives
Flow in a Cylindrical Annulus
Pressure Drop
ΔP Parasitic Components
Critical Reynolds Number versus
Hedstrom Plot
Figure Reynolds Number versus Fanning
Friction Factor
Bit Nozzles

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Lesson 1: Hydraulic Pumps

## Image source: http://www.botta-equipment.com/content/catalog/mud-

pump-and-spares

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Lesson 1: Hydraulic Pumps Learning Objectives
In this lesson we will:
Distinguish two types of pumps
Define the circulating system for a typical rotary drilling
Identify a working drilling rig circulation system
Explain how the Double Acting Duplex Pump works
Explain how mud pumps work and label parts of a pump
Calculate the output flow rate
Note: Instructor will go through a series of examples and expect students to work
through remaining examples as homework or in class in groups.

http://
www.hddtrenchless.com.au/
product/Mud-Pump-Parts-
Pistons-and-Liners.cfm

5
Two Different Types of Pumps

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Circulating System for Typical Rotary Drilling Rig

http://
www.conservation.ca.go
v/dog/picture_a_well/
PublishingImages/
DRILLING-RIGnew.gif 7
Mud Pumps

http://www.pacificoilfield.com/images/mud_pump_working.gif

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How Single Acting, Single Cylinder Pumps Work
Suction Cycle and Discharge Cycle

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Formula for Volumetric Displacement for Single Cylinder

Let D = inside the diameter of the cylinder (or piston diameter), inches
S = length of the stroke (or piston movement), inches
Then,
Volume displacement per stroke = (π) D2 s = in3/stroke
4
or,
Pump displacement = PD (.7854) (in2) (in) (7.48 gal)
(144 in2/ft2) (12 in/ft.) ft3
= gal/stroke
If N = strokes/min
then, PD = .7854(D2)(S )(7.48)(N) = gal/min where, PD = gal/min
144 12 D = in
S = in
N = strokes/min

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:
ANd9GcRoaogU8BSHWCMUImpZMihpjsE-s_yLfzuO8Do15O3Ms62pzu9oS

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Formula for Volumetric Displacement for Double Cylinder
Let D = inside the diameter of the cylinder (or piston diameter), inches
S = length of the stroke (or piston movement), inches

## qout = (PD)(ev) =.7854(D2)(S )(7.48)(N)(2)(ev) = gal/min

144 12
Where,
q = gal/min
D = in
S = in
N = strokes/min
(2) = No. of cylinders

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Class Activity: Example 1 Volumetric Displacement
What is the output flow rate for a 10“ × 20" Single-acting, Single- cylinder pump
operating at 40 strokes per minute?

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Example 1 Solution
10"x 20" describes the pump as; D = 10"
S = 20"
then, PD = q =.7854(102)(20)(7.48)(40) = 272 gal/min
144 12
Since the placement of fluid in the cylinder by the piston and the operation of the
discharge and suction valves is not 100% efficient due to worn mechanical parts,
the output volume rate will be less than the calculated pump displacement. A
volumetric efficiency, ev, must be used,
or,
qoutput = (PD)(ev)

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Class Activity: Example 2 Volumetric Displacement
What is the output flow rate in Example #1 if the volumetric efficiency of the pump
is 85%?

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Example 2 Solution
qout = (PD)(ev) = 272(.85) = 231 gal/min

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Class Activity: Example 3 Volumetric Displacement
Using a flow meter, the output flow rate for a 12" x 18" Single-acting, Single
cylinder pump operating at 30 strokes per minute was measured at 215 gal/min.
Calculate the volumetric efficiency of the pump.

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Example 3 Solution
EV = qout
PD
qout = 215 gal/min
PD = .7854(122)(18)(7.48)(30) = 264 gal/min
144 12
Ev = 215 = 0.814 = 81.4%
264

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Duplex Type

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Pump Displacement and Output Flow Rate
Pump displacement and output flow rate can be calculated in the same manner as
for the single cylinder by multiplying by 2 cylinders, or,
qout = (PD)(ev) =.7854(D2)(S ) (7.48)(N)(2)(ev) = gal/min
(144) (12)
Where,
q = gal/min
D = in
S = in
N = strokes/min
(2) = No. of cylinders

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Class Activity: Example 4 Calculate the Cylinder ID
Calculate the cylinder ID (or piston diameter) needed in a Single-acting, Duplex
pump needed to have an output of 125 gal/min if the stroke length 16" and
operates at 25 strokes per minute with a volumetric efficiency of 80%.

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Example 4 Solution

## qout = (PD)(ev) = 125 gal/min = .7854(D2)(16 )(7.48)(25)(2)(0.80) = gal/min

144 12
D2 = 125 = 57
2.18
D = 7.58 in

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Double Acting Cylinder

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Pump Displacement and Output Volume Rates
Pump displacement and output volume rates can be calculated for each side of
the piston is the total volume of the cylinder, or,

## q1 = (PD1)(ev) = .7854(D2)( S )(N)(7.48)(ev) = gal/min

144 12
The PD in the connector rod side of the cylinder is the total volume of the
cylinder minus the volume occupied by the connecting rod,
or,

## q2 = (PD2)(ev) = .7854(D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(ev) = gal/min

144 12
Then,
qout = (PD1 + PD2)(ev) = .7854(D2 + D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(ev) = gal/min
144 12

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Class Activity: Example 5 Calculate Output Flow
Calculate the output flow rate for a 7"x14", Double-acting, Single-cylinder pump
when operating at 45 strokes/min using a 2" connector rod and a volumetric
efficiency of 90%.

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Example 5 Solution
qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(7² + 7² - 2²)(14 )(45)(7.48)(0.90) = 181 gal/min
144 12

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Class Activity: Example 6 Length of Stroke
What length of stroke is needed to give 250 gal/min output when using a Double-
acting, Single cylinder pump with an 8" cylinder diameter and a 2.25" diameter
connector rod when operating at 40 strokes/min and 80% volumetric efficiency?

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Example 6 Solution
qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(82 + 82 - 2.252)(S )(40)(7.48)(0.80) = 250 gal/min
144 12
S = 250 = 18.7"
1.34
13.4

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Formula for Volumetric Displacement for Double-Acting, Single-Cylinder

Let D = inside the diameter of the cylinder (or piston diameter), inches
S = length of the stroke (or piston movement), inches

144 12
Or,

## q2 = (PD2)(ev) = .7854(D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(ev) = gal/min

144 12
Then,
qout = (PD1 + PD2)(ev) = .7854(D2 + D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(ev) = gal/min
144 12

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Double- Acting, Duplex Type

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How the Double Acting Duplex Pump Works
Therefore, during this one-half of the stroke, the PD is equal to PD in front of the
piston + PD in connector rod side of the piston.
Since each one-half of the cycle the discharged volumes are equal, the PD for
one stroke is,
PD = PD of one cylinder x number of cylinders
or,
qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(2D2 - d2)(S )(N)(7.48)(2)(ev) = gal/min
144 12
Note: Since the two cylinders are driven by connector rods connected to a
common crank, 1 stroke is equivalent to 1 revolution of the crank, or, strokes/min
= RPM of the crank.

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Class Activity: Example 7 Calculate the Output Flow Rate
Calculate the output flow rate of a 6"x12" Double-acting, Duplex pump using
1¾" (1.75 in) connector rods when operating at 35 RPM and a volumetric efficiency
of 90%.

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Example 7 Solution

## qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854 {(2)(62) - (1.752)} (12)(35)(7.48)(2)(0.90)

144 12
qout = 177 gal/min

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Class Activity: Example 8 (Concept of RPM)
At what RPM of the crank should a 8"x16", Double-acting, Duplex pump be operated
to give a flow rate output of 400 gal/min when operating 85% volumetric efficiency
and using 2" diameter connecting rods?

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Example 8 Solution
qout = (PD)(ev) = 400 gal/min = .7854(82 + 82 - 22)(16)(N)(7.48)(2)(0.85)
144 12
N = 400 = 35 RPM
11.5
To improve the efficiency of the operating conditions, a liner (or sleeve) can be
inserted in the pump cylinders to decrease the inside diameter of the cylinder (also
decreases the diameter of the piston).

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Horse Power Requirements
Hydraulic horsepower can be calculated from the flow rate and the pressure, or,
Hp = q P
1714
where, Hp = hydraulic horsepower
q = flow rate, gal/min
P = pressure, psi
Therefore,
Pump output Hp = Hpout = qoutPp = (PD)(ev)(Pp)
1714 1714
Note: Pump output flow rate can be calculated from the required upward annular
circulating from the required upward annular circulating velocity and the pump output
pressure will be the pressure required to overcome the pressure drops around the
circulating system (inside the drill string, annulus around the drill string, etc.)

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Class Activity: Example 9 (Diameter Liner)
What diameter liner (inside) and pistons would be needed for the pump in Example
#7 to maintain the same operating conditions with an output flow rate of 300 gal/
min?

(Ex. 7: Calculate the output flow rate of a 6"x12" Double-acting, Duplex pump using
1 3/4" connector rods when operating at 35 RPM and a volumetric efficiency of
90%.)
qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854 {(2)(62) - (1.752)} (12)(35)(7.48)(2)(0.90)
144 12
qout = 177 gal/min

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Example 9 Solution
qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854(2D2 - 22)(16)(35)(7.48)(2)(0.85) = 300 gal/min
144 12
D2 = 48.34; D = 6.95“

## qout = (PD)(ev) = .7854 {(2)(D2) - (1.752)} (12)(35)(7.48)(2)(0.90) = 300 gal/min

144 12.

D = 7.75

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Class Activity: Example 10 (Calculate the Output Horsepower)
Calculate the output horsepower available from a 7“ x 14", Double-acting, duplex
pump with 2" connecting rods operating at 40 RPM with a volumetric efficiency of
85% and an output pressure of 1500 psi.

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Example 10 Solution

## Hpout = q outPp = (PD) (ev)(Pp)

1714 1714
= .7854(72+72-22)(14)(40)(7.48)(2)(0.85)(1500)( 1 )
144 12 1714

Hpout = 266Hp
In the above calculations, the volumetric efficiency is defined as qout
PD

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Example 10 Solution Cont.

Therefore,
Hppump = HpPD = Hpout
ev
Pumps have a mechanical efficiency, em, also. The input Hp from the engine must
have overcome both mechanical and volumetric losses to produce a given output
Hp,
then,
Hpin = HPPD and HpPD = Hpout
em ev

or,
Hpin = Hpout
(em)(ev)

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Class Activity: Example 11 (Engine Output)
What engine output horsepower will be needed to operate the pump in Example
# 9 and Example #10 if the mechanical efficiency is 80%?

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Example 11 Solution
HpPD = Hpout = 266 = 313 Hp
ev (0.85)
and,
Hpin = HPPD = 313 = 391Hp
em (0.80)
or,
Hpin = Hpout = 266 = 391 Hp
(ev)(em)(0.85)(0.80)

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Lesson Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 7.1: Self Study Review
Assignment 7.1: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.1
Introduction to Drilling, 5.2 Hydrostatic Pressure Calculations (pp. 179 -182);
Section 5.2.4 Equivalent Density Concept (pp. 187-189)
Assignment 7.1: Problem Solving: Complete Problems 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 on page
296; Show Your Work!

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Lesson 2: Flow Velocity

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Lesson 2: Flow Velocity Learning Objectives
In this lesson we will:
Interpret geometry of the well bore
Calculate the required output flow rate of the mud pumps
Perform a demonstration of viscosity using a rheometer
Define the ratio of viscosity of a fluid
Calculate types of flow
Define the Fanning Equation
Relate the Fanning Friction Factor to the Reynolds Number
Apply the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow
Calculate the equivalent Reynolds Number

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Required Flow Rate
Since drilling fluid is incompressible, the volume or flow rate will be constant at
any point in the circulating system. The flow velocity will vary due to changes in
cross-sectional area,
or,
q = A v (in consistent units)

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Geometry of the Well Bore

## From Bourgoyene et al. (1991)

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An Experience Factor to Determine the Required Output Flow Rate of
the Mud Pumps
To determine the required output flow rate of the mud pumps, an experience
factor is used to determine the required minimum upward velocity in the annulus
necessary for the efficient removal of the cuttings. This "experience" velocity is
usually given in ft./min and can be used to calculate the required flow rate,
or,
q = A v in consistent units or,
q = 2.448 (d2hole- d2OD pipe) v Note: 2.448 = (0.7854)×(1/122)×(60)×(7.48)
Note: 0.7854 = π/4
Where q = gal/min
d = in
v = ft./sec

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Class Activity: Example 12 (Calculate Required Flow Rate)
If the bore hole is 8 ¾" and using 4 ½" OD drill pipe, what is the required flow rate
if the minimum upward velocity is 195 ft./min.?

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Example 12 Solution
q=Av
Where, q = ft3/sec
A = ft2
v = ft./sec
Then Note: π = 0.7854
A = π (8.75)2 - π (4.5)2 = 0.3071ft2 4
4 12 4 12
v = 195 ft./min = 3.25 ft./sec
60 sec/min
And,
q = (0.3071) (3.25) = 1 ft3/sec = 449 gal/min
Or,
q = 2.448 (d2hole - d2OD pipe) v
q = 2.448 (8.752 - 4.52) (195) = 448 gal/min
60

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Viscosity

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Viscosity of a Fluid
Viscosity of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the shearing stress to the rate of shear,
or,
Force / Velocity [Pressure/Rate of velocity change]
Area Distance

then,

## (lbf / ft./sec)(gc) = lbm/ft.-sec [Basic Engineering Units]

ft2 ft.

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Types of Flow
Laminar flow occurs when all individual particles in the fluid flow in a straight line parallel to the axis of the
conductor. Under certain conditions (velocity, viscosity, density, and diameter of the conductor),
Turbulent flow occurs when the particles flow in a random manner.
The Reynolds Number, NR, relationship is used to determine the type of flow under given conditions,
Or,
NR = dρv = (diameter, ft) * (density, lbm/ft3) * (velocity, ft/sec)
µ viscosity, lbm/ft-sec
Where, NR = dimensionless number
d = diameter, ft.
v = velocity, ft./sec
µ = viscosity, lbm/ft.-sec
ρ = density, lbm/ft3
Or,
NR = (928) d ρ v (field units)
µ
Where, NR = dimensionless number
d = diameter, in
ρ = density, lbm/gal
v = velocity, ft./sec
µ = viscosity,cp
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Types of Flow (Cont.)

Through experiment, laminar flow exists when the value of the Reynolds Number is
less than 2000 and turbulent flow exists when the value of the Reynolds Number
greater than 2000,
Or,
NR < 2000; laminar flow
NR > 2000; turbulent flow

## NR > 4000; turbulent flow

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Newtonian Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe

The Hagen-Poiseuille equation states the relationship between pressure drop due
to friction and other flow factors for a Newtonian fluid under laminar flow conditions
in a straight, circular pipe,
or,
Δpf = 32 µ L v (Basic units)
gc d2
Or,
Δpf = µ L v (Field units)
1500 d2
Where, Δ pf = psi L = ft. d = in
µ = cp v = ft./sec

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Class Activity: Example 13 (Minimum Diameter of a Pipe)

What is the minimum diameter of a pipe needed to insure laminar flow in a pipe
carrying a Newtonian fluid (µ = 20 cp & Sp. Gr. = 0.80) at a rate of 40 gal/min?

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Example 13 Solution
To insure laminar flow, NR = 2000 then,
NR = 2000 = 928 d ρ v;
µ

## ρ = (0.80)(8.34) = 6.67 lbm/gal

v= q = 40 .
2.448(d)2 2.448(d)2
µ = 20 cp
Then,
2000 = (928)(d)(6.67) ( 40 ) = (928)(6.67)(40)
20 2.448 d2 (20)(2.448)(d)
d = 5053 = 2.53"
2000

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Class Activity: Example 14 Calculate the Pressure Drop

Calculate the pressure drop in 10 miles of the pipe in Example #13 if the 2.53" line
is replaced with a 6“ ID line.

58
Example 14 Solution

## NR = 928 d ρ v Where, d = 6"

µ ρ = 6.67lbm / gal µ = 20 cp
v = 40 = 0.45 ft./sec
2.448d2
Then,
NR = (928)(6)(6.67)(0.45) = 836 ; 836<2000, ∴laminar flow
20
Or,
Δpf = µ L v = (20)(10)(5280)(0.45) = 9 psi
1500 d2 (1500) (6)2

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Pipe, Turbulent Flow
The Fanning Equation states the relationship between pressure drop due to friction
and other flow factors for a Newtonian fluid under turbulent flow conditions in a
straight, circular pipe,
Or,
Δpf = 2 f ρ L v2 (Basic units) where, f = Fanning Friction Factor
gc d f = dimensionless
Or,
Δpf = f ρ L v2 (Field units) where, Δpf = psi
25.8 d f = dimensionless
ρ = lbm/gal
L = ft.
v = ft./sec
d = in

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Fanning Friction Factor vs. Reynolds Number
Fanning Friction Factor Curves

## I.  Flow inside glass tubes

II.  Flow inside steel pipe Text Book p. 254
III.  Annular flow between steel pipe
IV.  Annular flow between open hole and steel pipe
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Class Activity: Example 15 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
Calculate the pressure drop in psi in 1500' of 4"ID pipe carrying oil (Sp.Gr. = 0.825
& viscosity = 12 cp) at a rate of 1550 gal/min. (The oil is a Newtonian fluid;
Newtonian fluid is only described with viscosity and does not have a yield point)

62
Example 15 Solution
NR = 928 d ρ v ;
µ
ρ = (0.825) (8.34) = 6.88 lbm/gal
d = 4"
v= q = 1550 = 39.5 ft./sec
2.448 (d)2 2.448 (4)2
µ = 12 cp
Then,
NR = (928)(6.88)(4)(39.5) = 84,064 > 2000, turbulent flow
12
Then,
Δpf =f ρ L v2 ; f = 0.0055 (from Curve II, f-Curves)
25.8(d)
ρ= 6.88 lbm/gal
L = 1500 ft.
v = 39.5 ft./sec
d = 4 in
Then,
Δpf = (0.0055) (6.88) (1500) (39.5)2 = 858psi
(25.8) (4)
63
Class Activity: Example 16 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)

Calculate the pressure drop in Example #15 if the pipe diameter is doubled.

64
Example 16 Solution

d = 8"
ρ = 6.88 lbm/gal
v = 1550 = 9.88 ft./sec
2.448(8)2
µ = 12 cp
Then,
NR = (928)(6.88)(8)(9.88) = 42,053 > 2000, turbulent flow
12
f = .0062 (from Curve II, f-Curves)
Then,
Δpf = (.0062)(6.88)(1500)(9.88)2 = 30 psi
(25.8)(8)
Note: For the same flow rate, doubling the diameter of the pipe decreases the
pressure drop from 858 psi to 30 psi or 97%.

65
Class Activity: Example 17 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
Calculate the pressure drop in psi/100' of a 10" ID line carrying a 9 lbm/gal, 12 cP
Newtonian fluid at the rate of 53 gal/min.

66
Example 17 Solution

NR = 928 ρ d v ; ρ = 9 lbm/gal
µ d = 10"
v= 53 = 0.216 ft./sec
2.448 (10)2
µ = 12 cp
Then,
NR = (928)(9)(10)(0.216) = 1503 ; 1503 < 2000, therefore laminar flow
(12)

## Δpf = µ L v = (12) (100) (0.216) = 0.0017 psi/100'

1500 d2 1500(10)2

67
Class Activity: Example 18 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
Calculate the pressure drop/100' for the line in Example #17 if the flow rate is
doubled.

68
Example 18 Solution

NR = 928 ρ d v ; ρ= 9 lbm/gal
µ d = 10"

## v= 106 = 0.433 ft./sec

2.448 (10)2
µ = 12 cp
Then,
NR = (928)(9)(100)(0.433)2 = 3014 ; 3014 > 2000, turbulent flow
(12)
Δpf = f ρ L v2 ; f = 0.0115 (equation or curve II)
25.8 d
Δpf = (0.0115)(9)(100)(0.4333)2 = 0.0075 psi/100'
(25.8)(10)

Note: Doubling the flow rate in Examples #16 & #17 changed the type of flow
from laminar to turbulent and increased the pressure drop by 4+ times.

69
Newtonian Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Annulus

## d1 = outside diameter of the inside conductor

d2 = inside diameter of the outside conductor

Therefore,
de = 4 rh = (4)(π/4)(d22 - d2i) = (d2 - di)
π(d2 + di)
The actual velocity, va, in an annulus
is,
va = q ft./sec
2.448 (d22 - d2i)

70
Laminar Flow in Pipe vs. Annulus

(a) (b)

71
Type of Flow in an Annulus
Calculate the equivalent Reynolds Number using the equivalent diameter and
the actual velocity.
Or,
Nre = 757×(d 2 - di) ρ va; Nr < 2000, laminar flow
µ
Nre =757 × ρ de va Nr > 2000, turbulent flow
µ
If laminar, use the Hagen-Poiseuille equation modified for annular flow to
calculate pressure drop,
Or,
Δpf = µ L va = µ L va (Field units)
1000(d 2 - di)2 1000(de)2

72
Class Activity: Example 19 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus per 1000' of 5"OD pipe suspended in a
15" hole when a Newtonian fluid (Sp.Gr. = 0.92 & viscosity = 8 cP) is flowing at a
rate of 100 gal/min.

73
Example 19 Solution

## NR = 757 ρ de va ; ρ = (0.92)(8.34) = 7.67 lbm/gal

µ de = (d2 - di) = (15 - 5) = 10"
va = q = 100 __ = 0.204 ft./sec.
2.448(d22 - di2) 2.448(152 - 52)

µ = 8 cP

Then,
NR = (757)(7.67)(10)(0.204) = 1815; 1815 < 2000, Laminar flow
(8)
Then,

## Δpf = µ L va = (8)(1000)(0.204) = 0.016 psi/1000'

1000 d2e 1000(10)2

74
Newtonian Fluid - Turbulent Flow - In Annulus
The Fanning equation for turbulent flow applies only to a straight, circular pipe and cannot be used directly if
the cross-sectional area of flow is an annulus. To use this equation for an annulus, the annular cross-
sectional area must be expressed as an equivalent cross-sectional area of pipe which will have the same
pressure drop per length at the same flow rate. This expression is the diameter of a pipe which will have the
same pressure drop-flow rate relation as the equivalent cross section of the annulus,

Or,

de = (d2 – d1)

75
Type of Flow in an Annulus
Calculate the equivalent Reynolds Number using the equivalent diameter and the
actual velocity,
Or,
Nre = 757 de ρ vₐ ; NR < 2000, laminar flow
µ NR > 2000, turbulent flow

## If turbulent flow, use the Fanning equation to calculate pressure drop,

Or,
Δpf = f ρ L vₐ2 = (field units)(Determine f from NR and f-curves)
21.1 de

76
Class Activity: Example 20 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
With 3000' of 2“ nom. tubing (OD 2.375" & ID = 1.995") hung in 5", 18 lb./ft. (ID =
4.276") casing, salt water (Sp.Gr. = 1.05 & viscosity = 5 cP) is being pumped down
the tubing and back up the annulus at a rate of 400 gal/min. Calculate the
pressure drop in the annulus.

77
Example 20 Solution
Nre = 757 ρ de va ; ρ = (1.05)(8.34) = 8.76 lbm/gal
µ de = (d2 - di) = (4.276 - 2.375) = 1.901“

## va = q = 400 = 12.91 ft./sec.

2.448(d22 - di2) 2.448(4.2762 - 2.3752)

µ = 5cP

Then,

## Nre = (757)(8.76)(1.901)(12.91) = 39 902; turbulent flow

5
f = 0.0070 (from Curve III, f-Curves)

Then,

## Δpf = f ρ L v2a = (0.0070)(8.76)(3000)(12.91)2 = 626 psi

21.1 de (21.1)(1.901)

78
Lesson Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 7.1: Self Study Review
Assignment 7.2: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.2.6
Effect of Well Deviation (pp. 192-194); Section 5.3 Steady Flow of Drilling
Fluids (pp. 194 – 206)
Assignment 7.2: Problem Solving, Complete Problems 5.10, 5.11, 5.12 on
page 296 - 297; Show Your Work!

79
Lesson 3: Rheology Models (non-Newtonian Models)

80
Lesson 3: Rheology Models Learning Objectives
In this lesson we will:
Interpret laminar and turbulent patterns in pipe
Solve the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flows
Determine where viscosity appears in the Fanning equation for turbulent flow
Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus

81
Laminar and Turbulent Flow Patterns in Pipe

Textbook p. 246

82
Plastic Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe (Will discuss)
Referring to the plastic fluid viscosity curve, the equation for the straight line portion of the
curve is,
Δpf = m v + YB
And the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow is,
Δpf = 32 µ v L
gc d2
Or,
Slope = m = Δpf = 32 µ L
v gc d2

Then,
Δpf = ( 32 µ L)(v) + YB
gc d2
And,
YB expressed in equivalent pressure terms = 4 YB L
d
Then,
Δpf = 32 µp L v + 4 YB L (Basic units)
gc d2 d
Or,
Δpf = µp L v + YB L (Field units)
1500 d2 300 d
83
Plastic Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe (Cont.)
The Reynolds Number equation and the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for laminar flow
apply only to a Newtonian fluid flowing in a straight, circular pipe. If these equations
are to be used for a plastic fluid, an equivalent viscosity, µe, which is the viscosity a
plastic fluid would have if it were a Newtonian fluid, must be used,
And,

µe = 5 YB d + µp ( Field Units )
v

equation,

Or,

## NR = 928 dρ v ; NR < 2000, laminar flow

5 YB d + µp NR > 2000, turbulent flow
v

84
Plastic Fluid - Laminar Flow - In Pipe (Cont.)
Setting Nr = 2000 and solving for velocity yields a critical velocity, vc, and an actual velocity
below which is laminar flow and an actual velocity above which is turbulent flow,

## Or, vact < vc , laminar flow

vact > vc , turbulent flow

Then,
NR = 2000 = 928 dρ v
5 YB d + µp
v

## This leads to a quadratic equation for v solved as:

Or,
vc = 1.08 µp + 1.08 (µ2p + 9.3 ρd2 YB)0.5
ρd
Note: (Field Units) - is the minus portion discarded because a negative velocity
would be meaningless

And,
vact = q (Field units)
2.448 d2

85
Class Activity: Example 21 (Pressure Drop; non-Newtonian fluid)
What is the pressure drop in 4000' of 5 ½, 17 lb./ft. casing (ID = 4.892") when
carrying 9.2 lbm/gal drilling mud (Plastic viscosity = µp = 20 cP & Bingham Yield
point = YB = 25 lbf/100 ft²) at a rate of 150 gal/min?

86
Example 21 Solution

## vc = (1.08)(20) + {1.08 ( (20)2 + (9.3)(9.2)(4.892)2(25)}0.5 = 5.94 ft./sec.

(9.2)(4.892)
And,
vact = 150 = 2.56 ft./sec
2.448(4.892)2
Therefore,
2.56 < 5.94 or v act < vc ; laminar flow
Then,
ΔPF = (20)(4000)(2.56) + (25)(4000) = 5.706 + 68.14
1500 (4.892)2 300(4.892)
ΔPF = 73.8 psi

87
Class Activity: Example 22 (Maximum Flow Rate)
What is the maximum flow rate allowable through 1000' of 3" ID line carrying a 10
lbm/gal plastic fluid (µ = 30 cP & Yt = 15 lbf/100 ft²) to insure laminar flow?

88
Example 22 Solution

## vc = (1.08)(30) + {1.08( (30)2 + (9.3)(10)(3)2 (4/3) (15)}0.5 = 5.86 ft./sec

(10)(3)
To insure laminar flow, vc = vact = 5.86 ft./sec

## Then, vact = 5.86 = q .

2.448(3)2
Or, q = 129.2 gal/min

89
Determine f
Determine f using the f-Curves and the Reynolds Number, NR, calculated using the
actual velocity, vact , and plastic viscosity, µP,
Or,
NR = 928 d ρ vact (Field units)
µP
Then,
Dpf = f ρ L v2act (Field units)
25.8 de

90
Plastic Fluid - Turbulent Flow - In Pipe
Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent by calculating the critical velocity, vc,
and comparing to the actual velocity, vact ,
or,
vact < vc ; laminar flow
vact > vc ; turbulent flow

If flow is turbulent, the Fanning Equation must be used to calculate the pressure in a
straight, circular pipe.

91
Class Activity: Example 23 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
Calculate the pressure drop in 600' of 4“ ID pipe carrying 9.0 lb./gal mud (µP
= 18 cP & YB = 25 lbf/100 ft²) at a rate of 400 gal/min.

92
Example 23 Solution

(9.0)(4)

2.448(4)2

## 10.2 > 6.06 or vact > vc ; turbulent flow

Then,
NR = (928)(4)(9.0)(10.2) = 18931 ; f = 0.0075
(18)
And,
Δpf = (0.0075)(9.0)(600)(10.2)2 = 41 psi
(25.8)(4)

93
The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for Laminar Flow
This expression is the diameter of a circular pipe which will have the
same pressure drop-flow rate relation as the equivalent diameter of the
annulus,
Or,
Equivalent diameter, de, is defined as , rh = Cross-sectional area of flow
Wetted perimeter

## Where, the wetted perimeter is the total length of surface contacted by

the fluid;

94
The Hagen-Poiseuille Equation for Laminar Flow (Cont.)

conductor

## d1 = outside diameter of the inside

conductor

Therefore,
de = 4 rh = (4)(π/4)(d2² - d2i) = (d² - di)
π(d² + di)
The actual velocity, va, in an annulus
is,
va = q ft./sec
2.448 (d2² - d2i)

95
Type of Flow in an Annulus
The expression for determining the critical velocity, vc, is modified when the flow
is in an annulus, or,
vc = 1.08µp + 1.08( µ2p + 6.98 ρd2e YB) 0.5 where, de = (d² - d1)
ρ de
Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent by calculating the critical velocity,
vc, using the equivalent diameter, (d² - d1), and comparing to the actual velocity,
vact,

Or,
vact < vc ; laminar flow
vact > vc ; turbulent flow

If laminar flow , the Hagen-Poiseuille equation modified for annular flow must be
used to calculate pressure drop using de, vact, and µp
Δpf = µp L vact + YB L (Field units)
1000 (d² - di) 200 (d² - d1)

96
Class Activity: Example 24 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus with 3000' of 4 ½" drill pipe suspended in
a 7 ⅞" hole. The mud is 10.2 lb./gal (µp = 30 cP & YB = 28 lbf/100 ft²) and the flow
rate is that required to give an upward annular velocity of 165 ft./min.

97
Example 24 Solution

## de = 7.875 - 4.5 = 3.375"

vc = (1.08)(30) + (1.08) (30) 2 + (6.98)(10.2)(3.375)2(28) = 5.76 ft./sec
(10.2)(3.375)

60 sec/min

## 2.75 < 5.76 or vact < vc ; laminar flow

Then,
Δpf = (30)(3000)(2.75) + (28)(3000) = 21.73 + 93.22 = 115 psi
(1000)(3.375)2 (200)(3.375)

98
Type of Flow in an Annulus

Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent by calculating the critical velocity, vc,
and comparing to the actual velocity, vact or,
vact < vc ; laminar flow
vact > vc ; turbulent flow

If flow is turbulent, the Fanning equation must be used to calculate the pressure
in a straight, circular pipe.

99
Type of Flow in an Annulus (Cont.)
Note: Viscosity does not appear in the Fanning equation for turbulent flow except
in determining the friction factor, f, from the Reynolds Number equation and the
f-Curves and has little effect on the pressure drop calculation when turbulent
flow exists.

Determine f using the f-curves and the Reynolds Numbers, NR, calculated using
the actual velocity, vact, and plastic velocity, µp, and equivalent diameter, de

or
NR = 757 de ρvact (Field units)
µp
then,
Δpf = fρ L v2act (Field units)
21.1 de

100
Class Activity: Example 25 (Calculate the Pressure Drop)
Calculate the pressure drop in the annulus for 390' of 6 ⅝" OD drill collars
suspended in a 8 ½" hole. The mud is 9.0 lb./gal (µp = 15 cP & Yb = 22 lbf/100 ft²)
and the flow rate is 485 gal/min.

101
Example 25 Solution

## de = 8.5 - 6.625 = 1.875"

vc = (1.08)(15) + (1.08) {(15)2 + (6.98)(9.0)(1.875)2(22)} 0.5 = 5.52 ft./sec
(9.0)(1.875)

## Vact = 485 = 6.98 ft./sec

(2.448)(8.52 - 6.6252)

## 6.98 > 5.52 or vact > vc ; turbulent flow

Then,
NR = (757)(9.0)(1.875)(6.98) = 5,944; f = 0.0105 (Curve IV, f-Curves)
(15)
And,
Δpf = (0.0105)(9.0)(390)(6.98)2 = 44.9 psi
(21.1)(1.875)

102
Density and Viscosity Video (Optional if Lab is not Available or has
not been completed in Module 3)
Instructions
Review Video
Complete questions (Handout in SharePoint)
Prepare to discuss in class.
Additional questions regarding this video may be on a quiz or test.
Grasp the rheological models of drilling fluids, such as:
Newtonian Model
Bingham Plastic Model
Power Law Model
Use instruments, such as mud balance, Fann VG meter (Viscometer), pH scale and Beckman pH
meter, Stirrer, and Stopwatch
Know something about common chemicals used in drilling
Get familiar with flow and chemical parameters, such as:
Density
Viscosity
Gel strength
pH

103
Density and Viscosity Video—Questions and Answers

1. Bentonite clay is a gelling material and helps increase the viscosity of water.
a. True
b. False

a. 2.56
b. 2.65
c. 2.78
d. 2.85

## 3. Fresh water is also known as a Newtonian Fluid.

a. True
b. False

104
Density and Viscosity Video—Questions and Answers

4. What is the reason for using 350 cc of water in lab for conducting such
experiments?
a. Short way of measuring things in lab
b. Corresponds to the oil filed units
c. All of the above

## 5. What was the density of the Bentonite clay fluid?

a. 8.5 lbm/gal
b. 8.6 lbm/gal
c. 8.7 lbm/gal
d. 8.8 lbm/gal

6. What does X denotes in the equation that describes the physical model of a
Bingham Plastic Fluid?
a. Density
b. Viscosity
c. Revolutions per minute (RPM)
d. Weight
105
Lesson Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 7.1: Self Study Review
Assignment 7.3: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.4
Rheological Models of Drilling Fluids (pp. 206-213 only)
Assignment 7.3: Problem Solving, Complete Problems 5.20, 5.21, 5.22. 5.23,
5.24, 5.25 on pages 297 - 298; Show Your Work!

106
Lesson 4: Pressure Drop in Pipe

107
Lesson 4: Pressure Drop in Pipe Learning Objectives
In this lesson we will:
Identify the primary type of pressure drops involved in drilling and production
operations
Calculate pressure drop in pipe and annuli
Compare turbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
Calculate summation pressure drop and cutting transport

108
Flow in a Cylindrical Annulus

Textbook p. 221
PT see notes: τ This is a tau (Font sy
109
Pressure Drop in Pipe and Annuli—Example Calculation
Given:
Pump: 3500 psi max surface pressure, 1600 hp max input, 0.85 efficiency
Surface Equipment: equivalent to 340 ft. of drillpipe
Drillpipe: 4.5 inch OD, 16.6 lb./ft., 3.78 inch ID, FH XH
Drill collars: 600 ft., 6.5 inch OD, 2.5 inch ID
Surface casing: 3000 ft., 8.835 inch ID
Bit: 8.5 inch
Minimum velocity to lift cuttings = 1 ft./sec
Determine the proper pump operating conditions and bit nozzle sizes for maximum bit
horsepower at 1000 ft. increments for an interval of the well between 8000 ft. and intermediate
casing at 12 000 ft.
Mud Plan:
Depth ρ µp ty n K
ft. lbm/gal cp lbf/100ft2 equiv. cp

## 12000 16.40 58.1985 32.56 .4924 2057.784

110
Mud @ 8000 ft.

111
Pressure Drop Throughout the Circulation System

112
Calculate Pressure Drop in Friction in Seven Places
•  1 = Surface Equipment
•  2 = Inside Drill Pipe
•  3 = Inside Drill Collars
•  4 = Annulus between Open Hole and Drill Collars
•  5 = Annulus between Open Hole and Drill Pipe (may have 0 length)
•  6 = Annulus between Cased Hole and Drill Pipe
•  7 = Annulus between Cased Hole and Drill Collar (May have 0 length)

In this picture,
Position 5 has 0
length.

In the previous
slide, Position 7
has 0 length.

113
ΔP Parasitic Components

1 2 3 4 *5 6 *7

## * Position 5 or Position 7 will have a length of zero

114
“Log of q versus Log of ΔP Parasitic”

115
ΔPressure Parasitic at qmax
We will now calculate Δpressure parasitic at qmax
This is called interval 1
This will have 7 steps
1.  Δpressure through surface equipment, (pipe flow, turbulent)
2.  Δpressure through drill pipe, (pipe flow, turbulent)
3.  Δpressure through drill collars, (pipe flow, turbulent)
4.  Δpressure in annulus between open hole and drill collars, (annular flow, laminar)
5.  Δpressure in annulus between open hole and drill pipe, (annular flow, laminar)
6.  Δpressure in annulus between cased hole and drill collars, (annular flow,
laminar)
7.  Δpressure in annulus between cased hole and drill pipe, (annular flow, laminar)

116
Critical Reynolds Number versus Hedstrom Plot

117
Interval 1

## Determine correct qmax :

qmaxpump = 1714 PHP E/Pmax
qmaxpump = 1714 * 1600 * 0.85 / 3500 = 666.0 gal/min
qmaxlaminar:
de = 0.8165 ( d2 - d1 ) Note: at smallest annular cross-section: open hole/collar
1.633 inch = 0.8165 * ( 8.5 - 6.5 )
NHEAnnulus = 37100 ρ ty de2 / mp2
215271 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 1.6332 / 26.77612
NReCAnnulus = 5004 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve
qmaxlaminar = 0.0026385 NREC Annulus mp (d2 + d1) / ρ
424.2 gal/min = 0.0026385 * 5004 * 26.7761 * ( 8.5 + 6.5 ) / 12.50
qmax = smallest of qmaxpump or qmax laminar
424.4 gal/min < 666.0 gal/min

118
Δp Surface Equipment @ qmax: Position 1
v = q / 2.448 / d2
12.13 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / 3.782 Note: drill pipe-equivalent

## turbulent flow indicated

NHE = 37100 ty ρ d2 / µp2
115342 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.782 / 26.77612
NReC = 7000 Note: from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 115342
turbulent flow indicated

119
Compare f Position 1
flaminar = 16 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]
0.001405 = 16 [ 1 / 19864 + ( 115342 / 198642 ) / 7.9 ]
fturbulent = 0.006482 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve @ NRe = 19864 (See slide 118)
fturbulentDS = 0.057 / NRe0.2
0.007875 = 0.057 / 198640.2
fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25
0.006663 = 0.0791 / 198640.25
compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
use Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve value
compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value
0.006482 > 0.001405

120
Figure Reynolds Number versus Fanning Friction Factor

121
Critical Reynolds Numbers to Bingham Plastic Fluids

122
Turbulent Part of the Reynolds Number vs Fanning Friction Factor

123
Calculate ΔPressure Through Surface Equipment (Position 1)
Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / d
0.1222 = 0.03875 * 0.006482 * 12.50 * 12.132 / 3.78
Δp = Δp/ DL L
41.55 psi = 0.1222 * 340

124
ΔpDrillpipe @ qmax: Position 2

v = q / 2.448 / d2
12.13 ft./sec. = 424.2 / 2.448 / 3.782
NreBingham = 928 ρ v d / µp
19864 = 928 * 12.50 * 12.13 * 3.78 / 26.7761
turbulent flow indicated
NHE = 37100 ty ρ d2/µp2
115342 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.782 / 26.77612
NReC = 7000 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 115342 turbulent
flow indicated

125
Compare f Position 2

## flaminar = 16 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]

0.001405 = 16 [ 1 / 19864 + ( 115342 / 198642 ) / 7.9 ]
fturbulent = 0.006482 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve @ NRe = 19864
f turbulent DS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2
0.007875 = 0.057 / 198640.2
fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25
0.006663 = 0.0791 / 198640.25
compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
use Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve value
compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value
0.006482 > 0.001405

126
Calculate ΔPressure through Drill Pipe (Position 2)

Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / d
0.1222 = 0.03875 * 0.006482 * 12.50 * 12.132 / 3.78
Δp = Δp/DL L
904.2 psi = 0.1222 * 7400

127
ΔpDrill Collars @ qmax: Position 3

v = q / 2.448 / d2
27.74 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / 2.52
NReBingham = 928 ρ v d /mp
30043 = 928 * 12.50 * 27.74 * 2.5 / 26.7761
turbulent flow indicated
NHE = 37100 ty ρ d2 / µp2
50453 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 2.52 / 26.77612
NReC = 5000 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 50 453
turbulent flow indicated

128
Compare f Position 3
flaminar = 16 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]
0.0006457 = 16 [ 1 / 30043 + (50453 / 300432 ) / 7.9 ]
fturbulent = 0.006082 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve @ NRe = 19 864
fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2
0.007250 = 0.057 / 300430.2
fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25
0.006008 = 0.0791 / 300430.25
compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve curve fit value
compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value
0.006082 > 0.0006457

129
Calculate ΔPressure Through Drill Collars (Position 3)
Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / d
0.8743 = 0.03875 * 0.006082 * 12.50 * 27.242 / 2.5
Δp = Δp/DL L
524.6 psi = 0.8743 * 600

130
ΔpDrill Collar / Bit @ qmax: Position 4 – OPEN HOLE/DOLLAR
v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )
5.776 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.52 6.52 )
de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )
1.633 = 0.8165 * ( 8.5 6.5 )
NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /µp
4000 = 928 * 12.50 * 5.776 * 1.633 / 26.7761
laminar / turbulent flow indicated -
NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2
21527 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 1.6332 / 26.77612
NReC = 5004 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve @ NHe = 21 527
laminar flow indicated

131
Friction Position 4 (more discussion)
flaminar = 24 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]
0.01010 = 24 [ 1 / 4000 + ( 21527 / 40002 ) / 7.9 ]
fturbulent = 0.01002 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit @ NRe = 4000
fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2
0.01085 = 0.057 / 40000.2
fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25
0.009946 = 0.0791 / 40000.25
compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value
compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value
0.01002 < 0.01010

132
Pressure Drop Calculation Position 4
Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de
0.09815 = 0.03875 * 0.01010 * 12.50 * 5.7762 / 1.663
Δp = Δp / DL L
58.89 psi = 0.09815 * 600

## WHAT IS THE RATIONALE OF USING THE Fanning FACTOR FOR LAMINAR

FLOW ???

133
ΔpDrill Collar / Csg @ qmax: Position 7
v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )
4.839 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.8352 6.52 )
de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )
1.907 = 0.8165 * ( 8.835 6.5 )
NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /mp
3998 = 928 * 12.50 * 4.839 * 1.907 / 26.7761
laminar / turbulent flow indicated
NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2
29357 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 1.9072 / 26.77612
NReC = 5400 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve curve fit @ NHe = 29357
laminar flow indicated

134
Friction Position 7
flaminar = 24 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]
0.01158 = 24 [ 1 / 3998 + ( 29357 / 39982 ) / 7.9 ]
fturbulent = 0.009988 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value @ NRe = 3998
fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2
0.01085 = 0.057 / 39980.2
fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25
0.009946 = 0.0791 / 39980.25
compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value
compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value
0.009988 < 0.01158

135
Pressure Position 7
Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de
0.06889 = 0.03875 * 0.01158 * 12.50 * 4.839**2 / 1.907
Δp = Δp/DL L
0.0 psi = 0.06889 * 0

136
ΔpDrillpipe / Bit @ qmax: Position 5
v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )
3.332 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.52 4.52 )
de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )
3.266 = 0.8165 * ( 8.5 4.5 )
NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /mp
4714 = 928 * 12.50 * 3.332 * 3.266 / 26.7761
laminar / turbulent flow indicated
NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2
86108 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.2662 / 26.77612
NReC = 6500 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve fit @ NHe = 86108
laminar flow indicated

137
Friction Position 6
flaminar = 24 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]
0.009514 = 24 [ 1 / 4714 + ( 86108 / 47142 ) / 7.9 ]
fturbulent = 0.009462 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value @ NRe = 4714
fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2
0.01050 = 0.057 / 47140.2
fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25
0.009546 = 0.0791 / 47140.25
compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
use from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value
compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value
0.009462 < 0.009514

138
Pressure Position 6
Δp/DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de
0.01567 = 0.03875 * 0.009514 * 12.50 * 3.3322 / 3.266
Δp = (Δp/ DL ) L
68.93 psi = 0.01567 * 4400

139
ΔpDrillpipe / Csg @ qmax: Position 6
v = q / 2.448 / ( d22 d12 )
2.998 ft./sec = 424.2 / 2.448 / ( 8.8352 4.52 )
de = 0.8165 ( d2 d1 )
3.540 = 0.8165 * ( 8.835 4.5 )
NreBingham = 928 ρ v de /µp
4582 = 928 * 12.50 * 2.998 * 3.540 / 26.7761
laminar / turbulent flow indicated
NHE = 37100 ty ρ de2 / µp2
101162 = 37100 * 12.50 * 12.48 * 3.5402 / 26.77612
NReC = 7000 from Hedstrom vs. Critical Reynolds Curve fit @ NHe = 101162
laminar flow indicated

140
Friction Position 6
flaminar = 16 [ 1 / NRe + ( NHe / NRe2 ) / 7.9 ]
0.009709 = 16 [ 1 / 4582 + ( 101162 / 45822 ) / 7.9 ]
fturbulent = 0.009688 from Reynolds vs. Fanning Curve fit value @ NRe = 4582
fturbulentDS = 0.057 /NRe 0.2
0.01056 = 0.057 / 45820.2
fturbulentSPE = 0.0791 / NRe0.25
0.009614 = 0.0791 / 45820.25
compare fturbulent report error if disagreement exceeds 0.002
use Figure 16 curve fit value
compare fturbulent with flaminar take largest value
0.009988 < 0.01158 (0.009688 < 0.009709)

141
Pressure Position 6
Δp/ DL = 0.03875 f ρ v2 / de
0.01194 = 0.03875 * 0.009709 * 12.50 * 2.9982 / 3.540
Δp = (Δp/ DL ) L
35.81 psi = 0.01194 * 3000

142
Summation of Parasitic Pressure Drops

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

## Note: Position 5 or Position 6 will have length of 0.00

143
Bit Nozzles
At each depth a like calculation is made. The results are shown below:

## Depth q vmina Δpd Δpbit Δptotal Jets vbit

ft. gal/min ft./sec psi psi 32 inch ft./sec
psi
8000 378.68 2.68 1383 2129 3512 11 11 11 436.35

## 12000 239.86 1.69 1643 1871 3514 9 10 10 357.05

144
“Log of q versus Log of ΔP Parasitic”

145
Bit Nozzle Calculation
Δpbit = pmaxpump - Δd dopt
2083 psi = 3500 1417
AT = (0.00008311ρ qopt2 / Cd2 / Δp bit)0.5
0.2862 inch2 = (0.00008311*12.5*385.02 / 0.952 / 2083 )0.5
nozzle = ( AT 1.333 /p)0.5 * 32
11.1557 = ( 0.2862 * 1.333 / p) 0.5 * 32

146
Summary of the Calculation Process for all Depths

## Depth q vopt Δpd Δpbit Δptotal Jets vbit

ft. gal/min ft./sec psi psi 32 inch ft./sec
psi
8000 378.68 2.68 1383 2129 3512 11 11 11 436.35

## 12000 239.86 1.69 1643 1871 3514 9 10 10 357.05

147
Lesson Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 7.1 Self Study Review
Assignment 7.4: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.5
Laminar Flow in Pipes and Annuli (pp. 218-240 only); Section 5.6 Turbulent
Flow in Pipes and Annuli (pp. 245-260 omit Hershel Bulkley Model), p. 267
only)

148
Lesson 5: Newtonian Fluids

149
Lesson 5: Newtonian Fluids Learning Objectives

## In this lesson we will:

Calculate summation of pressure drop in system and cutting transports for
Newtonian Fluids

150
Newtonian Fluid Calculation
For the following problems :
A 8.625" OD 24 lb./ft. 8.097" nominal ID 7.972" drift ID surface casing set and cemented at
2000 ft. TVD & MD;
The drilling string, currently at 10,000 ft. (TVD, MD), consists of a 7.875" tri-cone rock bit,
1000 ft. of 4.75" OD 2.25" ID 46.70 lb./ft., drill collars 4.5" OD 16.60 lb./ft. 3.826" ID drill
pipe.
The surface equipment is equivalent to 500 ft. of drill pipe.
The drilling mud is 9.0 lb. /gal, µ = 25 cp Newtonian fluid.

Note: May be assigned as homework and then review answers (next slide) or work on
calculation together in class

151
Newtonian Fluid Calculation (Answers)

1.  Continuing with the information from the problems above, the mud pump is a 6” x 10” x 2”
single acting triplex, volumetric efficiency 0.95, maximum recommend pump pressure is
2200 psi. (Note 3 strokes per minute = 1 revolution per minute.) The number of strokes
per minute to pump at q min is most nearly:
a.  a. 64
b.  b. 129
c.  c. 191
d.  d. 222
2.  The hydraulic horsepower used by the pump at q min and maximum pump pressure is
most nearly:
a. 285 b. 342 c. 469 d. 496

152
Lesson Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 7.1 Self Study Review
Assignment 7.5: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.9
Calculating Steady-State Pressures in a Wellbore (pp.267 – 269, omit 5.9.2)
Assignment 7.5: Problem Solving, Complete Problems 5.27, 5.28, 5.29. 5.30,
5.31on page 298; Show Your Work!

153
Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids

154
Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids Learning Objectives

## In this lesson, students will be able to:

Calculate summation of pressure drop in system and cutting transports from Plastic
Fluids

155
Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids Calculation
For problems 1 -11:
A 9.625" OD 36 lb./ft. 8.921" nominal ID 8.765" drift ID surface casing set and cemented at
3000 ft. TVD & MD;
The drilling string, currently at 10,000 ft. (TVD, MD), consists of a 7.875" tri-cone rock bit,
1000 ft. of 5.75" OD 2.25" ID 74.70 lb./ft., 4.5" OD 16.60 lb./ft. 3.826" ID drill pipe.
The surface equipment is equivalent to 500 ft. of drill pipe.
The drilling mud is 10.0 lb. /gal, µp = 20 cp & Yt = 25 lbf/100 ft2 Bingham Plastic fluid.

## Note: May be assigned as homework and then review answers (next

slide) or work on calculation together in class

156
Plastic Fluids Calculation (Answers)

1.  The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the drill pipe is most nearly:
a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.110 d. 0.228 e. 0.324
2.  The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the drill collars are most nearly:
a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.180 d. 0.228 e. 0.324
3.  The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the open hole/drill collar annulus is most nearly:
a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.158 d. 0.310 e. 0.324
4.  The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the open hole/drill pipe annulus is most nearly:
a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.158 d. 0.228 e. 0.324

157
1
Lesson 6: Plastic Fluids Calculation (Answers cont.)

5.  The capacity factor, ft3/ft., of the cased hole/drill pipe annulus is most nearly:
a. 0.0276 b. 0.0798 c. 0.158 d. 0.310 e. 0.324
6.  If the minimum velocity in the annulus required to lift cutting is 1 ft./sec, q min (gal/min) is
most nearly:
a. 71 b. 102 c. 138 d. 145 e. 205 f. 222
7.  The pressure drop, lbf/in2, through the surface equipment at q min is most nearly:
a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 193
8.  The pressure drop, lbf/in2, through the drill pipe at q min is most nearly:
a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 193
9.  The pressure drop, lbf/in2, through the drill collars at q min is most nearly:
a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 193
10.  The pressure drop, lbf/in2, in the annulus around the drill collars at q min is most nearly:
a. 8 b. 17 c. 68 d. 88 e. 138 f. 237
11.  The pressure drop, lbf/in2, in the annulus around the drill pipe at q min is most nearly:
a. 8 b. 17 c. 69 d. 88 e. 138 f. 237

158
Lesson Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 7.1 Self Study Review
Assignment 7.6: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering Section 5.11 Cutting
Transport (p.279 – 287, omit 5.11.4, read pp. 289 – 294, omit 5.11.6, read pp. 289 –
294, omit 5.11.6
Assignment 7.6: Complete Problems 5.32, 5.33, 5.34. 5.35,5.36, 5.37, and 5.40 on
page 298 - 299; Show Your Work!

159
Credits

Developer
Lloyd R. Heinze, Ph.D., Petroleum Engineering/Texas Tech University

Contributors:
Rui V. Sitoe, Ph.D., Department of Mechanical Engineering, UEM
Victoria Johnson, Instructional Designer

160