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F & LA
Sem 5
This assignment was given for the purpose of studying screw s not only from
the aspect of understanding them technically but understanding how a screw is
used in normal day objects. From understanding How to depict a screw with a
figure, to understanding the different types of screws that are there, the
different screw drives, screw tops and their uses specific to their design. It’s
not only about understanding that a screw is an inclined plane wrapped
helically around an axis but that how the strap of a watch is put together with
the help of screws.
o Definition of a screw
o History
o Design
o Materials
o Classification of thread manufacturing methods
o Difference between a bolt and screw
o Nomenclature
o Types of Screw
o Screw Head shapes
o Types of screw drives and their uses

A screw is one of the six classical simple

machines, essentially an inclined
plane wrapped helically around an axis for a
number of turns (which may be less than one).
A screw can convert a rotational movement to
a linear movement, and a torque (rotational
force) to a linear force. When the shaft of the screw is rotated relative
to the stationary threads, the screw moves along its axis relative to the
medium surrounding it; for example rotating a woodscrew forces it into
wood; rotating a fixed Archimedean screw used to pump water moves
the water.

The most common uses of screws are to hold objects together and to
position objects. The head is usually larger than the body of the screw,
which keeps the screw from being driven deeper than the length of the
screw and to provide a bearing surface.

There are exceptions; for instance, carriage bolts have a domed head
that is not designed to be driven; set screws have a head smaller than
the outer diameter of the screw; and J-bolts do not have a head and are
not designed to be driven.

The majority of screws are tightened by clockwise rotation, which is

termed a right-hand thread. Screws with left-hand threads are used in
exceptional cases. For example, when the screw will be subject to
anticlockwise forces (which would work to undo a right-hand thread), a
left-hand-threaded screw would be an appropriate choice.

Even though the concept of the screw dates back to around 200 B.C.,
the actual metal screw that is known today was not developed until the
Renaissance. Early screws had to be handmade, so no two screws were
ever alike. The time consuming process of hand filing the threads into
the screw form made mass production and use virtually impossible. In
1586, the introduction of the first screw-cutting machine by Jacques
Besson, court engineer for Charles IX of France, paved the way for more

On a single thread screw, the lead and pitch are identical, lead is twice the
pitch on a double thread model, and three times as much on a triple thread.
The pitch of a screw is the distance between two threads (or grooves) from the
same point on each thread. It is also more commonly known as the number of
threads per inch or centimeter. The lead of the screw measures how far it is
driven in for each revolution.

Screws and bolts are made from a wide range
of materials, with steel being perhaps the
most common, in many varieties. Where
great resistance to weather or corrosion is
required, stainless steel, titanium, brass
(steel screws can discolor oak and other
woods), bronze, monel or silicon bronze may
be used, or a coating such as brass, zinc

orchromium applied.

Classification of Thread Manufacturing Methods –

In manufacturing screw threads, the basic problem of course, is how to
produce the desired ridge on the workpiece. Various methods are used:
cutting, rolling, grinding and casting. Both external and internal threads can be
cast, but this process is used primarily in connection with die casting or the
molding of plastics, and relatively few threads are made in this manner.

Rolling also can be employed for making both external and internal threads,
provided the material is reasonably ductile. Today the majority of threads are
formed by rolling. External threads can be made by cutting in the following

I. On an engine lathe.
2. With a die and stock (manual).
3. With an automatic die (turret lathe or screw machine).
4. By milling.
5. By grinding.
6. By rolling.

Internal threads are made by cutting by the following methods:

I. On an engine lathe.
2. With a tap and holder (manual, semiautomatic, or automatic).
3. With an automatic (collapsible) tap (turret lathe, screw machine, or
special threading machine).
4. By milling.

Cutting a thread by using a single point tool on the lathe while indispensable
for single and small quantity jobs turned on the lathe, would be too slow for
production in large quantities and, moreover, would necessitate long and
expensive resetting of work turned on other machines.


“A bolt is a externally
threaded fastener designed for
insertion through holes in
assembled parts, and is
normally intended to be
tightened or released by
torquing a nut."

"A screw is an externally

threaded fastener capable of
being inserted into holes in
assembled parts, of mating
with a preformed internal
thread or forming its own thread and of being tightened and released by
torquing the head."

There are separate standards available for both bolts and threads, as well, as
the grips, heads, etc.

The standard screw thread
nomenclature is illustrated. The
crests of external threads may be
either rounded or flat. The root
usually is made rounded to
minimize stress concentration at
this critical area. The internal thread
has a flat crest in order to mate
with either a rounded or V root of
the external thread. A small round
is used at the root to provide
clearance for the flat crest of the external thread. While all elements of the
thread form are based on the pitch diameter, screw thread sizes are expressed
in terms of the outside, or major, diameter and the number of threads per inch
of length.

Common type of fasteners:

o Wood screw
Generally has an unthreaded shank below the head. It is
designed to attach two pieces of wood together.
o Coach screw (UK) or
lag screw/bolt (US)

Similar to a wood screw except that it is generally much larger

Lag bolts are designed for securely fastening heavy timbers (post and beams,
timber railway trestles and bridges) to one another, or to fasten wood to
masonry or concrete.

o Sheet metal screw (self-tapping screw, thread cutting

Has sharp threads that cut into a material such as sheet
metal, plastic or wood. They are sometimes notched at the
tip to aid in chip removal during thread cutting. The shank is
usually threaded up to the head.

o Concrete screw
A stainless or carbon steel screw for fastening wood, metal, or other materials
into concrete or masonry. Concrete screws are commonly blue in color, with or
without corrosion coating

o Self-drilling screw (Teks screw)

Similar to a sheet metal screw, but it has a drill-shaped point to cut through
the substrate to eliminate the need for drilling a pilot hole. Designed for use in
soft steel or other metals.

o Drywall screw
Specialized screw with a bugle head that is designed to attach
drywall to wood or metal studs, however it is a versatile
construction fastener with many uses. The diameter of drywall
screw threads is larger than the shaft

o Particle board screw (chipboard screw)

Similar to a drywall screw except that it
has a thinner shaft and provides better
resistance to pull-out in particle board,
while offset against a lower shear
strength. The threads on particle board
screws are asymmetrical.
o Deck screw
Similar to drywall screw except that it is has
improved corrosion resistance and is generally
supplied in a larger gauge. Most deck screws have a
type-17 (auger type) thread cutting tip for
installation into decking materials.

o Double ended screw (dowel screw)

Similar to a wood screw but with two pointed ends and no
head, used for making hidden joints between two pieces of
o Screw eye (eye screw)
Screw with a looped head. Larger ones are
sometimes call lag eye screws. Designed to
be used as attachment point, particularly for
something that is hung from it.

o Thread rolling screws

These have a lobed (usually
triangular) cross-section. They
form threads in a pre-drilled
hole in the mating workpiece by
pushing the material outward
during installation.

o Mirror screws
These are flat head wood screws with a
tapped hole in the head, which is designed to
receive a separate screw-in chrome-plated
cover. They are usually used to mount

Fasteners with a non-tapered shank

o Cap screw
In places the term is used interchangeably
with bolt. In the past the term cap
screw was restricted to threaded fasteners
with a shank that is threaded all the way to
the head, but this is now a non-standard
o Hex cap screw
Cap screw with a hexagonal
head, designed to be driven by a
wrench (spanner).

o Socket cap screw

Also known as a socket head cap screw, socket
screw or Allen bolt, this is a type of cap screw
with a hexagonal recessed drive

o Machine screw
Generally a smaller fastener (less than 1⁄4 inch in diameter)
threaded the entire length of its shank that usually has a
recessed drive type (slotted, Phillips, etc.)

o Self-tapping machine screw

Similar to a machine screw except the lower part of the

shank is designed to cut threads as the screw is driven
into an untapped hole. The advantage of this screw type
over a self-tapping screw is that, if the screw is
reinstalled, new threads are not cut as the screw is

o Set screw (grub screw)

Generally a headless screw but can be any screw
used to fix a rotating part to a shaft. The set screw is
driven through a threaded hole in the rotating part
until it is tight against the shaft. The most often used
type is the socket set screw, which is tightened or
loosened with a hex key.

o Stud/threaded rod
Studs are head-less screws. They
may be threaded at both ends and
unthreaded in the middle or
completely threaded; the latter is
usually referred to as a threaded rod,
especially when it has a large aspect
ratio (that is, quite long compared to
diameter). Completely threaded
round stock is available in bar stock form and is then usually referred to as
Thumb screw
A threaded fastener designed to be twisted into a
tapped hole by hand without the use
of tools.

Security screw
It’s similar to a standard screw except that once
inserted it cannot be easily removed.
Pan head
A low disc with chamfered outer edge
Button or dome head
Cylindrical with a rounded top
Round head
A dome-shaped head used for decoration.

Truss head
Lower-profile dome designed to prevent tampering
Countersunk or flat head
Conical, with flat outer face and tapering inner face allowing it to sink into the
material. The angle of the screw is measured as the full angle of the cone.
Oval or raised head
A decorative screw head with a countersunk bottom and rounded top.
Bugle head
Similar to countersunk, but there is a smooth progression from the shank to
the angle of the head, similar to the bell of a bugle
Cheese head
Disc with cylindrical outer edge, height approximately half the head diameter

Fillister head
Cylindrical, but with a slightly convex top surface. Height to diameter ratio is
larger than cheese head.

Flanged head
A flanged head can be any of the above head styles with the addition of an
integrated flange at the base of the head. This eliminates the need for a flat
Every threaded fastener needs a way of turning it. It may have a head with a
shape that a driver can engage, as a wrench fits a hex-head bolt or a nut, or it
may have a shaped hole into which a driver can be inserted (fastener
engineers call the hole the “recess”).

Term used frequently:

Camming out
To cam out (or cam-out) is a process by which a screwdriver slips out of the
head of a screw being driven once the torque required to turn the screw
exceeds a certain amount.

External types
All of these screw drives are characterized by a female tool and
a male fastener.


A square screw drive uses square shaped fastener heads. They can be
turned with a crescent-type wrench, open-end wrench, or 12-


A hex screw drive uses six-sided fastener heads. The fastener is known
as a hex head cap screw. They can be turned with a crescent-type
wrench,combination wrench, or sockets.


A pentagon screw drive uses five-sided fastener heads. The fastener is

known as a penta screw. They require a special five-point socket in
order to be turned. Water meter covers, natural gas valves, and
electrical cabinets are commonly secured with penta fasteners.

Slotted types

The slot screw drive has a single slot in the fastener head and is driven
by a flat-bladed screwdriver. The slotted screw is common
in woodworking applications, but is not often seen in applications where
a power tool would be used, due to the tendency of a power driver to slip out
of the head and potentially damage the surrounding material. The tool used to
drive a slot is called a slot-head or flat-tip.


A cross screw drive has two slots, oriented perpendicular to each other,
in the fastener head; a slotted screwdriver is still used to drive just one
of the slots. This type is usually found in cheaply made roofing bolts.
The sole advantage is that they provide some measure of redundancy: should
one slot be chewed up in service, the second may still be used.

Cruciform types

The following are screw drives based on a cruciform shape, i.e. a cross shape.
Other names for these types of drives are cross-head and cross-point.

Phillips screw heads

The Phillips system was invented for use in assembling

aluminum aircraft, with the object of preventing assemblers
from tightening screws so tightly that the aluminum threads
strip. The driver will cam out before that happens. The driver
has a 123° point with a blunt tip, tapered wings.

Frearson screw heads

A cross drive system referred to in ANSI standards as type II


In the United States, Frearson screws are mainly found

as the marine bronze wood screws used in boat building

Note the difference in points: Frearson has sharper V

Pozidrive® screw heads

Identified in ANSI standards as type IA. As it doesn't

cam out, great torque can be applied. Pozidrive screws can
be turned by Phillips screwdrivers, but Pozidrive drivers
won't turn Phillips screws.
Supadrive screw heads

Supadrive drivers will turn Pozidrive heads.

Square recesses and heads

Square nuts and four-sided heads are now mainly found in farm
equipment and on lag screws.

Robertson head screws

A square recess design was invented by P. Lymburner Robertson

in 1908. Its advantages are great resistance to camout and 4
possible positions for the driver.

Five-sided screw heads

Five-sided heads are used for caps and valves of fire hydrants,
and in other situations in which a fastener that cannot be removed by
commonly available wrenches (most of which have parallel jaws) is

Hexagonal heads and recesses

Probably the most common of all fastener heads, hex heads are also
very old. Fasteners with hexagonal heads were used to hold armor
together in the 15th century.

To find the size of wrench needed to

turn a hex head (or hex recess),
measure from flat to flat, not from point
to point.

Tamper resistant types:

Clutch head

There are two types of clutch screw drives: type A and type G. Type
A, also known as a standard clutch resembles a bow tie. These were
common in GM automobiles, trucks and buses of the 1940s and
1950s. Type G resembles a butterfly. This type of screw head is commonly
used in the manufacture of mobile homes and recreational vehicles.

A worn tip on a driver can easily be restored by grinding off the


Bristol Spline

The Bristol screw drive is a spline shaped with four or six splines. The
main advantage to this drive system is that almost all of the turning
force is applied at right angles to the fastener axis, which reduces the
possibility of stripping the fastener. For this reason Bristol screw drives
are often used in softer, non-ferrous metals. This type of drive is
commonly used in avionics, higher-end communications equipment,
cameras, air brakes, construction and farm equipment, astronomy, and
military equipment.

Double hex

Double hex is a screw drive with a socket shaped as two hexes. It is

shaped similar to triple square and spline screw drives, but they are
incompatible. Standard hex keys can be used with these sockets.

This version is even closer to a circle, further decreasing torque and increasing


One-way screws are special screws that can only be turned in one
direction. They can be installed with a standard slotted screwdriver.
One-way screws are commonly used in commercial restroom fixtures,
to prevent vandals from tampering with them. One-way screws are only
practical when the need for removal is unlikely. They cannot be removed with
conventional tools; instead a screw extractor is used.


The polydrive screw drive is spline shaped with rounded ends in the
fastener head. The tool has six flat-tip teeth at equal spacing; the sizes
are determined by the diameter of the star points. Its primary
advantage over older screw drives is that it resists camming out. It is used
primarily in the automotive industry in high-torque applications, such
as brakes and driveshafts.
Protruding obstacle

Tamper-resistant external-torx driver

A protruding obstacle screw drive is a common modification to

socket and cruciform style drives to make the fastener more
tamper resistant by inserting a pin in the fastener screw drive.
The tool then requires a corresponding hole to drive the fastener.
Usually the hole is in the center, but some are slightly off-center.


The polydrive screw drive is spline shaped with rounded ends in the
fastener head. The tool has six flat-tip teeth at equal spacing; the sizes
are determined by the diameter of the star points. Its primary
advantage over older screw drives is that it resists camming out. It is used
primarily in the automotive industry in high-torque applications, such
as brakes and driveshafts.

Proprietary head

There are specialty fastener companies that make unusual, proprietary head
designs, featuring matching drivers available only from them, and only
supplied to registered owners. These tend to be confined to industrial uses
with which the average layperson does not have contact. One example familiar
to laypersons is the attachment for the wheels and/or spare tires of some
types of car; one of the nuts on each wheel may require a specialized socket,
provided with the car, to prevent theft. Security fasteners are also available for
bicycle wheels and seats.


The spanner screw drive uses two round holes opposite each other and
is designed to prevent tampering. This type is seen in elevators in
the United States. The driving tool is called a spanner wrench in the
U.S. and a pin spanner in the UK.


The spline screw drive has twelve splines in the fastener and tool.
Spline drives are sized via numbers. Its primary advantage is its ability
to resist camming out, therefore it is used in high-torque applications,
such a stamper-proof lug nuts.


A set of torq-set bits

Torq-set is a cruciform screw drive used in torque-sensitive applications. The
Torq-set head is similar in appearance to a Phillips drive in that it has a cross
with 4 arms. In Torq-set however, the arms of the cross are offset from each
other, so they do not align to form intersecting slots across the top of the
head.. It is used in aerospace applications.


TP3 is a type of screw drive that uses a triangular recess in the screw head.
It is used on Nintendo,Gameboy, fast food promotional toys and video
games, die-cast toys and Roomba battery packs.


A tri-wing tool and screw

The tri-wing, also known as triangular slotted, screw drive has three
radial slots. It is usually used on electronics equipment. Tri-wing, as the name
suggests, is a screw with three "wings" and a small triangular hole in the
center. A variation is a kind in which the three "wings" are joined in the center
(with no triangular hole). A somewhat similar-looking design in which three
short radial slots are not joined in the center is called a tri-groove screw drive.

Triple square

Triple square, also known as XZN, is a type of screw drive with 12

equally spaced tips, each with a 90 degree angle. Its name derives from
overlaying 3 equal squares to form such a pattern with 12 right-angled

Hex socket

The hex socket screw drive has a hexagonal recess and is

driven by a hex wrench, also known as an Allen key, hex
key or inbus.

This style of head is now very common in trucks and automobiles. The walls of
the recess are not tapered. Drivers greatly outlast similar hex head drivers.

Internal Torx

Driver sizes for Torx recesses begin with a T.