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Principes de musique divisez en quatre parties (Paris 1736) by

Michel Pignolet de Montéclair; translation and commentary by


Constance Barbara Keffer

Item type text; Thesis-Reproduction (electronic)

Authors Keffer, Constance Barbara, 1950-; Montéclair, Michel


Pignolet de, 1667-1737

Publisher The University of Arizona.

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MICHEL PIGNOLET DE MONTECLAIR;

PRINCIPES DE MOSIQUE DIVTSEZ EN QUATRE PARTIES (PARIS„ 1736),

TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY

by

Constance Barbara Keffer

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


For the Degree of

MASTER OF MUSIC
WITH A MAJOR IN MUSIC HISTORY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

19 7 7

Copyright 1977 Constance Barbara Keffer


STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of re­


quirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is
deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers
under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special


permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made.
Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of
this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright
holder.

APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR

This thesis has been approved on the date shown below:

flrw -
J. R. Anthony
Professor of Music
FOR MY FELLOW STUDENTS

because I learn

so much from them

ill
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The thesis for the master's degree in musicology is more than a

mere exercise in essay writing. Besides giving the student experience in

conducting research over long periods of time, it is an opportunity to

make an original contribution and to develop the ability to judge the work

of others„ It challenges the student to reach the intellectual maturity

necessary for work at the doctoral level,

A work involving extended research is seldom produced in a vacuum.

One must, for example, depend on the willingness of other people to help

locate and to provide access to reference materials. The staff of the

Stanford University Music Library have been truly outstanding in this

regard, Ida Kattenburg, Carleene Bray, Rebecca Lasher, and especially

Edward Colby have gone out of their way, with great cheerfulness, to make

the resources of the Library available to the translator. Albert Cohen

and George Houle of the Stanford music faculty allowed the use of their

microfilms and made constructive suggestions about several aspects of the

research.

The library staff and professors at The University of Arizona have

been no less friendly. Elsie Phillips, Charles King, Gloria Burruel, Beth

Hahn, Elizabeth Galaty, and Mona Prontain have made the translator and her

questions feel welcome in the Music Library. Robert Vignezy has encouraged

the translator to broaden her knowledge of the social and historical

background of 17th- and 18th-century French music, and has helped with

iv
V

many problems in a sympathetic and understanding way. Diran Akmajian and

Edward Murphy, as both professors and advisers, have always been willing

to answer questions and have maintained a strong interest in the progress

of the translation? Mr. Akmajian has been particularly generous with his

microfilms.

No work would be possible without the moral support of one’s

acquaintances. The translator is most profoundly grateful to Marilyn Payne

and to Louise Anthony for their patience, their sisterly affection, and

their ungrudging generosity during times of great need. Janet Anthony,

Fleta Hylton, and Alice Keffer have each been sisters in very special ways

at other critical moments. Anne Hettinger and Paula Pan have listened

patiently to the translator’s problems and enthusiasms.

The credit for any merit which this work may have must go to one

persons James Anthony, the thesis director. The translator is very

fortunate to have as example and guide so great a teacher, so thorough a

researcher, so honest a scholar. His sense of perspective and his

sensitivity to his students' problems have made the most perplexing

difficulties manageable. His great and thoroughly undeserved kindness

commands one's deepest loyalties. If the present translation is at all

useful to anyone, it will be so because it was written under the guidance

of a professor who says "My first responsibility is to my students"—

and means it.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

1. INTRODUCTION ........ . . 1

Biography of Monteclair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Monteclair's Treatises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Problems of Preparing the Translation 6
General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 6
Problems of Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2. MICHEL PIGNOLET DE MONTECLAIR2 PRINCIPES DE MUSIQUE DIYISEZ


EN OUATRB PARTIES. ENGLISH TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . 11

FIRST PART: ON INTONATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


SECOND PART: ON THE DIFFERENT NOTE VALUES, ON METERS,
AND ON TEMPOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Dance Airs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 80
Exercises for Two Voices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
THIRD PART: ON THE MANNER OF JOINING TEXT TO MUSIC AND
ON THE MELODIC ORNAMENTS' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
The Coule (Passing Appogiatura) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
The Port de voix (Rising Appoggiatura) . . . . . . . . . 133
The Chute (Falling Anticipation) . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Accent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Tremblement (Trill) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Tremblement annuve (Prepared Trill) . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Tremblement subit ("Unprepared” Trill) . . . . . . . . . 140
Tremblement feint (incomplete Trill) . . . . . . . . . . 141
Tremblement double (Trill with Turns) . . . . . . . . . . 142
The Pincg (Mordent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
The Flatg (vibrato) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 145
Balancement (Tremolo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Tour de gosier (Turn) . . . . . . ........ . . . . . . . 146
Passage (Interpolation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Diminution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Coulade (Slurred Run) . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . 149
Trait (Articulated Run) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Son file (straight Tone or Senza Vibrato) . . . . . . . . 150

vi
vii

TABLE OF COITTENTS— Continued

Page

Son enfle and diminue (Crescendo and Diminuendo) . . . . 150


Son gliss£ (Slide) 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Sanglot (Sob) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Monosyllables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Selections Taken from the Biblical Tragedy Jeohte . . . . 158
FOURTH PARTS SUMMARY OF A HEW SYSTEM OF MUSIC . . . . . . . 165
Intonations First Subject of Music . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Meter and Tempos Second Subject of Music . . . . . . . . 192

3. COMMENTARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

Meter and Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225


The Dances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
The Exercises for Two Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Signatures and Accidentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 246
Accidentals for Individual Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Solmization . . . . . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Ornamentation-— Problems in Monteclair8s Discussion . . . . . 259
The Coule and Port de voix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
The Son enflS and dlminug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
The jSon ^glt^E^stB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
A Selection from Jepht^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26?
Pronunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

APPENDIX As MONTECLAIReS DEDICATORY STATEMENT . . . . . . ... . 2 7 3

APPENDIX Bs SOURCES"AND/OR VARIANTS OF MONTECLAIR’S


EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 298


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page

1. Beat-Patterns in the Nouvelle m^thode 226

2. Beat-Patterns in the Princines de musique 226

3« Duet from Pvrameet Thisb^ (ca« 1716) , „. . . . ........... 236

4= Deurigme Concert. 7th movement (n,do) 239

5. Exercise from Nouvelle m'ethode (1709) . . o . . . ' . * . . . * 242

6. Exercise from Princines de musique . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

7 o Accidentals Tied across Bar Lines (Principes de musique) . . . 252

8» Inconsistencies in the Use of Accidentals (Princines de


musique) 254

9, The Port de voix and Coule (Nouvelle m$thode) 260

10. The CoulK (Princines de musioue) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

11. The Port de voix (Princines de musioue) . . . . . . . . . . . 262

12. The Son glissg (Pan et Sirinx) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

13. The Son glissi (Princines de musioue) . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

14. Recitative from Jenhte. Act V (Princines de musioue) . . . . . 269

15. A Possible Contrapuntal Improvisation on MontSclair*s


Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

viii
ABSTRACT

Michel Pignolet de Monteclair's Principes de musiaue divisez en

auatre parties (Paris» 1736), the last of his didactic works„ reflects the

theoretical and practical musical.environment in France during the early

18th centuryo The work is arranged progressively, with numerous examples

accompanying each new concept. Also included are thirty dances, twenty-one

exercises for two parts, and selections from Monteclair's Biblical opera

Jephte.

In the first section of the Principes. the names, sizes, and proper

solmization of intervals, the three clefs, accidentals, and transposition

are discussed, The second section covers note values and rests, the tie

and syncopation, the different types of meter, major and minor semitones,

the meanings of the word ton, modulation, and the grand staff. In the

third part, MontSclair shows the student how to combine text with music,

explains eighteen melodic ornaments, and makes some brief remarks about

pronunciation,

Reforms in notation are presented in the fourth part of the

treatise. The middle line of the staff is fixed as C sol u t : "partitions!

letters” indicate voice parts. Meter signatures are reduced to duple and

triple, simple or compound. To justify his reforms, Monteclair summarizes

the history of musical notation and its changes and improvements.

ix
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Biography of Monteclair^

The seventh child of the weaver Adrien Pignolet (or Pinolet) and
2
Susanne Galiot, Michel Pignolet was baptized on 4 December 1667 at Andelot

in Haute-Marneo On 27 January 1676, at the age of eight, Pignolet entered

the music school of the cathedral at Langres„ From October 1681 to


3
February 1682, one of his teachers was Jean-Baptiste Moreau, who later

composed some of the music for the productions of Racine’s Esther and
4
Athalie at the school of Saint-Louis de Saint-Cyr. Pignolet left the

lo To date the best m o d e m published source for biographical data


concerning MontSclair is Simone Wallon, “MontSclair, Michel Pinolet
(Pignolet) de," in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (ed. by Friedrich
Blume; Kassel, Barenreiter, 1949-1973)» IX, cols. 502-506„ Other
references consulted include Emile Voillard, Essai sur Monteclair. Paris,
H e Menu, 1879? Erich Schwandt, "L’Affilard’s Published ’Sketchbooks’," The
Musical Quarterly. 65, No* 1 (1977), pp. 99-113? Constant Pierre, Histoire
du Concert Spiritual. 1725-1790. Paris, Societe Franqaise de Musicologie,
Heugel, 1975? Sylvette Milliot, "Le testament de Michel Pignolet de
MontSclair," Recherches sur la musioue francaise classiouee 8 (1968), pp»
151-140; Lionel de La Laurencie, L ’Academie de Musioue et le Concert de
Nantes, facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1906 edition, Geneva, Minkoff
Reprints, 1972; Adrien de La Fage, "Michel Monteelair," Revue et gazette
musicale de Paris, 24 (1857)» pp. 250-252, 259-261; Jules Carlez, Un opera
biblioue au XVIII® siecle« Caen, F, Le Blanc-Hardel, 1879? and J. R.
Anthony, "Monteelair," to appear in the 6th edition of Grove’s Dictionary
of Music and Musicians (ed. by Stanley Sadie)=

2. The text of the baptismal certificate is given in Voillard,


Essai, p, 2.

3. Anthony, "Monteelair."

4. Voillard, Essai. pp. 3-4.

1
cathedral school in August, 1686, and had moved to Paris by 25 September

1687, the date on which the rest of his income was requested from Langres»^

At some time between 1687 and 1695 Pignolet became music director ("Maitre

de la Musique") to Charles-Henri de Lorraine, Prince de Vandemont, and

traveled with him to Italy; Carles states that they stayed in Rome„^

By 1695 Pignolet had returned to Paris, where he was listed on the


7‘
rolls for the capitation or head tax for that year. During this period

Pignolet began signing himself "Pignolet dit Monteclair", a name which he

took from that of a ruined fortress near his birthplace.® Monteclair

became a music teacher in Paris, giving lessons on Mondays, Wednesdays, and

Fridays. Towards the very end of the 17th century (Wallon gives 1699),"*

Monteclair was admitted to the petit choeur of the OpSra orchestra*® as a

player of the basse de violon. He is also given credit for having been one

of the first to play the contrabass at the Opera, possibly as early as


11
1701. At first the use of this instrument was reserved for Fridays,

5. Wallon, “Monteclair," col. 503.

6. Car leg, Un opera biblioue. p. 9» Charles-Henri de Lorraine was


born in 1649 and died in 1 7 2 3 % (Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Lettres.
instructions et memoires de Colbert fed. by Pierre Clement; Paris,
Imprimerie Imperials, 1861-1882], VI, p. 450, fn» 3»)

7. La Laurencie, L 1Academie de Musioue. pp. 67-68, fn. 3«

8. Monteclair signed his name in this fashion until 1724; after


1725 it appeared as "Pignolet de Monteclair". (Milliot, "Le testament,"
p. 131, fn. 1.)

9. Wallon, "Monteclair," col. 503.

10. The members of the petit choeur accompanied airs and reci­
tatives; the full orchestra played symphonies. overtures, ritomelli, and
dance airs. (La Page, "Michel Monteclair," pp. 250, col. 2 - 251, col. 1.)

11. Anthony, "Monteclair„"


because the aristocracy considered it fashionable to attend the Opera on

that day of the week„^

On 18 May 1709 Monteclair obtained a •privilege allowing him to

publish and sell his own music, in whatever form seemed good to him, during

the following twelve years. His works to that time include a Serenade on

concert divise en trois suites de pieces (1697)? several collections of

dances and trios? and various brunettes and airs a boire. ^ Subsequent

works include suites for two unaccompanied flutes and for flute and

continue (undated)?"^ three collections of secular cantatas (ca. 1709, ca„

1716, and 1728)? motets, some of which were performed at the Concert

Spiritual in 1726, 1734, 1735, and 1737;^ Les fetes de I'ete. an opjgra-

ballet (1716)? Jephte (1732), a traaedie-lvrique based on an Old Testament

story? and a Requiem, performed in 1735 and 1736 as part of the annual

126 Voillard, Bssai, pp. 15-16.

13. The privilege is reprinted at the end of Monteclair, Cantates


I une et a deux voix et avec sinfonies Second livre (Paris, [ca. 1716]).
From a microfilm of Vm 7.165, made by the Service Photographique of the
Bibliotheque Rationale (Paris), and provided courtesy of Diran Akmajian
and J. R. Anthony.

14. Erich Schwandt notes that Monteclair arranged many brunettes


for instrumental performance, publishing them as the Brunetes ancienes et
m o d e m e s .. .qui oeuvent aussv se .iouer sur la flute a bee, sur le yiolon,
haubois. et autres instruments (Paris. Boivin, [n.d.] ). ("L’Affilard's
Published ‘Sketchbooks1," PP« 103; 104, fn. 11.)

15. These Concerts a_deux flutes traversieres sans basses and


Concerts pour la flute traversiere avec la basse chiffree were published by
Boivin and probably did not appear much before 1721. (Wallon,
"Monteclair," col. 504? Monteclair, Sechs Konzerte fur zwei Floten Oder
andere Instruments fViolinen— Oboen~) ohne Ba/S fed. by Gotthold Frotscher;
Heidelberg, Willy Muller, Siiddeutscher Musikverlag, 1966], obverse of the
title page.)

16. Pierre, Histoire du Concert Soirituel. pp. 81-82, 233, and


243-245.
17
memorial service for musicians who had died during the year. Monteclair

and his nephew Francois Boivin shared the ownership of a music shop from

1721 until the letter’s marriage in 1724? many of Monteclair's.works were

published either by Boivin or his widow, who took over the enterprise at
18
her husband’s death in 1733•

The librettist for both Les fetes de I ’ete and Jenhte*was the Abbe
19
Simon-Joseph Pellegrin. According to La Fage, the production of Jenhte

was delayed for twelve years because of the interdict against Pellegrin and

his libretto by the Cardinal de Noailles, Archbishop of Paris. The singing

and dancing of religious characters on stage was considered distasteful,

and eventually the intervention of the Queen, solicited by the Prince de


20
Carignan, was required before the performance could take place. In the

dedication of his Princines de musioue to Carignan, Monteclair refers to

the twelve years' struggle; but it is not known whether the music was
21
composed before or after the interdict was lifted.

On 1 July 1737 Monteclair retired from the Opera orchestra and was
22
given a pension. According to the inventory made of his possessions

after his death, Monteclair,died at Aumont on 22 September of that year.

17. Voillard, Essai. pp. 81-82.

18. Milliot, "Le testament,” pp. 134-135•

19. Wallon, "Monteclair," col. 503.

20. La Fage, "Michel Monteclair," p. 251, cols. 1-2.

21. Carles, Un opera biblioue. p. 8.

22. Wallon, "Monteclair," col. 503.

23. Milliot, "Le testament," p. 132.


Monteclair'a Treatises

Monteclair was well known and greatly respected as a teacher»


24
Among his students were the daughters of Francjois Couperin, to which

composer he dedicated his first treatise, the Houvelle methode pour

anrendre la musiaue (Paris, 1'auteur, 1709)« His other didactic works

include the Lecons de musiaue divisees en quatre classes (Paris,

[1'auteur, ca. 1710]); the Methode facile pour aprendre _a .ioiier du violon

(Paris, 1'auteur, [1711 or 1712]), the first violin method published in

France;^ the Petite methode pour aoorendre la musiaue aux enfans (Paris,

Boivin, [before 17331)5 and the Princioes de musiaue diviseg en auatre

parties (Paris, Veuve Boivin, 1736)

According to Franqois-Joseph Fetis, Monteclair’s first treatise

was a Methode pour apprendre la musioue of 1700, with a second abridged


27 ^
edition of the work appearing in 1737« The existence of such a Methode

246 Marc Pincherle, "Elementary Musical Instruction in the


Eighteenth Centurys An Unknown Treatise by Monteclair" (tr. by Willis
Wager; The Musical Quarterly. 34, Ho. 1 [1948]), p. 61.

.25. Lionel de La Laurencie, L'ecole franqaise de violon. de Lully


a Viottl (facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1922-1924 edition; Geneva,
Minkoff Reprints, 1971), III, p. 2.

26. Bibliographical data for the Wouvelle methode and the Petite
methode were obtained from xerographic copies of those works, made by the
Library of Congress. Information about the Methode...du violon came from
a microfilm copy of Vm 1440, prepared by the Service Photographique of the
Bibliothlque Nationals (Paris). The Principes de musiaue is available in
a facsimile edition published in Geneva by Minkoff Reprints, 1972. With
regard to the Lecons de musioue. the reader is referred to the illustration
in Wallon, "Monteclair," cols. 503-504, and to Pincherle, "Elementary
Musical Instruction," pp. 61-62.

27. Franqois-Joseph Fetis (comp.), Bioeraohie universelle des


musiciens (2nd ed., with supplement ed. by Arthur Pougin; Paris, Firmin-
Didot, 1873-1881), VI, p. 179, col. 2.
is doubtful; Monteclair does not refer to it in the preface to his Nouvelle

m£thode of 1709 o Fetis also states that Monteclair reworked his material

in order to produce the Houvelle methode, and that the second edition of
28
that treatise was published in 17360 The extent to which the Princines

de musiaue was intended as a revised edition of the Nouvelle methode is

also unclear, since the later work lacks an explanatory preface»

Problems of Preparing the Translation

General Problems

An 18th-century text in French often shows inconsistencies in

spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and the use of diacritical marks»

In most situations, variations in capitalization or in spelling (such as

“pouroit" for oourrait. "terns’1 for temps) do not obscure the meaning of a

word. Abbreviations— often indicated by diacritical marks, as in "come"

for cpmme— also present few difficulties. The presence or absence of a

diacritical mark, however, cannot be given a unique interpretation; both

"ou" and "ou", for example, may mean "where" in English. In such cases

the translator must rely on context. As for punctuation, the translator

should not attempt to maintain an author’s practices exactly. What is

correct in French is often unacceptable in English.

If the work is specialized in nature, it is likely that the

translator will encounter the awkward grammatical constructions of an

author who was never trained to express himself with elegance in extended

discussions. The following passage from the fourth part of the Principes

de musiaue may serve as an example s

28. Fetis, Biogranhie universelle. 71, p. 179, col. 2.


"Le systheme propose ne sera pas d ’abord receu si universellem*,

qu'on ne soit oblige d'apprendre aussi celuy qui est en usage, de sorte

que loin d"abreger le temps qu'on employe a letude de la musique, il


29
faudra aprendre deux systhemes pour un,"

The translator must decide to what extent his version of the text

should convey the author's style or lack of it. Since his primary

objective is the expression of the author's ideas in as clear a fashion as

possible, he should keep in mind that clarification of sentence structure

sometimes distorts the meaning of a passage. When clarity is not an

issue, howeverj, it should be remembered that what seems clumsy to the

m o d e m reader was very often considered part of a "learned" style at the

time it was written. Furthermore, the translator has an obligation not

to misrepresent the original author by disguising the weaknesses of his

work. Thus the above quotation has been translated as follows;

"The proposed system will not be at first so universally received

that it would not be necessary to learn the one in use as well, so that

far from the time which would be employed in the study of music being

shortened, it would be necessary to learn two systems in place of one."

Translators of works from eras other than their own must also face

the problem of important words or phrases which have changed in meaning.

In the present treatise, such terms as modulation, melodie. and contrenoint

do not have quite the same meanings as their English cognates. When

available, both general and specialized dictionaries of the period should

29. MontSclair, Princines de musique divisez en ouatre parties


(Facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1736 edition; Geneva, Minkoff Reprints,
1972), pp..128-129.
be used| in compiling the Glossary of terms on pages 284-297$ the present

translator found the Dictionnaire de Trevouz^ and the music dictionaries

of Sebastian de Brossard*^ and Jean-Jacques Rousseau'^ indispensable.

Problems of Format

The present translation of Monteclair’s Prinoines de musioue uses

xerographic copies of the original illustrative material, made from the

facsimile edition published in Geneva by Minkoff Reprints, 1972, Various

details of.these original examples are significant, and are discussed in

the Commentary,

The plates for the original work must have been quite expensive.

An attempt to reduce the costs of engraving would explain the general

appearance of the treatise— its text and examples are crowded together on

the page to such an extent that it is difficult at times to determine where

new subsections begin or to distinguish between narrative text and the

explanatory legends used in examples. In some places the size of the text

is extremely small; in others, the legends of examples are so intertwined

with the musical notation that it is almost impossible to separate them.

Because Monteclair intended that each concept or idea be followed


33
immediately by an illustration or exercise, the present translation

30, Dictionnaire universel franeois et latin...rDictionnaire de


Trevouxi, new ed,, corrected and augmented, Paris, Delaune et al,, 1743-
1752,

31, Sebastien de Brossard, Dictionaire de musioue, facsimile


reprint of the Paris, 1703 edition, Amsterdam, Antique, 1964,

32, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Dictionnaire de musioue. facsimile


reprint of the Paris, 1768 edition, Hildesheim, Georg 01ms, 1969,

33, See p. 224 below in the Commentary.


maintains his integration of text and examples. Individual examples,

diagrams, tables, exercises, or other illustrations have been broken up

and spread over more space in an effort to make them more comprehensible

to the reader; where necessary, they have been continued over two or more

pages.

In most places where the legend or the directions accompanying an

example or exercise cannot be separated from it without obscuring

MontSclair6s intentions„ a translation is given in a footnote. In three

kinds of situations, however, these legends or directions have been left

untranslated2 (l) where the word or phrase is identical in meaning to its

English cognate; (2) where the meaning is immediately clear from the word'

position in the example; and (3 ) where meter or tempo terminology is

involved. It is not possible, for example, to translate gai. vlte. or

leger adequately with a single word; all three indicate quick tempos, but

vary in their degrees of quickness and sometimes in their styles of

performance.

In a few cases, texts and examples have been rearranged for the

sake of clarity and because of space limitations. For three of the dances

— the Passacaille. the Chacone. and the second Canarie— the dance title

has been placed after, rather than before, its description (pp. 83, 84,

and 88 below respectively). In an example which was divided between the

original pages [1003 and [101] (p. 168 below), the accompanying

descriptions, which were also separated, have been placed together before

the musical selection.


The following editorial procedures have also been observed?

Any quotation from a foreign language— whether a word, a phrase,

or an extended passage— retains its original spelling,

capitalization, diacritical marks, and punctuation.*

When used in a general sense, French dance titles and names for

ornaments are left in that language, whether they occur in the

translation or in the Commentary. They have, however, been given

their modern standardized spelling. Because they denote sets of

characteristics which often differ from those of their English

counterparts, it would be inappropriate to translate these terms.

The page numbers of the original work are enclosed in brackets

([ 3). With a few exceptions, each is placed at the beginning of

the first line of text, stave of music, explanatory legend, example

title, or subheading on the original page. The titles of the four

main parts of the treatise are excepted; for those pages, the

number appears at the beginning of the first line of text. The

numbers for original pages [49] and [116] are placed as subscripts

at the ends of their respective first lines.

Where possible, all examples taken from other composers* works or

acknowledged by Monteclair to be from his own works are identified

in footnotes. Appendix B contains as complete an identification

as possible of all examples used by Monteclair.


CHAPTER 2

MICHEL PIGNOLET DE MONTECLAIRs

PRINCIFES DE MCSICDE DIVISEZ EN QUATRE PARTIES.

ENGLISH TRANSLATION

11
12

FIRST FART; ON INTONATION

[1] Motion is the origin of sound.

Sound is the subject matter of music.

The quantity of possible sounds» as much in ascending as in

descending, can approach infinity; that is why it is incomprehensible» and

consequently unusable.

In order to reach the understanding and the correct intonation of

the sounds which suit the disposition of our voices, it is only necessary

to restrict oneself at first to the range of a single octave.

To give an ordering to sounds, and in order to distinguish them,

they are represented by notes with the names U t „ R e . M i . Fa. Sol. La. and

Si.

Their different pitches, or their positions on the page, are what

one calls [scale] degrees.^

A note repeated or reiterated on the same scale degree forms what

is called a unison, that is, "same sound"— ut ut» re re. mi mi. etc.

The distance between two notes which are on different scale

degrees is called an interval.

Intervals formed by conjunct scale degrees occur between two notes

which follow each other immediately, as from ut to re.

1. The meaning of degre varies depending on the context. Where


appropriate, it has been translated as "scale degree", as "pitch", or as
"step".
13

Intervals formed by disjunct scale degrees lie between two notes

which do not follow each other Immediately, as from ut to m i .

These two kinds together amount to seven different intervals, as

follows: second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and octave, as may

be seen by means of the following scale. There it will be noticed that

between the notes made by conjunct scale degrees, the intervals are not

equal— that there are some larger ones, called whole tones, and some of

lesser extent, called semitones. [2] The small horizontal bar, — , when

between two notes, indicates that there is a whole tone from one to the

other, whether in ascending or descending.

Fa
Mi

Ut

Scale for Learning to Sing, by ^


Ascending and Descending by Conjunct Scale Degrees

2. From left to right, the three vertically aligned texts may be


translated as follows: "Intervals formed by disjunct scale degrees."
"Octave divided diatonically into five whole tones and two semitones."
"Intervals formed by conjunct scale degrees."
Since Montdclair often uses the word naturel to mean either "dia­
tonic" or "unaccompanied by accidentals" (see p. 293 in the Glossary), it
will be translated as "diatonic" when appropriate, as here.
14

The octave must be sung from the lower ut and ascend by conjunct

scale degrees to the higher ut, and then descend from the higher ut to the

lower one.

The two semitones found in the division of the octave are between

mi and fa, and between si and ut, whether they ascend or descend.

In order to learn to sing correctly the intervals between disjunct

scale degrees, it is necessary to pass through the scale degrees between

the two notes which form the interval; this is called subdividing the
3
interval ["decompteruj .

Ut Ut ut ut Ut Ut Ut Ut Ut Ut Ut UtjUt ut
Si Si Si Si Si ! Si Si Si Si f
z / i / i / ' : / :
Ll La La. La La La La La La [ La La I
/ / / / / i /
Sol Sol Sol ! Sol Sol Sol Sol Sot Sol j j'oZ Sot
j
Fa Fa r* Fa. ^ Fa Fa < 'i Fa Fa Fa M F.t 1
Mi FMi Mi Mi Mi 1 Ml Mt XU H Mi ! Ml 1
/ 1 !
.,4
R/ Re’ 1b ! Re Re’ Rc Re' !
/ < :• 1/ : " |
utju. Ut Ut Ut ut Ut u Ut ut Ct ut Ut Ut
Zii'iLt. i .M - . .jL_r , i s r
ut VI ut ut ut Ut ut ut

La
Sol
Sol

Fi
Mi Hi
Re

Ut ut Ut Ut Ut ut

3. The problems connected with the translation of this word are


outlined on p. 289 in the Glossary.
15

[3] To become more secure in using all the diatonic intervals

contained in the octave, one must subdivide the seven octaves in the

following quadrature, both ascending and descending, and make sure that

all the fundamental notes of each column or octave are taken at the unison,

that is, at the same pitch level; for example, after having subdivided and

sung all the intervals of the first column, as seen below, one must sing

the fundamental %e of the second column at the same pitch level as the

fundamental ut of the first column. The others are done in the same way.

This exercise will be a great help in making the difference between the
4
tone and the semitone apparent to the ear.

Q jia d r a tu r e .
ut R / Mi Fa S ol La S i Uf
Si - Mi - - - Si
r t Re - Fa S ot La -
La Si - R e'Mi - -
— - Vt - Fa Sol -
Sol La S i ut- R e Mi
- Si — - Fu -
Fa Sol La - Ut R e' aft* / ; i
Mi - - La S i - jifZ
— Fa S ot - Ut -
Re Mi ' Sot L a Si - /Iz'
— Fa - - - -
Ur Re Mi Fa Sol La Si ut

4. According to Marc Pincherle, the quadrature is used in all of


Monteclair's theoretical works. ("Elementary Musical Instruction in the
Eighteenth Century; An Unknown Treatise by Monteclair" [tr. by Willis
Wager; The Musical Quarterly. 34, No. 1 (1948)] , p. 65.) Pincherle's
statement must be qualified by the observation that in the Methode facile
pour aorendre a .jouer du violon (Paris, [1711 or 1712]), the diagram of the
fingerboard on p. 4 of that treatise— the only diagram in that work
resembling the quadrature— cannot be used in the same fashion because the
violinist associates specific pitches (and by extension, specific solmi-
zation syllables) with each of his fingerings. The difference in size
between tones and semitones, however, is still made visually apparent
through the spacing of the solmization syllables.
16

Five lines drawn parallel are used for writing music; this is

called a stave.

Each line and each space indicates a scale degree.

The notes are placed without distinction on these lines and in the

spaces between two lines.

There are three different clefs which determine the ordering and

the names of the notes.

The clefs are placed on lines and never in spaces.

C U 'd z S o l . C l c ' d w t . C lc d c F a

- f — - ¥ — 9 * -

Each clef gives its name to the notes found on the line where it

is placed; the other notes, whether ascending or descending, are then

named according to their natural order.

The line which crosses the lower curve of

the Sol clef is the one on which this clef is located.

The line between the two squares of the

Ut clef is the one where this clef is placed.

The line which passes between the two dots

of the Fa clef is the one where this clef is located.


17
5
The Sol clef is placed on the first and the second lines, and

never elsewhere.

The Ut clef is placed on the first, second, third, and fourth

lines, and never on the fifth.

The Fa clef has only two positions, namely, on the third^ and

fourth lines.

M ------------ 1 I 1 '
1 1 I 1 d 'V , V.' ,
v/ *
u =*
1# ^ —

The Sol clef on the first line and


^
that of fa on the fourth correspond in the 3----a —

ordering and in the names of the notes.

The different positions of these three clefs produce seven trans­

formations, by means of which the seven names of a note, on each line and

in each space, may be found.

«/ =1 " n • ?t
l
Z* 1
=1 fi P "• =1 2 1 ^
1 k I} yt i 1 ws J «> y r- £
y ^ _ "mi 1 1 /
Ft

5. This clef, when placed on the first line, is the so-called


French violin clef and appears in French orchestral music throughout much
of the Baroque period.

6 . The F or fa clef in this position is the baritone clef. It


corresponds to the placement of the C or ut clef on the fifth line and may
have been preferred to that usage.
18

[4] Exercises on the Different Positions of the Three Clefs


And on All the Diatonic Intervals

Unisons, reiterated several times

Ct/Svt c: .: I Vt ut u t i"
L.% L i Li
Inf'rrmurt I . jn t jiii f * J e i fu I
Ujne. -4M-W— — Kr r e r e 1 --
nurj^njJ I |
~Ut ut uT
W
-AU-
Ui ff/"-

Seconds, reiterated

Guidon.
V
1 ■- - - Zi •r< Sol -u-/ JL/ o u u t o n j< p o s e s u r le d y n e
M4 ,/S * m. T i
=1 TT^ r e 1 re m< .Tf ”•* o t r d o U e tr r Li n o He q u i s u i t .
t i 1‘a iO r e p o r te r . r7
n
5 j ^ uz ut ^ c: . , 1 . 1
Li'- (<i -• la ut ^f d ^ r^ t
V 3 J* re re
rl H<- w

Thirds, reiterated

/ - \ ^ h „ Li - 7M— -#rjr^—
""1
1-- _/o ./n Mi /G ,rL/ Mi Fa /n
n
Rc‘ m i - ^ Kr rj» me
d ut

~ n - - - - ti— r&i- - - - - ^ - - - - — tz- - - - ts~ ^ " -,1 Ai /a


IV ., 1. . / —
Vr
ra
P

............... "
T l ’a ------
d rj- ^ /-<■

7. MThe guide mark is placed on the scale degree where the note
following on the next stave is to occur." This symbol, which serves the
same purpose in Gregorian chant, is also called custos or index.
19

Fourths, reiterated

rr At A -- v
d ..t . rr rr
bi ri
ilr rr
4 " r‘A, ,
7

Ll t‘7. -- 7ti rr«i Hr rr


y ,v- rr rr (jf.‘
■>' Ji ... fa.. U.
ri— ---- a : 1 rof .w7!,!

Fifths, reiterated

y rr rr
P r /j JJi J7 .ft L« A
1i J.X JTi . r. f . AL Sol VC7
1— rrz--- rr--- Lftr----- rt"--- Ml

;g -M-r----mt----
VI tti tie Sl ,hl „
yrf vo/ r. r I ! Sol vj/
1 i v r<.
^ ------------ ----- ITT-----T*I--

[5] Sixths

-------------- n wf »■*h,< \ T* of ------- jj----


T ": z ./.r * ' /r /r
Ml1
Vr ’ ’ II
»u j, mi m/
IV‘ r ^- '* Vt nl Pr rr'
ll
rr rr '-1
1 I-A Ut

Sevenths

<h JtYi __
jurhShjiuJ-T —rA-
7/.// Sol ,• 'I'F. 171
■S*4— #W— ».»/1

TJnisscns. St’fOniirs. Tirrces* Q ttarfss. .fix k s . Scplicnu'-s . Ccta. v tr s .


L
hr - in ia
U ------ Ai M I --- f.
nt " "(■ "
U n u scn s. Secotu-lrs. T u re c s. Q uartcs. Qtanfes. S ix U s. ScptUnxcs. O c tn v c s .
I “t Uf of Ut J.J of /( Ill ut ut of iJ i.t Ill ut lit ul lit Of
1, . , 6 /.i /■ r
1} . Al Zn
re re
t ---
20

Any interval which is more than an octave in range is difficult to

sing, that is, it is difficult to go from the first to the second note of

the interval without singing out of tune.

When one of these intervals is found in the melodic line, whether

ascending or descending, it is necessary when there is not time to

subdivide the interval in order to make sure of the correct intonation, to

sing to oneself the octave above the starting note (a ), and then to go to

the second note (b ) of the interval.

This unvoiced octave will be indicated below by a small black note

(•).

.... ut ^
0 '■'*u! •, - '# "
r., -
1 mi '* fa- s' 1 rn
y re '"... re .
=1 A __x A B A B
B rr . ml
rr u? ... a uA r ul
‘tl - --I w
# ) ■ 0 ' z.i fj. •
J re ..u re /-
R B A B
> - A
r----- # ■■ «-<
1 * mi' /a nil"
^ A
re ut- rt
B A B

The cadence (trill), the port de voix (rising appoggiatura), and

the coule (passing appoggiatura) are the three principal melodic

ornaments.®

The cadence is indicated in all foreign countries, and in music

printed in France, by a t. Apparently, negligence in curving the base of

8. On p. 132 below, Monteclair lists eighteen different


"principal ornaments". The English equivalents of the names of the
ornaments used here and elsewhere are also given on p. 132.
21

the t. resulted in the small f or Z, which only the French use to designate

this ornament, in their manuscripts and engraved music.


o
The port de voix is indicated by V, and the coule by z"‘"'s o r _

Instructors using oral means will teach the proper way of forming

these ornaments better than could anything which could be written about it.

Nevertheless, see pages 78, 79* and 80 [pp. 132-137 below].

[6] Manner of Conceiving and of Performing


the Cadence, the Port de voix. and the Coule

Ccutcn^e. "P.-HiAf iv’i.r .


T1 '-i'/A/t
" / —r
7v
/Z t .... Al
jy " mf re tft. iv *■ ,,, a - ’ aj vt

P e r t Jj v c ix \ C'a,lrrut jathi? .
77“

t €Cttlf .

W- vW-
rW uf Ut

--------:---w — ---- ---------fv— , r : rt ^ ut . ! 1


| - s-0 |-?'.- " ! ,„i------ — --------------------------------- — ---gol
1

1
CoulS.

-w/-
j-( 7
-tM- — Tzrf^t-
rt ( 'u n u je n
S'

} .... ■n------ TTT------------------------ £ — 7 T r ,- ... ' '


d ... r/ frtf fY .
R| 11 * !-t ■
t i l n .<< t - 1
R ' fr i jo t s o l ,a sol

TT 1th- -ttt- ' <


f- /'-Hh-yir
'.cot

9. Regarding these symbols for the port de voix and the coule.
see p. 260 in the Commentary.
22

.v rui.
*t4- I -* = = —
i
|ii—W-Sol
nLf/cn. |
o
/'*2gf^
%rC-
zef .
777” ITT /■
-I mi— ±l'Jj ri.i-'"_^
U

The flat ["B-mol"] (j?) lowers by a semitone the pitch of the note

which follows it.

Si - mi
V,/ Q *• 1 .. --- h— -—2 — V Ml
Ivi
Vj L* Li diri--- L.i *^-p Re R e P i r r P-fW-
| V/rj-ten |
I
_________ .________ .0«n»/«* ■ — 1* mi

''' :
fa ^'’<nu •f/;;^ .wy j -jf,” ' uw.

[7] The sharp ["Dieze"] (j1) is the opposite of the flat (b); it

raises by a semitone the pitch of the note which follows it.

. * A. «> /iZ
y, u nZ
4 Mi Mi J Mi■ - A" Si Si
Ht -h-t- mT
\l)tn<i/.'nj
•' Zl
77T
~Lr ** - Au.L*
-w -
i
rru^75^,
/(rn7i\
-A'u -

^ T \ \/>,*<> Irn \ A^vT^JTTTn,


-T ~rt' V »7 /.V ir r

g:

g <-;4

r . 1. ): , 7-- 1.^ 77Z-/Vr^V*— —**---- --- ;-----1


^C,>/ /.t 1 .,rAi ' --------- .v/ /,/,',■■•.
-- ---------‘ f
23

When the pitch of a note has been lowered by a flat (I?) or raised

by a sharp ($), and one wants to move this note back to its original

pitch ["son intonation naturelle"], a third sign, called a natural

["B-quarre, ou Becare"] (^), is used.

|Umi - ten .f.)


Sol„

Ton .

Exercise on the Flat, Sharp, and Natural

'P™ 4
Li *
-Aj k/<
fil (X.
n soi-'-1 •/r,t•11^" f
\0/ru f| tsn___ j
I■
-tm K-w#-
6 ^ ---^ ttf ir ' /,■ til
lit si b si~ -/it-
4-
r.l '7>tiiN P . f.1 /^7cnT^\| f) .A |
JU- |a
-fff- _OL -eA-
•to—Jul Sxrlr

In ascending by conjunct scale degrees to a flattened note, one

must only sing a semitone, and when descending to such a note, one must

sing a whole tone. On the contrary, when ascending by conjunct scale

degrees to a sharpened note one must sing a whole tone, andwhen descending

one must sing only a semitone; this must be observed in the preceding

exercises, and in those which follow.

[8] The interval formed by conjunct scale degrees between two flats

or between two sharps is ordinarily a whole tone.

[Example is on following page]


24

£ £ [4-/9 fyja

A flat, a sharp, or a natural before a note is used for all those

which follow it immediately on the same scale degree.^

ur

rA "TTTTtA ■
r/ 1 V%.
/ 1 ..
■rfW-

7*-
n- ' - W
* ^ Tg-K
i irj
\ntt/urel.
E E Jt ^:<i /. 'A [-,(irc af "- rf
wL /•s la Sl s
nu f « n ^ L
J*~
U t J~ 7<^
coule,'.
U C'.-' < \ s< Lt
Aiw
.ryvfi Z Z -4\
JLC mt >mi ™ r;Rri
4

-*fV- -wf-|r~
Fi - I ■E*E m

U--------- ;---- T---------- -------- * 4 z


1 w St y0i " i- r-jt / il r * La. -TTT^l l
i
^
-rc-mi-■%,/& ----- m* -------------- S°L

^
I
---m
....4,iLt ^
rf /„ ^ " ---l-f— ^ —
*ot i't-fr r 1 re >
i -----------------

10. Monteclair’s general usage of accidentals is explained on p.


251 in the Commentary.
25

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7- - - - - - - - - - « A - | i I) -rj— ttS- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11
■ ) I F A — Jtx set a J a --------

LU
\au rtunu■Un.\

-tit- I myme tvi.]

-------- ssil ------------ * ------ 11


-------
sot hi / ' ? j?.f i—
J L L - :± - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
?— -
' “A ----------- A rrrpr; 1 —
at ' u t “ “ " U t V t
- - - .. . . . . . .

[9] When several flats or sharps are found immediately after a

clef, the notes are not named according to the order of that clef, but

according to the order of another clef which is supposed^ as being without


12
flats or sharps; this transposition of the names of the notes is made in

the following manner.

Table for Teaching Transposition by Flats

Clefs Which
Must Be
Supposed

When there is only one flat


after the clef, this first f
is found on the scale degree - S f M 4rfr (I" -- •--------------------
and changes the name si to
that of fa

The second flat is found on MI n -------- !— 1


— - ; t r—
------------------ 9 4 ----
and changes mi to fa without a - S ------------------- A
any regard for the first flat

The third flat is placed


on the scale degree of LA 1---------- , a ' , — -— m/ " ? ------
- fa M - -< ?
and changes la to fa y - s e i la.

11. The changes in meaning of the word supposition are discussed


on p. 295 in the Glossary.

12. Transposition was one of several ways of determining the


solmization syllables to be used. (See pp. 256-259 in the Commentary.)
26

»?' <
The fourth flat is placed on RE J rr i if Ll /fi .... j ...
a *** ; 3
and changes re to fa , I i
1 .... 1 3____

The fifth flat is placed on SOL i">.«


and changes sol to fa, without m t-r r -Ht-
regard for the first four flats

Table for Teaching Transposition by Sharps

Clefs of
Supposition

When there is only one sharp


after the clef, this first »r
is found on the scale degree of FA fir
and changes the name of fa to W=-
n
that of si

i.r
The second sharp is placed on UT
and changes ut to si -ttt-
i 3C
J ; 5. 1— . i i w -

The third sharp is placed on SOL


and changes sol to si (Vgoi-A '1 +
------ Vr ’b .r -----------------

The fourth sharp is placed on RE «r V.


[i ■ H
and changes re to si i.X g.Sl ^ - • — -- -------- 0. ...
n H i’ 4*

The fifth sharp is put on LA


and changes JLa to si W Jl f,
27

One always says fa for the last flat, and si, for the last sharp,

without any regard for the preceding flats or sharps.

Recapitulation

— TT — r r 4 • — r r - j • J:
B -m o U ju t Si M i La. R E S O L Dicx-tj.rur F a .. U t Sol R E L A

FA SI

The last \? might, after a fashion, be considered as a clef for fa.

and the last # as a clef for si.

[10] Two flats or two sharps an octave apart are only counted as

one.

*/ st
m

Experienced teachers never put more than five flats or five sharps
13
after the clefs.

Exercises on Transpositions by Flats and by Sharps


_____________ '
_________________ CteSupojn

fa-*"" "■ ^r!i > " u '..


"Qd - .L
w AruthnUf
Cb I I n
Sup orit .
TT-.- S ' --71 —k— — --rrt
-r- |’'L— yu-i - t L ---L j -4— h A
--- V --It ri ----1-4-3---f T -
1. f.r-
x" * 1
, 1’I-ift-rrrr----■/
f* -- ------ / m j /.f la- ■ i.i. . { “ - t e y - T . : — ti-
__—------- - 11LLJ—--- ■ j.. -fl
h- y
«.’■i*

13. See also p. 41 below.


28

j. t< ifr St
|| TTf o'-~Tr
^ SltiT y-----
-ttf-- rtut . . '' J4t . 1 t =

if
t-r-.----- t~7r-----
W ' t^ pr" - - - - e ^ r - r : 1 . tut"

------ s , y *■ -------------------- pi-------------

-T V t^

Those who have learned only superficially the effects of flats and

sharps consider them of little use or execute them only with uncertainty;

but those who have first practiced them with attention consider them, on

the contrary, as natural signs which make singing easier. In fact it often

happens that an interval would be false and difficult to sing without their

help. For example:

Si Si vSi P
/ k la
hi
j .5 -S -
<3 A > Sot

\ W-
t; Fa Fa

14
Tritone or augmented fourth Perfect fourth ["quarte juste"]:
cMquarte superflue"]: an easy interval to sing,
a difficult interval to sing with the aid of the flat

14. Sebastien de Brossard uses the same terms for the perfect and
augmented fourth, and notes that the latter is not a "major fourth"
c"quarte majeure"], as some might think, because the fourth is a perfect
interval and takes neither majority nor minority. (Dictionaire de musique
[facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1703 edition; Amsterdam, Antiqua, 1964],
"Quarta" and "Tritono."
29

Sol Sol

Tritone: a difficult A good fourth: an easy


interval to sing interval to sing, with
the aid of the sharp

■A*7nr' vnr Fw/ . kW


to

Tritone: a difficult interval Perfect fourth: an easy interval,


with the aid of the second flat

rf™y£nyT^\ /£ n V T \lp .t.i


----
------ TTf~ ~rs

Augmented fourth: a difficult A good fourth: easy to sing


interval to sing with the aid of a second sharp

[11] In order to understand clearly the reasons which necessitate

the placing of flats and sharps immediately after the clefs and the suppo­

sition of a diatonic clef, one must he acquainted with the modes. This is

illustrated below.

There are two kinds of thirds, major and minor.


30

The major third contains two whole tones.

mi la. Si *ta re
sol la mi at
— — — — —

U T FA SOL R E SI

third contains only a tone and a

fa. nt Ml mi re
liTi!
mi si la re * ut
.— - «—'

RE L A SOL U T SI

There are two different ways of singing a scale [Hmanieres de


15
conduire le chant**] , which are called modes.

It is ordinarily the final note of a piece which serves as a

fundamental for the two modes.

The type of mode is determined by means of the third.

When the third above the final or fundamental note is found to be

major, then the mode is major.

When the third above the final note is minor, the mode is minor.

The fundamental or final note will be indicated hereafter by this

symbol: or « .

15. Brossard gives the following definition for the word conduite:
"DSDUTTIONE. Means CONDUITE. Prom the Latin word Deductio. It is the
name which Guy Aretin gave to a series of notes when they ascend thus: u t .
re. m i . fa. sol, la....But when they descend thus: _la, sol, fa, mi, re.
ut, it is called a Reduttione or Reduction...." ("DEDUTTIONE. veut dire.
CONDUITE. du mot Latin Deductio. C'est le nom que Guy Aretin donne a la
suite des Nottes quand elles vont en montant, ainsi, ut, re, mi, fa, sol,
la....Mais quand elles vont en descendant, ainsi, la, sol, fa. m l . re. u t .
cela s'apelle Reduttione ou Reduction...." Dictionaire. "Deduttione.") By
extension, conduire may be taken to mean Hto sing a(n ascending) scale".
Manner of Recognizing the Mode

/^WTX
( rruyfuf*
'j‘rt—
$ Vt WUt- .nLi.
m 2-
’nyyjon.s
7~Li

4et znn
i) r. Ji.
I

Major mode on Sol

zmt z m jL
/:l jn/-Sn\ 1 vil h 1

Minor mode on la

Z2X
-tt&-
\ /it Ll|u

Major mode on Fa
Minor mode on Sol

^Z yS-trTnT-T-------------- ^

Major mode on Re

^44— WTf » A m>-----— . Im


n,r-4/a^------ 1--
— ^1 fr nu‘ T/— r* — ---- -— fe }re y
tonAJon,

Minor mode on Ut

Wf-m Mf *J,"wpmllut
I

It is also necessary to know that the different arrangement of the

tones and semitones makes the difference between the two modes.

In the octave of the major mode, the two semitones are between the

third and fourth scale degrees and between the seventh and eighth scale

degrees.

Constitution of the Major Mode

Dcgrcls ^ ______ 2 ' 3 4

= i / i^ - u V
J.,. - g g — =^------------------------------
\^ ti> n y\tcn y 'S?inia>n J!f»ni fcwx~~r
33'

[12] In the three following octaves one will notice the different

places where the tones and semitones must be found, in order to form the

two modes.

The minor mode is solmizated with two different orderings.

The first ordering is solmizated with the octave of re.

The second ordering is solmizated with the octave of la.

The major mode has only one ordering; it is always solmizated with

the octave of ut.

8 ut B re ^ 8 la.
7 si - i)
y so l
G La G si

5 so l 5
7 1) G
la. J S
Jk
mi
i) 4 re
3 mi — jEj —
— 5> A 3 ut
2 re 2 si
2 T
1U T i.RE V i.LA
Mode Mode mineur Made mineur
nuiftur . du p rt 'c u irt . du I'ondrt.

The major and minor modes can be transposed to all scale degrees

by means of flats and sharps, which are put after the clefs in certain

places so that the two semitones will be found in the locations which

conform to the mode being used. For example: In order to transpose the

major mode a scale degree higher than its natural place, that is, to re.

two sharps are needed after the clef, one on fa and the other on ut, so

that these two notes are raised a semitone each, and so that the tones and
semitones are found in the places suiting the constitution of this mode.

The rest are developed in the same way, as can be seen in the following

table.

Table of the Major Mode,


Transposed to All Scale Degrees
by means of Sharps and Flats

Ut Re Mi Fa Sol La Si l»Si VMi


i8
7 ji ♦ ut # re mi $ JOI * Ll la re

G Ll si * ut re mi */% $ jo I jol ut

5 sol Ll si ut re ml #J a ? st
J*
-bt 1
n 1tPH ' ~

sol Ll \>si ut re mi \> mi l> Ll


ml *Jk * JOI Li si *ut * rz re jo I

i
'2 re mi JOI La si * ut ut >
c
s-
-l U T RE M I . F A SOJL . L A SI . LSI k \ U
Nahrrl Tnanjyc'ft Thansf1Tharup* Tranjv\ Ttanspf Transp*. Tmnsv Trttrvrp/
sur nt j u t T« s*r mi rar f*.. zir-fol sur la. sur U. siir G 1

It is necessary to practice singing all the octaves of the

preceding table, taking all the fundamental notes of each column at the

unison, and taking care to sing the sharps and flats very exactly.

The difficulty of singing an uninterrupted sequence of many sharps

and flats will be made apparent by means of this exercise.

In order to avoid this obstacle, the names of the notes are always

transposed by singing the major mode with the natural octave of ut, even

though this mode may be transposed to other scale degrees; and in order to

have these names of notes always present in the mind's eye, a natural clef
is supposed, which assists the memory and whose natural ordering is

followed. For example:

Major mode on its natural scale degree

1 Ul
1 rcr/
11
t+t— ----------------- U t .,

Major mode transposed to the scale degree R e .


a step higher than its natural scale degree

---------— ------- ^
' ’ • • r\ ’
y nil ml /
"K (T =? * ut ut Vt b
r ^ vy n

Major mode transposed to M i .


by means of four sharps after the clef

"

Major mode transposed to fa, by means of a flat

■ f^rV a

JUL -m*- 3
DU ig— v r
$

The rest are formed similarly.


36

[13] The minor mode transposed by means of flats corresponds to

the minor mode of the first order, and is solmizated the same way, with

the natural octave of Re.

Table of the Minor Mode of the First Order,


Transposed by means of F l a t s 16

8 Re Sol Fa

7 ut V mi
i si mi re.

5 la /V ut

4 JOI ut l> A

■ b ja l>ji \> la
a mi la. jo l

i RE SOL FA
M\'Ae m i/isu r premitrcr,irt
Atcils m inttw An McAs niintur An
Ir.vu - p rtm ie r crArr trnnj-
n a h ir tl M l
/tf<W/Y. Pi'Jf\rurf Sol*tMlieu p c s t ju r fa., tiu litu
At SelyWft£nr, R EL. At Cl, U jnut A i r EL.

Minor mode of the first order, in its natural octave

/ tUL/clr „
/' rsfI Ul - r r \ U LLfa.J • •
'./V I Wl
J Re ^ u
h

16. The texts below the columns read (from left to right):
"Natural minor mode of the first order." "Minor mode of the first order
transposed to Sol. Instead of Sol, one must say RE." "Minor mode of the
first order transposed to fa. Instead of fa, one must say RE."
37

Minor mode of the first order, transposed to the scale degree Sol

'O/ee

Minor mode of the first order transposed to Fa

(It juppctt

tnifa TZ. ■mtrz T?

The minor mode transposed by means of sharps corresponds to the

minor mode of the second order, and is solmizated the same way, with the

octave of La.

[Table is on following page3


38

Table of the Minor Mode of the Second Order,


Transposed by means of SharpsIV

SL Mi

la. re

sol ut
nit * > si

re. ml la

re sol
❖ ut * J a

LA SI ML
Mode minfur Mctle pxinrur di i. m iit/u r d n
nnltire/, dn erArt. frivi.yt'zr zfontrc. b .injjvjr
sur bi'jvlfufrtffr rnV'Cmluu At mi
Second enine role nr prononeet^ LA.

Minor mode of the second order, in its natural octave

m r -&J3L
~ut
set Ll L a ,
it
— ^

Minor mode of the second order, transposed to Si

------------------
. X 1 H;—r—UtJ ----f---- 7-----
La.---— tit---- - 4-
*vr---------------- ........... ....... ....................V" 1

17. From left to right, the texts below the columns read:
"Natural minor mode of the second order." "Minor mode of the second order,
transposed to Si. Solmizate this column like the first one." "Minor mode
of the second order, transposed to mi. Instead of mi, say LA."
39

Minor mode of the second order, transposed to Mi

cl,'.
rpejee

a ji ~: fn rrT; a
__
zU zf, .» mi
■ V

Those who play instruments do not transpose the names of the notes

at all; they push their fingers forward for the sharps and pull them back
18
for the flats.

To make the practice of transposing easier, two tables will be

found below, disposed in such a manner that all the different positions of

the three clefs followed by flats and sharps, with the clef which one must

suppose for each transposition, may be seen at a glance.

18. The original text is as follows: "Ceux qui touchent des


instruments, ne transposent point le nom des nottes; ils avancent les
doigts sur les Dieses et les reculent sur les B-mols.H Rather than naming
the mode's two semitones mi-fa and si-ut. the instrumentalist plays the
pitches indicated but solmisates as if no accidentals were used either in
the signature or during the course of the composition. He cannot transpose
as can the vocalist, because (as noted above in fn. 4) he associates
specific pitches with each position of his fingers.
On p. 4 of his Methods facile pour aprendre ji .ioiier du violon.
Monteclair tells the student that "when a flat (l?)occurs with a note, the
finger must be moved back a semitone, and when a sharp ( $ 0 occurs, it
must be moved forward that much." ("Lorsqu'il se rencontre un bemol. I?,
sur une notte il faut reculer le doit d'un demi-ton, et lorsqu'il s'y
rencontre un dieze, il faut 1 ’avancer d'autant.") The similarity in
wording between the instructions from the Methods...du violon and those
from the present treatise seems to indicate that Monteclair may have used
the word instruments to mean stringed instruments.
40

[14] Table of Transpositions by means of Flats,


and of Natural Clefs which must be Supposed for Each Transposition

7^rrnu/rfi -nuf! 2 e. B - n w l 4 C .B -n u l
su r Si.. s u r ML. su r L,a . su r Re . s u r Ut .
Cle f&ut. - Hi ■
niure liiMf - Ji- 3 >v
,, 4-1 =!&.' 1 ?- =1 ^
!-• 1

c it' A'w* —1------ti "kT rS.T" — I--- — H"


s u r lti 2 . --- . i_ . >: - T
Ii/jn e .
I. 4 — * -----

hrr------ TT-----
szirla Y . -* r W4---
r . Ua 1 ' VTdCfrf^'S I/V ... J
b n r- ^. "4 . ^ dC 0 .

C lt «/«t. - i
s tir /•'• 4 •
h V------
f r 1;U At O • 1 pb
'■ ( r •
li'jn t .
— ---- ^ z. 1 '5 . 4 -;- • b•

Cf/A tSoX --- _L------


— hiw— : Hri---- &
su r l:l 2 ■ i4""'Vs
liy n .'. V7 V
'i . ffrr—- ' 1 4 ----- |6: ' ' 1

d t J c Fa 1’ — i't,/■ n • 1’U -.iW 1’U r Vu


su r Li 3*
l in n e .
y ^44^x44)
i . j,. 4 . *. ..^ 67^ ^

C ltJ tY x
su r la 4 *
itJr
'"'Vf -------- . K^. 4-1,^ . -------
linnt ric h i-f4
''dr Sol.■•/< - 4^%-a-
(rs ri-u x C lrs s
^ r?>v 44“ ifTT*--- 1 't'67 ""R
rnportrntfSCw
!r nrm drs w k
_ i

It may be seen, by means of these two tables, that there is no

transposition at all which does not correspond to a natural clef through

supposition.
[15] Table of Transpositions by means of Sharps,
and of the Supposed Natural Clefs

Pmn'urDttle 2'DuXt 3. /|'.Dietf ().Die(£


•stir^x . JtlT'Vt, ^zv^Sol. j’
/xr"Rc . La jur. Mi.
Clf tie ut 3=
jur la v re­ -u±- %
t z±
mitr liqne y d ''* 51la
FF 14- i r -

f&V'ut -HC- ZT
stir la 2 I w- & [v5
a jS Z C 3* A
liqn e. W-
il. 3. M r '37 •6

Tte~
Y#A-
3 .V /(
siir L Y . 3+
lu jn e .3 T7
3iri
5 ■

a<-
ClJ d'w* til
ear la ^ I
5*- r«A- =L" , A
S e e-rr^
9:
b m - i. -
* 2 . 47 77

Cle'Je Sol
ywrA J . VJT #A-
lijtie..
#

Cle Je Fa
JM/’ //I 3^ rrrt^/a
OA
a S2I
^ 7/1 /. 331wA 77

Cle'de Fa
surla 4 • 5 G S
liqne. etele er e zg:
<&,Sol.<w &
In vrtmim-
1
2 . 3. J.

Six flats or six sharps are seldom found after a clef, because

such a large number causes problems of intonation on instruments.


42

[16] Composers of music ordinarily make use of the major mode,

either natural or transposed, to express triumph, gaiety, vivacity, and

even despair. The minor mode, whether natural or transposed, is used to

express sweetness, tranquility, tenderness, and lamentation.

Nevertheless modern composers make use of either mode without

distinction, for all sorts of expressions.

The modes are transposed either higher or lower than their natural

places, in order to give more or less brilliance to the voice and to


19
instruments, as required by the expression. The following tables will

finish giving a perfect knowledge of the transpositions of the modes and

of the names of the notes.

It will be noticed that the major mode, to whatever scale degree

it may be transposed, is always solmizated by means of the natural octave

on ut, because this way of naming the notes always causes the semitones to

be found between mi-fa and between si-ut.

19= In Monteclair's time the most common method of actual trans­


position by instruments was probably that of scordatura tuning, which
became popular in France and Italy early in the 18th century. (Theodore
Russell, “The Violin " S c o r d a t u r a r The Musical Quarterly. 24, No. 1
(1938)3, pp. 88-89. See also David D. Boyden. The History of Violin
Playing from Its Origins to 1761 [London, Oxford University Press, 1965],
pp. 130, 226, and 250.) A tuning which made the main notes of a tonality
playable on open strings would emphasize the principal overtones of those
main notes, thus giving them more sonority. The changes in tension of the
strings would also alter the tone quality— the positions of the nodes of
vibration would change with respect to the normal positions of the fingers,
the bridge, and the bow, thereby suppressing or emphasizing a different
group of partials.
Major Mode Transposed to All Scale Degrees of the Octave

fi ft l i t
Vf, 8 u t i t a 7 si
la 8 ut la 7 si
tscI y si b.'ol 6 la
fol 8 u t sol 6 la
*/& 7 s i i j a 6 la » la 5 sol
fa 8 ut fa < sol
m i 8 ut~ nu 7 SI mi 6 la. mi 6 sol mi 4 fa
*re y si Vmi 4 fa # re 3 nu
re 8 wf re 6 la re 5 sol re. e,J k re 3 ml
ji * u t 6 la, $ut "b nu but 2 re
8 ut ut 5 sol ut 4 Jn u t 2 re
7 ^ Jt" G la, s i 6 sol si 2> mi si 2 re h si­ 1 u t
W t 4 fa I’Si I ut
6 la. la 5 sol Ar 4 jS la 3 mi la 2 re L a i ut
^sol 2> mi
5 fo l sol 4 Ja sol 2 re Sol i ut
Itjh 2> mi \ f a z re
Fa 1 ut
5 nu mi 2 re Mi i u t

2 re Re i or

i Dt
Mode m/utur Mode truyeur Mode m y cur Mode mcycur la .V fi. flti
Modenxajeur. ^ ’Jur tranjpC JC s u r h etasyoje sur sur S o l .
t n jn n . n / n r r •
nalurel. Jvc • ~tte 4 —Vi^------
ut 4 -fiV
* •&
y ., % H+ f, ~ W 4 y # y ., % .
J "/ni y*
3 Jt =lVsi f r R 3Si It
/f* M .4 n 4) H n |LL « s ;
' * "nit r r/ Sol u r
Il(
Vo Cr *
Ut

[17] One knows that a mode is in its natural octave, when there

are no flats or sharps after the clef.

One knows that a mode is transposed higher or lower than its

natural place, when there are sharps or flats after the clef.

There are three octaves in natural form, as follows: that of ut,

for the major mode; that of re and of la for the minor mode.

One never solmizates, whether in the natural form or transposed,

but on one of these three octaves.

The minor mode transposed by means of flats is solmizated on the

octave of Re.
44

The minor mode transposed by means of sharps is solmizated on the

octave of La. This will be seen in the following tables.

Table of the Minor Mode of the First Order,


Transposed by means of Flats20

bd 8 re

\la 7 ut
fol 8 re sol 6 Si

fa 8 re f a 7 ut fa 6 la
- - ml 6 si
7mi 7 ut - — 7mi A sol
re 6 Sl re 6 la
W e 2>
ut 8 re u t 5 la u t 4 sol ut 2 mi

\>si 7 u t \>si a sol \>si 3 J a Vsi 1 re


La, 6 si la 2 ml
- -

— V/a 5 fn -
- —

sol S la sol 1 mi Sol i re

Jo. 4 sol Fa i re
2 mi
[>nu 3 ,/a
re 2 mi

Ut l re
M ode nunsur
p'crijm transpose jur su r V Si.
jondyre \qu4 jondyn J ^ Jon - • lanotts.Sol.
nature-L. ; ruiturd. \jre naturcl • -H-
: : . In
re H a.
— ut ■m*-
jt
-hr; £ 2 V
La nj
i-yt
Ut re

20. From left to right, the texts in the columns read: "Minor
mode, first order, on its natural scale degree." "Minor mode transposed a
tone lower than its natural scale degree.” "Minor mode a third higher than
its natural scale degree." "Minor mode transposed to the note Sol."
"Minor mode on Si^."
45
Table of the Minor Mode of the Second Order,
Transposed by means of Sharps21

~(± -8- -V»-

/<7 / jo I

sol 6 J a
b ja $ ml 8 la
mi 4 rz- mi 8 la W£ 7 sol
re 2> re 7 so l r/ 6" Fa
— — / mi
at 6 > - -

Si i Za SL S si 4

Lx 4 rzf la 3 lit
— $sol 2 si
so l > — _
\fil 2 Jt 1 la
Mi 1 la

MeJ/mi. Me (ft ntirwur MeJenutuur Mod' nuw itr


2 1crjre trcmsresf stu' b'ansvjse'jw transpose sur
ensonluu leJA x. ' U Fa D i/^ i -
natural.
la s i/
n v > ‘/ r ) ’i t I*
J m l J* rc J - * la -*
ut jh . * mt
sf I
& re ut
■Hi/A1
— Fa ?«i

21. The texts in the columns read (from left to right): "Minor
mode, second order, in its natural place." "Minor mode transposed to
Si#." "Minor mode transposed to Mi." "Minor mode transposed to Fa^."
It will be sufficient from now on to name the last flat fa, and to

name the last sharp Si; this manner of solmizating in the transpositions

seems the simplest to me. See the page below.

[18] It is time at present to practice naming the notes, without

their names being written above the scale degrees.

The notes will be designated by O s ; each O will take the name of

the scale degree where it is placed. For example:

— “t -
,*./ la C°
% ry
n

Natural major mode

JL ~n73F
77 SL
JL-9- JL
ut

Natural minor mode, of the first order

nY^-n
22
o z & JL n
H
yzt w

Natural minor mode, of the second order


47

Major mode transposed to Re


Re is changed to ut

j ....................
=3 / Q
r * r u ^ t x
— o . -------- e — 1- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - " “ * < ) • 11 0 . 0 . ^ -----------

Minor mode of the first order transposed to Sol


Sol is changed to re

1 / (] lyf ----- ------ ------


ir-k--- TT* 11-- 11* i v o t o .' ---- ,----- —
4 9-----
vai - .. # 0 0^
re

Minor mode of the second order, transposed to mi


Mi is changed to la

At f} U f U ^ si f M
i? i
i a * ^ v # + o y - * 3
mi— -y K o * ° + r n
------ 6 ^ -M —

Major mode transposed to fa


Fa is changed to ut

V ^ ^ # ■ ^ ■ 0
■fi )' rf F V Q Za> d
r, # /
^r # L -
1 -V • ^ i
//
utr

Minor mode of the first order, transposed to ut


Ut is changed to re

0 - 1 ■ # ^ 0 ---------- ’ n----------— -
- ' ) *1
— . wf • . 1 ii
Vlt - O' f-y - -
/ " t/ i ^ ™ " nr w _
tP 0 * 0 0 L ft-----
48

Minor mode of the second order, transposed to si.


Si is changed to la

r*- /"» u i
3
f L M M /
C i [ ^>X ^ ^ ^ ^ If .. U r U M tZ1 A

I . V T —

End of the First Part


49

SECOND PART: ON THE DIFFERENT


NOTE VALUES. ON METERS. AND ON TEMPOS

[19] There are five symbols for the duration of sounds,

as follows:

uarter note,

the eighth note note,

The whole note has the greatest value.

The half note is equal to half of the whole note.

The quarter note equals half of the whole note.

The eighth note is equal to half of the quarter note.

The sixteenth note equals half of the eighth note.


Table of Note Values, Compared to Each Other^

Rontle

The exact duration of the sounds or notes is regulated by means

several beats or equal motions made with the hand; this is called

conducting the meter.

[20] The meter can be conducted with two, three, and four beats.

Duple meter is indicated by a 2 after the clef, triple meter by

3, and quadruple meter by a C.

1. The text in this table reads: "The whole note is unique in


its value; it equals two half notes, four quarter notes, eight eighth
notes, and sixteen sixteenth notes, with the result that it contains all
the other values."
51

Duple meter is conducted by lowering the hand; this first beat is

called the downbeat> Then the hand is raised to the height of the chin;

this second beat is called the upbeat.

One must not remain longer on one beat than on the other.

Two half notes are necessary in order to fill out a measure in

duple time; one half note is used for the downbeat, and one for the upbeat.

The whole note, which equals two half notes, will thus fill out the entire

measure.
A
The small perpendicular barlines (J) serve to separate the

measures.

Blanches , Temps Temps.

Two quarter notes are needed to equal a half note; this is why two

quarter notes are needed for each beat, and four quarter notes for the

entire measure.

The half notes move more quickly than the whole notes, and the

quarter notes move twice as fast as the half notes. One must not stay on

one quarter note longer than on another, because the correctness of the

execution depends on this equality. For this effect, one must in one's

imagination divide each beat carefully into two exactly equal parts.

[Example is on following page]


Two quarter notes equal four eighth notes; this is why four eighth

notes are needed for a beat, and eight eighth notes for the whole measure;

consequently the eighth notes move twice as fast as the quarter notes.

Frappant Levant. F r Umpj : 2 1b m p J Frapt Zr/ P. iw\ps:2*. iznips 6. :2. hmpj P. t 2.1

-iUML -ff-
H— 5 --- r - H r t - - f T r h = F : — <4-•fj E E h b 5 S t r r
J V /v - #--- - ------— -- t i
. . .. 1 /-L w

Sixteenth notes are rarely used in duple meter. Eight are needed

for each beat and sixteen for the measure. They move once again as fast

as the eighth notes, as can be seen elsewhere.

[21] Carillon .4an v .


iftC pCt. j.t. p't- j'.t. p:t. sit
~^-P~ - 9-■
'! r|~

s a g %z
O-U -

TT- zn
e-
#
53

Meter must not be confused with tempo, because these are two

different things, since the same meter signature is sometimes conducted

slowly and sometimes quickly. For example:

-P s r lJ s , ,
L r n t . c ttr n d r e . m ils • I'otx. •r# » coule
TX f— ir
XT zz zz
1 J— L
a
Lrgerenunl-.
x m
ZZ

When one quarter note and then two eighth notes are found on one

beat of the measure, one must remain on the quarter note for half of the

beat, and then pass through the two eighth notes on the other half of the

beat, while sustaining the voice a little longer on the first eighth note

than on the second; this second eighth note has to move a little more

quickly than the first.

P T hmpj . 2 fUmi's

£n e = B
P-

Premurc mciHt ’I
sippu j&POJSl t p r.lnu>itu Appuydpxs-
dupr.timps. I ft*- d u i f b p j . Ji<.vtiti. afp- apj?. av. of’.
\2t
.modj/Jup^t I'nuiih/dul'.t.

When two eighth notes and then a quarter note occur on one beat,

one must sing the two eighth notes on the first half of the beat and

remain on the quarter note during the other half of the beat, because the

quarter note is worth as much as the two eighth notes.


The example above and the one below will demonstrate the necessity

of sensing the two parts or halves of each beat clearly.

duit? lb
Tr Ttn7pj^\
7T ~o~

}y.rmo tiu'.

[22] The tie, " v or , , links together several notes on the

same pitch. It increases the duration of the sound according to the value

and the number of the notes embraced by it.

T/rmf i'll Tfililf f O H Jiiit.roIt.


lljjXSi^l.r
zrr O-
27 ; QZCL -JJ1
3 /// o l ^ /a m i s c I, uh so -— / fa — 'ii si ut fa so Ut

The Correct Manner


of Conceiving and of Studying the Tie
55

The syncopation is a note which begins on the last half of a beat,

and continues on the first half of the following beat. For example:

/>.rr n io ifit J 2 frn d itif


ilu f'T trtn j’jy d u fK b m p s d it 2 * t . l i l u S ' . l .

t ■
Jj-J J
- - - f d zr
Sumcp*e . Sinto,7e Sine . Suit . Sins. Sim .Sum . -O-

Manner of Studying and of Conceiving


the Tie and the Syncopation

nctic
/ ’T IrnfS 2 ft l i t 2f t .
li 2‘ li li 2* if 2 e. if 2f. J in n b
sC______A .— -------- — ajLjt m z :

l i e fa
1
/si
jo IJn JaJa nu re si j i la jo so jo cl
lL SI I^/| mila-la
' : 'sojjn
L : lsclsoLmlJfiniijiire
I i f I; ''Li UiJ -€h
Rc
Trniie . ten He . fenHe. tznue .
p f t ,— t . vflr. 2e. t . l f \ i f 2 e. i t <~^2e. if af if 2 f.
---#— a— —J-—
1
r !i c la — j o l ji i j h - - t rH
-- — i/r r a—.
—1EZ2ZZ
-—
i
--- --- a— a— -----
f y *■ ~P 1f -f
ft -e-
\ i 'X j l - —. Isi so l sol'- j k rni f H i: eofki s o ls o l^ /tf iijn re Li la R
y f t 2 f t. i f t . 2'. t . i f t . ^ i f t . i f h 2ftr. i f t . 2f t . i f t . 2 ft. ift. 2ft.
---- Q ---------- ltC2--A----- ------ A -- ------ ------ ------
-

-
t e r , 1 r. 1
V 6 inecpee.
I omecpee. Sineo • . ■ oSme
Oineo. m c .• . oSine
tn c . ,. , \ . 1. /-7*'’ .• r_ ' 1 1 - o '
Re la so l J a j a mt re f s i la so l s o i j n mt ui solfn so l s o l f a tm y n re I si la Re-

The dot (•) augments the note preceding it by one half of its

ordinary value. The half note, for example, is equal to one beat; it will

be equal to a beat and a half if followed by a dot. The quarter note is

equal to half a beat; if it is followed by a dot, it will equal, or will

last, three fourths of a beat. The others are treated similarly.

Untie
pftem ps . 2 ftemps, i f temps 2 e.t . p f t . 2ft- ift. 2ft.
—PpO------ 1 ~0 f - f A
1 I I
|) pouit ilun p o in t Aim 1point Ann p o in t ^
Aemi temps . Aenu letups. ijiuirtAe Aun
temps. /juiirtAe t.
56

[23] The dotted whole note O

equals three half notes.


m
The dotted half note

equals three quarter notes. rrr


The dotted quarter note

equals three eighth notes.

The dotted eighth note


2
equals three sixteenth notes.

Manner of Conceiving and of Studying


the Tie N‘) and the Dot (•)

:cr zr a
U t u t rr
xr
mi mi Ja so l s o l re re m i/ll J ei s o l la s o l f a m i re s o l Ut

XL -CT
— c»-
S3 re nu ^Jn s o t ..... r c ... nii ^ fn s o t t i s o t fa nu re s o t Ut

%
~*=+ CL
ut re nu sal sot....re mi j t l soL L a.

There are five different symbols for rests:

(l) The whole rest, ; (2) the half rest, ; (3 ) the quarter

rest, ; (4 ) the eighth rest, -5- ; (5) the sixteenth rest, .

2. The dots for the half note and eighth note are missing in the
original.
57

In whatever meter is
being used, the whole ~T~

rest is equal to the


entire measure^

The half rest is always


equal to a half note

The quarter rest is always


equal to a quarter note

The eighth rest always --------------------------------


I\ -------------------------------
J---------------- ---------------
equals an eighth note -------------------------------- 4

The sixteenth rest always


equals a sixteenth note

The use of a meter causes sounds and silences to last for longer

or shorter times, according to whether the symbols indicating their extent


4
or their number have greater or lesser value.

3. The whole note and the signfor the whole rest are missing
from the original example.

4. The original of this sentence reads:MLa Mesure faitdurer


les sons et les Silences plus ou moins,selon que les Signes, quien
marquent 1'etendue, ou la quantite, ont plus ou moins de valeur.M The
same sentence appears on p. 10 of Monteclair's Nouvelle methode pour
aorendre la musique (Paris, 1709), but is continued there as follows:
"...et c ’est principalemet en cela que la Musique differe du Plainchat."
In this context in both treatises, the word mesure means the general use
of measurable values for notes and rests, rather than referring more
specifically to the means of indicating the frequency with which stressed
notes recur. Apparently MontSclair no longer considered it necessary in
1736 to point out the main difference between music with definite note
values ("la Musique") and chant. (Further remarks concerning the use of
the term musique may be found on p. 292 in the Glossary.)
58

Demit J)cmu
P ause,.
r^p.
Em G
e -e-

S ourir-. Demi QuortiU


jsttrir'. seiip 'ir ,
k-*-
i S U=±.
-o

[24] Triple meter has two downbeats and one upbeat.

The first beat is made by lowering the hand; the second beat is

made by returning the hand and carrying it to the right; the third beat is

made by raising the hand again, to the height of the chin.

Triple meter is designated by a 3, or by \ % Each beat has the

value of a quarter note.

3 *.temps en
levant.

t X
/
..... #

X v— *
2. tem ps . r TP \yi \pr y.z,
b. t. . t. tf
2 -frof f C-

^yrel 2?
T •f
] 3't . 1 I
>6>-
r rPeb$:
S
"3T
In n s. fe r n s . t- Fb. t . tr.
Pause. Si'itpir . D e n u scttflr
XL
m r-=£m

p.2.ct2>. »: \2.ct$. r 2 '. X F : \ z ‘t. £ b . p i Z '.X


U rns. itm s \fim s . trms. I . t . t. ' • r

The quadruple meter with slow and equal beats is indicated by C,

and is conducted in the pattern of a cross. The first beat is made by

lowering the hand, as in the preceding meters.


The hand is closed a little to the inside and carried to the left

for the second beat. The hand is opened, and carried in a straight line

to the right, to make the third beat. The hand is raised to the height of

the chin or higher (it makes no difference), in order to make the fourth

beat, as may be seen off to the side.

4 fh tn p s
c'/t IcranI.
a y trnts. P iiiis t .

2 f bnws 'ts/nps
\ C\
JrcilU . tr m j. ; tn n s . D tn x i Quart-
I)fruit Scuyjr . .vnpr

prtnutr
temps tn
^Jrappnnt .

[25] When the C is barred, the meter is conducted with four

quick beats.

The ^ is sometimes conducted with two beats; in that case, half of

the notes in the measure are put in the downbeat and the other half in the

upbeat.
There are several kinds of meters which are designated by two

numbers placed one above the other. The number above is the numerator,

and the number below is the denominator. For example:

2 two
of the whole note, which are two quarter notes, or the
4 fourths equivalent, for each measure

3 three 6 six )
4 fourths of the whole note 4 fourths i of the whole note

6 six
of the whole note, which are six eighth notes, or the
8 eighths equivalent, for each measure

Table of Meters in which the Number of Beats is Even

The meter indicated simply by a 2 is conducted in two equal beats. Each


beat has the value of a half note

titfoiur trnu
modrrfs. .

2
The meter indicated by 4 is conducted in two equal beats. Each beat has
the value of a quarter note. As quarter notes move more quickly than half
notes, this meter is conducted twice as fast as the preceding meter
61

When the $ is conducted in two beats, each beat has the value of a half
note

it 2 tents lents .

-o- I
1 .2 . i w

When the is conducted in four quick beats, each beat has the value of a
quarter note

114.tetris
lexers .

ig -6-^0
Wet
1.2. 3.4 . I.2.3.4
1.2 .^.4. 1.2

The simple C is conducted in four slow beats. Each beat has the value of
a quarter note

[26] Table of Meters in which the Number of Beats is Odd

The meter designated by I


contains three halves of the whole note, which
are three half notes or their equivalent. It is conducted in three slow
beats

A h o is tettur
<jreives.

1•
-O-
2. 3 . 1 .« 2 .*/. i i .«
i
>2,, 3 1.. 2.2> ..
62

The meter indicated by 4 contains three fourths of the whole note, which
are three quarter notes or the equivalent. It is conducted in three
fairly quick ["gay"] beats; each beat has the value of a quarter note

A tro is htrw
q a y*r .

The meter with the figure 8 includes three eighths of the whole note,
which are three eighth notes or the equivalent. It is conducted with
three beats; but as eighth notes have half the value of quarter notes,
this meter is conducted twice as fast as the preceding meter

A Ircu Inns
vtJis
r n 1
V-V-V -l+l v-v-
-= * 1 - t j •-— . H nrf-* »-1—m_ -V r-
\ —t
Q-d i —L 4 - * -- jjj
I
eT -

There are meters which are called simple, and other meters which

are called compound.

Simple meters are those which can have two notes of the same type

in each beat, such as two quarter notes or two eighth notes.

Compound meters are those which can have three notes of the same

type or value in each beat, such as three quarter notes or three eighth

notes.

The compound meters take their origin from the two meters in

triple time, \ and 1.

The compound meters were invented only to aid the arm of the con­

ductor, and to avoid an excess number of the barlines which separate the

measures. This may be observed hereafter.


63

Conduct the following exercise with three slow, distinct beats.

-tr-f V rv -TT-P-f i f___


f-
0 * -1. J J — __f ..
- 4 - - r ' 1 -^t
- w 1 J.3. 1.2.7 - n - 4-

Repeat the preceding exercise several times without stopping,

increasing the tempo more and more each time, until you feel that your

arm, because of its size and its weight, can no longer make the three

beats distinct. This exercise will make you feel the necessity of con­

ducting with only two beats instead of three, when the expression requires

that the meter be conducted in a quick tempo.

[27] In the meter with two unequal beats instead of three equal

beats, one remains twice as long on the downbeat as on the upbeat, and

consequently two thirds of the measure is employed for the downbeat and

the other third for the upbeat.

CL i

As it is tiring and even disagreeable to lower and raise the arm

so quickly and so often, this inconvenience has been remedied by the intro­

duction of a compound meter with two measures in triple time (^), of which

one is executed on the downbeat and the other on the upbeat, with the

result that instead of two simple measures, only one is used, and instead

of six motions or beats of the hand, only two are made. This compound

meter is indicated by which consists of six quarter notes or the


64

equivalent for the whole measure. It is conducted in two equal beats;

each beat has the value of three quarter notes.

±± m
nnizr
prsmltr'&sns. '
■2*. tens. f\t. \2*. tr. p*!t. '2^t. l.'.t

When the tempo requires still more speed, conposers make use of

the meter designated by §, which consists of six eighth notes or the

equivalent, because eighth notes move more quickly than quarter notes.

I
Jff.: '-2... V. :•ifTT. 1.. . \2. i. ...2.. . I...

Tables on the Difference


between Simple Meters and Compound Meters

First Table

Simple meter. Two quarter notes per beat. Divide each beat into two
exactly equal parts

a 2 trttuj., 2. i . 2. /. 2 i . J j . 2 . J . 1. 2 . i . 2. 1, 2 . j.Z j-2 .

P i j

pr
. lrnht.\2. hms. 'p. t.:2. t. pX2*t.p7t I't. ^TT')-. 'p^t. 2 * t
65

Compound meter. Three quarter notes per beat. Divide each beat into three
exactly equal parts

a (L u.r frnis.
1.2.3. -I- - ? . 3 . 2’ r. i. I . 3 .
zz
Z > o 1-
-v-Z Jt-JL
p ' . U m s . 2 . bnis.2 f t. j/.t. p r. J %
> i\t. 2 .t~ . p . tr. 2*.
t• / •

[28] Second Table

Simple meter. In duple time. Divide each beat into two exactly equal
parts

Scuptr. I. 2. I. 2. 1 . 2 ,
i
*
a
rr
Z — f
s
Compound meter. In duple time. Divide each beat into three exactly equal
parts

*6—
a t- t - 3EZZCZ
i V
1.2. 2>. \ 1.2.2). 'j. J

Tables of Correspondences between the Compound Meters

Duple meter. Three quarter notes per beat

p1.htns.2.,t.
p'bms.2e t. fkt.
vK tr. 2
2*t v\t. 2/t. '
.t. V.t.
e *pp!
\ C tr^4
. 2*. t.
Duple meter. Three eighth notes per beat

Z'/Zfr .

f>\t. 2 f t . pYt. 2 : t. [>:t. 2

Triple meter. Three quarter notes per beat

=SR===F k v ,- '-! O TTT^


j O ' g ^t
f/-. T

Triple meter. Three eighth notes per beat

§ p rt2?t.2>r
. t p rt. 2Vt$. p-t. iTt's't.
d L

Quadruple meter. Three quarter notes per beat

^L?" *r *r~.~i ■o’f r ^ f T p p y . , y i S


M 5 E %
a>7-<7.

Quadruple meter. Three eighth notes per beat


67

[29] The compound meters 4, 4, and ^ take their origin from the

simple meter

Simple triple meter

g
O-r i XT:

NJ
i---T
ir S

I ' r /'rti/'/ Z ,\ • />•,;. Z /7


—— — _*— —
&
IT ^ i f e f e c x

m m s P w n

The 4 is conducted with two beats. Each beat must have the value of three
quarter notes

The 4 is conducted with three beats. Each beat must have the value of
three quarter notes

r. />/' i f

The meter is conducted with four beats. Each beat includes the value
of three quarter notes

P ' hms>2*

6 9 12
The compound meters 8, 8, and B" come from the simple meter

designated by and are conducted more quickly than the preceding meters.
68

Simple triple meter

i-±f

iji

The Q is conducted in two beats. Each beat must have the value of three
eighth notes

The 8 is conducted with three beats. Each beat must be filled out by the
value of three eighth notes

UJjt

The if is conducted in four beats. Each beat must have the value of three
eighth notes

Among the simple meters, there are some which are designated by

twonumbers placed one above the other, as in the compound meters.

One knows when the meter is simple, because the top figuredoes

not exceed the number 4. Simple meters: I, A,

One knows when the meter is compound because the top figure reaches

6, 9,or 12. Compound meters: 5$, 3, if, §, if.


[30] To determine the number of beats which must be conducted in

compound meters, one must take a third of the top figure. For example:

^ is a compound meter, because the top figure exceeds the number 4.

The third of 6 is 2. One must conduct in two beats.

^ is a compound meter. The third of 9 is 3. One must conduct in

three beats.

if is a compound meter, because the top number exceeds the number

4. The third of 12 is 4. One must conduct the meter in four beats.

The lower figure indicates what fractions of the whole note are

used in the meter, that is, if they are quarter notes or eighth notes, and

the top figure indicates the number of them.

These are the symbols and figures used to indicate the different

meters and the different tempos, of which too large a quantity serve only

to make music difficult and forbidding, as will be seen in the fourth part

of this book.

Eighth notes are sometimes sung equally and sometimes unequally.

When they are performed as equal, the second is as long as the first. When

they are performed as unequal, the first is a little longer than the

second. For example:

(>« v/t/vfuuntrrs.
Frr H P L 9r n d.
4 ^
4—

Sing what follows, as though it were notated in the preceding manner


70

The eighth notes are equal in the following meters.

fo n ts .

j?— —
k = = t / - ‘.r tf t ±
K r i| pIl L l J ' W _ J

The eighth notes are unequal, in the exercises which follow,

7^,j„-rrri "Tj"] j-f — t i ffl


-=t

When the composer wants the eighth notes to be equal in the triple

meter indicated by 3 or he writes above: Croches Egalles.^

The eighth notes are equal in the compound meters indicated by


§ 12 3
, and o , because they are derived from the simple meter 8, where the

eighth notes are equal.

•5. On p. 15 of the Nouvelle m&thode, Monteclair says: "In


ordinary triple meter, 3 [or they are often unequal, especially in
dance airs, where the first [of the pair] must be almost as long as if it
were dotted." ("Dans le Triple ordinaire 3 elles sont souvent inSgalles
sur tout dans les airs de violons ou la premiere doit etre presqu'aussy
longue que si elle etoit pointee.") Later on the same page he observes:
"It is very difficult to give general principles concerning the equality
or inequality of the notes, because they are determined by the character
of the pieces being performed." ("II est tres difficile de donner des
principes generaux sur I ’egalite ou sur I'inegalite des nottes, car c'est
le gout des Pieces que I 1on chante qui en decide....")
71

The eighth notes are unequal in the compound meters and 42,^

because they are derived from the simple meter designated by 3 or where

the eighth notes are unequal.

In the meters in which this can occur, the notes of which four are

needed to fill out a beat are always unequal.

[31] Exercises on All the Principles


which have been Discussed before This

Major mode on its natural scale degree

J th tu Isms t-.urs
/\ iios h s / m ['.mss .
7-Up'
R/Uu.
i —
mtf nu.mrr mi Irtus .
iif J Inns.

Fm.Jt.

«=j pK.ir/,/////»/-<•.

Sing the following re at the same pitch as the preceding u t .

Minor mode transposed to ut

•I ttfn.r hrms t/r.jiu’S . ( tw h s s s.m lrs. P.uus Dfnur.uisf. Srii/ir, Urtri


---- «--- rf-------- :---- l-n ---- ----a— (— — l-l I I. L

-H4-
-<//mz Dwufrms.

6. "o is given in the original.


72

Minor mode of the first order, on its natural scale degree

,» Jtti.rK-nts I'itlrs
— ^ Yrggzz

uh Inns J. f/ms.

TT

Sing the ut which begins the following exercise, at the same pitch

as the last re of the preceding exercise.

Major mode transposed to re

1 h'\'tsl/itis ijriti'ts,_ j. 1 nt'tresvif,)i\lts.

<h -JJ-
u .l I j . y i z . y i. 2. /.U’j J. J. V. 1 **
/Iwizz />zf/.i.Zr/n( +.
T ----

/r.'trf/iits. r t/ms •
I. 2.

The half rest is always equal to a half note; this is why it equals

only one beat in the preceding ^ meter.

£32] Minor mode transposed to mi

. v/ //•«
Av/Z z/f/.r ,;,J V
»/.<■ZZz/i/.r
• I ' l l
v.«*.

Jtt/.J.lHfS..
.r. f( /rt'r/is.r jii/.j.illts
^ r'l
/,. '
r /'•'<-r7Z//lZ.
Scttf'tr
u n t/n u '

rr

n-r— zf
— a
n f! /. i ;s: /. ivT
73

Take the ut which follows at the unison of the preceding la.

Major mode transposed to mi

. ‘1 bins vtfifs. ( rrrh/s ro n lles. froisl/nis.


:zr>

Drmi scupir,
tin f/mz.

FRF 7.2.3. 7 r
j 3. ;v 7 7 T T + ^

Major mode transposed to fa

d qnntre Sru/nr . Ufmi -


I tiravts |nn ftm s . -j'lUise Ptuist.Sr u f ’tr.

-9— JEr-— 1 .» I
E nm=^:
j i. 2. 3 - -/• c.2. 3
• f.. Qti/irtde scupu-

s
Dimi Si'ty'ti'. ^otnhy'ts. <jiiAirtd/bms.

V i- - n *
ImKt ■
----*
Jsniti

This ut and the following re are at the same pitch.

Minor mode transposed to the scale degree of fa

- f «/u<i/r/ It.jrrs Z>«v /z z z, /, //•.<•.

. 2. 3. ^ .
<>—
rf-E .- rr-
ff'Er.Efc;- r;
~=Eod.- p / ' - J - E
w
74

[33] Major mode transposed to the scale degree of sol

The third of 6 is 2. Conduct the meter with two beats, and use

the value of three quarter notes for each beat. Unequal eighth notes.

/ ,i 1 / . / x . '///' //• _
L .'.h 'r . (/ <■. / / / • mf.r.i/ v . )nt2ti,'ir,"S' | r . w t uh/ nrnr
, J ! ,*_!
<5" J " J " - F .. /
1 r
k 4 :''.
j ............. /. J .

+
j - H f , p : + J
W 4
1

Sing the re which follows at the same pitch, that is, at the

unison, of the preceding ut.

Minor mode transposed to sol

Lr 'ttpir Lr .i/misrufir
/ ’, ; / / / t w h s s .I vattturutrciht

[Exercises continue on following page]


Minor mode of the second order, on its natural scale degree

The third of 9 is 3. Conduct this meter in 3; each beat has the

value of three quarter notes. The eighth notes here are unequal.

— ------ — i-±— I y fo - : r •
=
(m
3=
i m e I f
>{tiLi umr irms.
^

i ~o • rr

Sing the following ut at the unison of the preceding la.

Major mode, transposed to la

A bvisImis rtltrs.L,x \whur (fr hvis i 'lochrspour clui(


juf fcms .
( h'c/tts njalL’s .
■ ai~n!~-?if'rL,~fr"'^r.r^TF"frrrf-f T •r— +— f r-T-

1 '2h'ms . 1.2. .).


n*u#n/<y/C-Utiift
— J-H V
J J L - _ _ ----------

Turn the page with the left hand, in order to leave the right hand

free for conducting the meter.


76

Minor mode transposed to si

The third of 12 is 4. Conduct the meter with four quick ["legers"]

beats and use the value of three quarter notes for each beat.

Crorfu’s ituytj/L'j

IP la I'l r ,^ ; -v
r. 4 .

The ut which follows is at the same pitch as the preceding la.

Major mode transposed to the scale degree si.

v / tjtitilrc trnu vi/its . v n fsu r «/,- h r is Crrches j u'ttf eluiyta hrm s


Croi/u-s e r r llr s .

[Exercises continue on following page]


77

Minor mode transposed to m i\ that is, a semitone higher than its natural
scale degree7

( n t / n u n t . P e r l,

C adftu t senlmiU
<rK— Jratliie.

Minor mode transposed to si_

Lent re nie,
'to ~o— L
-- -e -e- ISjpBZ _ a -O-T
5 I I
n
n

TTZ

7. The port de voix and coule. used in the first stave of this
exercise, are explained below on pp. 133 and 132 respectively. The cadence
soutenue et battue in the next stave is a tremblement. or trill (explained
on p. 136 below); the solmization syllables show that the on the third
beat is the sustained ("soutenue") upper note of the trill. The word
battue was often used with the term cadence, to show that cadence meant
"trill" rather than "cadence". (Putnam Aldrich, "The Principal AgrSments
of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" [unpublished Ph.D. disser­
tation, Harvard University, 1942], p. 217, fn. 1.)
78

[35j Exercise on All the Kinds of Meters

n ^ ilU tXhy {,’nt.f o r . n ' f s . ,4 .jti.ifiY Im i s I/jsrs


-•'-- ---- m— 4- —
r— i-<
4M4
Y ilfiix Urns Isjtrs
M

7.•///./• //. f \ . fZ/i’f.fi'z/u*'araves

/ h a is fetus

' Mrsm's Jaul'T?


ft #
, ,/,i^/#«vyliiS /«•'If*
tine/ais/'/as . </<fV • i 1Avur frzzt' vi ties.
* t >
fiH u h f f I j— i - < -4-
(me/ais ntai/is vtfir . vtffe . (jay n | A J /iu r letns leaers
xz
HZ
m ce+uf'su
/W’trfrmxletters.

Ip " ,
o — f-
rfir i V
>Y qua
.
he
f
ferns letters, i
. Y .
j »
ha is bms vtHrs.
J ft- ■%& + rrftte*

tet
m
v/y (a n y o see Mesure suvcUs .
A ({stuck ms vitfes
dies■ A hi ts fetus vines
estTSc*
&
Mesure can if'asee Mesure ecmrasee
£31
<y .I Lfprfr-zvu^r-
; .-! sMesure ccnipasee
f T -f
i*±
r ,:

[Exercise continues on following page]


[36] There is no sort of music more suited than dance airs to

developing good taste and to creating an awareness of the different tempos.

Several types of them will be found below.

The two dotted bars, :||: , when found in the middle of an air,

indicate that both the first part and the second part must be performed

twice.

When the dots are only found before 0|j) or after (||•) the two

bars, only the part of the air on the same side as the dots must be

repeated.

The repeat sign, */*, .J. , or , joined to a guide mark,

indicates the place to which one must return.

The bracket, I I, | J, /Z^ Sv, or ^ z , indicates that the

notes embraced by it must be omitted, when the part of the air preceding it

8. The meanings of the terms a_ cappella and en contreroint are


discussed in the Glossary, on pp. 284-285 and 287-289 respectively. The
term "unisson” probably means (as it does in earlier exercises, for
example on p. 75 above) that the ut of this exercise is to be taken at the
same pitch as the ve_ of the preceding exercise.
The first four measures of this melody are also used on p. 24 of
the Nouvelle methode. to begin the exercise marked "En Mi". In addition,
the exercise marked "a Capella" on p. 120 below shows yet another way of
developing the same incipit.
80

is repeated, that is, that one must go from the note where it begins to

the note where it ends. This can be seen in the following airs.

Dance Airs

E n t r e e d e Ballet a d e u x t e m s g r a v e s .
rrfvurnczi
n Lxn ,r e ynrtie
F n r/nifrr fu ir h c dr L i i f . rli- L j i r .

2 'f'arht
mi
a S i lu irrts
ncinUfs

i /tnalU.'w /
R/peU{ L
p a r lit tie l.tir
,i fasit aits As

st lirm cls .
Itigaudou .

Gavotte .
ftur.

[Dance airs continued on following pages]


81

[37]

-jr j ijj ] + ^ . l : t j r 4 .{.p . r J . -r- # d : M ±


' 4 t=
- U - tf= -W -# 4
ir c v
± z r t4 u n 111 • : - • *• i , 1 1 - 4^4 N - t i ; /
- y - K ' i I'J 4 --H -4 4 t t
{ '- I * J- - * - 0 - ^ 1 M -
Lryrhm i = 4

r u - —
# ± M
------± L ^ , - — d -— 4 i i il!"
± = ± t^
4 5 Jmv la i'C
- fic c n 1^L o n e l e a 11 , 7r"j/r we ties e t Musette.'.
.i. /i/ t
4 t 4-4 : ■]■( y f ^ r v r ^ - -- - h

J
; -L£—j----- cJ
-4-f-V^----- -#— i ii n ^ - ■ i [i
K - t t " 4
AfusfttCi senile 71’t v .
■n "
V ^ r— P-- J L f l f f #—p f L f "■ p r S r - r — 1 4 - r 4 F
d
f-H -- 4
J__
4 - - 4
j--l-v -. — 4
y J ; f } 4 = f f 4 +. • • • le r i 4 # F F # -?
--
II i -4-+* * Jt ± ±
W i -

. f I "■ I + m -4 4 - 1 f, f ^-------<*-----s 4- z3
O f 1■4
t W 1= 4 ' [ 7 ,.,7 -

. . ^..,. is— t— 4 — 1-- i ------ r- = 4 ;


P ^ -f r ------ ',1 + J !- d I - M - \ l

= H
=4^- 4 - 4- ------------*—1— - 4 - e ---- :--------- 4=

— 1
4^ —. — \ r - ^ = & r iV 4 = r1
4 4-
A# • i fJ ^ •
ti= iA
—f' ------
rx 4 l r • /A' rc :n l l t K FrV'L'nSj U ou / ’VIJ i t M use fir , . 9
K 4 *—? H----- h - f — fr - = f= til # n
^ d: < < . ' 1r ^ T " - f - f 6 ti = m ^ ^
: 4 z = r V -- — #--------- 4 # 4 4t -hri—
4 fc
Musette seulles
y 1f ] ‘-jtrf IrhH4 4 4 f r - ------ f-'F-y-4. jfin: J-V
P~. p *—*-
4=4 ^ 4t±M
------ f
V-rprrr"?*r p- . L : h -Pr8
j_l_yL-
b
- Jr r .»V-rrr'^ hr
4 * m4# T =-J- 1I 1 ' - 1 I' I/'::

9. Monteclair’s Jephte was first performed at the Opera on 28


February 1732; the above selection is the "Premiere Pastourelle" in Act IV,
Scene 3 of the Paris, [1735] score.
82

[38]
Pavam*.

p_+. »- p -r
- H — L V

^l^ivinlr
-4 - 4#^ — M
-j K- -j-^j [-j | j| j ^ - | ----- ±t _z 4 ii

( r.l V

itti ^ fq= &M ri +1 *j =- f $i


a=n=
i | ...^ .

\jratio*, rcpt zj-<* .


PcliHt / 7^ <7 LRtfrain 1 s i ccc lad T *r *
p .... P- j ' P r-j 4 - f - " 9 ~t~ -------- H
4 ? ___f.
■ p n * ? ^ ^ i!:.
—u - " c - ' j r T-------- --------- r^-
v j) u^J 4 = r d :i~ t 7
1 «"* ^ C(T/.t 7 „. ” II\rflvurnrc-.
t%4SLA*ri€
yraruic rrprtse . au Rsfrain
Jf:
Air v i lagcois .

V : - V - f r
-jp- v
h 1N h "“ T -ft-A-s=w- Y r-V

■j 6 L - :
^"|<r

4
■ h
V- 1 ->

3= a
£ i rz n
;
_ Taiuboiiriu </.• J cplitc . 10

!#=s

C OlirVllt1^ a Z<i m a n u r e F r a / u o 'tsc .

;J -1---- » >*.z-x r- t-H rH —4v i r-« 4- -----


n. i Y t - V 4- ‘ "
1 1 _ r -h ^ ti •
1Y -Y r 4>- V
U ^ja U i - f J
- r ■ < r x .
4 — 1 1 1 ^ ^ ^

'4-\G- V

10. This selection is taken from Act II, Scene 6 of Jenht£. (See
also the excerpt on p. 162 below.)
83

[39] The Passacaille always begins on the first beat of the


11 -
measure<

PalKirnillc .
('ft-: \ I K
xt
:} i=?------

-r -r
LjL/.
rwCl
I 1 i

t-^

L% .. \11 .,1 .
rr .T...— k

^ —-^-rr- %P

:5
il
V
-

-y t ' v -* . . , .
-*■ ---- V r.-.r^ • t ..... i / ^ 1 ! '

-^-r mctjc
^±t£ ±=iEE5Ez
^b-X±
ZTTrATTvr’i’/.v. -

,»f t=fff=5±en±
-M -Z 3 ZS:
d=S=
CX3 = 3 ~txid~

11. A beginning on the downbeat appears to have been


characteristic of the Passacaille since at least the third quarter of the
17th century. The four operatic Passacailles of J.-B. Lully, for example,
all begin on the first beat of the measure. (Meredith Ellis, "Inventory of
the Dances of Jean-Baptiste Lully" [Recherches sur la musioue franqaise
classique, 9 (1969)], p. 55 [table of incipits].)
The solmization syllables in the first stave of this dance show
that Monteclair is using a ch&te (explained on p. 134 below) to ornament
the first beats of the sixth and seventh measures.
84

Sarabandc
ig±33 S 3 ■xV .1 L
i
& -f-h
v'

-f— r xto^±g: ZLL.


_L_L xr— r -3+4-
i ^rtrrs i
Mcmict
(/<?V |____ [
z: 3LZ -#-nr- ez -i—i
— L_u.— L
4-#- 4- 4 T ± i i4 j r.
4=3= 44 1 i I JL #L
%
— 1
J %" -L- li)t_.
(fcf— i bbq4d --- 2

12
[40] The Chaconne always begins on the second beat of the measure.

(rrrv.frr/iio’.
( line*one .
T - ’ ir P f f e a g f i S

I r X T T j - j .y |; u ^ . '
Cr \ litSa;,;.'/V

JTO '-^-|—

12. The table compiled by Meredith Ellis of the incipits of


Lully’s operatic dances shows that although his earlier Chaconnes tend to
begin on the downbeat, those composed for Le triomphe de 1 ’amour (l68l)
and later works (with the exception of Achille. Lully's last opera) begin
no earlier in the measure than the first part of the second beat.
("Inventory of the Dances of Jean-Baptiste Lully," pp. 53-55*)
85

Take the following re at the same pitch as the preceding ut.

P < il(cp icd .


Vith Crotfits, r——----- r, uilf's.

tn Itvtiuh

13. "At a Chaconne tempo." Apparently the Sarabande and the


Chaconne were considered related dances. In Denis Gaultier's La rhetorioue
des Dieux there are several pieces which combine characteristics of both
dances and which were called Sarabandes by Gaultier but Chaconnes by his
successors. (Jean Gordey, Preface to Denis Gaultier, La rhetorique des
Dieux [facsimile reproduction; Vol. VT in 1st ser. of Publications de la
Societe Franyaise de Musicoloeie. Paris, E. Droz, 1932], p. 4 2 . ) The
Chaconne is also defined by Jacques Ozanam as a Sarabande composed of
several couplets, each set above the same s u b j e c t ! (Dictionnaire mathe-
matique [Amsterdam, 1691], p. 664. From a microfilm of 529.K.8, made by
the Department of Printed Books of the British Library (London), and
provided courtesy of Mark Lindley.)
86

[41]
C a n an c .
riH<- 1±___ X±-
rrutEi pff.’
Z=±2
i - g f F P T O l T l r ^-'T J jL.4
--r A — ["ff. A
. _i—
— I |^ - 4 - j -3 -jg -tj-^ -----
4 -M -k

VVir vTnfern;il.
Gnivsm nxatsshieusem /*

— 22— —
CommttittZ.
en Uiwil.
f
P
— L—

r-fr by
w f' T | ^
t-V-W
yjlccolixik .
1
J-^ -4- Granule

+ i'eiUic rr^r^r
r.'j.'rtse ciVixntcjut cu jm ir
Fiix.
'S'-
uT
^ - (rt'dtlilt F 3fUhtts
rcj'risc . ryri.rt
Vents

•*CcnimXutZ. a L’
exbenulv .
tin Uve .
------- -..•-------
+~JL 1— ,— r r m -------„--- r = , _ n = : —

-ydd- i 1?i:!l
9r r .# . jrf f -tir.rpF
f c ± ^ t ± ^
-bt- U kd g j ^ F ,
I "'” .........
-9-j -tJ???— p ’— -^ % 7T rF rr ~rr y - *« "* ■!?*!.:
S E F S l
87

[42]
Ivoure
frnztv.
# * # a # :T ] ~ ^ |■ , . ,' 4 /
:_cJ 4+'-':|-.pf P - h B - ^ . '
* = * *

4— £V-l
O - '- O - r '- b ru
Z3^=±f=±fz: 3 B Z :
jT

-r*- *. > + r , --n f


J L
r fr; zz
s:dr- d '-j T p I j L j i id |-^ ntt
fattier G io’u e .
a i
:l|: hj jj. la^ ' i jtij-j. f
btt±±z± r ^ - ^ i |: /I

W # f
ritz !•J .•A
y -V '
*
^4t‘r . rrom oettcs^ liaubois .
j^g -TiT r r ^ y -rt

r7 , rr / ’ . .
ILBuV
£ f f
U-i # 3: IT s Et

4-4-4-
Tous

ir-if-r rr r H ^ U ^ i i ? r+J
I Jiaubeis.
£
( ors de cliaflV
s
-f
-V-
T o us v^T"

ff
-f f ^ T 4 ji Y . p j f—d
fr-r f r Pfa-I i • i-'vu
G =%: 1 / ';' J p , < " 4 L 1
i=K±2j-
1

^rrrf r r f f ».; >I*r /f-


1 f f B . i p f~7rFf~t
fr)i‘rr , r z.-fBr-’r-il
--ul—C=W-+=: r-f-
%
88

The Gigue is more usually notated by 8 than by 4.


6 2
[43] The 8 meter is more suitable than the 8 for the Canarie and

the Passepied, because of the speed of the tempo required by these two

airs.

Canarie .

91//*'.#**/

Until the present, there have been no dances whatsoever composed


9 9
with the meters 4 and 8.

-J : v i- r - O - 'r ' ”, ! — h "ij |


^^ /. zny4. : ■ ^ -" F — H " p i y = ( = F t

" y+ f! f- v * ^ Lf-Vr r r
ri ± = N 4 - ^ - 4 -- v i - r '- r ^ T r 'ii
4 1

The following air can also be performed slowly and tenderly.

ijt.isr.
4
F > -r

-J . «— —
«i — A/»i M L lj i t

[Dance airs continue on following page]


!. *. :\.\ *.eh,ns\v \ *t‘
^*—i-£J/--- P n -I— 1 *"-O l ^ r I ^' --- jr-rH-- f— f— 0— 1---
j-<s)— ■frf- ; V — ?r |- | - ^ 4 » v
c^ - ^ ^== -V-
/M/7i> dnt'.rbnis. 77•

i 9 = t M h; f, •! 1! #
^WT-| y p / / 4 - 4 ^ j 7 r | | V □ L- f,

zV 1 f PI-: .-^T I fn 1 If f-T '»■'i-4- 4 u — n |■■•■^-o -*4 r * .— r


^ # f p 1 - y d q = 4-W-L
- d ■Qil 1W | J I 1tiltoi [-y|

d:
— /I If rlt't'iiIn i I
90

The whole tone is composed of two semitones: major and minor.^

The major semitone is found between two conjunct scale degrees.

For example:
j

J ---------- h -------- —
__• / V -

■3 Jrtni'-ft'ii
j muijtiir

Stmt
--]--------
/«vi r
nhtjtur. \
IX- F-----------

[44] The minor semitone is found on the same scale degree. For

example:

Itinl.'St'771 |i/"7777.r.»77!|
A- -4 ,*T'
Mi - h it* f fj ■■ b - j r H - i ’ fi
/. n DffJ- i.'TX 1V//H- I)rmi-A n JJrmi -trn Dtrru -Inn
ini/uur. nutvur. rnitunr. rntruur. mirwxif.

14. From the context it cannot be determined whether Monteclair


is using meantone temperament or just intonation, since the diatonic (or
major) semitones are the larger ones in either case. Albert Cohen has
suggested that as used by Guillaume Gabriel Nivers and by Etienne LoulitB,
the term ’’major semitone” is simply the name given to the semitone
occurring between notes with different pitch names; his remark implies
that the mention of a "major semitone" does not necessarily mean that a
particular tuning system is being discussed or even that its existence has
been assumed. (Etienne Loulie, Elements or Principles of Music [tr. and
ed. by Albert Cohen from the Paris, 1696 edition; Brooklyn, N. Y.,
Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1965]» p. 57, fn. 59.) It has also been
pointed out by J. Murray Barbour that 16th- and 17th-century theorists
tended to support their use of just intonation by citing the diatonic
tunings of Didymus and Ptolemy. (Tuning and Temperament: A Historical
Survey [East Lansing, Michigan State College Press, 1951], p. 2 1 . ) Such a
practice may have led later theorists to believe that the semitones in the
first of the Greek genera— the diatonic— were major, and consequently to
associate the term "major semitone" with the half-steps between notes
called by different names. Sebastien de Brossard, for example, says that
the smallest intervals in the diatonic genus are major semitones.
(Dictionaire de musique [facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1703 edition;
Amsterdam, Antiqua, 1964], "Diatonico.")
91

The octave, by means of sharps and flats, is divided into twelve

semitones, that is, seven major semitones and five minor semitones. For

example:

Division of the Octave by means of Sharps

Ton. Ton.

Utnu w n D e m t 't. /mi t A//in/. Utttu -I. Dnrn-f. P n n i -f Pmu t Pfrtti-l. Drmi t. Pfttu - f. O/mt ft
ntuuun m a j fur nxuitiu: noftttr. mtnsur mtiisur m t ijnin mi/i/ii/ mtVrur nuyrur-

S/mlton Srnti h'U Pm \ i -i UimtT. P r n t i -1 Dttni-f rzTOTi Prnii -1 . \ D / n d - t .


nutjiur ntuutu nurunr mi/trtu nuimt*. ni4if/ur. niinnir mtruur |

D n a }un f ()*'

Division of the Octave by means of Flats

tuiUiU
D t m i -t e n D/ini t P e n n -t~. Demi-t D e m i - 1. Psntrt] ,.io - t Dnt m i11.
Ufnti !I 12 •
- t.' . O r n u - t
n\*ywr m^/nr niln/ur n imeur' nidjjur. mtn/ur [

Drmitvn Ptitn ■ t Demi-1 Penn / Dmu-t. D e m i -1 U e n u -1 . Pemi-t


D e r m -1
nuyfur mtytilr

The organ, harpsichord, viol, theorbo, oboe, flute, and in general

all instruments having fixed keys or frets, or fixed holes, make all semi­

tones equal in size, and consequently are subject to sounding out of tune.
92

The la, for example, is not quite at the same pitch as the s i ^ , ^

even though the same fret on stringed instruments, or the same hole on

wind instruments, may serve for both of them,


16
The term tone ["Ton"] has several meanings.

It can be taken as the distance from one scale degree to another

conjunct scale degree, as from ut to re. It also means the species of

mode; it is in this sense that one says, major tone, [45] or minor tone,

instead of saying major mode or minor mode.

One speaks of the eight church tones, instead of calling them the

eight modes of plainchant.

The word tone is also used to mean the fundamental scale degree on

which the modulation is based; it is in this sense that one says that an

air is in the major or minor tone of ut, re, mi, etc.

Even further, tone means a certain pitch level; one says, for

example, that the tone of the Chapel is higher than the tone of the Opera.

Musicians complain sometimes that the tone of the harpsichord is

too high, or too low, because their voices -are forced at that tone.

One says, even though improperly, that a voice has beautiful tones,

to mean that it has agreeable sounds; that there are beautiful tones in a

musical composition, to mean also that there are beautiful sounds or

15. The translator is grateful to Mark Lindley, who pointed out


that"si^-molle" is the equivalent of B*>b„

16. Mont^clair’s list of meanings for the word ton is very


similar to that in Etienne Loulie, Elements ou nrincines de musiaue
(facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1696 edition; Geneva, Minkoff Reprints,
1971, p. 77), and may have been derived in part from it.
93

harmonies, and that a bell has a beautiful tone, instead of saying that it

has a harmonious sound.


17
It is not sufficient to know that the modulation is based on a

fixed tone or sound, which serves it as a fundamental; it must also be

observed that it travels around three other sounds which are essential to

it, with the result that there are four principal sounds, which are
18
harmonious together and which are called notes ["chordes"]. These are

as follows: (l) the tonic or fundamental note; (2) the mediant note,

which is the third above the fundamental; (3) the dominant note, which is

a third higher than the mediant; (4) the doubling note ["chorde de

replique"], which is an octave above the tonic.

M O iU o n I o n itu tu u / JAvZr JU Ji'rt m uLur


M o J e ou Ton M a jttir . U ti p r n n i t r o n i r c . J u M ttx iin it j r j r c .

JLtph^ut . ut ... Octuvt ti ‘I* 1,1


i— . •
2>...Q u m U . f
1— L - j m t
2... I terce . /•. nf-
« a 7 :... _//.
i 'u
1 it ... F in a le . ^ Ia
n
FotuLtntenUiIU .

The essential notes return and are heard often during the course

of the modulation; this is why, before singing a piece of music, it is

necessary [46] to make up a small prelude to help place the voice, by

17. I.e., the progress of a melody through a mode. (See p. 291


in the Glossary.)

18. The meaning of the term chorde is discussed on p. 286 in the


Glossary.
repeating these principal notes often, in order to fill the ear with them,

and to find the pitch again when it has been lost.

For this prelude to be made properly, the final note must be sung

either higher or lower, according to the pitch level which it occupies.

For example:

If this final is placed on the lowest line (a ) or space (b ), its

pitch must be taken from the low register of the voice, because it is

expected that the melody will hardly descend any lower and that on the

contrary it will move in the high register. If the final note is found on

the middle line (c) or space (d ), it must be sung in the middle register of

the voice, because the melody will inevitably travel below and above this

note. Finally, if this note is placed on the highest line (e ) or space

(f ), it must likewise be sung in the high register of the voice, because

the melody cannot rise more than a few scale degrees higher; instead, it

will undoubtably descend much lower.

Preludes

Put the tonic in the low register of the voice

'Fvmlic

Put the tonic in the middle register of the voice


95
Put the tonic in the high register of the voice

Several times it has happened that a person has stopped short in

the middle of an air, because he has taken the pitch either too high or

too low.

To avoid this inconvenience, one must (so to speak) test the air

in ahalf voice, and observe whether this air prevails more in the high

than in the low register, or vice versa, in order to take the tone at a

suitable pitch level at the beginning.

[47] It can be seen by means of the following grand staff

["Clavier"] that the fa-clef (3 )?) is used for basses, that the ut-clef

serves for the middle parts, and that the sol-clef (-^r) is used for the

trebles, and finally that these three clefs are five scale degrees apart

from each other.

The five figures in each column before the clef designate the five

lines which each clef or voice occupies in the grand staff.

[ Diagram found on following page]


96

Grand Staff
Of All Voices and of All Instruments

The natural and usual range of all the voices in general contains 23 scale
degrees, that is, from the low fa ( ^ ) up to the high sol (*| )
The usual range of all the instruments in general contains the four octaves
of the grand staff

nil
-+v-

_______ £_______ 1 ___ P.’SStlS «Zf


. n.wUl/sstu.
4 U , g _ IUm M fruthis. .
n V vision. Pm hou
1I Ntw ,ussuf. pcsilon Friim'Oist •
_4______ lO nuttttonb-t J to l u t u u ,
T a il Is ,
/.• i l f v io l o n .
violon,

The natural and usual range of each individual voice contains eleven scale
degrees, that is, from the scale degree immediately below the five lines,
up to and including the scale degree immediately above
97

Grand Staff on the Five Lines

/1 vtiirson vntssi'ti.

4 !Cc tavi
Z1'mmire 3 .O c L i v d

[48] Exercises
For Practicing Changes of Clef

E
a

UrusfJlU'.

-o-
98

All of the guide marks (V') indicate the same pitch in different

clefs. This can be shown by means of the preceding grand staff.

%
Z Umsscns

_ Eti levijnt.

Untsssns .
99

Exercises for Two Voices

For exactness of meter, for learning to sing in parts, for making the ear
sensitive to harmony, and for developing the voice in a large range

Premiere Lerou a deux Delius .


I ' ? 0 \n ~
-e- 321
!.r I ! ---------
~TT
E S S :
U-S. 111 I1 I 1 11 H
hniknncn.

toz o=
feijprTTS;, Y ri|T^ '
1
i’
W
J2. 1tf-
dL
2 s mzo. j=2
iz ±±
_I L+l.
Y fe-e774-A-Y:-<4f4r9^ !'' ‘ !•- " • T f v lW rr
4-4 Hi ^ii /I i i
1 1 11 i ir j![! ^t17-G- -64
E=E 42- £ t X2:
enz vii •ilrrff'^rnrrr^ f
Lecorif
^v±t I W> v & z
> -U- -1 L

$ U N 1
^ 3

c^-
as b g± f± i
14
100

[50]

u lt
Lvtxiii
fp7tL+-z£-*i£ f >3 313

g s g g s s sstess
;«Lf f ‘f «

□cn
tf E Z lZ

\JJU
b
r} f f , ^ . , f.V f . r { J f . f f r , - ~ . 3
1. 1f, 11 U I I 1 1 II iLllff-Lj. 1
ES-^E

G,ivsift’ a I ’
J t a l i s n M . 4

l-JW '.'---- r Ft = f f Tf F' ;v


4 . x ^ 4 v i- ± f * * 7 " t— — :=t= 1
'j l[j
L rtxm (r«*«•//.;r ,v£j7/.\
$3
i f e
i -U- T ■♦■
:t7 —\i-± r .± x . i > L ~it ± t i

-tr-H -M-
J.i’/tf-.

£
W 4 £ E
F I
101

[51]
SutHc tie Li S. leccii .
Q-Cb—D. '
r,iD, P i r rir: Q P ' . b fA r S l S y .lifJu

±t
-L-O O 7Z=

^ ll N II M '1 > ! N - l . U i :.- h |;

5
B
E #
n
# = # ---- M r #*—v--h \ f\! M ! \
n: -;- ■
;-/pU . i W - --- h *-N
-- (Jd *-FTV

J 1 L 0 -0 j-O - '■

+:: ." ":?=— k i i ■ll-------- H — U .• - t H '


W f
}y r* r 0 — hV^"
- — H c < ? * o i fJ • N 1
p f t H 1 '------ =£=£t I— "j, .

st-r -ta Z '+ ii. 4 - 0 — '-r


J. i t " !/r ■u % ,7t-r— -4 o r_ L ,_ ■'A- " ------|— j-|—
E = i W:"l H IT M 4 . - - # f | 1 | W - T 4 — 6 - o - \^ -
V — :— ^

V9?l I^Jr',+ . I : ' ? ff:r.hstiji-

nmrij

o— ' ■i-Orrnt i f'f 1^ - T /'r|Q -f"»— 1^ . -_

m
102

[52]
# % # - f r r m-pf? f - f » f T p f fu .
.4 p 4 < :' ^-i- s \ M 1 - [ =±±l -^-.r^-‘
^ - ‘
/\: /' W '|
" J*1
- - - - - - 1- -■»!e> ^ rl-
= # # rF! j f r ' ' 711 / - - T r
+„ ' r f - - *• f " , . J -----
F f - - ■ P r - f -1- - - ^ H * y — - - - - - v i - :

P f‘-*-o n ~i r f - f !- <> • - n — # !^ "


1 /' /-
!' - y — - 4 A —
^ V -f 7-

±±±
m i" P''

5=3Z£ -fir;
O r c W - J ' - J ^ 7*

~7 : #
T M# L ^■jrrfiFr, , ir r j.,^ ^ .^
6.
-^34- - Piti|.L-l-|-Ti- i ' 1' '=±=1=
Lecon n^vz r •
t
FFf - A f fP HrM | i ,j,,,, , r ^ w i % ! J:;
— 4- r^ i | 1ii-iiUi.[..t-iv
tea #
P

s m
103

[53]
yllLnuauU .

. y— / r'^Tcf '>!«r— > \ ^ r ^ " !',>r rf^ 4 f "


L ccofl
^ . . - d ^ L d - f i n " ’ ,iT .#r.ir^..^
■{j1! i I ■ " I 1 i ' " ' T ' - L . . : i; ' ' V l ^ = g =
-#-#— k -y—
3333
w
<r f ^
i-^ .!~| rl . < f - £ S3 7 (f
Nrr#
-r -r r T -t^
g r r r >
X ^ A W - - — ii t;- **• kj— r hi bJ ‘-i [j— i

s
• '• s'

A lEJ
W
XET^
:S
m i luiuxc
Al. 'Ijj
slUUprv '
/n ^
bt t r ^ . t z*L l i z &
rzf E ®
Huitticmc E u. s
Credits .
7fl/"' V . £ ft»N

m
4 ^-i..i.;J_j i.

f a /zf rfXir f z v ^ T Z ^ t

fLeyr'ist .
104

brn 4 FI 1 K

rircrr^
il’t/.r kttis . brcchfs sqahs .
/n ±1 r
i.+

XvCCOU
&
ttth m ±+ r-v -p-
-P—
hhvv-
JiUt
F— I--- it*

u -i:-i
iz f::f E = *
v
M a£
<if-t
v e ffrf fr.flf l f* f-l— p l-J
_iU_
til-i UiJ i!— n k
i— rH— M- EZE
a idxcfcg
; ; i r . . : rr/ n TzfrrK
* !
-I-4 *1l—— !
i-
X
a
i ^ iH ~ -
i-iU-1— L-
Z2

XI— ■!Ziz— i
rm 3:
s j i~„ r. i ^4ija jg a a -i

j L u, L
ii i-r t -

V
105

[55]

nrnrcs tie'
a ± ffi± tta ! #
IQ L eoercnu n

Lccon.
s

■" ■ r :
f - f - ■ f - r - A - 7-
^ ■
r ^ r p _ ' 1 J 1 ij ] J / ^ J
w
w

H S i — h t - ± F P F F f f l -
- # - f f l - - K - r i r. • f ( f p
, r r n

^ ^ 1 1 T u / T i ^ l
u r t j +

rtlfl Xfr-'- -fr-T -f^- y1f—r t r ^ f f?i


zkt = ^ : : # c cE drf- /
# eT l i t w
---- 4-* - j :
:5rEL"Sti--. ■ *7
<r»^ 4
- t ^1 i fP + f
-4^~4&-
p *r r
± + _ llf- 1^4 /
w * y
<1
w 4j
F v W
t 1" 1L ' t f V
= y = v
f - i

— f— lr-F-4— A
/.---- f 1 -
p m t :
^ * ^ p L _ L l
^ j - H - --,— y

V -

r^O- * u+.
-y—^ P 1p ^ a f ,> r * = ^ff 4 - 4 4 -f^-
^ '•
4 -4 - =4 ± 4 fW. ■
jtH'— bV - 4 W
.+ 6^
.ifSi TTT 4 4 A - Y F ? r :4 = ; j I s
piy v 3 -i r - W -
?H- — ^ 4 h
4 — N-#
R
„ - A <„ t r l ,#f4f h T' -- f-TT-;-- ts-
i- - ■j— # =
tff | ii‘ ■■
:g= f tj L L p " ]-'/ -
J -

V 1rrniln'tiurur W ^
f - — ^
— Uj-- /. Jf 4^
JI . i t = b t H -d [|j- i_UM i F -
JLcvon. L n il-
— >—
-mf- H=- — «---f
- i-F -t- — J j ^ i l l -p |.:= fE F t o t i
4\

^FF # # - - ’r j r - r- p » " , --kz


i M f f 4f- _r. ..zr^ - r - ■- -
M ± z t = t i V - --4 -
h
> fr r f . r-J» r *1 1# = F #
44 ■h ^ -
' 1------------ 1 - . ^ 1 1 1 !—
=4=
|
•fft -H - ■V—J — L - j : » •>- ------- r - r " — t r .
W : ' j - j^ i.-
r F + . A c L —F— F F -jH v -p -
# ---------f
^ r-T g r
]+ T -f- h-F-A • 1<
f-N :— r ■ -jf~ f r ± F ^
J_l--- 1----
_ r
---

---------La---
t = t :/-==:
# — ' - U FF - t i -
----1--
#? F - F H p r T -O -'-k .-r
>

- f J-f •y— F F
- -C /J. f r n 4^— — '-----' -U-J- ?!
ti* ■— 4 - tT i^
rt
IfS r -f---r frf—r f f - ‘ !' ----hr-
-U 1 ttn=
F F 1-
f —a
107

[57]
E n CatiotL.
/
^ — W i - ^v -!—r tr- U lL T 'f f f f f f .-fMu
12 * 4 | [»

L ccon. r v ------- T,._ —


/ f-ff f t ^
X J----- Li-i -d^:------KL -^ = L
w r 'A-:

Y Reprise ,

rr-rnrrT^lg

in .

7 Rtprise . |
rcches eaal/s
Ijrs h a j-p *f
J'citwtri5\

Qiierellc .
Lccon.

19. “The Fishwives.” The titles of the subsections may be trans­


lated as “Quarrel” , “Fight”, and "Tears”.
108

it ;;

44r+4

ULfLZ
tr:th±h:iuz

dS3Z»ZfZZf

J3 a tierit
n±±zz

^ S S IS IS S E i

riT~r: ::::;■;; ,;i ; ,Tr, ; ^'-:z i m TiTztt?


^.j^

jb l'P ' T ' ^ T -T fe g 4 -n , u r ; f± q = F

t i d f c f e r j r S 1 [ ^ r ~r7 — '— ---------- — j - n — J - H ----------1---------------- !---------- L _


:^ )f u - & - uw— d__z— ^ 4 ---------- k -
Lent.

s J T7~ k =
Stitiz
Tburs . F m
-*--- r^_
s A ' g J.j n u .
3±±
Lent.
109

[59]

71 7 1 Mi T F M ] *^ T p J —
i4.'
Lcron. Lrntsnwntr-
4=
1 kc-r.,/} r'flf-^-l-1 [fj
^4-N
.D.-^-j----
j i ii i
ltfi 1 ..-i. — k?V.. -f— h — fl— M — — I
— ^44 * *i j 1’^

^ ^ r f ^ r f f f T T t r ^ r T r ^
P > ; g r ^f— ^ 1^4i| \y* x-- <1 - ' * * ' I"" -^r —
=t5~ '"-4
■f •-■
4 ^ rrriLv h - n t = F F F ^ - J X — r = - i v - N = 9 # _. , 5 z
xi! irfy-
i ^ - ^ : V ' t— ^ r . ^ i . n g b
-V- -0-

7-firrr=^--'- -— "1 /I -! 1 1J.i'l A {■ h-- X L . f r p - , -


4 ^ = t i 4 i 4 - 4. ± 4 - ± 4 j ± £ z ; 4 ± ± ± : -FT''.'-" ' ■
r k
|-,jLJ.^ t rTF'f rr > y f<>->xTvr- rT-,-,::V
-4 «fL"C.! i~ 1--
I ^ L ; [j' ' W F X : - f L H fu ^ ^ u 1|^i ^ ^<5— ----

f e — n "T — M —
f*l;4
L^-iTFj La 1 % -‘,<L--;.'«.-j|»-.|r

.L_
a
v v- bc±f±
w
<--

L
rf

g fp 4 r +-'r-jrT-*-zr
— - l!1
—i_
L -P @ it a F ^ k
Lccon Lenrrtmtnt,
j tffl t= ± * t= jf
m : V : - ' — »—
34H 4 j% U ^ .:- J^J / --

% ± 4 l f -4 \,f
. r T f 4
-T - f ^ f : ?£-01 t f - r-i-\— ^ r \ Fpl —
"Vp'4 */r W # W p H ------- / j r^j | 1 - ijl j /_:!_}"

4 ± 4 4 r »"»r f -- CEL-fH-frF=1 --f-j-f n'e- f l r y l ^ tTurv^Uir-*^


^ & 3 ± - W 4
W i — ^--------
110

[60]

- k f : : ! r f 5?J»
%
^f"P p T r #^ - # #
^ - - J - r j-
U , _ L , - - ^

U ^

:7 ^ r f r? T - ^ - f - #< #
# tfIL
rflrf117-1-i J v i 1 1 i i , .11 1 1 1 j 1 - - !— ! 1 a X
w #zj^ ----- P

i i/ i- r r E

? fr^H -,'^rH'

#
B .
TflLY'

4 ^" 4v- Ft=iF f = q r 3


Z-U —J -4--- k— k_— L-— |— 1 ■_" IIlI..'''

* ? - " I f " r L,
# J LU

-f— p- -- r V r f ~ n • ^ • 9 jjti-firif 'i^


^ - i ----- 7 ^

: = # .|.l fjl — f-H-- i-j-f-Ht-a-Hi-.-l/l-


"T rtsb n iri ¥ i |/ ' '
itr.
LccOn. t = f F-F-f- -.fimrp- T f ■^.rrt-g— --[ -,-k-Fr-
— -
--- 'f — —
*= U. .[ . n M | ! ! l^l
Ill

[61]

__-i--
ff-' frf' " -e^ ^ Az) j.fpiw-Pf- O f;-{z-i p j i I WUl,
fir V i , "1—
^ 1 h i 1! ij r L>— TH ^ 4 -
i
t e = d i ■ ? 'r^ r TT+ —4—— L
F # ± --- f— »— O*
Lci-r-jrJ-P- b #
V

p. f±ZT^ r~r 'fp|riiC^


#1: lj ^ #
!.. K -.l

zzo a ZZ

■n
Zr
P -T f ' f f f l-c ^ - r - l - n . - k -r f iT - T 1 •; ( / - 4 - l - r V f
p?

r? « »
W IT

I r+i H- ^-rt~t — 1— rrr -i— >


% £
- p f rK-r ¥ - ■-[■■■,■ ■ -71-- r4rt— — r i y
r Vi“‘
- ^ — F-j-------------
:% r - ' . 1 W H 14- :11- —

--f------ p— -f— — fn - 4 = f ± = p p ^ f f«m ^ -e— —


-----
4 ^ C # l + # = w =
f,.
1 . .• r.TIZTZ^rTrg
E L A W . | W rlriz
£

bH
V
?— I— f h0 *.
f = N - f f f -i--- -T-^-V-1 -o— 777
___ j .,. --M- ;.j ..{>4- i
A--— N = ^ l-(— fjJI1*
1

s . M k- r ^ - p-
-e— - r- 4 r- r -f - L p ■ f fri" 1—
“/— — i 1 —.. !T
f
-9—
H --------
1-
f H H \TfT
i L
N # i r-d ^ i
112
[62]

fP-
7-.- f1 ^ro-
v-
Lccon.

&*: -- 1 y
/ i-L UJ L|H .■ ;
*|
—tj
.I-4-.1
"r .1_
Y.4•-#-?..
-
j
#^-fi-y:
m ciMkjT :,'-4f|,1^Td:
44=I[|-J-j4>--^^ 4 fjl'^#±4

\
-?*3
TOE TOE
m
w r°% ?

4 ? IT
X ± -F-#-
± ± ^ ,> -^ 2

:- ; r - , J ] 1tlf’T ' f 1f y r > - f '-» - ' p .


T O h 4 4 r 4 t 4 = v1 ■)

- 4 4 J T f» khr]j i i h f j - 4 ^ * n ■ I*/-
fr ^ fT O
% 4 r ■ - 1' - 4 4 4 4 "]: v [ ^ .L ± -

»e—-9■■■P~~>—? _^,r/ __
4454— 4- 41-4: [. 1 1 1 --1- i. 4.iLrfk
4M4j5^Q- ij-- 1 - »,1 P-h 9 ,1,. "r
-ft)n,[| -- [ro..c;,.^i_;w=^-4-4TOI1 [4' UT' '-CF#-
*
zk_

■ n J l j r i ij'[j rJ ) ii i p % ^ % f 4 n r L #
113

[63]
— c ^ _ p a ^ + ^
a
- r
/i /— ; vj'j f;rr #r ^ ^ - r T f Y ' _—
18.

-
l±fcj-Ua-lbad = 3 ' ' - ;
L*ccon. Letitr-
*

<]
— ^ r q i^

!
('
L ? r ... v..j::.__1 *►-> f ff J-TTarVrr^

L
^ ^ it/- ” t 4 L£?■[ rr^-
V 7^

^ yrgj ttl j i I U

z ± ' r T r^ -f

^ & r A f r T T r 4 t .,l , ^ 1 ^ T ^ - l _ ^ ^ : f- t f i - P >t ~ ~ i r -


t > i .1 ,
---------------- d
^ ‘

« # #
5 d z m ^ v = f £ s a

e #
■'' ■ ■ ■ ^ - ' - ^ - : .- f # =
vD * _ i ---------- ^ -------i _ e 5 - t ,.
- W [ = = g L 5 = = r : [ ) '— ^ — 1

- - ft r f M - f r T r U ------------ ^ C V f > . . ■ f > #


; / ^ w rr M :ji_ 3
1|

|)l
1
1

^ 4 X j-
*v_>

i j_t i .
%z=

3 tT i
i i, [JT-w
g
f—

p , r S I . ^ :+ q 6
^ - r- - i ^ | j
^ 9 ^ tjj ----^
114

[64]
Isnytrtnu nb.

c x n

rt# J-M — fy p -p i» " -^ -J -1' ?Ti!r-^--1-


-rfTT^]^brtf
u^4^- :--------- 1 -


V * ■p
£L5SB
N 4± t= :--- # J* rl I rpf,-r-f f f ' ' r — '— L
R"V"*"Fr f^f Fr^
r - r ,-F> |J ■ —t25^-tr=> -------- h-
i F-- , fPl^n-! 1 q ^ # 1 >
^--
- - :- ---- -
= m u r r
1 1

■t nr-r-■4s]- ------------- -!ir ,f ur r■Li—r ^i—


r'.ri Vr
.tcc.ii'1
i.',_
V % L
L=rJlri
: : -i= H = j
^ -AjfttckiStLrcnicnb.
'
• r T FL "'
* ----<3--- —^- -J __ L _ ------------------------ ----- i___
J o .
L c cf o u mx • • ^ . • •• « i"*
L e n t . __________________________________
m # r w m
_
Jze.
~i£~Q~{- g " r * - ~ r~ * = y %q i zzr=
-4—G- j f j o t -6u
3
^\3r i.» J .« 'b• • 4'' ^ # 4
115

[65]

' - 1-

' | 'T '

r r ^ J P-P-PrK>-
y ES=3b2

PtZ33

/ ZjfQcrtrmtlL.
gSEEEJ

\m§
W f m

t o
mm -r-
5 = 5
f -f

■rr'.»
---- i [

- "9"* r B ■ 9— .. r p f = t e - "1 1--f -f "1---¥--U


4 # r = ^ :
- j t±8 1 * t V4-J-------- ^-4-
'>V {±ti^
.. f . p,
F

fr-
U— s

p-ifi
4 = H5ti W
f - 5
f-- : if f J
1 — JJj
^ d --

’ . — f~f-

t--i4 ^#g -
1 -rp p y — h 4 Lt - ;■I >Fpff#V
L ^ U - H -
4 # N 4 -4-
/i n.i | ,_
U -y f-rf ^►— |r- tftii
’7 t w d "d. 4... .
u

— -— f-
M =
J—

- M ’Tf- r-ff »p-i p-f f--


=5zW=-
-cW=
t
---

■inJl4 #
a

ffrr->-44fe-

After having sung the first part in each exercise, one must sing

the second part, after which it would be good practice to begin again by-

singing them without naming the notes, using only the articulations ta, ta.

ta or la, _la, la. This exercise would facilitate, after a fashion, the

joining of text to music.

End of the Second Part


117

THIRD PART: ON THE MANNER OF JOINING


TEXT TO MUSIC AND ON THE MELODIC ORNAMENTS

[67] In order to learn how to join text and notes together

correctly, it is necessary in the beginning to choose simple and easy

music.

After one has solmizated a few notes, their names and their

pitches must be kept in mind, when joining them to the text written below.

For example:

A B/r j 'i nt ut Ji- Q


. ---- , -z_ — n - ii-r;— ^ 1
(7 7 V
■e n XL
l / l t m c L l l i e n tic t o u t v a b x c c c u r f C c s t I c / o r e c c j i t c ctu ScUjucili'•

To join the two preceding lines [of text] to the notes, solmizate,

at first by ascending, the first three notes ut, re, mi (a ); add their

pitches to the first three syllables, Ai-mez Dieu.

Then sing the five other notes by ascending, fa, sol, la, si_, ujt

(b), to which you will join the five other syllables, de tout votre coeur.

Then sing, in descending, the five notes ut, si, ^la, sol, fa (c); combine

their pitches with the first five syllables of the second line, C'est le

pre-cep-te; finish with the three remaining notes, mi, re, ut (d), and on

the same melody pronounce the last three syllables, du Seigneur.


118

As one becomes more knowledgeable, one may solmizate a larger

number of notes, to which a larger number of syllables may be joined.

Solmizate, in ascending, all the notes of the preceding example at

once (a , B) and join the first line to their pitches; do the same in

descending (C, D) and there add the second line.

Sing the notes in rhythm, after which, in the same manner, you

will add the text.

Sii Utraixt.
b = t
J W ' y -v i i ^ y i,r ' " ' j iifdi
l slin icz J)tcu- d t bout v o .-tr c co;urt Ccst Lo p r c -ccp-lc> du <ftujuc-ur

[68] When several notes are attached or slurred together, the

syllable found on the first of these notes is drawn out over all the

others.

nr / ^ 4 -p -- — -

/ V— 7 *
M C o u lc z, C /x u n n a n U _ C - C-C, - C/2,, tCc
R u M .rca u o r. t C o u lc z ,
mx 1 P A • _
4. r A— r m -- < / a : /a m t
-^ -- — M -- 1--- K-- r ' ^ — a—;--------- H—
V—
H -..... - “'— -I'- -l; ■{ - 1 7 -f-"--------------- — V—
M -----------------
n Centl(/z. Charnianbd Iliiijdcxiiuc. CouIvl
IT T
rf*~
ik
K =i =±:
C o u lc z . ciatu itos
— M
p i ~a S
In order to facilitate the application of word to note, it would

be good [practice] at the beginning to choose some words with a small

number of syllables. The word Amen seems to me the most appropriate of


119

all, having only two syllables; the memory is not fatigued in retaining

them, instead of which, when longer words or whole phrases are being used,

the notes are often forgotten when added to the words, or the words when

added to the notes.

E
ub*fi am en
m u
f n J"olm ijn J o l Lajn. ,fo l ub. ( X . . . . . . . . . . f t t t t l »fcl nb. OtHCfl

Slurs are not always found between all notes which are on different

scale degrees and which have to be sung on the same syllable (a ), but they

are almost always found between those which are on the same scale degree

and which must continue on the same syllable (b ); be that as it may, the

syllables must be pronounced only under the notes where they are written

(c).

' ..- P t -o-r 0-


II 0 T
F-| -#----- V nu --- 0--p-i0^0 p--,
r _ > Vs/
_1
__ = t -ik
u—i
---j
— ■t- t
rz-----l: =f=
——1 j— |
-----
nun.
-e - f -
¥ $ ZZ
A mcn- ...................................nun- ..................
m c r v dCl ................ nun, (Znixn
Qjixxn Cl-nun
Cl-
120
[693
a deu.x Ia n s Croc/its a ja /lc s . . C
C P % o-
£
?
W .......... men (b . . . /nen CL. n u tv a . . m m Cl.

i . 1-0 j' d * * O » Z ll -
i/» i-prrrN
4= ±44

men- a m en . /ru n cl. . . . nvttL

CL

. m m CL m ere Q . m e n .

The f would only be used in a tempo similar to that of the

preceding exercise, where the eighth notes must be equal, or in the

counterpoint which the Italians call a, Canella.^

a. Cape I l a
n z r>-Q
IZ
CL UZiTrfr,lfr
A nun, CL.......... m en Cl. men CL %

1. I.e., music in the polyphonic contrapuntal style considered


nrima nrattica by Italians such as Monteverdi. (See Hermann Zenck,
"a cappella," Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart [ed. by Friedrich
Blume; Kassel, Barenreiter, 1949-1973], I, col. 70. Further discussion of
the terms contrenoint and a. cannella may be found in the Glossary, on pp.
287 and 284 respectively.)
121

T Y W ft- --— e- ="----rr 1 lJ n (J + Z-) n f'


■^ffT — V---- — ^ ..J. (L —
:=##= w o

' r\" rH-r ^ j L__ A -t P-rTP.


rli 4i
\r
# m
Zd^ h - ^ -J- f -fr Erf
0i *4 e ’ 4^ * 9 W -* -LLr;

r . . m en
sa merb CL

. /nc/i a m e n

men amen

3=
E g -e-

n 7 mcjb CLnvesv CL................ nitre a- /neev,

One can now become accustomed to doing without the names of the

notes when studying. From here on the articulations _ta, Jba, _ta or la, la.

la must be used, as has been said above; these articulations joined to the

words Amen and Alleluia will gradually replace the dependence on

solmization.

2. For other uses of the incipit of this exercise, see p . 79,


fn. 8 above. Note that the flat and the natural are used respectively to
cancel and to restore the sharp in the signature. (Concerning Monteclair's
general use of accidentals, see pp. 251-255 in the Commentary.)
122

L- 0 ‘-|
V -r-n- ii i r)- ^ 5 -H4-
n:

r:
t_ s
rf H- Sr N-

. . . ic. hi.ya. al.................................... lc- lay a-. (l{..............

3=£ im
g TV -e-

= - m : n a m t n . Cl................................. nun a/?ic/Lt C L ..................................//icn n/tien (t .»


1 - h • iiL-yd' (it................................... (c.tn^.ya,, a t ............................. . Ic. tn.ya at . »

M
i 1-----1—r—:— :—r-
±i E
........................ nw/i amen, a ..............................................m a t a m e n a .
.......................... Ic . /a . y a ' a l ............................................ Ic-. ho . yi/a,
a . at
-— ■
4-
rA-f-p-p---- 1-- f-r-
, . ... j h-M-
4 ^ 4 L- U " 4 =tz=L
- ............................... - -

m e n a nvcn, a m e n a .. me/v.
- .................. Ixl . tn . y a at . I c . ta . . X/Os.

i !
j[ vv / / .................... meua/ncn-a . . . . men. a,....................................... m e n amen
41 ic tu yii,al tc ta ya.f al. . te tu ya-.

[71]
)t 4. Irt/r/i^
Q I £<6: -t r ^h
3Z
<z
1
4 m e n amen amen a/nen a nun n/neei a. . . . . /7zz/7 a *
4ltc tuxya attetuya at t c .f u y a at . . . . tc .tu ^
A- rf- - = m = r — >> h ■>■ hul n.
1 V r. .
------------ / -

* ya
V r. +T
w E - i

at-Uziu.ua, al.lc.Uc.-ya. aLlc.tu.ya at ..........................U~Iu,ya,


b— E
.men. amen amen, a/nen cv./run. a/nen a/nen, a ........................ tnav a/nen a/nen, a/nen,t
al-U-lec-i/.c
' ^ . V_________________________________________ 7

_i_6 t
¥■ r ru n
amen amen a/nen a/run a/nen amen a .men, a/nen ame/i a n ten
atJe.tuya atle tuyci alic-iurja at-lc-im/a at. . Ic-lMt/a alU.tu..ya..
;(l 2. Vbi*x,. ~Z~
f-A U ' + *

fc P=P=P V:
41 . . . . . . I c . tu ,. ya. atU-luya, attc.licx/a at te
-h -M rr %
v -y - v i ^
ESiE
l. m m m m » m *. *. m
. IC
te m
. tu......
{it • • • • • yet
\J Cls at/cfuya, rt/Zr ///
123

~\r*~y -p-f
A'
p
T r
r ~ T
) iF T ' rir j i ) ;- r -
z t H
-L— L / r z ^ '
# ^ Z h # M r
MiM l

r& s= m
V--*-
=?y^7allclay a allcluya al. ... lc Inya allclaya allcMnya. nllduya aUcluyo

At this point all sorts of religious pieces in Latin ["Musiques

Latines"] may be used as exercise material.

Composition in Latin
Motet for Two Treble Voices

P - Dc.rjU'f. ^
iv+rl,r,&T, +

n m m ■ " 'm m

^ J )i./l aa/n be IDo.mi n o for. ti. fu. do tnc* . .a- T)u Luqcurv bt> Jlo.mi. n <:•
±J2_-

^ «y/T>r.U . l a .d v m e . . . c l . T)o.inii\iLrJinnanientiunnicum t^fim icnncnLani. mcu.n >


[7 2 ]
TA

a
FI r c .fit . q m m . m c .u m . c t l i .b c .r a f v r , cl U .b c .r a . . .. lo r U .b c.ra

.!x?r m e . .its .J I t fiq a n v fa J ) o ./n i.n t> far.tC .tu . .d o


I

/no. . . cl D u U .q a /n
• zr- a - x- -7?^^ _ / c7

£
-l— L
F
I
""I Icl D o . ./m .n c * ^ for. lv. h o .d o /n o . . . ct-. D c a is //icoj/ adyubor' /nau^)
e--y r Q - r
o = r .- ^ Z - f -r F
6=a I s e
ZZ

H ^ J f K .r a ....... l o uv o . . . u/n. P /'o.tcc.bo /* /nccaf cb


124

xF f
EE r e i 1p H ==fc Hn
p, cornwJaliU ij nu<z> ct-Ju jccv... to r JDl U o a r b cotiinxt cy dtJJiLJ
r//7
f T J ,J j j J J J ,J 4 ,

t ir f
LndcianJ la u d a r j in vo. ca.bo JJommunlfs.iudanj Inudan.-i irhwrcnlx) JJomituinh ■
p : vVcfJj j. i l j . ' .— , • >

=:
5
3Z Z

ft ab %J.i\i.nvLcii tnt-iu ifat


JL *

&
ZTJL
s
'i/uJ e . ro . LaudanJj Lcut -
ifV c s jiu
_:--£zjqsz^z
£
yT %
" rT
r- —r-j-
B V— P-
£ cl ab (J.iiuniici'i m c u t f u l ...................... t/z/c/ c . . ro .Lauda/M lau-. *
Jj • J-*/C*J*J lly •
Itent t/ n\cirqnc'- t

j ^ ^ h - f = y -
r 4 — — W -K — — L z ^ ; —
4 — W - e - z q
/ — L
c = E E ^ d t i
4 - i ■■ ..................... ■ —

5*^ £ g :
-4-+
'' V [ 'U ■-VI +...- ., WJ ' ' ' '1. V" ' •■ v y - z
el torrcnlcJ i n isjiu trU u conhirbcooej'tuibm edio. Ioreo H o . l o . . /'6,r /nor. t.
[73]

h f i \ \ "h # h t ^
H i i r h f - f r " — “
V-
H - d — 4-
------ 4--- d
ItiJ co/itnrbai>cri(/it/nc d o ( o/'cj /n ortu , c t toi'rcntcj e t to rr c /x tu . i.r u .
j ,j

Zn/ri^
S
c o t i t n r b e w c r u n t n i c e - o n tn r ( H iv e r u n t m e-.L ciudanJ Icul ■*
n zr

i ^ conxirun^mt
125

Motet in two voices, for the reception of an abbess named Mary,

and appropriate for the feasts of the Blessed Virgin.

P. Darjaj. C a r i l l o n .^
U ZP
£
J H -t-
~1 iJn cfxc.rW' ^7n h/nfm/vo^ J n c/iordijt Jrv arcjcvtvo^ C c u i t n t u i P i u l r i . la. hi))

L-i—U L
■F F
"l C a n ta tz * t x P u lri l a f e f iJ n b L la - t o P u . b i. l a . t o . .
2*?J J c sju J .
? ^

. IftJ /hT cih o fr t J u rr v- hr /'nip 'a info f J nf cJiordcJ/


T if -PT/ i orrctja'rui f)^ Cra a tra - Uij ) r v J^i u bio . TU v ^. t o /
p—
— r~f— r— |*l-£— ?— T— ---- m ... p-ffp-g^— r-p-e-ff-F1 ^ 44^ =
--- t-l-t-t-rtv'
*
t o

TT

^^ fr',r Can
n t'a t a? , x
1
Ju.fn.lcL.tot ^ l u l r i l a to x J i c b i . la ,. . . . to .
Chaur ' ’ '

F=F i f ' * 2-
x f n c lw r ijf f n h in p c v a ) iTn, ch orcliJ *Tn o r e /a n a C a rU ctn u J %.Jnl>i I c m it.* «ftcbt. Ic . .

> ~r r ' p.
~ i ' '— "
^ w I W — V — ! J y O ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -

'Jtv chanJ^ntim panc u n chardi/Jn otpjaru) CandniiiJt P u b i IrmiLff J u tn

3. The motivic similarity between the opening of this piece and


the "Carillon, gay" on p. 52 above suggests that the two cone from the
same composition.
126

[74]
.r—i
S = r= rT £ ± 2 r-n f I'r f ' r n f ~r~ ~
m
1 ..........//;/&/ kJ u . In. Ic . .t t u u , C a /ito n u j kJ u/ jiM j i i u j ,

"I/r ....... /2zva/ v-Zc/^ ../&. .m a d f C artti/ttiuf i/u Oi.tenuiJ *Juoi U . .


. ,T ,_ . 'fa -p -, o Tg-
_________________ ' ____________________________
m m £
n/< m u d b o . . /<• . .. m u J .
fi
rn r
m W a
i B
/}u u / J i u b i . .m u J.F eJh u n novutiv r c . co _lu7iiur/ Res.pon
( ' / u r u r - ____________
3EtZ

U/v
h
d w r iJ t «///
t li/fifm/io
k r
,7/z c /w t'd u
m n o r .c jaq n o t
,7n Ca/b-

f - f - ' f r— e - r - W - , , V
s
i dcbc, cu m ,pjaL Li. mu*t .Cantcnuw^ubidaniu)f Cccultc.................. rrjiur
/ 4-» e zr
1
E S #
r3& /,iiu d J iL . bo UsiiuJj d i t b i . b e . .................. miu^ d u d i . . i t _ m u** ,

fT zr

n i a/btrmud
i
d ti.b L bem u ./ ,7ubde
-e-

/ZZZZ*/ du. be. .. be. . HUM .


P .rDcJJUJ. a # - f # _______
-C e

^ Fu/rLbfcLrL-Os p r o c jr c .d i. hirtFbos n o -v u d
I
n o - but n a s - c i t o r D u n i IvLa,?.

b \\rrTX$-
m
=| 1 . 1
t n . a
~
p r o j j r e ^ cb. U u ' F b o s .................... n o . a n t d ^ I o j t n o i^no
""a it
r— ------
nohij
¥
— r"— i—
/itur. ct . l u r .
127

[75]

Q:
u z
n O d c a i s /ior. (orunvf O Jit* a i . . tia^lorum ^siL bcj'cid x/i^cat luluim ^ iJ iiim tU .0
T o a .r +
f — +-P-
F r fct±
f F
I
F m
cfccjM /\o r to ru m t O Jiccji ...nxi^fhrt(nvt siU>csc-iJ" J'Ccut lc.U curv^ J /i niexLLO
T + + . ,+ /
u ->- P- -Z # p 9 9-9-
3 r— r A— 14=:
:F= r-^3 f
~^cotvvalluutb . O d c o u s /w rto ru m , O Jtc^au . naj^ioru/nydlbcs-cur i/Ccutli-tLum , J n ,
+ . .. .
f f a r : 9 f t H — 1— r H 4 -
-4-4-4—
— — 4 ------ 4 - J ----- 4 — J - * 9 4 4 4 1
3 3 T-— ^ i

P. Dcsjiu.
ir - ’t P A i o :
E
p p p f
^ m c c h o c v a w d lix w t. J tP iu n p /u P cU c u s h a rto riim , i
2PjD(jj(U-
7 > - r- = T - ^ - r -Z -r-
-C P_
___L
E 3
^ m e d i o cornsa/Uu/rv. T riu tn ph zbR ccju . . n a f io r u m t
i f ______
rarr-ar^-Fy rT gy# 0 — E t
t s
.3
iun- p h tb d c a u Aofi tot'tin V jP riiu n n fh ctT rL

!■' , 1,
r X c-

4 = 4
p h x t d r a w Jiortm'u/ib/ P riu n t

n
312 e— X C-

^ /f//f..... -p/icl-f Rc.cji.ncu f l o . . . r u n v . P r ia m


9 +
t S &
iL..p /ic t T riu n ip h ctllc x/ in ccv
v \•f i n
o .r
. ruu m
m . Tri<unpn-ctdeciis
T r iu m p h s h a i'tcra m .
128

[76]

^ - .p / u t - T r i u m .............. p / i c t 'J'i itajjp/irl7 / 'iwtiph<'f/ ' J ' r ( u m p / u t /lc ^ z l . /?<%,

-r — r— a E jD C lZ E
£ g ±
FT T
l rui/)V phxtTriump/ic-tTr-iunip/etTriunxp/cfllcxji. . tuv
7fxv</.
c_ c=£=Z
1—r
5
~(o-- K 1(117 . CanZaiuurf tjtodi (csiiiurf (Caru/lz. f i w s CcifltUTUlS
T o u j.

■pTi— u o " J— i— / 1 =.1^ 1J— Ty-Li


'.I l f— f
i— T} H
. I— F
'I 1 t l rI r 7 + f^
1 — nun-. cJio n j . in tun/mao, *Jn. chordw in, or.gcuto C an =

r - f T f r T r r t f f f f y f f ...i . , ',, > p „


I
* Jivbi, Ic-ninJ •Jubi'U zzzz/.r £ c u i l . tz,. . . . m us . Jn, d io

f-r-e^rrr
-r—P-
yp=|— i--- 1--------— ---- ----1----- —
a •■ — — '----1 --------- ---- 1— ------------- ■—
c — ^-

~Jb’
s ?ii u^ i / u l / L s U m i u r tC i u b i . l e n u u r <C. ccuL. tx m i w . Ccuvbeiniurf C a n =

> ■ # - P - M- -A— * 0 ---- m■—£— P : i .t d ;


6 &
Jr u f in timpani' J n ch-ordiJj i n a r y a n o f C a n - ft,. n n u / \jiuin,U,- -

't f ^
i
--------f j — J - r .
t o
^ f r i f r r r t ir r #
• 1 tcm/i.r. iJu bvUntilj Clcvultc. . . . . . . . 7 7 . . . . . /zz//«r Canlxytniur

. . . . . . . *

fT nuuf j (Hdcuit x .............. niu*i. CanJxniu^

~F~^= e- -r— r- t o
it
S C a n t n i u u f, iJubiLe ................. . . nuiJ, lJ u -Ix l ?.
129

[77]

r r i r ^ w T r p
n y-htlilc ............ niuj £ cent. . tc. . . . n u jd -.

zZ P E zz
-v*-
■U i -U.

% IcnuuJ, iJit hi / c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /nits J. jcilL . I c ...... trues.

All kinds of [religious3 compositions in Latin may now be

practiced.

[Religious] music in Latin perfects technique, and [secular] music

in French perfects taste. It is not sufficient, for singing well in

French, to know music well, or to have a good voice; one still needs taste,

a soul, flexibility in the voice, and the discernment for giving the text

the expression which it requires, according to its different meanings.

There is no complete agreement on either the symbols for or the

names of the ornaments practiced for the sake of elegance ["la propret^"]^

and diversity in French melody.

4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau defines la proprete as "the execution of


French melody with the ornaments which are appropriate for it, and which
are called agrements du Chant." ("Execution du Chant Franqois avec les
omemens qui lui sont propres, & qu’on appelle agremens du Chant."
Dictionnaire de musique [facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1768 edition;
Hildesheim, Georg 01ms, 19693, p. 390.) The Dictionnaire de Trevoux
equates JLa •pronrete with the Latin elegantia. (Dictionnaire universel
francois et latin...rDictionnaire de Trevoux] [_new edition, corrected and
augmented; Paris, Delaune et al.. 1743-1752], V, col. 565.) Since the
usage here is general in nature, "la proprete" has been translated as
"elegance". On p. 14 in the Nouvelle methode. however, Monteclair speaks
of "cette quantite de tremblements, de balancements,...et d'autres
propretes dont on ne devroit se servir que dans les airs...." In that
context "les propretes" denotes the ornaments themselves.
130
Instructors of the viol, for example, designate the tremblement by

a reversed C, which they place after the note to be trilled, music

teachers ["Les Kaitres de musique"],^ on the contrary, indicate the

tremblement by a small cross which they place before this note, +

organists designate the tremblement by the symbol >,yVx, which they place

above a note in order to indicate that it must be trilled, -j9-; instructors

of the lute, the theorbo, the guitar, and so forth, use other symbols to

designate the tremblement.^

There are teachers who claim, with reason, that what is commonly

called a cadence should really be called a tremblement. since there are

plenty of differences between them. The cadence is an end or a conclusion

of a melody, which functions in music as the period (.) functions in

discourse. There are cadences or conclusions of a melody (a ) without a

tremblement. just as there are tremblements (b ) without cadences.

w/fr, n c ttt # Carf(/icc-,fin,<hl


Ti tr
i m f'/r /n nhvin
n n nNrtti ;
, Tjrc
rcrririd ir r/;iAVi
tn h id n’t tiXmNrc ci*nclti.'tcn fit Chfint-ifafuTrmihlan.-
~ TT V'.l-L . M . M .I <|vM/iyI'.l.fA'i.Y
r x —^ --------r
------------^--------- 1—
p j 7 T ------------------

-fb
T--- i XX XX. F - A

pert
XX

5 . The various meanings of maitre de musioue are discussed in the


Glossary on p. 290.

6. Putnam Aldrich believes that the signs for the various


ornaments probably developed from the annotations penciled into private
copies of scores and that such an origin would explain the lack of
uniformity. ("The Principal Agrements of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth
Centuries" [unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 19423,
P. 34.)
131

Before reaching a cadence (c), a tremblement (d) is often added.

It is this which has been misleading, and has caused the cadence to be

given the name of tremblement.

H . „
'7— r v •-?' H i r " f 1 N . ► • p r 1 ' 7- • 1'
.N 7 ' :. 1 / ! L ... I , 1 r. r 1. 1
W l/ II 1 If . • I 1 t 1
'j'rtnxblrmcnt* C.artenctt. Trcrnblerrunt- Caciencct.

[78] The flate is so named by instructors of the viol; violinists

call it tremblement mineur. There are voice teachers who call it the

battement. It is nearly the same with all the other ornaments to which

different symbols and different names are given. It follows then that the

teachers themselves do not understand each other, and similarly, that a

student who has learned from one teacher does not understand the language,

and does not know the manner of notation, of another.

Music being the same for voices as for instruments, the same names

should be used, and unanimous agreement reached, on the most appropriate

symbols for representing the melodic ornaments. I will follow in this the

usage and the opinion of the good teachers whom I have consulted,
r 7
particularly M . Grenet, with the restriction that I will call a

7• Francois-Lupien Grenet (1699-1753)» & coach and music director


(maitre de musique) at the Paris Opera from 1733 to 1739 and at the
Academie de Lyon from 1739 until his death. He composed a divertissement.
Le triomohe de 2J_amiti£, 1714; a ballet-heroique. Le triomnhe de
1'harmonie, 1737, to which a new act, Apollon, berger d'Admete. was added
in 1745; and several motets, two of which were performed at the Concert
Spirituel in 1734 and 1735. (See ”Grenet,” Encyclopedic de la musique
[ed. by Francois Michel; Paris, Fasquelle, 1958-1961], II, p. 352; Marie
Briquet, "Grenet, Francois-Lupien.” Die Husik in Geschichte und Gerenwart.
V, col. 810; and Leon Valias, Un siecle de musioue et de theatre k Lyon,
1688-1789 [Lyon, P. Masson, 1932], pp. 231-233 and passim.)
152

tremblement what is commonly called a cadence. It is almost impossible to

teach, through the written word, the proper ways of executing.these

ornaments, since the live voice of an experienced teacher is hardly

sufficient for this; nevertheless, before passing on to French music, I

will endeavor to explain them with as little confusion as possible.

0
There are eighteen principal melodic ornaments. They are as

follows; the coule(passing appoggiatura), the port de voix (rising

appoggiatura), the chute (falling anticipation), the accent, the

tremblement (trill), the nince (mordent), the flate.(vibrato), the

balancement (tremolo), the tour de gosier (turn), the passage (inter­

polation), the.diminution, the coulade (slurred run), the trait

(articulated run), the .son fil£ (straight tone or senza vibrato),.the son

enfl€ (crescendo), the son diminue (diminuendo), the son glisse (slide),

and the sanglot (sob).

The Coul$ (Passing Appoggiatura) ^

The coule is an ornament which softens a melody’s contours and

renders it smooth by slurring its notes together. It is used on various

occasions, particularly when the melody descends in thirds. Ordinarily

there is no symbol which characterizes it;^ taste decides the places

where it must be used.

8. It will be remembered that in the first part of the treatise


(on p. 20 above) MontSclair names three principal ornaments: the coule,
port de voix, and tremblement or cadence.

9. See p. 262 below in the Commentary.

10. On p. 21 above, in the first section of the treatise,


Monteclair says that a slur mark is used to indicate the coule.
133
Nevertheless there are teachers who designate it by a small note

(a), connected with the main note (b) to which it must be slurred, from

which [procedure] it takes its name; or by a simple slur-mark (c).

ys' Q Tit retd cs\rlicaidant- V-o- Vo-


a
o e xz
E
P ccjttt- couZr A 1¥ A TS couic-- CCHlU-
r e a o
¥ XX
5 to

Ija.Jda,-rt e, n u C u ut re, fu, m i c ifol m i t La- m i i •J't m i t di u. u t re La a ntr re-

[79] When the words express anger, or when the melody has a

hurried tempo, the descending thirds are not filled in.

71trrl- ■ m tiuacud .
4,
£ r, t 1
/7zZ lcm her tmnhcr ban- tannerrt,. Feu- totnd>tr/pzv tatnher tony tvnn crrc- the

The Port de voix (Rising Appoggiatura)

When the melody ascends by conjunct steps from a subordinate note

(d ) to a main note (e ), in order to rest on the latter of these two notes.

11. The types of coule shown in Monteclair’s example illustrate


the four forms of superior appoggiatura described by Putnam Aldrich: (l)
a middle note between the two notes of a descending third (the second
measure of the example); (2) an unprepared appoggiatura one degree above
the main note and approached from any interval above or below it (the first
beat of the third measure); (3) a suspension of a note at a step above the
main note (fifth measure, first beat); and (4) a repetition of an
immediately preceding note at some other interval above the main note (the
seventh, eighth, and ninth measures). ("The Principal Agr&nents,” pp. 88-
89. See also pp. 261-263 in the Commentary.)
134

the port de voix is often employed, above all when the interval is but a

semitone. It is not indicated at all the places where it must be used;

taste and experience give this knowledge.

The port de voix is sometimes indicated by a small accessory note

(?), which serves it as a preparation and which takes the name [solfege

syllable] of the main note (g ) to which it is slurred and to which the

voice must be raised. It is also indicated by this symbol, V (h ). The

port de voix (l) is the inversion of the coule (k ).*2 I believe that this

symbol, / , would be more suitable than the symbol V, for indicating the

port de voix.13

p a r t de, voox.
D . B. D . E .
i i i p l p
X):
cU-nu.- tv-rx,. £
Pcr-t rlr tViir.
v "cm- ,
H P o r t dc voix.. Cou/t*.
B -G - -V—
X

p arade
$ XI * -a $ xt
'\Hrux.. m e ^Jxxs-cu ^Jvv m i - 1 n u jtu-CL Xo i La-cl.

The Chute (Falling Anticipation)

The chute is an inflection of the voice, which after having

sustained a tone for some time (l ) falls gently and as if dying out, to a

lower scale degree (m ), without pausing there. This ornament is indicated

by a small note (n ).

12. See the discussion on pp. 261-263 in the Commentary.

13. Monteclair may have borrowed this symbol from Etienne Loulie,
who uses it for the chute as well as for the port de voix. (Elements ou
principes de musioue [facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1696 edition; Geneva,
Minkoff Reprints, 1971], pp. 68-69.)
135

n: a -e-
-O
# XT

ChuJts. Chulx.
I « 3if, Ij M. %«/( Qiutt, X c r t dt. v e in .
-xx. o —
I e- 3Z
EEg $
X ~nurC~Ta Ul cv n il */o o l id? ac re u frc ^ c l

[80] The chute gives a grand ornament to melodies of pathos,

Cduttc.. C /utte. C&t/feZ. CA u / tj,


-0 - -Q 2 X
l: e-
t
1 JT
H Li.
"p^ FZ FZ c k ilt Tt7~^T7T~Z~ /7lt_ XS" ^
ifa.. CL &/L .
J ja d c a /c tc r cjuc j c i f end- /iCs . . - . Lg s • iX c

Accent

The accent is a mournful exhalation ["aspiration"]^^ or elevation

[in pitch] of the voice, which is used more often in plaintive than in

tender airs. It is never used in gay airs, or in those which express

anger.

It is formed in the chest by a sort of sob, at the extreme end of

a note of long duration, or a main note ( o ) , causing the scale degree ( p )

immediately above the accented note to be heard for a short while.

The accent is sometimes indicated by a small note, or by this

symbol, 1.

[Example is on following page]

14. See p. 285 in the Glossary.


136

(Iccent.
noltJvrluClcccnt 1
OrrtrU-
Port tit
O;^ — \XMJC.
o o
3
-Dcnur.
T
*yt-••••*- ^ zrr j—|
-Q --r.
s
repos, Dans res rfcscrts. s #
Ltdc m a nuiin fuLisfveujvmloz ijtu/pcrisstt.

Trembleaent (Trill)

Of all the melodic ornaments, the tremblement, which the Italians

call trillo^ and which the French call, through corruption, cadence. holds

the first rank, in that it is the most brilliant and that it is found more

often than the others. That is why too much trouble cannot be taken with

its proper formation, the more so since those who execute it poorly are

never able to sing in a manner which is agreeable.

The tremblement is formed by the concurrence of two conjunct

pitches or scale degrees, produced successively in the throat as a sort of

warbling, through the use of quick, flexible, distinct beats or pulsations,

slurred to each other. Several successive coules done without a pause

form, after a fashion, the tremblement.

15. Sebastien de Brossard defines the trillo as "cadence" or


"tremblement", but adds that very often (especially in Italian music) it
refers to rapid repeated notes on the same pitch. (Dictionaire de musioue
[facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1703 edition; Amsterdam, Antiqua, 1964],
"Trillo.") His definition reflects the increasing tendency to define
trillo in the modern sense. Aldrich notes that it was the early 17th-
century Roman school of composers— Cavalieri, Landi, Kazzocchi, e_t al.—
who were responsible for the exchange of definitions between trillo, which
originally meant repetitions of the main note, and tremolo, originally an
oscillation beginning on the main note and alternating between it and an
upper or lower neighbor. By the end of the 17th century the trillo became
clearly associated with its present meaning. ("The Principal Agrements,"
pp. 300-302.)
The perfect tremblement is produced in the lower part of the

throat, without the chest giving any impetus and without the coules or

pulsations being [81] shaken out either by means of exhalations or through

tremulousness.

j?:
■sf-^ T T r t r t ^
/m r< tn i rc-c-c-c m i rc-c .- m i rc-CbCc- "
dcwt ojulej. (ju a lrc C cultJ . «y}zx cou L u -

The coules, or beats of the throat, are repeated more or fewer

times and made more or less rapidly, according to whether the note on

which the tremblement is indicated has a longer or shorter value, or

according to the meaning of the words.

The softly or slowly trilled tremblement is suitable for languorous

and plaintive melodies.

The tremblement sung in a quick or lively manner suits serious,

fast, and gay melodies. One must not hold the voice inside, when singing

the tremblement; on the contrary, one must let the voice go when pushing

the air out.

Sometimes the tremblement is ended with a chute (q ), and sometimes

with a tour de rosier (r ); this is what is called closing the tremblement.


138
There are four kinds of tremblements. as follows:

The tremblement anmv£. indicated thus. ........ . ."t .

The tremblement subit. designated by..........

The tremblement feint, indicated b y . . . . . . . . . . . . /x^Vx..

The tremblement double, designated by ........ . .X .

Tremblement apnuve (Prepared Trill)

The tremblement is prepared by sustaining the voice on the scale

degree immediately above the note to be trilled.

This preparation [of the trill] has a longer or shorter duration

according to whether the note for which the tremblement is destined is

longer or shorter, or according to the degree of liveliness of the tempo.

In order to perform a tremblement perfectly, one must prepare it

well, trill it well, and end it well. The tremblement is called "pearly”
16
when its pulsations are equal and make an agreeable ["gracieux"] effect

in the throat.

[82] The preparation of the tremblement is often indicated either

by a long ["forte"] note (a ) or by a shorter ["foible"] note (b ), both of

which have the same [musical] result.

16. The word gracieux was originally a term used only in


connection with painting. By the late 17th century it was used to
describe persons; in the early 18th century it was defined as meaning not
only "civil" and "obliging", but also "agreeable". (See Dominique
Bouhours, Doutes sur la langue francoise [facsimile reprint of the Paris,
1674 edition; Brighton, University of Sussex, 1971], p. 38, and the
Dictionnaire de Trevoux. Ill, col. 884.)
139

S iutt Cadcnct.

The high treablement and the low tremblement are equally

disagreeable.

The high tremblement is the one in which the pulsations are higher

than their natural places.

T r c m b Zcm - h a i t t .

e I I!
mnuvauf r -Z

The low tremblement is the one in which the pulsations begin on

and descend below the trilled note.

T re m b U rn tn t Zrz.r.

The tremblement in which the pulsations are thirds, fourths, etc.

is ugly.

B a t t r / i i P d t T ic r c e j. J l a t t t/y it* d r Qua r t o .


1! » » • • C,,-- . --
#
r V w,* r . P ^ 'yf j >z p tw U
n 1_ — 1 V — ^-1 1 /
'rtiAui^uu. V' rruuLvcutf. V
140

The quavering tremblement ["chevrott^"] is sometimes made in the

chest and sometimes in the higher part of the throat. These subdued and

overly quick pulsations have the effect of the bleating of a goat. This

tremblement is intolerable.

The quavering tremblement. either the one formed by shaking the

chin or the one produced in the head voice, indicates an almost insur­

mountable defect.

The tremblement may be trilled more quickly when its end has nearly

been reached.

In learning to perform the tremblement properly, one must start by

preparing it well and trilling it slowly; and as the throat becomes

flexible, one practices making the pulsations faster and faster.

Tremblement subit ("Unprepared" Trill)

The tremblement subit is trilled at once, without a preparation.

It is used more often in recitative than in airs.

Trtinbttrn^ Carlcnccou
ifubil'- tfubik • p CaicUu'ioiX’
t
E 1
S E E £ £
za r.

TvTarcJicz.f ccm re^j -vo.U z.) cjii& to u t 'lo tu J'oit <.fou mL>

[8 3 ]

'•r.Ju btt rIh ifuAtb.


-e- +o
s $
m
/\i jv-ay cj ctujoun/ain oti Ic a c t tn’
a faitr/iaib'c,. cjut naiu/ liutr.
141

Trephlement feint (incomplete Trill)

The tremblement feint is prepared at first as if one were planning

to perform a complete tremblement: but instead of trilling for a long time,

only a small beat in the throat, whose pulsation is almost imperceptible,

is given after this preparation and at the end of the note.

LJ t J l-c m b l.

.!)» '%,,/T , _ • b f M a n ia v </e (c Jin'nur-


7T "X T "

e. tee.. qnez. ddTcxf y c i u : c -t r i. q n & z , d a n j 'voj (a rm ed ’

The tremblement feint is used when the sense of the words is

incomplete, or when the melody has not yet reached its conclusion.

'IWrntf. feint ’fn Int. PaCM h Cadent.

If U r n . ’ ,/u
E eS e e e S jr -e-
p a f frit.) / / * / / -
17
—^ ^ r jlm r c . cte> iw h c* re f^ tviir/*f/i.e-jda. re> hmftrd vo j c h \r . y r a . . red*

After having properly prepared the tremblement feint, the voice

sometimes sounds the scale degree immediately above the note of

preparation. This scale degree will be indicated hereafter by a small

note (C).

17. Monteclair probably intended that a + , rather than a yv^C\, be


used to indicate the tremblement subit on the syllable "-pa-”.
142
This small note must be combined with the beat in the throat which

ends the tremblement feint, in such a way that these two sounds are

slurred together and not separated.

1 - •b
-4.— f— ■
------- \— — *— r-e--- +—
F;----- '— ::
V—
---- 1 ---------- —

<£.. l e t . .c. ({a/hf -ixyd lcuyne*f,

It sometimes happens that after having prepared the tremblement

feint, one trills a little on the note where this ornament is indicated,

without, however, finishing the tremblement. This is indicated by

ZL
m l
I
IB
iJ c d csccn cb a u trm ib^ n u-

[84] Tremblement double (Trill with Turns)

The tremblement double could be indicated by the following symbol,

l. The tremblement double, which is commonly called double cadence,

contains three conjunct scale degrees which will be indicated hereafter by

three small notes, as follows: The highest note (d ) alternates with the

18. This example is a variant of the eighth stave, third through


fifth measures, of the selections found on p. 164 below. The quarter note
on "torn-" is a C in the later example, rather than an A.

19. In the table on p. 138 above, Monteclair uses the symbol X


for the tremblement double.
143

trilled note (e ), after which the voice falls quickly to another lower

step (f ). It then reascends promptly by means of a tour de eosier to the

note with the tremblement (g ), in order to rest on a long note (h ), as in

the example:

±-Q l

T /.F . Gr I-£
Ibas* Ju.
vattrmtn/j. gositr.

The tremblement double is often found in tender airs, where there

are many passages indicated by small notes, as may be seen in the doubles'
21 22
of Lambert, of Dambruis, and of other past composers.

20. A double, as defined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is an air whose


melody, simple in itself, is varied and ornamented by the division of its
notes into smaller values in such a way that the original line is still
recognizable. The difference between a double and individual ornaments is
that a double, once begun, must be continued to its end in the same ornate
manner, while individual elaborations— fleurtis or broderies— may be used
or omitted at the performer’s pleasure. (Dictionnaire de musioue. p. 174.)

21. Michel Lambert (1610-1696), a singer and voice teacher highly


respected during his lifetime. Lambert spent the earlier part of his life
in the service of Gaston of Orleans (elder brother of Louis XIII) and Mile
de Montpensier (Gaston’s daughter); from 1661 until his death, he served
as Maitre de Musioue de la Chambre du Roi. Lambert also collaborated on
several ballets with Jean-Baptiste Lully, who married his daughter in 1662.
Lambert’s compositions include several collections of airs; various numbers
in the Ballet des arts (1663), Ballet des amours deguises (1664), and
Ballet de la naissance de Venus (1665); and a set of Leyons de Tenebres
(1689). (j7 R. Anthony, "Lambert, Michel" [to appear in the 6th ed. of
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. by Stanley Sadie].)

22. Honore Dambruis (fl. ca. 1685), voice teacher, highly praised
and respected for his works; the Bibliotheque du Conservatoire (Paris) owns
\
144

The Pince (Mordent)

The pinc£ has no symbol to designate it [in vocal music]; it is

often made, when a main note is reached, by a quick pulsation of the

throat.

In order to perform it correctly, the voice must first be lifted

to the scale degree of the main note (l); then it must descend to the next

step (k ), after which the voice reascends at once to the main note (l ), in

order to rest there. This will be better understood through the use of

small accessory notes.

Jim pto. I K. L
-O'-trO-
<7(77717

La m i L . m i mi. laJ'a.a.a. m i

The port de voix is always accompanied by a pince.23

a collection of his airs. The parish baptismal records of St-Germain


I'Auxerrois show that on 17 January 1672 Dambruis stood as godfather to the
son of Adam Roussel and Anne Beauvais. (Yolande de Brossard, Musicians de
Paris. 1535-1792 [Paris, A. et J. Picard, 1965], p. 264, col. 1; Robert
Eitner [comp.], Biographisch-Bibliographisches Quellen-Lexikon [2nd rev.
ed.; facsimile reprint of the Leipzig, 1900 edition and 1912-1914 supple­
ment; Graz, Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1959-1960], III, p. 136,
col. 2 - p. 137, col. 1; Musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon [founded by
Hermann Mendel, completed by August Reissmann; 2nd ed.; Berlin, Robert
Oppenheim, 1880-1887], III, p. 61; J. B. de Laborde, Essai sur la musioue
ancienne et moderne [reprinted from the Paris, 1780 edition as Microcards
UR58-495 - UR58-540 by the University of Rochester], III, p. 410.)

23. It will be noted that on p. 133 above Monteclair does not


mention the pince in connection with the port de voix. Apparently the use
of the port de voix with the pince was such a common practice in
Monteclair's time that he very nearly considered it unnecessary to mention
it. (See Aldrich, "The Principal Agreinents,” p. 498.) Monteclair may also
have wished to avoid confusing the beginning student of ornamentation by
presenting him with too much new material at once.
145

— n — i—
1 -g-. f rr— r , 1 )■
J J - j" V : ^ 2 . ^--- i=--- r r L -
= ---- 4_!--- ---------------- 1 ——
---- k— I -— L
—I re. jtii fu.a.a-a. <fcf la <.ft u- - uil. utr

[85] The Plate (Vibrato)

The flate is a sort of fluctuation which the voice makes by means

of many small soft exhalations on a note of long duration or on a note of

rest, without raising or lowering the pitch. This ornament produces the

same effect as the vibration of a stretched string which is set in motion

with a finger. Until the present there has been no symbol to designate it;
2A
it could be indicated by a wavy line,-- *— .

^ ■— v in ./ ^ 7 ! ' e m 61. I r e /tv b l.


JPmcx..(Iccftilr. 5.— _ c^ulc. cJxutxs- __ t/uStb. Cadsncc*.
-e-d
g t
ol u b. ub u t m b lU? u bx/i a t utr Ju L eJiu brc r e - e,. uc u t.

If the flate were used on all important notes, it would become

intolerable, in that it would make the melody tremulous and too monotonous.

mauuai*/. mtuuMitd. n i a u t ’a i s .
c/wit.
I I , CadintL -

— w-4----- -y— 1_4_— j— i— - .1 — t— i-j----- — w -------- z-i— ^ —


>■ „'n > rj , / 1 JPutc/-
r, / // '
I’mci.fiah.. fbato JEhncLaccc/ibffatiL appuyUrtmb-

24. Putnam Aldrich believes that Konteclair's comments are the


first written indication of a vibrato in French vocal performance. He
notes that (l) according to Monteclair, the effect is the same as that of a
146
Balancement (Tremolo)

The balancement. which the Italians call tremolo.produces the

effect of the tremulant stop on the organ.

In order to execute it well, the voice must make many small

exhalations, slower and more marked than those of the flate.

The syllable found on the first of the notes with the tremolo is

used for all other notes embraced by the symbol .

m<7 In Ml? trr..... zrt. trcrru .... oltaivxwt It Jcujruur,


Touttrc/n -ble tmittrxrru

Tour de rosier (Turn)

The tour de gosier is indicated by the symbol . The five notes

used to form it are sung on one breath, and traverse only three conjunct

scale degrees.

For it to be performed correctly, the voice is sustained on the

main note where the symbol f\j is indicated (k ); it mounts then to the step

string set in motion by a finger; (2) Marais, Hotteterre, and Corrette call
the vibrato a flate or flattenent; and (3) Konteclair is aware that instru­
mentalists also call the flate a tremblement nineur (another term used by
Hotteterre for the vibrato). ("The Principal Agrements," pp. 447-448.)

25. Sebastien de Brossard comments that the tremolo involves


several rapid bow strokes, in the same direction and on the same pitch, as
if in imitation of the tremulant of the organ. He states further that it
is often found in vocal parts, as, for example, in the "Trembleurs" from
Lully’s Isis. (Dictionaire de musique. "Tremolo.") According to Eugene
Borrel, Lully's "Trembleurs" made the use of undulating sounds for the word
trembler popular. ("Notes sur 1'orchestration de 1'opera Jenhte de
Konteclair [1733] et de la Symnhonie des Siemens de J.-F. Rebel [1737]"
[La revue mueicale. numero special 226 (l955)]» p. 109.)
147

immediately above (N); then it descends [86] to the same scale degree as

the main note ( o ) , after which it falls to the step next below the note of

preparation (p ), and to finish it, reascends to the note of preparation

(q ), in order to rest there.

After having held the note of preparation, the throat must make

its turn by passing quickly from that first note to the fifth one and

making a sort of very sudden tremblement on the second small note ( o ) .

This ornament forms a warbling in the throat which is difficult to execute,

and still more difficult to explain. The tour de gosier is a kind of


26
tremblement feint.

Manner of Forming the Tour de gosier

O-vV.
G—r - o — o -

p s a t P rc -o ufr ic t
T h e /11
bitrtl? M. -N-O. _p
u i ..... : %
tC

Passage (Interpolation)

The passage is made in many different ways, as may be seen below,

and even better in the airs which former composers called doubles.

It is indicated by small accessory notes which serve to guide the

voice over all the pitches which they cover.

26. Aldrich points out that the turn was the introductory
component of the double cadence, and that if the latter ornament were made
as short as possible, it would have the form of a turn. He also observes
that the turn was so well identified as the introduction to the double
cadence that even when it appeared alone it was often called a double
cadence. ("The Principal Agrements," pp. 220, 223-225.) Thus Konteclair
does not mean that there must be a sudden tremblement on (0) in addition to
the notes written in the example, but that the notes there together form a
sudden tremblement on (0), which is actually the main note.
148

The passages are arbitrary; each person may make more or fewer of

them, following his taste and his inclination. They are used less in vocal

music than in instrumental, especially at present when instrumentalists,

in order to imitate Italian taste, disfigure the nobility of simple

melodies with variations which are often ridiculous.

Chant Jim[ilo. ^
$
XL -o- XX XL x>- XL XXL XL U JX unrr -o- : m =

tJ d-u/xt, %fulLl dLiuktu%fiiiLt** PassatjtJ


haleint*. tiaUint* diuit\ftulcha/tint-.
C/m tit Junplt, P a jj-cu jtj on JDouhLcJ.
-fC -t-X
XL XJ
Ur-9-
=T

27
The incomparable Lully, that superior genius whose works will

always be esteemed by true connoisseurs, preferred melody, beautiful

modulation, agreeable harmony, accuracy of expression, naturalness, and

lastly, noble simplicity, to the ridiculousness of the doubles and of those

abnormal compositions whose supposed merit [873 consists only in

digressions, in unexpected modulations, in the harshness of chords, in

noise, and in confusion. All of these false splendors betray the aridity

of the composer's genius; nevertheless, they continue to be imposed on

ignorant ears.

27. Lully was known to have disliked the addition of ornamentation


to his recitatives. During the 18th century, however, great liberties
were taken with his works. (j. R. Anthony, French Baroque Music from
Beau.ioveulx to Rameau [New York, V. W. Norton, 1974], pp. 79, 112T)
149
Diminution

The diminution is not arbitrary, in that the notes which compose it

are doubled or quadrupled and that they retain their intrinsic value in the

measure.

Coulade (Slurred Run)

The coulade is indicated by many small accessory notes which form

a series of ascending or descending conjunct scale degrees, and which can

be made use of or dispensed with, without interrupting the progress, the

coherency, or the beauty of the melody.

Trait (Articulated Run)

The difference between the trait and the coulade consists only in

that all the notes are articulated in the trait (a ), and that they are

slurred in the coulade (b ). The trait requires a stroke of the bow, or

an articulation of the tongue for wind instruments, for each note; and in
150
the coulade, all these notes are sounded on a single bow-stroke, on a

single articulation of the tongue, or on the same syllable.

Trait/.
Traib-

[88] Son file (Straight Tone or Senza Vibrato)

The son file is executed on a note of long duration, by holding

out the voice without its vacillating the slightest bit. The voice must

be, so to speak, as smooth as ice throughout the entire duration of the

note.

Son enfle and diminue (Crescendo and Diminuendo)

For a sound to increase in volume properly, it must first depart

from the chest, and begin in half-voice; it is drawn out, and strengthened

little by little by pushing and extending the voice, until it has reached

its greatest volume. One must avoid beginning the increase in sound with

the head voice or the falsetto, because one cannot pass from that voice to

full voice without a break or separation appearing.

There is no symbol designating the son enfle and the son diminue.
r 28
Thus M . de-Planes, an Italian, was obliged to ask me how he could

28. Giovanni Antonio Piani (l678-?), violinist and composer, known


as Des Planes while in France. During the first part of the 18th century
151
indicate this ornament in certain places in his Sonates. I advised him to

use a line which thickened in proportion as it was extended, for the son

enfle, and which diminished, on the other hand, for the son diminue.

He made use of this innovation with success, and as it comes from


2Q
me I will use it here.

tTcvz,c/jntm uc. J'civ cnftt'-


O ’ - n — ___u L™n..i u 0 (J 7/
— — --- ----- ---
•1 w.----- 1-----
----- LL----
----------
L _ ^
tuxcf

Son glisse (Slide)

It is difficult to communicate, by means of the written word, the

nature of the sound which I have called glisse, and almost as difficult to

form it well orally.

I will make use of a comparison, to try to make myself understood.

Piani was in the service of Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, Count of Toulouse;


from 1721 until 1757 he was at the court of Charles VI and Maria Theresa
in Vienna. (Ulisse Prota-Giurleo, "Piana {[Piano, Piani] : Famiglia di
musicisti napoletani,” Enciclonedia della musica [ed. by Claudio Sartori;
Milan, Ricordi, 1963-1964], III, p. 430.) In 1712 Piani published a set
of Sonates a. violon seul et violoncello avec le clavecin. Lionel de La
Laurencie considers this set of violin sonatas significant because (l) it
was the first Italian collection of instrumental pieces to be published in
Paris after the sonatas of Corelli in 1708, and (2) its introduction or
"Avertissement" discusses several violin techniques as they would have
been used around 1710. (L'^cole franqaise de violon. de Lully _a Viotti
[facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1922-1924 edition; Geneva, Minkoff
Reprints, 1971], I, p. 191.) These sonatas have been edited by Barbara
Garvey Jackson and were published in 1975 by A-R Editions, Madison, Wis.,
as Vol. 20 in Recent Researches in Music of the Baroque Era.

29. See p. 264 in the Commentary.


152
When taking a step forward or backward, the foot is lifted, and

carried to the spot where it is to be placed.

In singing a conjunct interval, the voice is lifted perceptibly up

to the second note of the interval.

A step may also be taken to its end by sliding the foot without

lifting it from the ground, as is done in dancing. The son gliss€ has,

after a fashion, the same effect, since the voice must rise or descend

without interruption, [89] gliding from one pitch to another nearby and

passing smoothly through all the almost indivisible parts contained in the

semitone or the tone, without any breaks being heard in this transition.

Viol players, for example, instead of lifting their fingers up to a

fret near one where they already have a finger placed, gently slide their

fingers the length of the string from one fret to the other, in order to

perform this ornament.

Examples drawn from my cantata Pan et Sirinx,^ and from the air
31
"Terminez mes tourments," from the opera Iris tsic].

.30. Pan et Sirinx was published about 1716 as the fourth work in
Montg’
clair's second book of cantatas. (Cantates a une et _a deux voix et
avec sinfonie. Second livre TParis. 1*auteur, (n.d.)] , pp. 33-52.
Contained in a microfilm of Vm 7.165, made by the Service Photographique
of the Bibliotheque Rationale fParis], and provided courtesy of George
Houle. The date is suggested by Simone Wallon, "Monteclair, Michel Pinolet
[Pignolet] de," Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. IX, col. 504.)

31. The selection is taken from Lully’s Isis (1677.), Act V,


Scene 1, and is sung by the character lo. In each of the three staves,
the instructions accompanying the ornament may be translated as follows;
"Slide imperceptibly from the flat to the natural." "Slide imperceptibly
from the Si^ to the Si)5, while allowing the sound to die out.". "Slide in
pitch from the small note to the half note." (Concerning the combination
of port de voix and son glissg, see p. 266 in the Commentary.)
153

JPtrrb
He Voice. C c u itn c c ,
H.
g
if on, CUssc tl tJifte- ert rnontnnt
iJ t U tr c f h ........................ <3^ iVcr J cn iffU 'd .
i f o r v n lis< rc c k disJuniLCj cn d c x 'c n d c u if .
Cotdez, ^ --- „ - fJuitxs. CctcLenoc,.
-O 4-e-
HfJ €+'Cff.
au Ji nciiiu'ci nioi/t l>e/?io( Ceults.
csv l a x s j - c u i t n i o u r i / ' I c d o n ,
tncurH dc dcn tU u r.
Cfi/vox. It.ifcn, dt. Ul
pttitit. ntttfa. in frinncAju•
zv I

I d c iu .. rcu* ...... tzc, h e u re u ,- ft* if l f c niJuirs.

Sanglot (Sob)

It would seem by the term sanglot, that this ornament should be

used only in lamentations; nevertheless, it is used to express several

very different passions.

The sanglot is a spontaneous expression of emotion ["un entou-


32
siasmeH] which originates in the depths of the chest, and is formed by a

violent exhalation ["aspiration"] which can be heard externally only as a

muffled and suffocated breath.

The sanglot precedes the actual vocal sound, with which it is

closely connected, and when the voice is extended according to the value

32. During the 18th century, 1'enthousiasme could mean the spon­
taneous gesture that an artist or poet might make while completely
preoccupied with the creation of his composition. (Dictionnaire de la
langue frangaise, abrege du dictionnaire de Emile Littre [ed. by Amedee
Beaujean; Paris, Gallimard et Hachette, 1965-1968], III, p. 832.)
154

of the note or the force of the passion [of the words], it almost always

finishes with an accent or a chute.

The sanglot is used in the liveliest pain, in the greatest

sadness, in laments, in tender melodies, in anger, in [90] contentment,

and even in joy.

It is almost always used on the first syllable of the word helas!

and on the exclamations ah!, eh!, and o_!

Example Taken from Jenhte

Jfc/u/V OU^'°n 'CJultXj.

Jdc
:q :
it
S m
Lcur: H e, L a s'. JvTcu F U lc, ahJ
J ,tnx<
^ CUVt‘
^fa n g let-. < ir 'I b
u a
I
^ 3"/: Jiutri, cst? it cb'csstJ p o u r toy? M ' U comrtierUr* eJh! pxnu
Trttnbltnu J'on^Taiii*. CLcxxnir. fjW-^
r^ L- ^ ^
I
- y tio y ! voulca. /vou.i qiLCje dou/ciir m o n ZrZ/z,.

Jang I I SubigouyOH.." H d a n J X ' -f-


e-
B A ! 11
I
s v/ZtV cjuei fwn/ieur f cjiul jjla L r ir ! ~HJv \>tnqcoiis }ioud
cujuri die rt.rlc,.

33. Monteclair's Jenhte. a trag^die-lvrioue based on a Biblical


incident, was first performed on 28 February 1732. (Jules Carlez, Un opera
biblioue au XVIII6 siecle [Caen, F. Le Blanc-Hardel, 1879], p. 11.)
Monteclair’s definition of the sanglot as an "aspiration" leaves
the nature of this ornament somewhat unclear. (See the Glossary, p. 285.)
The use of the word "helan" ("impetus" or "effort") in the first and fourth
155

Good pronunciation of words gives the last perfection to French

singing. In order to pronounce well one must know how to move the mouth

in such a manner that each vowel can be given either a clear sound or a

muffled One, whichever is suitable, One pronounces in singing as in

speaking, except that since in singing, sounds are held longer than in

ordinary speech, the consonants before or after the vowels must be

articulated more vigorously.

In order to sing well, one must not open the mouth twice on the

same sound, especially for the ports de voix; because, for example, instead

of making the sound el, one produces ou-a. The voice must not master the

singer. On the contrary, the singer must make it obey right from the

beginning, by making it full and natural in such a way that it comes

directly from the chest, for fear that in passing through the head or the

nose it would degenerate into a falsetto, through its having been muffled.

One must then practice carrying, connecting, and drawing out sounds

well, and rendering them [91] smoothly flowing in -tender melodies,

mournful in melodies of pathos, firm in airs of [rapid] tempo, quick in

gay airs, and abrupt in melodies which express liveliness or anger,_

One must, whether standing or seated, hold oneself with good grace,

the body straight and the head elevated without affectation.

staves as an alternative to the term sanglot implies that the sanglot


could be produced by an expulsion, as well as by an intake, of breath.
The term jettS, which appears in the fourth stave, was a less
common alternative for subit during the 18th century, (Aldrich, "The
Principal Agrements," p. 206.)
156

One must not gesticulate while singing, or make grimaces with the

mouth, the eyes, or the forehead.

One ought not to beat the meter with the head or the body; one must

beat it gracefully and without noise, with the right hand or with the foot.

The trouble of beating out the meter would be avoided, if the value

of the notes and the tempo were well fixed in one's mind.

A single note is sometimes used for two syllables which are written

below it; but it is necessary to remark that but one syllable is made from

those two, in order to avoid the hiatus which is found between two words

where the first ends with a muted _e and the second begins with a vowel.

Thus in suppressing the muted e. which is the end of the first word, there

remains no more than one syllable for each note. For example, pronounce

_o Sagesse admirable! as o_ Sagess' admirable!

_P_ * fT Z cuiva JU f.
H l a i i o a u . _
_ P - • _ iJ B o t v .

O <Vaz_— j7<v*— (a xl-m i-rabU S - O Jcl— cjcs-- «_/'admL — r a b lts !


(bruVlcrmrvvV)

The muted e, (a ) is articulated when one finishes a feminine line,

even though the first word of the following line may begin with a vowel

(b ), in order that the rhyme of the two lines may be perceived.

[ Example is on following page]


157

P o rt decent
.
_
.
.
t/v IV /J"
Slurt
e- e- -w<
ZT
tt A.
dzt la lc U tn w trislc .r c rn i, iwl'.t n u v p c i. nc o r ,c c .r _ J~i- tO
aulon..
L’ C/mtc.
U'TLOrV' IsflUfC* 'n t/
'Cr ,l l
r______
' Tr.Kmt-.
____ Temti'.. A B

3Z I
' • pnr-*
r v . t/>»e jxT r-non '
1' m pnrmo — c* -rr'oy iin
i,n* c i l - i/ en ^ na t - t t / i — h
o j)n —rnsnf Z3-

[92]
Trr/nir/tni ^ Srcftib. TremJ>: f
«yrvA//t. XJ-
p , op^L _ j y , - /r Culrn^
a—
" 6
/ = i ^ -i:i - - i
T ] _ E R-
i ■■:
crn-cluj-1&f\
3S cfkAAt-
Ip r r tc jv rn a p r i —e — r p u/ic^ o /WZ./o a tU n — h ' isc >.

Monosyllables

Roy* foy. moyt sol, doit, croit. etc. are pronounced with a single

motion [of the mouth], because if the mouth is opened twice, they are

pronounced rou-ay. fou-ay. mou-av. sou-ai. dou-ait. crou-ait. etc.^

34. See pp. 269-271 in the Commentary.


158

Selections Taken from the Biblical Tragedy Jenhte

iJejyfifa.Slcbr JP.r pcujc* 35.


o

•l'l— ‘A
V' i/otirdauv cm, U, citL ni cbjciut riaitrcs, I f curaiccj!
* , Cadtncc,
7---- A_ tryy e-
TP
fc=i
E -I H
e t niillts
ttF
fuutrciux:! it,j o u r c j u i v o L L f rc/ici cv m u ihziux^. ftciux, d i e =
-f- f -f" ^ ^
nw ■im - C . i L t $
£
=r u c u t d o r i c v o i u qiLct^J-iri j c , 'Vtmr p c L r a i t r C ’^ ^>rcJ iuv ccrxL

arE ^ rt r f
r L <j o u r c u c v , . JZv. .V cvm cs dco <Jour*
llccctcU*/'

i^ylfau*^ c j u c l ajjf'cciai, d ' p c c tnc lc . U i e u t ^ r a p p e r m u rccpardf! Jjcs d t u /it* =


-W
S: #
P=
- m u c i e , D l c u J'ci/l s cf'ciuitz>/ J a n j olhr. tziclfj ifur ccj btnrf.i n i a l / i a . m a u x ' s
^ 6-ulencts.

plcuibcntUunt d. t t u x .. c l a r j . Qiu. dLrja ? b m t p c . . . r i b •J'ur ccj J'c u i _=


159

[95]
Jk
3 H -a— +-
1 u:
= y la n lc j r iv e j. J c vou/ eft tv u rtrJ p a rb n o j P cupU j duf -f?cs~ =
+* --- ' •
’ -U-
'. •;
.'
J 1 f, I
, ----- -aiu
a
■zj'cJf ifauJ dc'f&ieujc c-tt'an—
jjen J n o j Trit-biu Jonb c a p .ti.v c j, tloadauitu Clu-


rfrZ/ d o t i t
L t^ ra n d P rstro — xr a i- v c r . t/-^.
P ^ 0 4^-
A it
£
c / :p/ib(L>j to u t e / r - /*tL - cZ z /a ^ (cc/u r <fouJ voo loiaz ctr Leu voiuc d a deu =
# _ —n _Jcp/ibc,
M r, o a ^
.£*
s= E -tr

- y n a ir con firm er no t o cJioiadi JDica d e rc a id ju o c ju a m o ij d a T ro m d t da


’t . i_~f r . , t .f g d~ -t~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + f ^
it
5 E w
a
= # m
E B C3E

jj(c n rtj Quc d u ij cUoaab I'tCd&yitls- J ' c p c u t - d cjaan f a d lo /7 lo r-


-*- -|^ ~f[~_______ ^ ^ Cadence^. JjcJjf'aruvJQrtro.
-£■
zfez £ B f f r -Q
£ r; z
- /r/ 7bo d e a l m om ent O c.cou po dcu m ittvo i .... ro ? d l f i b Idea pliut p o u r

-d t
3 § ii± B w F=P
iti
vou o/O a o.oe, Lou tr a - ^er/ d l oo no choiri t pou r le v e a .j j e r . La, T ri -

= b a cLdphs'cuni- d d cs Loiec, c o t r e d d le ,, dru stm m onitc; a a . d cu .ci. =

3 :£ - ,.: r - > - £ k l t - B feT

cuacLin vitbe a, d c rarupcr JLu p a r ti dc d (J JJ lcuoz• sdJdpee,pL otosbcen t


160

[94]
-A Lc.grand B-'drc.

y- I ' '<Lfr
3 d r £ £z vjer
f
^ rrid. . . n o m /n cz. m o y L tr v jr --- d c llc j, ^ d r r u n v tv . C h ilesitc/idj-^ td y ln v -

5 E jt=F=z %
P ■;/ i /
-- y.
-nxon c c p 'Lf d u IZ o y —c/'n
- ^ d Q iu cU sodcs bm id td src u d . Quay!botub C ao -
.*-------
a -A- . -A- - A i>- -A- a ATwzru/Lfc
- ^ .V -
-r-y
:> yjU C 5TU s ^1!' > k CC V^-z-v-
= d £ C jiu l c s t d
r a L h u m t le vy u c rrc J dvdU c. tcr^JDLtu, dor Hd?rauoyP c=
Ji ■ ,

K E -U. Cf
t a
BXZ3
^ -------- A - - - - - - - / ,
=rLri/c>ua Jancj dcn tal/u iircu ccj fIatxL> txnj cL x/vpuretr U obcr..rcj> _
^ ^ -A- 7^. r r . -a- -P~n

3 0 5

T'r
LC/i'j rcpandj Ic* b'cmlrlpcb L'j^roy xd'ur Lor drvnesnor do bcuyiov =

K
3 5 £
2 0 5
VicrUj r e p c u td j {& b - o id lc p t Z^/^7'y tV///' A/ d ru ietn o / d o Icly

•y
itffif f iT'tiTCi-f-f-if-Pt
- AY^. JD U lo dor c o m b a te , r e m p v r tc j leu x d c . bed. rc>f Q y*' leu m a r t
•A_________ m_____ _________
ESE ± = S »Af r*> ±y
22 a
= rcu.JJiciL dot comb cub/f rcm potdzJ lev v lo te d . . . re^f ( d e lev n w r t vo

ra re
i EE
i H
;
7ZC7 dcu a n b to y . JOCciv dcJ cotn balift r c m p o r to *

Egg A ry
A 4- I
V
d&oant by. 2D te ii dee com beitd ,
161

[95]
2Z
m .
T = $ £ I
a
La- v i e , tot-- rt>t Quc Icu m orkw . . . .

r±2 f ir ' T t i y f # 7 r [fr P


rcmportcj La l a c _ /v/r-. / xV/zc La, m c r t v o .........................................

--------■-------
■ y : i ?. r - f — F # = # — q > '- i--------- >---------- F&^fi t e t i 9
T T Tf
'I - d d . J- 4 ----
-" S T 1 : k M
lei /no r t v o te dev a n t toy T/Zen^ repanxLf Lc trcubic cb i^y~~

:' > t r i fi r r w s = 4 ^ # Y = f T ! ' f r i a


La, m orb iw lc, cU van t Ivy. Vitn^ repaticLf ie, troiLblcet C c^ roy

h -j-
£
[' i n r irr
=Jroy tfur lea dtvpic/ni/^J'ur lev (Cnvievniv de, ba,^yloi,- res.

r ■ -t--
d ** M
<Jlir led G m n c / n i d ttJ'ur led c r v n e m i d d c to, q l o u .. ro.JDieus d m conu:

:J r f [ r j TTT— J'l j
J O leu, dcd cornbabfj r e m y o r U j (a, nsic- tzru rc>^ Q u y l ^ mort'Vo
-A fed
pJOi.
z= 1 m 2=
= batdj re/nporbCi) La, xric.bov..rts^ Q ua la,mort'Vo

- - Ic dcvanbten/. Q u a la, m o r tw ............................................................... d c u a n b toy-


d-
2zn
% .I T ,:: V i I s XI
- - to dcva/ib toy. Q ua lamortvo........ Ia devxttibby.
162

[96]
I jc jy ra tid 'J °tX tr(re, cuuv. (J'u t/'ricrj. jm y (>.&&•

^ r r r f m
P= 1 1 M- L W - i g g
l / n douai c s y o u 'v o .c s tp e r /n M jlla n u jizz , votrccu 'd/icryu c/'ricrc-/?larc/u zcoL u
. f
JZ
m 13
= rc^ volcx-j cjlie ImitvoujJbitJbiuriU-Durperj'cz. amwie lapcniJsLcrc Vctfpltuf tfiu
"*51*
_ZL_
i O
v- Z = 2 -© - 5
It
-pcrO tJ (^inc/rutf.JO U rH 'rj’cz. c o m m c /a ,p o a /j'tfr tV o s dJim Ju pc/'bof f iim s n u f .
JDtucc •TsrailitzJ. . . ysic-te 2,? pane l o a ■
i 1 1 1 r, J 1— h v "f ■ < N *

. r p a
JVofr'c a x iin tc csbIm neu,. c, y Q u'is/ic, dotLce^/ia/'.niO iu. Cj <f'c- lc .v c .

1?
da/LT Ic s a in r : JB/^udj tr r r ib le j d c s d r - m o* ?Ze ir a td d c z .p tu J Cof
"& » v K

i£ fE % ± 3 S t
c/u frm td JD c n o s d e te re J c o n c e rte f.
Icunbourin, p a g o n o -
d’?'?
r i f f '
Ib u J rritr(ij r io j v a u u E ffv vn J /tu iru u c ; ChanltnuitfatiJctssc.p h ^>vt a b {(_>

radt tt 5
P a u cJ J a /h f ccj beaux*’J lc y tic a y a n ia u r : Q ue cJicu u irvJe/n prcju oP c m em b er Jem,

e zz
•P-—P
a lio . -pjrctfj'O) Plcu/ilzU j bar/m uf ebdenepu'j^C/um aea.vouM f en ,p ta ix riru
Tbutixj Vracutzj ^-+-
R &sn\arzcuaiL.
d t a u . . ~ ^_si
d cCiX,
b c ^ 7O
>^•pcine> i d 'D.
p e i p e ,10 b. -p- ,
l p- JTi
r>n
n
•C? A

.cxHTibhr
Q uo nea chant/ e/an/ Inf airj^ rctouficsitpO cnn, do nv jainujbzideaa^a/Fhix vicnJr noj vcuix.
165

[97]
7 /tc < iI j't v/ <'/(/**-
f-1 ■i . — .v
S E
z=ar
%
^^ty/ty n /js (ju t nosp/auit(*r j^ i/u sscn ty/o j'p lu j£ierj fnae/nu) S on tpC jaJiiaiJ S m in iij
*, V v , I I
i TP-

Q iit'n ccs lic iu v L c s c a n c e rs d c s cceu a cd n o s w uxz «_/'lu u ssen t'. C /u u b tm u tv u s

1 'j L l r E 2- ' ^— V = i ^ F # = # = j # * = = = f
•^ ••r — ... . y l -4 — — j i -- - - - - - - - - - - " ^ 1 j - ^ 1
l^nr, J s r a tu fc - lint a.utr't y.Tsra 'eht(ji
*-
SZZ3F1 -r— A iP
4 = ^
7^/^ fio s b o is r e .v e r . c h ssetitrlD a n s n r v jo u r J"l beau . Que n<rj C/iam/x/ re^ ieu =
L tJ ibiu r ifsra e/U ea .
T—f A
E
— :------------ —m--- n-------- r^r
rujjent' Q u t tout-tfoi/rnoitvtcLU,.
JScrjcrej. TenSrcmS ride 4 f ypgyp 1 6 2 ,.
f -A~
7 F
Sm
- A W m o o n s d o jis L in n ocen co/ (h e e lb o n J ic u r a p b u d c tfb ’a ito ;IZouJ a m )n o

iV
7
b a ^ jo x eissa n cc* D e s v r a lo b ic tis deo l i e no p a r jtu 60 ■J a n s l e c l a t d c lee n a i f -
x— r z=^ r
t= £ T~
I
= sance. C c o t p o u r n o u s q iu /j J a n b U e itd n lte f.
/i t/fc-ruiet. p a a t, 1 6 o .
L o ,-a
-{-Q f A^P
&
Q j1^ to u t h r U lc crv ce, h o c . c a p e , z ^c- p/ex,- a.o n G o b r u it/, ces fle a n t'.
JDes oyscau sej be d o use /'a-, n ta sje ,; flo a o esv—c lu i/ite , d a /is c c j Ueuoc,.
ro r, GpipZH
E
Oite. to u t reside, u ri te/id rc/lo n m icjsjc, d d q u i r c q /ie , __
/LOS_____ _
Cut11/V.
r o u t y t'estd un iesidre. /lo/n m ay.c,, ^du p i no cAc/' p r e s e n t d e s cueutoe.
164

[98]
[jO. T ' V l c d t xjcphtc* pajjc j 84 .
.9*-
A 3ZZTZ5Z
0— 0— f- E J L
r T T n - ' f
Jvhilhcurciujc usvcamr cjuvdc II. -uro Shi, va-i/vbvnJuur cjuo v-ccnt
Fin.
a-
II4V*
p ti-n ts j c cotnrntncc a, iM-oro^ Q icil^uulnic rcj-otui/'c cl m cK isxr.

GC
i
n I ) il cotrvblc dcJjjfrcuxdauy d&n£ l t d a t /tiJcsi a>t/~ot 1n/L>/ d /c cou rt du n pa J rcv=
Fassogo. " ‘

L ^ tncJ dtrmtrt instcmfo;j.t rcssmiblc cl ccj pleas'd cjucLdplulotv


-~cb-
I30fZr-.A\f
^ — «=— -- --- -- -t J c:-------------- V ., 1/ ---------:
— l_*_l^__l
il = sotvnCsdJcMr U sprcnucrs J o u r t ^ d ie P ri/U zrn p s :2v[ clUi£lu‘cute u k WSc.
L a FULt d c Pcf>fitz>. Slcbc 5. 2-28-
Ll-cr.:r hr
t

n mAUrt •motv dor6 csb d a p lieu, . . rcuoc./Si /%zy tras/vu Lt>


, -*• - - ^ -a
6
$
^
i E £
~CeL~parUc c^>/<fHibU.r ^I'K.r^ J-ja
f i
c/c rn a m o t 't ctl ifc. . . -
t^ 2zfrt
5"i> 32 w E
^-e
rz E 22%
FT- c r c t m e, cotv.d o . Ic^.^rcutdJJbciv^ j e , I
d cr.ccsidj uu, hy/rv. b eu iu
f A"
f-

j_
^ H la ij j l / p o r ic j urv c a u ir lo u t tvouocau,. C x s t 'cl v o tL u%L/ C eetS cOz XHHUt

? r^~r
8 i
S cu d cjALC; j & miurururU* •

End of the Third Part


165

FOURTH PART; SUMMARY OF A NEW SYSTEM OF MUSIC

£99j It would not be so difficult to learn music as is ordinarily

supposed» if one wanted in good faith to cooperate in clarifying the

system presently in use? by simplifying'it and by rejecting all superfluous

principles as a result.

There are many people, particularly in the religious orders» whose

serious occupations do not permit them to employ all their time in the

study of music» who would be very glad to learn this beautiful art (which,

throughout all time, has caused love and delight in people of good taste)

if the means could be found to facilitate its practice and to render its

study less long and less arduous.

Since music consists only of sound and its duration, it is

astonishing that these two subjects have occasioned so many different

opinions, so many disputes, and so many different systems, and that even

the Greeks themselves, according to some authors, used up to 1240 symbols


1
to express these two simple concepts.

1. Monteclair could have consulted a variety of sources for his


information about the history of musical notation. Bourdelot and Bonnet,
for example, state that the number of characters invented by the Greeks
rose to more than twelve hundred. (Pierre Bourdelot.and Pierre Bonnet,
Histoire de la musiaue et de ses effets [facsimile reprint of the
Amsterdam, 1725 edition; Graz, Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt,
1966], I, p. 9„)
166

It is no less surprising that more than 700 years have passed in

the confusion of mutations [4'MuancesM]^ and in other difficulties, which

I will report in summary after this, to show their faults and their

uselessness.

There are people so prejudiced, and so stubborn with respect to

the way in which they have been taught, that they condemn everything new

presented to them, without even wanting to take the trouble of examining

iti there are others who embrace all novelties blindly, however irrational

these may be. These are not at all the sort of people whom I will take as

my judges, but only just and knowledgeable persons who do not judge things

until after having considered them thoroughly. If these people condemn me,

I will submit without complaining to such a respectable judgment, and I

will avow clearly that I have been in error; [100] on the other hand, if

they approve of me, I will subsequently give the principles of this new

system in an arrangement suitable for their being learned and taught.

Intonation being the first subject of music and the measurement

or duration of sounds being its second, I will show what holds back the

practice of the one and the other, and the manner of removing these

difficulties.

Intonation: First Subject of Music

Until the present, three clefs have been used to determine the

order and the names of the notes.

2. That is, the mutations between hexachords. (For a discussion


of mutations and solmization, see pp. 256-259 in the Commentary.)
167

The diversity of the clefs„ and their seven positions, render the

execution of music difficult, not only for those who are not yet well

advanced, but even for the more experienced, if the latter are the least

bit inattentive.

It is not easy, for example, to acquire the ability to sing alone

and at sight a scene composed of two or three characters each having his

own clef. One often hesitates at the moment of passage from one clef to

another, through the difficulty of recognizing at first glance the

interval between the note expressed and the one .found after the change of

clef, since the note after this change is always placed in such a fashion

as to fool the eyes without its hardly being possible to avoid the error,

because of the precision and speed with which the passage must be

performed.

To make myself better understood, I will give an example taken from


3 4
the opera Phaeton, between a soprano and a haute-contre.

3. This selection is taken from Lully's Phaeton (l683)» Act I,


Scene 3. Monteclair uses additional material from this scehe on p. 175
below.

4. The French haute-contre in the 17th and early 18th centuries


was a very high tenor singing for the most part, in his natural voice.
Depending on his skill, the singer may have used a falsetto voice as
needed to extend his range. (For a discussion of the problems involved in
the definition of this term, see Neal Zaslaw, "The Enigma of the Haute-
Contre"r The Musical Times. 115 (November, 1974)], pp. 939-941? J. R.
Anthony's letter to the editor of The Musical Times. 116 [March, 1975],
p. 237? the review by Zaslaw of Anthony, French Baroque Music from
Beau.ioveulx to Rameau, in The Musical Quarterly. 60, No. 3 (.1974], pp.
485-489? and Mary Cyr, "On Performing 18th-Century Haute-Contre Roles"
[The Musical Times. 118 (April, 1977)], pp. 291-295.)
168
The interval from A to B looks like a third to the eye;

nevertheless, if it is the same person who sings both parts, he must sing

a sixth.^

[101] The interval from C to D looks like a sixth; nevertheless,

only a third must be sung.

T /icono-
fi.— f—
w p p 0-- A-- p— +
• l I. --- Pkri-etetir-
fc— — — [i— 2— \L V----------
VottJpajsczJciru me voir^ crate}nczvou.’ nia fjrtscn ct,? kJ c I'VtCd

auricy 77/eanCj c t cc Joupcoti*1 f)L


n t OArPtl.rt.
offen se .. » * (/u
C bicf ni/l
n ia . 'Mu
vLLc/* n
a u//jo
fntu/rr'/di/hi u y Vjc

The following example is an even more convincing proof of the

difficulties which result from the three clefs and their different

positions. Deceiving the eyes and the reason, they cause what seems to be

descending to be sung by ascending, and what seems to be ascending to be

sung by descending.

<Tn m o n b a n tr Z/l d c j ccn dan t:


-fK+- JiOL

-i/i- 7a .
17771 7 7 -3
R

5. That is, MontGclair assumes that if the same person is reading


the music of both roles, he will automatically transpose up or down an
octave as needed in order to place each character’s part in the corre­
sponding register of his own voice.
169

In a scene composed of a bass and a tenor, if an interval of a

third is encountered in passing from the bass to the tenor part, as for

example from ut (e ) to mi (f ), and if one voice is obliged to sing these

two parts by itself, it would be absolutely necessary that this third be

sung by ascending even though it seems to descend.

mmontanA CwiZvwi! \<ftcent{t I \Tirrce. en. {QiiarU tn. \QulnU cn.


\Quitilc
' i, ~Q~ ( -Q-ttumtiwty -0-nujnUi- I

'.u... * 1 P " ---- h " " R N 1----- F


r/t. ierne,
\77(yr(ie eel en. nciwumt tn tii.tume en On.zttmccitj

Q-nvertfxint' -Qhnivnfitnts ^fr^nxonlantp -Q-riientn/U
a. o O-
HE d ii HE
S

Intervals which must be sung by descending even though they seem

to ascend:

j u n is s c r tj^ . \ifccoru&. 1 | 1 \ ~1 J .0 \ , .^
6 |
XL

II
n T 77-1 i [5^ i i i a
a
H -o- e4W XLat o -o-
t o n t o

These few examples are enough to cause unprejudiced persons to

form an idea [102] of the time which must be employed in acquiring the

habit of all these transformations, which vary as many times as the clefs

or their positions are found to be different. Those who would like to

calculate the number of different intervals which can be found between the
170

different positions of the three clefs„ will find that it rises at least

to 1536.6

The difficulty of recognizing the intervals when passing from one

clef to another becomes still greater when the clefs are followed

immediately by flats or sharps» because these accidentals make it

obligatory to have recourse to the transpositions of the names of the


7
notes and consequently to suppose a natural clef, which must always be

present as an idea, because if it is forgotten (which happens only too

often), one is forced to stop; from which it can be concluded that the

clefs, even though a good invention, cause more trouble than ease. To be

convinced of this, one may see the two tables of transpositions on pages

14 and 15 [pp. 40 and 41] above, where appear all the different positions

of clefs, followed by flats and sharps, with the clefs which must be

supposed, according to the number of accidentals which accompany them.

There are persons who declare that transpositions ought to be sung

without transposing the names of the notes, that is, that the notes should

always be named according to the natural order of the presiding clef, and

in that way one would not be obliged to suppose another clef. There would

be many things to oppose the above; but I will content myself by saying

here in passing that if this is not impossible for people who have very

6.. This figure can be derived if allowance is made for twelve


positions on the staff (the five lines, the spaces between them, the spaces
immediately above and below, and one leger line above or below), eight
intervals (i.e., unison through octave, with accidentals ignored), and
sixteen possibilities for clef positions (including no change of clef or
position)s 12 x 8 x 16 = 1536.

7. Monteclair discusses clef supposition on pp. 25-26 above.


(See also p. 295 in the Glossary.)
171
accurate voices, it is at least very difficult» especially for those who

have neither the intelligence nor the disposition» Teachers and students

who would like to give themselves the trouble of practicing transpositions

in this fashion, would find still more accommodation by means of this new

sys'tem than through the old one.

All these difficulties could be eliminated in a very simple way,

by rejecting these clefs and by fixing the ut, or as it is ordinarily

called, the G sol ut. of all kinds of voices and instruments on the third

line.®

[105] By means of this establishment, all voices and instruments

would solmizate and would proceed by the same order from octave to octave.

To distinguish between the voices or parts, a D for the soprano, an H for

the haute-contre. a T for the tenor, and a B for the bass could be used.

These letters, which I will call "partitional” ["Partitionalles"]

because they are used only to differentiate the parts, would be placed at

the beginning of a piece, on the middle line.

•8. Monteclair was not the first to attempt to reduce the great
number of possible positions for the clefs. Similar proposals were made
by Thomas Salmon (1648-1706), An Essay to the Advancement of Musick
('London, 1672); Michel de Saint-LambertTfl. ca. 1700). Les nrincines du
clavecin (Paris, 1702; facsimile reprint, Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1972);
and John Francis de la Fond (fl. during the first third of the 18th
century), A New System of Music (London, 1725). Both Salmon and Saint-
Lambert fix G on the bottom line of the staff. Salmon reduces the number
of clefs to one, and indicates the register by means of the letters T (for
treble), M (meane), and B (bass). Saint-Lambert outlines his system on
pp. 59-60 of his treatise, as follows: The sol-clef is placed on the
bottom line; the fa-clef keeps what is now its present position, on the
fourth line; and the ut-clef is located on the second space. (Walter
Atcherson, "Key and Mode in Seventeenth-Century Theory Books," Journal of
Music Theory. 17, Ho. 2 [1973], pp. 227-228.)

(
172

Dcssuj . ETaiLU^coritre,. TculUs . jB a s s t, . , A,


- : i — - ~ i .................................^
---------- ^ ^ ^ ^ ----------
-------------1 1
TT m TTI- f'C . _i
xJ 1)
^ S o t • 1

The m id d le u t o f th e h a u t e - c o n t r e and t h a t o f th e te n o r a r e a t th e

same p i t c h l e v e l , a s may b e s e e n b e lo w .

The o b j e c t i o n w i l l n o t f a i l t o b e made t h a t th e m id d le u t o f th e

so p ra n o i s n a t u r a l l y an o c ta v e h ig h e r th a n t h a t o f th e h a u t e - c o n t r e and th e

t e n o r , t h a t th e m id d le u t o f th e l a t t e r two p a r t s i s a l s o an o c t a v e h ig h e r

th a n t h a t o f th e b a s s , and t h a t I seem t o b e p la c i n g t h e s e t h r e e u t s a t th e

same l e v e l , t h a t i s , a t th e u n is o n , h a v in g p la c e d a l l t h r e e on th e m id d le

l i n e ; t o t h i s I r e p l y t h a t th e p la c em e n t o f th e v o i c e s b e in g d i f f e r e n t ,

e a c h ty p e o f v o i c e ta k e s i t s m id d le u t i n th e o c t a v e , w h ich i s t o sa y a t

th e p i t c h l e v e l , w h ich s u i t s i t .

I t i s im p o s s ib le , f o r e x a m p le , f o r th e b a s s t o s i n g th e m id d le u t

o f th e s o p r a n o , and f o r th e so p ra n o t o s i n g t h a t o f th e b a s s , b e c a u se

t h e s e two k in d s o f v o i c e s a r e to o f a r from e a c h o t h e r ; t h i s ca n be

o b s e r v e d by means o f th e grand s t a f f w h ich f o l l o w s , w here th e c l e f s a r e on

on e s i d e and th e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s on th e o t h e r . I t w i l l be s e e n th e r e

t h a t th e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s do n o t ch an ge a n y th in g w ith r e s p e c t t o th e

p r o g r e s s io n o r p it c h l e v e l o f ea ch ty p e o f v o i c e and t h a t on th e c o n tr a r y

th e p r o g r e s s io n i s made much more n a t u r a l l y from o c t a v e t o o c t a v e by means

o f th e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s , th a n from f i f t h t o f i f t h by means o f th e c l e f s .
173

[1 0 4 ] The Grand S t a f f , w h ich P r o v e s th e A d van tage


t h a t th e P a r t i t i o n a l L e t t e r s Have o v e r th e O rd in ary C l e f s

Each p a r t t a k e s , i n th e fo u r o c t a v e s , th e p o r t io n w h ich s u i t s i t s n a tu r a l
p i t c h l e v e l and ra n g e

m v

rt,
TJt
j'i

The to n e o r sound o f th e f a - c l e f {- 'j)-'.) is a fifth lo w e r th an t h a t

o f th e u t - c l e f ) . and th e to n e o f th e u t - c l e f i s a l s o a f i f t h lo w er

th a n t h a t o f th e - 6 - c l e f . The s h o r t d is t a n c e b etw e en t h e s e t h r e e c l e f s ,
174

and t h e i r d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s , c a u se a l l th e t r o u b le w h ich h a s b een

d is c u s s e d a b o v e . I n t h e new sy stem w h ich I am p r o p o s in g , a l l v o i c e s w i l l

s o lm iz a t e a l i k e b e c a u s e th e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s o n ly a p p e a r an o c t a v e

a p a r t , and b e c a u s e th e m id d le (7 s o l u t o f e a c h v o i c e and e a c h in str u m e n t

i s f i x e d on th e m id d le l i n e , w h ich i s th e c e n t e r and th e s o u r c e t o w hich

b o th k in d s r e l a t e t h e i r p i t c h l e v e l s . T h is w i l l be o b se r v e d b e lo w , where

th e f i r s t s t a v e i s n o t a t e d a c c o r d in g t o th e sy ste m i n u s e , and th e sec o n d

a c c o r d in g t o my new s y s te m .

S c a l e w h ich Show s, on th e L in e s , th e C o rresp o n d en ce


w h ich th e P a r t i t i o n a l L e t t e r s Have w it h th e C l e f s

1,
imvsonj. fienLsj-oru
rJol r;U ^
r-x • . ...........
rru. n\'
6 r7U
1" A
r-C
r u4ut y-J' q* b ................................. -in . r. ut VI V 1
J-Lla '' n b . u\rL\\" 'i y u ..
"JuT * L
0 eta pc qraocj. x O ctaot anjlie.. ( Octai* J'ur aiquc*
'oc.tni>cJoLU qraiK;. - h!
---------------- j
„JrC ;ul/n ffii
rr'
J. ./TJ T1 111 1
is r r -J tr
.r.Jol y
L . .. ................. i
u n u .r o n .
u f* -
175

[1 0 5 ] Fragm ent o f th e S cen e Taken from P h aeton


and N o ta te d b y P l a c i n g th e Two S ystem s One above th e O th e r , q
i n O rder t o Show How T h ese S y stem s C orrespond and How They D i f f e r

t f t'f Zr/ la. / font*.ctJiitif,.


■ ------------#■-----f -

It s
ft Vvtu ptLr.rt.z.raiij mcvpir^rtiiijHecvon,! nm.yrAffjhce,? Ue. noitrf a u n c T'he. =
.................... .. -----
p= S----- Y-r- l - - - F - 1 X
----d---- < 3 r t i ^ = j — L— J - H - t r f ^
-----d----d

IT T
ff
3 a :«
H
= .Otvtt r?>7 si .Cs*.
fib ce. ifoupcon.m.'ojjcujfcj. * 'Qu*.tna,Viiz,
• a u j o u r d J m c V o u j csuue. d e ' n b c L

$ J L

= otuic cbCP <foitpco/i, inoJJi'Hsc. Qttc m c c (tclubil. -


i/aZ «_/i.
*
j. E
%
_j T— y y y- r k =--------------- y----- --------x-j—
r a j ! u 4 v o il &Z- sjuJcjis ccj Ilcuoz v o iu tie. nvc cJie/'cJuex, va j. O c cJics~ -
II V Joi J i:K h

= r a j ! ^ 4 .v a n . ml (jt/deji. oaf lieiuxi'i’mLU ti*. m e. c/iercJiiaz. p a J . \[Js c A c r -

[E xam p le c o n t in u e s on f o l l o w i n g p a g e ]

9. As M o n te c la ir n o t e s a b o v e , th e "m iddle C s o l u t " o f t h e D e ssu s


o r so p ra n o o c t a v e i n h i s sy ste m i s th e C ab ove m id d le C i n th e sy ste m
p r e s e n t ly i n u s e .
176

IS.

cJwijJ LlL jR-try/i^s tnxis vl'fes'es j f Cce iroin.


train, ^v od u n
r oatc
tt—tL vcniJ
—iL v m iJ ad s ’prtajLre.:
ltju s 'e ? Dearoz,
JDouoz,

i sz:
\ ------------ y------^ - \> |p -^-
cJioij la , FLe.iftiC' m a J W erc , f Cc a a in,
v i jnouroLC-
w u r o i t - iL
IL va lid cU
valid cunfif.aire,? D ceve/L
/a i n c ■ jU v e /z ,
z
Joi m t p

'(i ^
v c u J me. Le r e p r o - c i te s - ? ' v e .r tto iu o u n j tie m e pcbJ c/ieJ~c/uir. Sic.
. . V ( V ^ V \
J t-Z
f -© - -iV-
r r [ : 6 e j
7^/77/../ m e I* n t.p n o . c h e s ? Ccaf: lo it/a u n f ne m e p a J cJiencJier . fk c
177
10
[1 0 6 ] A n oth er F ragm en t, Taken from Amadis de G aule

_ y i r c a L one.,.
Violorv.
P * *
t
1 fJ .~ r ~ T T r '"', 7 " ^ —
£ P — —4 E

cU. la, xfi/ryi/uyfut',. vJl' (\rt te/nyyj clc ^Jl s i u ' volrt. y>lcu/ite. irtiyjor =
VtoL’n . Shcabom*. _ t f*1 )
3:
-B 3 Z $!£
I tiz iz z z fc z z p #= 3
ej-t besnyw d c iJiru/~ 'votre^ plainte i m p o r =
a—
O ck jvt,.
<> z n
i S t 3C
V ia Ion j .
= h(-n*s/ Jor'teAsj yforte.zy t r a i n e d i,. . . a y 'Vod^Jen).
OCbcUJt,

m y. 5 —
xz
V V io lo n j.
= li£.n csj d o r tc z t d o m tc /z , tr'ai/i&z C. . . a y uoo f c r o .
Tt'crce... Clurur do Canti/b.
:K i- :r -A _ j* y i' -&~
££
Nzv cic, tcoJxpnpfioaic, ■ Cost, t&i- h’/Z v o tu deo m aoaz. &Cc.
+ Cfta'ttr.
333=
XL
~Tir/ cc-.
Com tern, te/z votn f deJ rnauoc . SC, c .

The o b j e c t i o n w i l l be made t o me t h a t t h e r e a r e o c c a s io n s w h ere,

when f o l l o w i n g t h i s new s y s te m , s e v e r a l l i n e s on to p m ust b e added t o th e

v o c a l b a s s p a r t s , and s e v e r a l l i n e s b elo w t o th e in s t r u m e n t a l b a s s p a r t s .

L e t u s s e e i f none a r e added a t a l l i n th e s y s te m i n u s e .

10. T h is exam ple i s ta k en from L u l l y ' s Amadis ( 1 6 8 4 ) , A ct I I I ,


S cen e 2 .
178
11
From the Prologue to Roland

f 'Hr.'f T - r— f — >
z z n

D u . cc. ie. bt'su D o .Land. re.n oit-.ioellonJ LLn/s. toire., D a, D rancz,


, - a - . ^ , y
p T T — «■----------------- M — t— r-- -r £
£ £
£
la y doruizL Lcj jour^ Adontro/U^ TTlontronJ LeJ erreusv on. tldmour Pent en g a -

[1 0 7 ]

Mm
+
+ -€h
tz = t o -p- p
O

^.jcr un caar gu t necgli^eu La.jylaL -rt> .M ontrond /llon botiJ led erreu rf on L/tz
-a-
4 - f e f £>
Z2
- m eur P en tcn ^ cja u g er an cancr cjul necgltugej la, j g lo i... re.

The m id d le u t o f th e p ro p o sed sy ste m ( a )


A B
b e in g i n th e b a s s o n ly a s t e p h ig h e r th a n i t i s
jD --^
i n th e s y s te m i n u s e ( b ) , t h i s i s o n ly a m a tte r
Ir -^ H

o f one more s c a l e d e g r e e . When th e m e lo d ic l i n e o f th e in s t r u m e n t a l b a s s e s

r i s e s q u i t e h ig h and th e m e lo d ic l i n e o f th e f i r s t v i o l i n s d e s c e n d s q u ite

lo w , th e c l e f i s ch an ged i n th e s y ste m i n u s e ( l ) , i n o r d e r t o a v o id

c o n fu s io n and a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f l e g e r l i n e s [ " l ig n e s a j o u t e e s " ] ; i n th e

same w ay, th e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s i n t h i s new sy stem (2 ) w i l l b e ch a n g ed .

1 1 . T h is e x t r a c t from th e P r o lo g u e o f L u l l y ' s R oland (1 6 8 5 ) i s


su n g by t h e c h a r a c t e r Dem ogorgon.
179

i/y .f // e n it (7tic ten . . . rf \


t o ------------------
i i g
P S @
O cln ve y r a t'c * . O c ta v e Citliques
q ties S -jyrave O ctn ve xfuc-auy ae ■
Jyjthcnxc rwuiHxnu . 4 z ) p
-rr
E E
a s

T h ese d ays one i s i n th e bad h a b i t o f s t r a i n i n g v o i c e s , and m aking

in s t r u m e n ts s q u e a k , by m aking b o th o f them r i s e h ig h e r th an t h e i r n a t u r a l

r a n g e p e r m it s . T h is i s done i n o r d e r t o make more so u n d , w ith o u t

c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t a g r e a t tu m u lt d o e s n o t make a g r e e a b le [ 1 0 8 ] m u s ic , and

t h a t o n ly th e p l e a s i n g c h a r a c t e r o f th e m elod y [ " la m e lo d ie du c h a n t" 3,


12
b e a u t i f u l m o d u la tio n , n a t u r a l harmony — i n a w ord, b e a u t i f u l sou n d —may

go t o th e h e a r t .

The b a r it o n e [ " B a s s e - t a i l l e " ] i s o f t e n made t o r i s e i n t o th e

o c t a v e o f t h e h ig h t e n o r [ " h a u t e - t a i l l e " ] ; when t h i s h a p p en s, I w i l l

i n d i c a t e th e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r o f th e b a r it o n e th u s : ? , i n o r d e r t o a v o id

th e c o n f u s io n o f th e l i n e s w h ich w ould h a v e t o be added on t o p . I t w i l l be

remembered t h a t th e sym b ol $ p u ts th e m e lo d ic l i n e an o c t a v e h ig h e r th an i t

w ould b e w it h t h e s i n g l e sym bol B.

12. The term s m e lo d ie . c h a n t , m o d u la tio n , and n a t u r e 1 a r e


d is c u s s e d b elo w i n th e G lo s s a r y , on p p . 2 9 0 , 286 , 291» and 293
r e s p e c tiv e ly .
100

jRasse-tail/c, .
B-
i i B 2 2 V --2 7 34-

JDu celebic, J \ o _ I and. rc/ixn/ vel/cnur I Jiur. tovres ^ J^a, JFrcuice lux/ d o n *

-e-^ - X/... v>'


6^- 4 -------------4-
i 4 -------------4 -
V
zm
- /z/ 7 le y oiM'?\fan/?~otu*/ tnon/?-07uf leJ e r r e u /r t ait L /Im oiirJ^eui esicjcupet~ usv cccalt

‘ - V
f i —*---- r - — P— V -■ (‘ • r r - F---- ^---- ar- r - i - - - - - - - - -
^ z b = L _ - ± -T 11

— 0— 1p—
= = ± = M z= 4 = F ^-4X9 — — n— \ 1h
---------------------------------
i 'h . . —
-6------------------ -— 1
------H -^-1— x ---------------
= 4 4 = --------6I—^ = 4
jPeiit ctijjaye/- tui cauir cjui fie. q h ’
ye, la, ^ylot. r~cj .

13
A n oth er Example

O
f t i ir 'T t - j

LutDiettccpufusjaU- la F ie rfe ,, k^I nc*rtpoint d e qi'an dcan f


<9— f — c:
f, f '.t T ' - M - t .f
2:
■—

cjue le a c l u~rt.../esf
— a

Z7 a h l c u M e *
-- . —
i
c j u a n d i l ifc u t c L n e r ' e d a < r c c n p o u d r e s ,

V+~
+ f If -P r_— p
w
2
i
J\faf<r u n J e u I r e p enter JPcut ar.re*rte.r l a ^oudict, T o u t e p rc te a par

13. T h is s e l e c t i o n i s ta k e n from A ct I , S cen e 1 o f L u l l y ' s P e r s e e


(1 6 8 2 ) and i s su n g by th e c h a r a c t e r C ep h ee. O r d in a r ily M o n te c la ir i s
c a r e f u l t o i d e n t i f y th e s o u r c e s o f h i s ex a m p les when th e w orks o f o th e r
co m p o sers a r e i n v o l v e d . (The t r a n s l a t o r h a s a tte m p te d t o make a s c o m p lete
an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e o f M o n t e c l a i r ' s s o u r c e s , i n A ppendix B . )
181

[1091
c s f a v e r // m a n t a n t-
-m
rcrr.
F
/ / / '. A la iJ ii/ixfcalrcpcru-hs- P cjlL cu'-r~c- te j' la,^/ou.
u/u.rson . ->y
-e P e _±.
tF
F $
d t'elo u te p re te cl p a s lir . A/faur un.J'eul. rep cribs' JPeict as~t'c te r

A
lev

P A
**-
9 fc= U
................................................ Tbule^prete cu p a s '. t i r .
F

The p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s a id ea ch o th e r i n d e s c e n d in g low and

r i s i n g h ig h , i n t h e same way a s th e c l e f s , i n o r d e r t o a v o id a g r e a t

number o f l e g e r l i n e s . When th e so p ra n o d e s c e n d s lo w e r th a n th e f i v e

l i n e s , th e h a u t e - c o n t r e o r th e t e n o r com es t o i t s a i d ; i t i s th e same when

th e h a u t e - c o n t r e o r th e t e n o r g o e s t o th e b a s s . T h is p r a c t i c e i s fa r

e a s i e r by means o f th e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s , w h ich r e a p p e a r from o c t a v e t o

o c t a v e , th a n by m eans o f th e c l e f s . In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e th e p r a c t i c e

s t i l l m ore, a g u id e-m a rk m ust b e p la c e d on th e s c a l e d e g r e e t o be su n g

a f t e r t h e ch a n ge ( 3 ) ; th e n t h e r e w i l l b e no more d i f f i c u l t i e s .
182

O nly a v e r y s h o r t tim e i s n eed ed t o a ccu sto m th e e y e s t o th e t r a n s ­

fo r m a tio n s o f t h e p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s » i n s t e a d o f i t s t a k in g much lo n g e r

f o r th e tr a n s f o r m a t io n s o f th e o r d in a r y c l e f s . The t r a n s fo r m a tio n s o f b o th

o f them r e s u l t o n ly from th e f a c t t h a t a t p r e s e n t a l a r g e ra n g e i s g iv e n

t o v o i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y t o b a s s e s , and t h a t e a c h s t a f f c o n t a in s o n ly f i v e

l i n e s , w h ich a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h i s g r e a t r a n g e .

[ 1 1 0 ] E v ery o n e knows th ro u g h e x p e r ie n c e how much t r o u b le th e

ch a n g e s o f c l e f s c a u s e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s c a u se d b y f l a t s

o r .s h a r p s , and how much t h e s e h a r d s h ip s m u l t i p l y when i n th e c o u r s e o f a

s c e n e o r any o t h e r tr a n s p o s e d p i e c e , t h e mode ch a n g es su d d e n ly from m ajor

t o m in or o r from m in o r t o m a jo r .

T h is l a t t e r o b s t a c l e com es from t h e f a c t t h a t a t th e same i n s t a n t ,

i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o im a g in e c l e f s o t h e r th a n t h o s e w h ich h a v e b e e n su p p o sed

b e f o r e t h i s ch an ge o f m ode; t h i s i s w hat f a t i g u e s th e memory e x t r e m e ly ,

and w hat sh o w s, a s we h a v e a lr e a d y o b s e r v e d , t h e u n e a s in e s s and u n c e r t a in t y

i n t o w h ich t h e c l e f s p lu n g e t h o s e who a r e n o t y e t w e l l v e r s e d i n them . I

rem ove a l l t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a v e r y s im p le m anner, b y m aking u s e o f

tw o sq u a r e n o t e s , th e on e w h it e ( Q ) and th e o t h e r b la c k ( P ) . I s h a ll

c a l l them fu n d a m en ta l n o t e s , b e c a u s e th e y w i l l b e p la c e d on th e fu n d a m en ta l

s c a l e d e g r e e o f t h e m ode.

The w h it e fu n d a m en ta l n o t e ( Q ) d e s i g n a t e s th e m ajor m ode.

The b la c k fu n d a m e n ta l n o t e ( 0 ) d e s i g n a t e s th e m in o r m ode.

One w i l l s a y u t on th e s c a l e d e g r e e w h ere th e w h it e sym b ol i s

p la c e d .

One w i l l s a y l a f o r t h e s c a l e d e g r e e w here t h e b la c k sym b ol i s

p la c e d .
183

I am m aking u s e o f th e o c t a v e on l a i n o r d e r t o s o l m i z a t e th e

m in o r m ode, i n p la c e o f th e on e on r e , b e c a u s e t h i s n o m e n c la tu r e f o r th e
14
n o t e s seem ed th e m ost s u i t a b l e t o me f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s .

By means o f t h e two fu n d a m en ta l s i g n s , th e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f th e

m odes w i l l no lo n g e r c a u s e h a r d s h ip s , b e c a u s e one w i l l no lo n g e r b e

t r o u b le d b y e i t h e r th e f l a t s o r th e sh a r p s w h ich c o u ld b e fou n d im m e d ia te ly

a f t e r th e p a r t it io n a l l e t t e r s . T h is c a n b e s e e n b e lo w i n th e fr a g m en t o f
15
a s c e n e from R o la n d . n o ta te d i n b o th s y ste m s? i t w i l l c o n fir m a l l t h a t

has b een s a id a b ove.

[E xam ple i s on f o l l o w i n g p a g e]

1 4 . Some p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s why M o n te c la ir may h a v e d e c id e d i n


f a v o r o f t h e mode on l a a r e g iv e n on p . 2 50 i n th e Commentary.

1 5 . The exam ple c o n e s from A c t IV , S c e n e 5 o f L u l l y ’s R o la n d . A


co m p a r iso n o f th e o l d and new s y s te m s show s t h a t t h e m id d le l i n e marks t h e
C. a b o v e m id d le C f o r th e sop ran o ( a s p o in t e d o u t e a r l i e r ) ? m id d le C f o r
t h e h a u t e - c o n t r e . t e n o r , and b a r i t o n e , and t h e C b e lo w m id d le C f o r th e
b ass.
184

[1 1 1 ] Fragm ent o f a S cen e from th e 4 t h A ct o f R o la n d .


Where th e Four d^rpes o f V o ic e s S in g

Major mode on si

T e r ja n d r c ,.
N
-Fc.r.. r f - r ’ . , — 1
t ; <
------------------
r= f=
H H
r— f ——— p r w

= M t =
Afat<r cjucl e*rtr c e ^ u e r n e r ? a ^ j ' c m c n t art de.'in~nc> Q u i t x S e r t d u n e il =.

3 ••V ' z- f
'SQOLSkil
............ 1 - ^
tna/
m&'de m a/tu r.
M eaid R a c ie s t ce?^ ques~t:ie*'?
yu em aLxreniesit o n d^ _ v i. ne^ Q u il S o r t dune iL=
m 4 .. lTui cr rcc cc e<vr
r t dc u
e cceessiicaiaann ct . i 3. w nuTTvlnrvt.

iw
to
C onr xccbUm
m .. ^
r ” _ |~j JQelurei
Iw/tre o n y w e s . d\foiur lavond trouuc daud ced lieuaz. _Z/e trouble, de d o n
1 'ie / cc cfv d e s c e n d a n t. kk 3 ^ c on h- nm oi onnt nI ns i/ t l .

± : z n EBB tv
i
luaIre o iiy in e ,. JVoud Laoand trouoe dand ccd Lieiuc- jLe tro u b le de don
d ^ cn , n u tn h zn t. cu m o n h m t.

3=^
I t:
H E z z fc z g
C o r i d on. \ ^ ^ =j l3 ctu re,-
c a r u r v fe m o n tr e ^ d a n J d c J yen cc: \J L d n . q u b e * ____ d l m e -

B K 5 * w
rims' d r moiiO'r, c f a / M *fej y m a : : J L J Wa y i . /e , . JL m e

m
Qttartr tn rncnt*int- ^ ^ •3 *? esi ideofsidaAt.
»-2_
$ $ vr-fr2= f
w
(u rr-id c m . JBdidis . deroan d r o .
r n oce id p a ,- lib. iZ d o u p i r e * — .. ^ io n , c c e u r d o it/ J r c p e n t

^ ; - - - - - - - — y— — w-— J -----------------
ru isce. . — iZ y7<Zz. l it r .. . . . id d o u p ir c * d o r is c c e u r d o u j^ r e p e u b =
185

[112]

ar
^ + ' * r . .
elrc un a/7urus~eucc j? za r.ti ^kc^/ flaiur <Jeva?ur f?Lai/ids'e l/ cj dm t =

r
i= s t $ lv /
s /o z//Y
dY a/ntnu-eucc rruv'h’
.res, ?lcncj devortd p l a u i d r t u /k / dau. -
ecenaa/
3 ■csl r tla n ta n t.
w
t e to
- Leu/v. “ QueLf te rtd b leJ r e -< y a rd j/ -L<z p e r f t d e s J t m ur =

ri>
w

- le iu v . Q u ell tzt-rzbU d r ic /a s 'd j ■ L a p c r f id c s . . . . J L m ur' -


3 * en. dec en d tint-, kv
tccenaant-. 3 ^ e/i tiio n h u il: 3 ^ ert r n o n ta n t.
(to iWv

^ ori a on J 7 1fI rI U j - r- M J 3
= 7nurc> .. <Jl f r c - u u t , ?/ 'r'epand d ed p laird hz/it d e d c r

3* h , .3 ^ ' fu 3 '
m

, r ^ • .C 1 ,J : J -k-w
= m u r o JL^frc/nib. d 'r e p a / i d de*t v l e u r a _ _ _ _ _ _ £a/ibdexfej~-=.
_

i _. 0 _- v6 * t»f tf. y/
/tu n ilc ts i«
--v-..
tr

3C
- L // / / / ( .' ' . i % J L t J cevanti/ e;. * y
= v i e n t J * a/i. l a p a r . r u . rc, ■ 72e I a I a n doruzvruj p a d d a / u t u v c/ui.

3 ^ 5
7/ t H* W/ 7/ r I I 7”
= rnentd. ah. la par.jiL.rCf/ tie l a l a n d o n / u m j p a d dc u u iuv c/ur =
v b l* e n n v m L i/it^ p - -* -
zu
-fe
r^-l tj
WL d i rioir. (Cl. le r~it d c rrvo/v dc.%.red.p a ir
l/' & (c.
5.
3 Z $ B
= ^ jn n d i rurir. (Cl. le rib de mo/i dcurcdpou't
186

[1 1 3 ] Fragm ent o f a S cen e from th e 2nd A ct o f J e p h t e . ^ page 62

M inor mode on mi

' :± 2T
L . i. g I fct =; ■■ -V
yi/iirnrn- *
C Z/<77>/ yf/>U ll01l.j C . 171- tu /lJ kJ'cL f r r e m e

3 .°
&
E H K 53Z
:s:
k—
rfydtmiruig. ^ e volJ ylm m ori; e.'VitunJ Ja, p i'e .d 'e n . ce,. c n u m e

4 " ' <VL


<vt d e s cc ee n d a n t .
fcy

i w ' ^ T X J u ^
yJ/uhldC,. " I V * i
- e e L . J E J i ! Tie, l e d a t d - j e p a d ? L , a r ~ o v o u < L > e £ L e c / d / n e .

&
H I 3 ±
te
4 — JL $ I
-w—V
=V%Z EJi-'ne l e dcrid-je p a d ? E d r & v o l f e , et l e cn/?zt>.

16. The exam p le i s ta k e n from A ct I I , S c e n e 2 o f M o n t e c la ir 'a


J e p h te .
187

J e p h t e . 3rd A c t , ^ page 1 3 3 .

M inor mode on r e . End o f th e m onologue

ruiiTte^ •
m
E— f
E i £ tt
M
Pom peace apprcto, hcaoc^ tcnioind de m a ,jp Imres, ydJi ■pcnu'cfuoy leoted
IsCJlt- _

It
Pom p choc apfrrrtdt hcacc/ tcmowJ de moiylcnoe^ ^ P ill pourcjuoy I'etcd
+ untJ'^ro/v.
o-
3C p
B
W
vmuf de i?iej ' u t v e d d o u l c a r y . equitable, v a n q c u r d e e c r u n c j d c l a te/’rc,,
Mode nuz/cut-"7e rc .K
vtx’cJtien t~.

E g *
iv p - ; : H tf ^ - h z t I
v a u J d e rned v i . v e d d o u I c u r d . P q a i t a d l e v a n y e u r d e o c r i m e d d e lal er r e ,,

[1 1 4 ] [O th er E xam ples]

------------- 1------------------------- C------- Fy


P--- T. F". ■■
— B --------------- E H * * -------------- -c f ....;
— fr
— y.j
----------- ’---------------------------- ' — 1------------------------------- “

17. T h is s e l e c t i o n com es from A ct I I I , S cen e 5 o f J e p h t e . N ote


t h a t th e s i g n a t u r e o f th e o r i g i n a l (no f l a t s o r s h a r p s ) h a s b een ch a n g ed ,
i n a c c o r d a n c e w ith M o n t e c l a i r ' s a d o p tio n o f th e o c ta v e o f l a a s h i s m odel
f o r th e m in or m ode.
188

M ajor mode tr a n s p o s e d a d e g r e e h ig h e r th a n i t s n a t u r a l p l a c e , t h a t i s , up
to r e

w
V 9
- i c T-v a
T -]"7J ut~ P f f ■n ■«
kj r,
i— V--4---

M ajor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o m i, two d e g r e e s h ig h e r th an i t s n a t u r a l p l a c e , by


means o f fo u r sh a r p s

-----f T W
-* r
P------ -► fr y r f- r© —i
r—
L X '' Jm 4 k
/ j a u fe - c o n I r e

M ajor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o th e s c a l e d e g r e e o f f a , t h r e e d e g r e e s h ig h e r th an
i t s n a t u r a l s c a l e d e g r e e , by means o f one f l a t

¥
u u
—i 7- (y r > ■

M ajor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o _ si, by means o f f i v e s h a r p s . I t i s one d e g r e e


lo w e r th a n i t s n a t u r a l s c a l e d e g r e e

M inor mode on l a , w h ich i s i t s n a t u r a l s c a l e d e g r e e


M inor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o th e s c a l e d e g r e e o f s i by means o f two s h a r p s .
I t i s a d e g r e e h ig h e r th an i t s n a t u r a l p la c e

r&\ n •
•C) •
1 ■:_ -r W—j

M inor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o u t , by means o f t h r e e f l a t s . I t i s two d e g r e e s


h ig h e r th a n i t s n a t u r a l s c a l e d e g r e e

M inor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o r e , by means o f on e f l a t . I t i s a f o u r t h h ig h e r


th a n i t s n a t u r a l p la c e

18
E x e r c is e on C hanges o f P a r ts

^faille.
=t
V=l=4-
m
u/r kJ o l

jB lLSJC .

-f-M zz
uhLrJoh. ;
~Jol

18. I t i s n o t c l e a r why M o n te c la ir h a s s t r e s s e d t h e v i s u a l
i n t e r v a l b etw een th e so p ra n o and h a u t e - c o n t r e . w h ile p o in t i n g o u t th e
a c t u a l i n t e r v a l b etw een th e b a r it o n e and b a s s . I f a ch an ge o f c h a r a c t e r s ,
w ith a ch an ge o f v o i c e t y p e s , was in v o lv e d b e tw e en th e so p ra n o and
190
I t i s o r d i n a r i l y g iv e n a s a p r i n c i p l e t h a t th e l a s t n o te o f a

c o m p o s itio n i s p la c e d on th e fu n d a m en ta l s c a l e d e g r e e , and t h a t i t i s t h i s

s c a l e d e g r e e w h ich th e b a s s e s sound i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e th e to n e t o th e

v o ic e s . T h is p r i n c i p l e i s n o t a lw a y s c e r t a i n , s i n c e th e l a s t n o te

so m etim es f i n i s h e s a t th e t h ir d and so m etim es a t th e f i f t h ab ove th e

fu n d a m en ta l s c a l e d e g r e e .

[1 1 5 ] I t e v e n h appens o f t e n en o u g h , e s p e c i a l l y f o r te n o r s and f o r

h a u t e s - c e n t r e s . t h a t th e m e lo d ic l i n e n e i t h e r b e g in s ( 4 ) n or en d s ( 5 ) on

t h e fu n d a m en ta l s c a l e d e g r e e . T h is i s w hat t r o u b le s g r e a t l y th o s e who a re

n o t y e t w e l l accu sto m ed t o f i n d i n g th e to n e e a s i l y . F or exam p le:

The fu n d a m en ta l s c a l e d e g r e e o f t h i s exam ple m ust b e an u t

1 r (»-— p ;v -

^ L f l i F F

The fu n d a m en ta l s c a l e d e g r e e o f t h i s exam p le i s a l a

- ■—

f ---- — ©— n
^ r-
_ Q ^ J - to —

T ea ch er s o f m u sic s h o u ld , f o r th e a s s i s t a n c e o f th e s t u d e n t s , make

u s e o f th e two fu n d a m en ta l n o t e s a f t e r th e c l e f s . T h ese n o t e s w i l l

h a u t e - c o n t r e . th e n one p e r so n r e a d in g b o th p a r t s w ould in d e e d s i n g a s i x t h ,
s i n c e he would p la c e e a c h p a r t i n th e c o r r e s p o n d in g r e g i s t e r o f h i s v o i c e .
The o c t a v e b etw e en th e b a r it o n e and b a s s , on th e o th e r h and , would come
a b o u t i f a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r o r v o i c e ty p e w ere to have an a c t u a l change i n
r e g is t e r a t th a t p o in t.
191

i n d i c a t e , by means o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n , th e fu n d a m en ta l s c a l e d e g r e e w hich

th e in s t r u m e n ts sou nd i n o r d e r t o g i v e th e to n e t o th e v o i c e s , and by means

o f t h e i r c o l o r [ b la c k o r w h it e ] th e y w i l l d e te r m in e th e s p e c i e s o f mode

and c o n s e q u e n t ly th e names o f th e n o t e s , w ith o u t o n e ’s b e in g o b lig e d to

c a l c u l a t e a l l t h e f l a t s o r sh a rp s w h ich can be fou n d a f t e r th e c l e f .

T h ese s h a r p s and f l a t s c o u ld ev e n be su p p r e s se d b y means o f th e two

fu n d a m en ta l s i g n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n v o c a l m u s ic .

M ajor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o th e s c a l e d e g r e e o f l a

W.tw#, u ul3_

Fundam ental n o te
w h ich th e b a s s sou n d s
i n o r d e r t o g i v e th e to n e

M inor mode tr a n s p o s e d t o th e s c a l e d e g r e e o f s i

F-| * 7 - f - T----- u

— --------^ 6 U i - P 4 -L—LA—
J-

The v o i c e t a k e s t h e to n e o f th e fu n d am en tal n o te w h ich t h e b a s s g i v e s to


i t , and th e n s e e k s t h a t o f th e f i r s t n o te

The p la c em e n t o f u t o r _C s o l u t on th e t h ir d l i n e f o r a l l th e

v o c a l ty p e s ca n b e c o n s id e r e d , i n t h i s new s y s te m , a s an im m ovable c l e f .

The two fu n d a m en ta l n o te s ca n be re g a rd ed a s two m ovab le c l e f s

w h ich a r e t r a n s p o r t e d , a c c o r d in g t o th e w i l l o f th e co m p o se r, t o a l l th e

s c a l e d e g r e e s i n o r d e r t o p la c e th e d e s ir e d mode t h e r e .
192

The p a r t i t i o n a l l e t t e r s m ust n o t b e e n v is a g e d a s c l e f s , s i n c e th e y

s e r v e o n ly t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e th e p a r t s .

M eter and Tempo: S eco n d S u b je c t o f M usic

T here a r e t h r e e k in d s o f compound m e te r , a s f o l l o w s : d u p le ,

t r i p l e , and q u a d r u p le .

T here a r e a l s o t h r e e k in d s o f compound m e ter w h ich a r e co n d u c ted

th e same w a y. I n th e s y s te m w h ich i s p r e s e n t ly i n u s e , th e d i f f e r e n c e s

b etw e en t h e s e m e te r s a r e i n d i c a t e d by means o f sy m b o ls o r f i g u r e s p la c e d

a t th e b e g in n in g o f a p i e c e , ev e n though th e y may mean n o t h in g f o r th e

m ost p a r t . T here h a v e e v e n b een t e a c h e r s who h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d u p t o 20

m e te r s i g n a t u r e s , o f w h ich some h a v e b e e n r e j e c t e d a s b e in g u s e l e s s .

I n o r d e r t o im a g in e th e l e n g t h o f tim e w h ich m ust b e consum ed

b e f o r e h a v in g a p e r f e c t k n ow led ge o f a l l t h e s e m e ter s i g n s , on e m ust

o b s e r v e t h a t th e n o t e s ch an ge i n v a lu e a c c o r d in g t o th e d i f f e r e n t m e te r

s i g n s g o v e r n in g th em .

The q u a r te r n o t e , f o r ex a m p le, e q u a ls o n ly h a l f a b e a t i n t h e

m e te r s d e s ig n a t e d by. I, 2, and b y th e b a rre d C, when t h i s l a s t i s

c o n d u c ted w it h two b e a t s .

I t e q u a ls on e b e a t i n t h e m e te r s i n d i c a t e d by C, I , 5 o r I , and i n

(j: when t h i s l a s t i s c o n d u c te d w it h f o u r b e a t s .
2 3
I t e q u a ls tw o b e a t s u n d er th e s i g n a t u r e s 8 and o . I t cannot be

u s e d i n t h e ?6 m e te r b e c a u s e i t l a s t s to o lo n g .

The q u a r te r n o t e e q u a ls o n ly a t h i r d o f a b e a t i n t h e s i g n a t u r e s

I, 4*, and y .
6 Q 12
I t e q u a ls two t h i r d s o f a b e a t in th e s ig n a tu r e s 8 , 8 , and 8 .
195
The o t h e r t y p e s o f n o t e s ch an ge i n th e same manner a s th e q u a r te r

n o t e s , a c c o r d in g t o t h e m e te r s i g n w h ich r e g u l a t e s t h e i r v a lu e and t h e i r
19
num bers„

L e t u s now d is c o v e r w h eth er t h e s e t h in g s h ave n o t b e e n m u l t i p l i e d

w ith o u t n e c e s s i t y , and w h e th e r a l l o f t h e s e m e te r s i g n a t u r e s do n o t c a u s e

more t r o u b le th a n u s e f u l n e s s .

A l l m u s ic ia n s a g r e e t h a t a l l o f t h e m e te r s c a n b e re d u c e d t o d u p le

and t r i p l e . Why, t h e n , do th e y u s e u p t o 19 sy m b o ls t o i n d i c a t e t h e s e two

m e te r s? Q uadruple m e te r i s n o t h in g o t h e r th a n d o u b le d u p le m e te r .

[1 1 7 ] The (ji, on c e r t a i n o c c a s io n s , h a s th e same e f f e c t a s th e 0 ;


20
and on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , i t p ro d u c es th e same e f f e c t a s th e 2 .
2
The 2 s i g n a t u r e h a s t h e same e f f e c t a s t h e 4 , e x c e p t t h a t t h i s l a s t
3 3 3
i s co n d u c te d more q u i c k l y . The s i g n a t u r e s 2 , 4 , and 8 a r e c o n d u c te d i n

t h e same w ay, and a r e d i f f e r e n t o n ly b e c a u s e o f t h e i r te m p o s. The compound


6 9 12 6 9 12
m e te r s, 4 , 4 , 4 , 8 , 8 , and o , a l s o h a v e t h e same e f f e c t e x c e p t f o r tem p o.

I t w i l l b e s a i d t o me t h a t t h e r e a r e a i r s w hose e x p r e s s io n r e q u i r e s s lo w

te m p o s, and o t h e r s w h ich r e q u ir e g a y , q u ic k , f a s t , e t c . te m p o s, and t h a t

th e 19 m e te r s i g n a t u r e s w ere in v e n t e d t o p ro d u ce t h i s v a r i e t y i n tem po;

t h a t th e t r i p l e m e te r , f o r e x a m p le , i n d i c a t e d b y 1 and c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e

h a l f n o t e s , i s c o n d u c te d more s l o w l y th a n th e t r i p l e m e te r i n d i c a t e d b y 3
3
o r 4 , w h ich o n ly c o n t a in s t h r e e q u a r te r n o t e s , and f i n a l l y t h a t t h i s l a t t e r

1 9 . M o n te c la ir d i s c u s s e s th e m e te r s i g n a t u r e s on p p . 5 7 -7 1 a b o v e .
(F u r th e r rem arks may b e fo u n d on p p . 2 2 5 -2 3 1 i n t h e C om m entary.)

2 0 . M o n te c la ir p r o b a b ly m eans t h a t a t tim e s (jl i s c o n d u c te d i n


fo u r b e a t s , a s i s C, and a t o t h e r tim e s i s c o n d u c ted i n two b e a t s , a s i s 2 .
(The r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n th e v a r io u s m e te r s and tem pos a r e d is c u s s e d on
p p . 2 2 7 -2 3 1 i n th e C om m entary.)
194

m e te r i s n o t c o n d u c te d a s q u ic k ly a s t h e 1 m e te r , w h ich o n ly c o n t a in s

t h r e e e i g h t h n o t e s , w h ich m ust p a s s b y m ore q u ic k ly th a n th e q u a r te r n o t e s ,

b e c a u s e th e y h a v e l e s s v a l u e » It is t h e sam e w ith th e o t h e r m e t e r s .

T h ese r e a s o n s w ould b e a d m is s ib le i n s p i t e o f th e c o n f u s io n o f th e 19

m e ter s i g n a t u r e s , b u t e x p e r ie n c e d e m o n s tr a te s t h i s l a c k o f e x a c t n e s s t o

u s , b e c a u s e ( f o r ex a m p le) t h e P a s s a c a i l l e and t h e S a ra b a n d e. w h ich h ave

s lo w [ “g r a v e 68] te m p o s, a r e i n d i c a t e d b y 3 o r 5^, th e same a s th e Chaconne


21
and th e M enuet, w h ich h a v e q u ic k [ “g a y 18] te m p o s.

The P a s s e p i e d . w h ich h a s a v e r y q u ic k [ “le g e r " ] tem po, i s o f t e n

d e s ig n a t e d b y 3 , t h e same a s t h e P a s s a c a i l l e . th e S a ra b a n d e. th e C hacon n e.

and th e M enu et. w h ich do n o t h a v e s u c h a q u ic k tem po. I t i s th e same w it h

th e o t h e r s y m b o ls .

I f t h e 19 m e te r s i g n a t u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r i n d i c a t i n g t h e

d i f f e r e n t tem pos o f t h e a i r s , why d o n ’ t com p osers mark them c o r r e c t l y ? and

i f th e y a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y , why a r e t h e y u sed ?

As p r o o f t h a t a l l t h e s e d i f f e r e n t sy m b o ls a r e in c a p a b le o f d e t e r ­

m in in g a b s o l u t e l y t h e t r u e d e g r e e o f s lo w n e s s o r sp e e d o f th e d e s i r e d

tem po, on e o f th e f o l l o w i n g term s c a n a lm o s t a lw a y s be fou n d a t th e head

o f a p ie c e o f m u sic s

(JtaUen. (jrcivttIjaryof ^ d c i c u j w ^ l ^ o d e r a i o A l l e g r o t o , Tivjtissuno) 22


(Francols.C/raJjcnt, Aurenicnl, Maderc* } jyizy, Jjcya~fvitc.p7rcJvikj

2 1 . F or f u r t h e r in f o r m a t io n a b o u t t h e m e ter s i g n a t u r e s o f t h e s e
d a n c e s , s e e p . 2 32 i n t h e Commentary.

22. S e e a l s o p . 2 31 i n th e Commentary.
195

I n o r d e r t o o b v ia t e a l l t h e s e in c o n v e n ie n c e s and t o make th e s tu d y

o f m u sic l e s s £ 1 1 8 ] f a t i g u i n g , I b e g in b y b a n n in g q u a d ru p le m e te r from my

s y s te m , and c o n s e q u e n t ly th e w h o le n o t e , O , and I r e s t r i c t m y s e lf sim p ly

t o two m e t e r s , d u p le and t r i p l e , w h ich I i n d i c a t e b y a 2 and b y a 3»

S in c e t h e r e a r e s im p le and compound m e t e r s , I w i l l d e s ig n a t e th e

s im p le d u p le m e te r by means o f a 2 , and compound d u p le m e te r w it h a b a rre d

tw o , S im p le t r i p l e m e ter w i l l b e i n d i c a t e d b y a s im p le 3 , and compound


a 23
t r i p l e m e te r b y a b a r r e d t h r e e ,

When th e 2 i s s im p le , th e m easure w i l l c o n t a in o n ly two e q u a l

e i g h t h n o t e s f o r e a c h b e a t , and when th e two i s b a r r e d th e m easu re w i l l

c o n t a in t h r e e e q u a l e i g h t h n o t e s f o r e a c h b e a t*

When th e number 3 i s p l a i n , t h e m ea su re w i l l c o n t a i n o n ly two e q u a l

e i g h t h n o t e s f o r e a c h b e a t , and when i t i s b a r r e d , $ , t h e m easu re w i l l

c o n t a in t h r e e e q u a l e i g h t h n o t e s f o r e a c h b e a t .

T here i s n o t an y s o r t o f m u sic w h ich c a n n o t b e e x e c u te d b y means

o f t h e s e two f i g u r e s , p l a i n o r b a r r e d , b y j o i n i n g t o them on e o f t h e term s

L e n t, g a y , v i t e . e t c .

23. C h a r le s Gower P r i c e h a s n o te d t h a t some o f M o n t e c l a i r ’s


C o n c e r ts k d eux f l u t e s t r a v e r s i e r e s s a n s b a s s e s ( P a r i s , [ n . d . ] ) and
C o n c e r ts p ou r l a f l u t e t r a v e r s i e r e a v e c l a b a s s e c h i f f r e e ( P a r i s , [ n .d . ] )
u s e t h e s e m e te r s i g n a t u r e s . ("The C o d i f i c a t i o n and P e r s e v e r a n c e o f a
F re n c h N a t io n a l S t y l e o f I n s tr u m e n ta l C o m p o sitio n b e tw e e n 1687 and 1737 s
M o n te c la ir " s S ere n a d e ou C o n cert [1 6 9 7 3 " [P h .D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , S ta n fo r d
U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 2 ] , p . 1 3 . ) F or e x a m p le , t h e " P la in t e en D ia lo g u e " from t h e
se c o n d o f M o n t e c la ir ’s C o n c e r ts f o r tw o f l u t e s w ith o u t b a s s w as o r i g i n a l l y
n o ta te d i n w it h t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s s "In d u p le m e te r w it h t h r e e e ig h t h
n o t e s f o r e a c h b e a t" ("A deux terns 3 c r o c h e s p ou r chaque te r n s" ).
( M o n t e c la ir , S e c h s K o n z e r te f u r zw e i F lb t e n o d e r a n d e re I n s tr u m e n ts
E V io lin e n —-Oboehl ohne Ba/5 t e d . by G o tth o ld F r o t s c h e r ; H e id e lb e r g , W illy
M u lle r , S u d d e u ts c h e r M u s ik v e r la g , 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 6 6 ] , I , p . 2 8 , f o o t n o t e . ) T h is
movement c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e 16® Leqon on p p . 1 1 0 -1 1 1 a b o v e . (S e e a l s o p p .
235=245 b elo w i n t h e Commentary, and p . 2 7 9 i n A p p en dix B .)
196

Exam ples

S im p le d u p le m e ter

im s s tire
T>isjuj„ A/ (Lett,Jvndd/Titntulc Simple a,deiucrtrmJ.
trm.
(k ^ du- rnodt n\<ycur- \ ^ ^ T^T

SC
ma/cur J a r J'restuer '
.J.rt.
te m ^ d . :
Ze- <xz- dcqrt du- la.

Compound d u p le m e ter

J'iync cl& Leu m e ru r t >

Wsm
U<uitr~ centre riote lendasrun frits, crmposce-, cu dsuac tr/ns •
du mcdc m/ncur.
u£~.
iK ±
M r dr rmnxiir S a r U la , P.irtzms. \2^ L v
yui esbJon Leu. nntureZ.

S im p le t r i p l e m e te r

. . . \ M o d r nuyejurJ'ur Jixjrir dc Laui - m srurct

fimpL,
xaSlLt> \Jorv cltqnc naburcL Jim/} it, a, frytl
trsns tzm/Kf
-U r - T - 3=
j 7/

[ 1 1 9 ] Compound t r i p l e m e ter

JLotc
note Ponsiamsntnle
fondai ~
wit m o d e ( 7X(/i
nis/ieur (ranspjut, i/ifjnc dr (w nxesure.
•■\Jur Zr S o l' ///i //zz dsi/rs plus l>as tCorn/tojc'e.a
ornposcc.a b-oip tsms
(/-oid (sms. . w
^ L z / z z c ./" ('/I //<
(tcti '/ut/ttrel. '

Tfrng- id;
197

T r a n s it i o n s from th e M ajor Mode t o th e M inor Mode ( 6 )


and from th e M inor Mode to th e M ajor ( ? ) ^

M ajor mode M inor mode on i t s


tr a n s p o s e d t o l a n a tu r a l s c a le d eg ree

Mcju/ f conifiojc'c aa 2
2 ttnnnJ
onnJ-_ ( 6 ) i—r

& * - -E 4 W
lit a. o tanj n i c s u r c ------------
\ luiuson / comp ad*cc.
a 2 tc n u mcj-urc J'u/yttc,
M
i±j Ta -%r ut
■/<*
’"Sol 4
St rw-

.l^y.0,b _/ D&contrz dc Vtibrt/^ Sol poiir b - o u w U tav


\^,
cit cctU dernurc note.. /
C 6 )
m
_m q=i ^ _ _
a
u t. ia . a troLUznb^ndrcik j / n p U ^ ^ Ja u ^ C o rx o crtC d d cyzp ro m p tcm m t,
, usiisson ^JJcconfcz-du \
Ila au mi. I efrdie /nc/rtc.dou/ftc cU, voice,,
le layezi ut.

When one p a s s e s from th e sop ran o to th e h a u t e - c o n t r e . o r from th e

te n o r t o t h e b a s s , th e n o te fou n d a f t e r t h i s t r a n s i t i o n m ust a lw a y s be

su n g an o c t a v e b e lo w w here i t a p p e a rs t o be ( 8 ) , and when one p a s s e s from

t o th e b a s s t o on e o f t h e s e h ig h e r p a r t s , th e n o te fou n d a f t e r th e

t r a n s i t i o n m u st, on th e c o n t r a r y , b e su n g an o c t a v e ab ove w here i t ap p ea rs

(9 ). T h is s m a ll o b s t a c l e , w h ich i s th e o n ly on e i n my s y s t e m , w i l l be made

t o d is a p p e a r so o n enough by means o f a l i t t l e e f f o r t ; o th e r w is e , i t i s

a lm o s t in s u r m o u n ta b le by means o f th e c l e f s [now] i n u s e , w h ere i t can be

found i n 1536 d i f f e r e n t fo r m s , a s we h ave a lr e a d y o b s e r v e d .

24. The d i r e c t i o n s i n th e se c o n d and t h ir d s t a v e s r e a d a s f o l l o w s :


"Count o f f th e s t e p s from th e u t t o th e s o l i n o r d e r t o f i n d t h e p it c h o f
t h e l a t t e r n o t e . " "Count o f f th e s t e p s from l a t o m i." " C on vert t h e l a
i n t o u t q u i c k l y , on th e same b r e a t h . " (C o n ce rn in g th e t r a n s l a t i o n o f
" D eco n te z" , s e e p . 289 i n th e G lo s s a r y .)
198

(8 ) l'usiuj-on\
r , \ a.//
/w-JL;"*Jcy: .v ^ 1 j tl cu u ,, - y , Aj lir

S in g th e s o l o f th e b a s s (8 ) b elow S in g th e s o l o f th e so p ra n o ( 9 )
th e l a w h ich p r e c e d e s i t , and n o t by a s c e n d in g , e v e n th ou gh i t
a b o v e , a s i t a p p e a r s t o be a p p e a rs t o d e sc e n d

[1 2 0 ] I ca n h a r d ly b e l i e v e t h a t s e n s i b l e p e o p le c o u ld n o t c o n s e n t

t o t h i s new manner o f n o t a t i n g m u s ic , i f th e y w an ted i n th e s l i g h t e s t t o

d e ta c h th e m s e lv e s from o ld p r e j u d i c e s . H ow ever, f a r from f l a t t e r i n g m y s e lf

t h a t i t w i l l be r e c e i v e d f a v o r a b ly , I e x p e c t many a s s a u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y on

th e p a r t o f th e p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l s [" D e m i-s c a v a n ts " ], w ho, f e a r i n g t o be

th o u g h t o f a s i g n o r a n t , ta k e th e a t t i t u d e o f d e s p i s i n g e v e r y t h i n g , ev e n

w hat th e y a r e in c a p a b le o f u n d e r s ta n d in g .

The m ost j u d i c i o u s among th e m u s ic ia n s w i l l a c c u s e me p erh ap s o f

t o o much b o l d n e s s , i n w a n tin g to c o r r e c t a sy ste m r e c e iv e d by e v e r y o n e ; b u t

i f th e y w an t t o ta k e th e t r o u b le o f r e a d in g th e o ld a u th o r s on m u s ic , th e y

w i l l n o t i c e t h a t I am n o t th e o n ly one who h as dared t o refo rm th e manner

o f n o t a t i n g m u s ic , and t h a t t h i s h as b een p r a c t ic e d a t a l l t i m e s , i n a l l

p l a c e s , and i n a l l k in d s o f la n g u a g e s by an i n f i n i t e number o f p e o p le o f

m e r it. I w i l l g i v e some ex a m p les o f t h e s e f o r my j u s t i f i c a t i o n .

T here a r e s o many d i f f e r e n t o p in io n s among th e a u th o r s who have

w r it t e n a b o u t th e f i r s t ep o ch o f m u s ic , and a b o u t th e sy m b o ls w h ich th e

a n c i e n t s u s e d t o w r it e i t , t h a t one c a n n o t be s u r e o f th e t r u t h o f an y o n e* s

o p i n i o n s ; w hat rem a in s c o n s t a n t i s t h a t th e G reeks had t h i s k n ow led ge from


199

t h e H ebrew s, t h a t th e Romans had i t from t h e G reeks „ and t h a t we h a v e i t

from th e Romans,

I t i s t o b e presum ed t h a t t h e G reek s changed th e s y s te m o f th e

H ebrew s, b e c a u s e th e y s u r p a s s e d them g r e a t l y i n t h i s a r t .

The Romans, i n t h e i r tu r n , ch an ged th e sy ste m o f t h e G ree k s, and

we a l s o ch a n ged t h a t o f th e Romans.

Me do n o t h a v e a s i n g l e t r a c e o f th e m ethod w h ich th e H ebrews u s e d

f o r n o t a t i n g m u s ic , and we can c o n c e iv e n o t h in g from th e l i t t l e w h ich

rem a in s t o u s from t h e m u sic o f th e G r e e k s, b e c a u s e t h e i r sy m b o ls f o r

n o t e s a r e unknown t o u s . T h is i s en ough p r o o f t h a t i n p r o p o r tio n a s m u sic

h a s b een p e r f e c t e d , t h e manner o f n o t a t i n g i t h a s ch a n g ed , a s w i l l b e s e e n

b e lo w .

The G reeks in v e n t e d t h e t e t r a c h o r d , w h ich i s a s e r i e s o r ra n g e o f

f o u r c o n ju n c t s c a l e d e g r e e s , c o r r e s p o n d in g t o our fo u r n o t e s s i u t r e m i.

[1 2 1 ] T h is s m a ll ra n g e show s how l i m i t e d m u sic was i n t h e s e e a r l y

tim e s . A s e c o n d t e t r a c h o r d was th e n added t o th e f i r s t .

Some a u th o r s w i l l o b s e r v e t h a t t h e f i r s t sound o f th e f i r s t t e t r a ­

c h o r d , w h ich c o r r e s p o n d s t o th e n o t e w h ich we c a l l s i , was d is s o n a n t w ith

t h e l a s t sou n d o f t h e s e c o n d t e t r a c h o r d , b e c a u s e t h e s e two so u n d s form a

s e v e n t h b etw e en them ; i n o r d e r t o a v o id t h i s d is s o n a n c e , th e y w ould add a

n o t e o r sou nd b e lo w t h e f i r s t t e t r a c h o r d i n o r d e r t o h a v e an o c t a v e

b etw e en th e tw o term s A and B=

[D iagram s a r e on f o l l o w i n g p age]
200

la • Oc(a<>o* ^ B
Sol % m i %fot la
L a , u i u b re, m i
fa I
s= m i
m i
• bs
^. 14 Added
n o te
§re
11
ut
I
iVi
M u sic s t i l l b e in g to o l i m i t e d by th e ra n g e o f a s i n g l e o c t a v e , th e

G reeks w ould augm ent from tim e t o tim e th e number o f n o t e s o f t h e i r s y s te m ,

t o w h ich t h e y w ould g i v e th e names o f Proslam b an om en os. H v u a te -h ip a to n .

P a r h v n a te -h v p a to n . L v c h a n o s-h y p a to n . H ypate m eson . P a r h v o a te m eson , e t c . ,

b u t a s th e y n o t i c e d t h a t t h e s e names w ere t o o lo n g t o b e w r i t t e n b elow

e a c h s y l l a b l e o f th e t e x t , th e y s u b s t i t u t e d i n t h e i r p la c e s e v e r a l l e t t e r s

o f t h e i r a lp h a b e t — a t tim e s s t r a i g h t , a t o t h e r tim e s r e v e r s e d , som etim es

l y i n g on t h e i r r i g h t s i d e s and so m etim es on t h e i r l e f t , d o u b le d , t r i p l e d ,

e t c . — a p p a r e n tly a l s o t o i n d i c a t e th e f i f t e e n n o t e s o r s c a l e d e g r e e s o f

w h ich t h e i r sy ste m was th e n com posed , and a l l th e n o t e s o f th e th r e e

g e n e r a o f m u sic w h ich th e y u s e d , t h a t i s , o f th e d i a t o n i c , th e c h r o m a tic ,

and th e en h a rm o n ic, and p erh ap s f i n a l l y t o d i s t i n g u i s h b etw een th e

d i f f e r e n t d u r a tio n s o f so u n d s .

The Romans w ould n o t i c e i n t h e i r tu r n t h a t th e s t r a n g e n e s s o f t h e s e


25
n o t e - s y m b o ls , w hose number r o s e , a s we h ave a lr e a d y s a i d , up t o 1 2 4 0 ,

25. S e e f n . 1 on p . 165 a b o v e .
201
f a t i g u e d th e memory to o much; th e y s u b s t i t u t e d th e f i r s t f i f t e e n l e t t e r s o f

t h e i r a lp h a b e t i n p la c e o f t h e s e n o t e s .
26
The Pope S t . G reg o ry , h a v in g w i s e l y n o t ic e d t h a t a s a r e s u l t a l l

th e o c t a v e s r e se m b le d e a c h o t h e r b e c a u s e th e y a l l p ro ce ed ed by th e same

[ 1 2 2 ] o r d e r , and t h a t th e r e b e in g o n ly s e v e n i n t e r v a l s b etw e en th e two

b o u n d a r ie s o f th e o c t a v e , o n ly th e f i r s t s e v e n l e t t e r s o f th e a lp h a b e t

w ere n eed ed i n o r d e r t o f i x th e s e v e n s c a l e d e g r e e s , s i n c e th e e ig h t h

s c a l e d e g r e e , w h ich en d s an o c t a v e , becom es th e f i r s t o f a n o th e r , h ig h e r ,

o cta v e. I n t h o s e tim e s l e t t e r s o r n o t e s w ere p la c e d o n ly on one s t r a i g h t

lin e ; t h a t i s why th e o c t a v e s w ere d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by means o f d i f f e r e n t

t y p e s o f l e t t e r s , f a i r l y c l o s e t o th e f o l l o w i n g m anner.

delup?, - g/ o cC jlzUuP-
O kO nun/rsinc,... Octave aigiic, ....
a ,b , c ,:d , e , f , g. a,b,c,cL e,f,g.| A ? aCc.

T h ere i s th e o r i g i n o f th e l e t t e r s w h ich com pose th e f i r s t colum n

of th e gamut w h ich i s s t i l l i n u s e a t p r e s e n t by some t e a c h e r s , and w h ich

is b e in g r e j e c t e d l i t t l e by l i t t l e as u s e le s s .

I n th e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , th e s c h o l a r Guy (surnam ed A r e tin b e c a u se

h e was a n a t i v e o f A r rez zo i n T u s c a n y ), a B e n e d ic t in e monk, added many

n o t e s o r s c a l e d e g r e e s t o th e Romans' s y s te m , and made a new one from i t .

He o b se r v e d t h a t th e l e t t e r s w h ich d ete rm in ed th e s c a l e d e g r e e s ,

b e in g w r i t t e n on a h o r i z o n t a l l i n e , d id n o t g i v e enough a i d t o i n t o n a t io n

b e c a u s e i t was to o d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h low sou n d s from h ig h so u n d s;

t h i s d ete r m in e d him t o draw t h r e e o r f o u r p a r a l l e l b a r s , p la c e d one above

26. G regory I (" th e G r e a t " ), 5 9 0 -6 0 4 A .D .


202

the other, in order to put the notes there« This is the origin of the five

lines which we now use.

He placed dots on the lines and in the spaces, in order to show

better the scale of the different pitch levels of the voice; this is the

origin of the notes.

He named these notes ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la; these names came to

his mind while he was singing the first verse of the hymn in the choir on

St. John the Baptist's Days

Ut queant laxis, resonare fibris, mira gestonm, famuli tuorum,

solve poluti, labii reatum. etc.

Guy I'Aretin was too wise a man not to feel that he needed a

seventh name for notes bn the seventh scale degree, but he believed that

these six syllables [123] were.sufficient, and that intonation would become

easier if he always caused the' semitones to appear between the two notes

m i . fa; but the lack ofa seventh name for notes, far from facilitating

intonation, occasioned the torment of mutations, which has lasted six to

seven hundred years.

All of the authors who have written on the origin and on the

progress of music do not agree on the time when music harmoniously composed

of several different parts joined together had its beginning.

Some declare, with reason, that it had been in use before Guy

Aretin; others attribute its invention to this religious scholar, and still

others are of the opinion that it was not invented, or at least practiced,

until after his death. Be that as it may, music in several partscoming

more and more into use, it was observed that the different voicesoften
203

made a cacophony among themselves, because some remained longer on certain

syllables of the text than did others,

In order to remedy this inconvenience» a man by the name of Jean


27
des Murs, a learned doctor of Paris, around the year of our Lord

["salut"] 1353 invented different note-symbols for the different durations

of sounds» but as these note values were still not observed strictly

enough, it was consequently advised to regulate their value by means of an

equal motion or beat of the hand, by which everyone would be ruled (this

is the origin of meter) „ It was perceived very soon afterwards that it

was tiring and even disagreeable to the view tomake beats so often.

Two beats were put in the measure, of which one was made by

lowering the hand and the other by raising it again; each beat contained

more or fewer notes according to whether they had between them more or

less value proportionally.

It was noticed after some years that there were melodies which

required a long note and a short one on two syllables, as in the hymn

Conditor alma siderum. This required making the'two beats of the measure

27. The reference here is to Jean de Muris (ca. 1290-ca. 1351),


whose Ars novae musicae was written in 1319. (Oliver Strunk [comp, and
ed.], Source Readings in Music History [New York, Norton, 1950], p. 172.)

28. The melody of this hymn may be found on p. 324 of the Liber
usualis (ed. by the Benedictines of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre, Solesmes,
France; Tournai [Belgium], Descl^e, 196l). The text, however, beginss
“Creator alme siderum...." Since the pontificate of Urban VIII (l623-
I644), many of the old hymn melodies have been sung to texts partially or
completely different from those with which they were earlier associated.
(Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance [rev. ed,; New York, Norton,
1959], p. 83, fn. 238.1™" Possibly Monteclair is referring to a setting of
this hymn in one of the rhythmic modes.
204

unequal» by remaining once again as long on the downbeat as on the upbeat?

this gave birth to the meter with three equal beats.

This was still not sufficient, in that there are texts whose

expression [ 124] requires ©low tempos, and others which require quick

tempos; these different rates of speed have occasioned the difficulty of

all the different meter signatures presently in use.

Because of the beats, the dot (.) was invented, in order to augment

the note preceding it by half of its intrinsic value.

Each measure was separated by a perpendicular bar.

Ligatures or slurs were introduced? and as music was perfected

from day to day, fugues were invented, which required certain voices to

maintain silence while others sang, in order to imitate them afterwards?

and so that it could be known during exactly how many measures or beats it

would be necessary to keep silent, mute-symbols called rests were made.

The rests, like the notes, had more or less value according to

their different symbols and according to the meter signature which

governed them.

Rests also served to give the voices some repose, to make dialogues

from the melody, to make echoes, and to give (so to speak) different

nuances of force in the choruses, by augmenting or diminishing the symbols

for notes or rests where appropriate. The different meter signatures, and

several other symbols, were not at first invented so perfectly that they

did not have to be altered and re-altered hundreds of times ? this can be

seen in the third part of the Institutions harmonioues of Joseph Zarlin,

printed at Venice in 1589, page 347, Chapter 67, where he recalls all the

symbols and values of notes, with the different meter signatures which
205
i
were used in past centuries, in order to instruct modern musicians and to

protect them from the disgrace which they might receive sometimes in

refusing to sing, or in stopping short when they were presented with

these kinds of music.

Most of these systems may be seen in the excellent dictionnaire

de Musique of the scholar Mr , de Brossard^ (printed and for sale in Paris

at the establishment of M1". Ballard, sole printer of music for the King,

street of St. Jean [125] de Beauvais au Mont Pamasse) under the words

Sisthema. Figura. Kota, Tuono, etc.

As Guy Aretin did not give any name [solfege syllable] at all to

the seventh scale degree, which he called B fa {jj. mi and which we call at

present J3 fa si, and since this omission caused many hardships, especially

for children, it was advised at the beginning of the 16th century to

introduce one for it; for that the syllable sa was chosen, perhaps because

these two letters begin the last line, Sancte Joanes. of the first verse of

the hymn to St. John from which the other names for notes had been taken.

I do not know much about the reasons used later for converting sa into

Only the shadow of good sense is needed in order to perceive the

usefulness of this seventh name for notes, which serves in each octave, as

the seventh name for days serves in each week, to maintain the same order

continually.

29. Monteclair is citing Sebastien de Brossard's Dictionaire de


musiaue (Paris, 1703).

30. For a summary of the history of solmization in France, see


pp. 256-259 in the Commentary.
206

However, when this happy innovation began to appear, most of the

musicians and composers spoke out violently against it, and ran from house
31
to house in order to make everyone dislike it. In vain, reasonable

people— among whom there were found some musicians— wished them to

recognize its value; they wished to hear nothing and to examine nothing,

and they will always remain in their obstinacy.

As the light dissipated the shadows little by little, some

musicians, more thoughtful and less opinionated than the others, were bold

enough around the year 1650 to break the ice and to finish off the system

of mutations, by adopting si and by teaching it publicly in spite of the

outcries of their colleagues„

There were still supporters of mutations in 1670, a time when the

two sides found themselves equal.

31. In discussing Monteclair's Petite methods pour apprendre la


musioue aux enfans (Paris, [ca. 1733]), Marc Pincherle notes that this
anecdote is recounted in that work, and states that its author is incon­
sistent if not opportunistic, since he takes the "medieval” approach of
remembering that the last flat of a signature is named fa and the last
sharp si, ("Elementary Musical Instruction in the Eighteenth Century 1 An
.Unknown.Treatise by Monteclair" [tr, by Willis Wager; The Musical
Quarterly, 34, No, 1 (1948)], p„ 67,) In Pincherle*s opinion, Monteclair*s
statement indicates a reactionary attitude that is belied by his criticism
of those who opposed the introduction of the solmization syllable si. The
present translator considers this assessment inaccurate for several
reasonss (l) Pincherle seems unaware that in his other treatises,
including the present one, Monteclair has made the same observations
concerning the last" flat and last sharp (see above, p. 27), (2) There is
nothing medieval about the use of the syllable si, which was a development
of the 16th and early 17th centuries (see pp, 256-257 in the Commentary),
(3) It does not follow from Monteclair'a observation that he is "conceiving
of the scale as other than ut major and la minor"— the whole point of
transposition is that it moves the solmization syllables so that no matter
what the signature, the semitones fall between mi-fa and si-ut, with the
result that the fundamental of the major octave is named ut, and that of
the minor octave is named either la or re.
207

Noe, who is still living, assured me that, having left the


32
children's choir, he was obliged in spite of himself to learn la gamme

du Si composed by M1". Nivers,'^ in order to content those who wished to be

instructed by means of that method; he repeated to me several times, in

32. This may have been one, or both, of the following:


Henry Noe, a music teacher who was witness to a marriage in the
church of St-Andre-des-Arts in Paris, on 25 November 1707« (Yolande de
Brossard, Musiciens de Paris, 1555-1792 [Paris, A, et J= Picard, 1965],
p» 226, col. I,)
N.-Noel, a music teacher in Paris around the end of the 17th
century and composer of motets and elevations for the sacraments, the
Virgin Mary, and the principal feasts, as well as of a collection of solo
motets published in 1685. (Robert Eitner [comp.], Biogranhiseh-
Bibliogranhisches Quellen-Lexikon [2nd rev. ed.; facsimile reprint of the
Leipzig, 1900 edition and 1912-1914 supplements; Graz, Akademische Druek-
und Verlagsanstalt, 1959-1960], VII, p. 208, cols. 1-2.)
Monteclair's sentence structure does not make clear whether M „ Noe
was a member of the children's choir (probably a boys' chapel choir at a
cathedral school) or whether he was its director.

33. Guillaume-Gabriel Nivers. (1632-1714), organist, theorist, and


composer. Nivers held a position at the church of St-Sulpice (in Paris)
from 1654 until his death, and from 1678 to 1708 was one of the four
organists of the Chapelle Royale. In 1681 he replaced Du Mont as the
Master of Music for the Queen. When the Maison Royale de St-Louis a St-Cyr
was founded in 1686, Nivers was named its organist and voice teacher; he
participated with J.-B. Moreau in presentations of Racine's Esther and
Athalie at that institution. His compositions include motets, works for
organ, a cantata in honor of IF® de Maintenon, arrangements of Lully's
scores, and graduals and other liturgical music. His known theoretical
works include the Traits de la composition de musioue (Paris, 1667; English
translation by Albert Cohen, Brooklyn [N. Y.J , Institute of Mediaeval
Music, 196l); the Methods certaine pour apprendre le plainchant de 1 'Eglise
(1667); the Dissertation sur le chant gregorien (1683): and L'art d'accom-
oagner sur la basse continue pour 1'orgue et le clavecin (included in a
collection of Motets a voiz seule. 1689). ""[Madeleine Garros, "Nivers,
Guillaume Gabriel," Dictionnaire de la musioue [ed. by Marc Honegger;
Paris, Bordas, 1970-1976], II, pp. 782, col. 2 783, col. 1.)
The treatise mentioned by Monteclair, La gamme du si, is not by
Nivers but may have been attributed to him after his death, in order to
help its sales. Both 1646 and 1656 have been suggested as .publication
dates, with later editions of 1661 and 1666. As.given by Fetis, the
complete title is La gamme du si. nouvelle methode pour apprendre a chanter
sans muances. No copies are extant!(William Pruitt, "Bibliographie des
oeuvres de Guillaume Gabriel Nivers" [Recherches sur la musioue francaise
classioue. 13 (1973)], pp. 148-149.)
mocking his old prejudices» [126] that when he was called upon to teach

music, he would first ask, according to the custom of those times, whether

the person wished to learn by means of the gamut of mutations or by that

of si, and when he was asked which of the two was better, he would reply

that the gamut of _si was the easiest and that the one using mutations was

the most learned; but as people often wanted to learn this art only to

entertain themselves, they would choose the si, and would leave mutations

to the scholars.

The twelve former modes have been reduced to two, that is, to the

major mode and to the minor mode, and the secret has been found of trans­

posing them to all scale degrees by means of flats and sharps„

The different symbols and values of the old notes may be seen in

the Dictionnaire de Musique of M1*. de Brossard, under the letters B, L,

etc., where the trouble they caused, and how much facility the present .

manner of notation gives in comparison to the old one, can be observed;

nevertheless, however good may be the intentions of those who work to

perfect the arts, and whatever ease may result from the novelties which

they invent, it comes about very seldom that they enjoy, during their

lifetimes, the fruit of their labors ["leurs veilles"]; because ignorance,

prejudice, strong opinions, self-interest, pride, envy, laziness, and

especially pseudo-intellectuals ["demi-scavants"] are the tyrants who

persecute authors, who suffocate their works at the outset ["des leur

naissance*'], and which cause them to lose that fruit.

Even though the system of Guy Are tin was an excellent product, not

only in relation to the old [system], but also in comparison to the new

one, since it has been accepted for almost 700 years, and since it is still
209

the basis for the system which is presently in use, this celebrated author

did not at first have the satisfaction which he deserved 5 this may be

observed by means of a letter which he wrote to his friend Brother

M i c h e l , a n d reported by Baronius'*'” in the year 1022, in which he

complains of the poor treatment which he was receiving instead of the

praise which he believed he had deserved for having invented a method so

much easier that it was possible to learn more of music [127] in a month

than was previously possible in a year; he then adds that his fate is

comparable to that of the person who discovered the method of making glass

3 4 o Konteclair paraphrases the opening paragraphs of the "Bpistola


Guidonis Michael! monacho de ignoto cantu directa", written to a friend
who like Guido d 'Arezzo belonged to the Benedictine Order of Our Lady of
Pomposa, in the Duchy of Ferrara. In this letter Guido presents the
solmization syllables which he took from the hymn Ut oueant laxis. (The
text of the letter may be found in Martin Gerbert, Scrintores ecclesiastic!
de musica sacra notissimum [facsimile reprint of the St. Blasien, 1784-
edition; Hildesheim, Georg 01ms, 1963], II, pp. 43-50. An English trans­
lation is included in Strunk, Source Readings in Music History, pp. 121-
125.)

35» Caesar Baronius (or Cesar® Baronio; 1538-1607), Italian


ecclesiastical historian and apologist for the Church. Baronius was made
a Cardinal in 1596 by Pope Clement Till, to whom he served as confessor.
In 1597. he became librarian of the Vatican. His major work is the Annales
ecclesiastic! (1588-1607), twelve folio volumes narrating the history of
the Church to 1198. Baronius's Protestant critics claimed that he had a
poor knowledge of Greek and was ignorant of Hebrew; it was also believed
that Baronius made many factual errors. Nevertheless the Annales are
considered important for their accumulation of sources. (Filippo Donini,
"Baronius, Caesar,” Encyclopaedia Britannica [1973 ed.] , III, p. 185,
col. 1.) According to Forkel the Annales contain many comments about
church music in the Middle Ages. (Eitner, Quellen-Lexikon. I, p. 346,
col. 2 .)
210

malleable? in the empire of Augustus— the one who received death as


36
compensation for such an excellent invention*

It could almost be suspected by means of this letter that the

musicians of that time (less reasonable than those of the present, who

pride themselves on seeing the good of something) were those who caused

him such hardships , and who almost caused such an excellent invention to

be lost to posterity, which [invention] could only be sustained eventually


37
by the authority of Pope Benedict VIII, who recognized its value and who

ordered that other [methods] no longer be taught in the schools and that

the books of the Church be notated in this fashion, so that in spite of

the ignorant or the envious, the system of Guy 1'Aretin pleased and was

approved of by people of intelligence, and then received in all of Europe

even by the musicians„ »

360 According to Oliver Strunk, this anecdote can be found in the


Satires of Petronius, p, 51; variants are recounted in Pliny's Haturalis
historia. XXXVI, p. 26, and in the Roman History of Bio Cassius, LVII, p,
21o (Source Readings in Music History, p. 121, fn. 2.)

37<.- Benedict VIII (original names Theophylactus), Pope from 1012


to 1024o At the Council of Pavia in 1022 Benedict showed himself strongly
in favor of strengthening ecclesiastical discipline. (L. M. 0. Duchesne,
"Benedict VIII," Encyclopaedia Britannica [11th ed.] , III, p. 718.)
Monteclair*s reference to Benedict is puzzling— most sources report that
it was Pope John XIX (1024-1033) who was impressed by Guido’s Micrologus
(written after 1023) and who subsequently invited him to R o m e . ( S e e
J. Smits van Waesberghe, "Guido d ’Arezzo,” Dictionnaire de la musioue [ed.
by Honegger], I, p. 453, col. 1.) Monteclair seems not to have questioned
Baronius, who reported that by about the year 1022 Guido had already been
to Rome once, to see Benedict and to explain the new teaching device to
him. (Ernst Ludwig Gerber, Heues historisch-biographisches Lexikon der
Tonkunstler [ed. by Othmar Wessely; Graz, Akademische Druck- und Verlags-
anstalt,.1966], II, col. 437.)
It can be seen by means of all the transformations which I have

just reported that I am not the only one who has dared to reform the manner

of notating music.

Yet the three following objections will not fail to be made to me,

to which I believe I must respond.

First Objection:

It is almost impossible to have a universally received system

rejected.

Reply:

The examples which we have just cited show that old systems have

not always been adhered to, and that the new ones have finally been

accepted when one has been well persuaded that they will cause difficulties

to disappear. Besides, the one which we presently use in France is not

followed on all points in other countries.

The Italians, the Germans, the Flemish, etc. still solmizate by

means of the ordering of mutations, and through a ridiculous obstinacy,

they do not at all want to accept the name .si, which we give to the

seventh scale degree when ascending in the octave (ut, re, mi, fa, etc.),

perhaps because the French invented it.

[128] Here is the manner in which they solmizate by means of

mutations.
212

When they ascend to the octave, the mutation is made on the sixth

scale degree , by changing the name of the note la to that of re, in

order to make the second semitone appear in the same place as the first,

between the names mi fa.

J CL'
T v
muajicf,.
dzL

S -t+ir-
T7 -vm-
■z-j-z—
(d e sru -fo n \
y

\Jol- 7T VAM-
/C W=-

I<anner in which the Italians Solmizate

^ r

In Germany there are still places where solmization is done by

means of the first six letters of the alphabet in following the mutations

(a ), and other places where the first seven letters are used (b ); this

latter manner is a return to the gamut of si.


213

The mutation of the names of the notes was different with B flat

f"Bemol”] , naturally ["par nature"], and with B natural ["Bequare"]; this

multiplied the difficulties still more, as may be seen in the old methods

of music, especially in the Harmonie universelle of Pere Mersenne.^®

Old signs which indicated the meters and the rates of speed for the

tempos: O, Q C, C, O , 3, ^ <£, Cl, 01, € 1 Cl,

etc. Someday our meter signatures will be found as peculiar as we find

those of the ancients, almost all of which we have rejected.

2nd Objections

The proposed system will not be at first so universally received

that it would not be necessary to learn the one in use as well, so that

far from the time which would be employed in the study of music being

shortened, it [129] would be necessary to learn two systems in place of

one.

'Replys

When music has been learned by means of the simplicity of the new

system, it will be very easy to pass to the other one, of which the study

and the difference will consist of no more than a comparison to be made

between the one and the other; I have made a test of it with children.

38. Mersenne discusses mutations in Vol. II, pp. 143-146 and 190,
of the Harmonie universelle (facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1636 edition;
Paris, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1965).
Monteclair *s reference is to the three types of hexachords s that on F
(with the B flat); that on C (called "natural", because it does not contain
B ) ; and the one on G (which has B natural).
214

3rd Objections

What will be done with all the beautiful printed, engraved, and

manuscript music which has been spread throughout the world? Will it be

necessary, if the new system is followed, to relegate them to oblivion, or

to renotate them?

Replys

When the note-symbols and the meter signatures were transformed

into those which we now see, when the dot of prolongation was invented,

when the measures were barred, when slurs were introduced, and when the

systems which preceded ours were reversed almost completely, were the

Masses and other pieces of music which were then in use forgotten or

renotated? They are still sung every day in the cathedrals, even though

they may be notated and printed in the old manner.

It is true that a musician who had never been [a member of] a

children's choir would often find himself greatly troubled if he were

presented that sort of music to sing, but he would apply himself soon

enough to it, if he were shown even slightly the correspondence which the

old notes have with the modern notes.

The forms of letters have changed in script, as the forms of notes

have changed in music. Those who know how to read round hand, also know
^ 3 9
how to read Batarde script, cursive ["coulee**], and even Gothic, if they

39. Batarde script is usually slanted, with full downstrokes,


rounded connections, and tops without loops. If the batarde is not
slanted, it is called batarde ronde (rounded). (Dictionnaire de la laneue
francaise. abrege du dictionnaire de Emile Littre [ed. by AmedS’e Beau jean;
Paris, Gallimard et Hachette, 1965-1968], I, p. 919.) Coulee script is
also slanted, with all the letters connected, (ibid.. II, p. 958.)
215

apply themselves the least bit to learning the difference between the

characters =

When printing was invented, it was done in square letters; then

the squared characters were changed to Gothic characters, and the Gothic

symbols into all those which one sees now.

For this, the old literature books, [13Q] the books of plainchant,

and of music, in which one still reads, studies, and sings every day, have

been neither rejected nor reprinted; but in proportion as these books are

used, they are reprinted with new characters; the same can be done [with

music].

Whatever praises we may give to hard-working composers ["laborieux

Auteurs"], who with their labors have removed the difficulties which

reigned in old music, those who fought to support their principles and who

had the courage to teach them and to put them into use, deserve still more

to be praised, because without them we would be deprived of the happy

discoveries of the former. The man named Grandjean,^ schoolmaster

,40. Gilles Grandjean (fl. ca. 1600), schoolmaster and writer at


Sens. According to M. de Villiers, Grand jean was the first in France to
teach a seven-syllable solmization. The correspondence between de Villiers
and Marin Mersenne indicates .that Grand jean, with whom de Villiers had
studied solmization in his youth, was not himself the inventor of the
system which he used. While in Paris around 1595, Grandjean had heard a
Flemish musician using a seven-syllable solmization, and on his return to
Sens had adapted it for his own teaching. Grandjean allowed less
knowledgeable people to think that this system had originated with him, and
had it printed in a table (which, however, circulated only among his
students). (Herbert Schneider, Die Franzbsische Komnositionslehre in der
ersten Halfte des 17. Jahrhunderts rTutzihg. Hans Schneider, 1972], pp.
52-53. See also Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Dictionnaire de musioue [facsimile
reprint of the Paris, 1768 edition; Hildesheim, Georg 01ms, 1969], p. 431.)
216

["maitre d'ecole"] at Sens in Burgundy, Le M a ire,^ Metru,^ and Nivers,

organist at St-Sulpice in Paris, are the principal teachers to whom we are

obliged for having dried up ["secouS”] the painful subjection of mutations


43
which one author calls, crux tenellorum ingeniorum. and for having

4 1o Jean Lemaire (or Le Maire; 1581-ca. 1650), French


mathematician. B o m in Chaumont-en-Bassigny in Champagne; lived
alternately in Toulouse and Paris. Lemaire invented a type of lute, called
an almerie (an anagram of his name), on which the whole tone was divided
into four equal parts. According to Mersenne, Lemaire employed a
solmization system using za for the seventh scale degree, and devised a
staffless notation in which pitches were represented by the initial
letters of their solmization syllables. Lemaire *s system and notation
were adopted and taught by the composer Jacques de Gouy (d. after I650),
and used in his Estrennes pour Messieurs et Dames du Concert de la Musioue
Almerioue ( 1 6 4 2 ) 1 (For further information on Lemaire, see Albert Cohen,
"Jean Le Maire and La Musique Almerique," Acta musicologica. 35, No. 4
£19631, pp. 175-182, and James R. Knowlson, "Jean Le Maire, the Almerie,
and the 'musique almerique's A Set of Unpublished Documents," Acta
musicologica. 40, No. 1 [1968], pp. 86-89.)

42. Nicolas Metru (beginning of 17th C.-1670?), composer, music


teacher, and chapel master for the Jesuits in Paris. Metru was b o m in
Bar-sur-Aube (Champagne) and lived in Paris after 1631. In 1633 he
obtained a privilege for the printing of his own works, but was forced to
give it up two years later to the Ballard monopoly. His compositions
include a set of Fantaisies a, deux parties pour les violles (1642); three
collections of four- and five-part airs (the first is lost; the second and
third appeared in 1646 and 1661 respectively)? and a four-part Missa ad
imitationem moduli "Brevis oratio" (1663). Metru may have been an organist
at St-Nicolas-des-Champs in 1642; he may also have been one of those from
whom Lully learned harpsichord and composition. In 1643 Metru was
considered one of the three most famous music teachers in Paris., (Annibal
Gantez, L'entretien des musiciens [facsimile reprint of the Auxerre, 1643
edition, with preface and notes added by Ernest Thoinan, Paris, 1878;
Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1971], pp. 119-120; Andre Pirro, "Franqois
Roberday" [prefatory material to Fugues et caprices de Francois Roberdav
(Vol. 3 of Archives des mart res de 1 1orgue des XVIe . XVTIe . et XVIII®.
siecles, ser. ed. by Alexandre Guilmant and Andre Pirro; facsimile reprint
of the Paris, 1898-1910 edition; New York, Johnson Reprint Corporation,
1972)], p. viii, fn. 5.) Bourdelot and Bonnet state that according to the
composer Lalouette and the lutenist Le Moine, Metru invented or
rediscovered the note si and changed the old musical methods through its
addition. (Histoire de la musioue et de ses effets. I, p. 17.)

43. "A torment for tender natures." Translation suggested by


Bruce Parsil.
217

caused the revival of the name si, which ignorance or stubbornness had

discouraged.

To give a quick knowledge of the manner of teaching this new

method, I will, before finishing, give a recapitulation of the five

principles which I have established above, which will show the clearness

and the simplicity of this system.

First Principle:

What we ordinarily call the C. sol ut will be placed on the middle

line. The placing of the middle ut of all voices and instruments in the

middle of the five lines is regarded as an immovable clef which exists only

in the imagination and which causes all parts to be solmizated in the same

manner, whether in the natural form ["au naturel"] or transposed.

2nd Principle:

The partitional letters placed on the third line where the natural

ut has been placed, should not be regarded as clefs since they only serve

to differentiate the parts.

--- m ---- -- T>--- ;W - =:


----B --- \fc-i B - ^ ^ (tx
I_ i _— -
.- - l/i't1/r7
(/JCSSLUf. /JcuUc, -conlr<L>. oauLc*. *J3asj'Cj•

[131] 3rd Principle:

The fundamental note of the major mode is white and square ( Q ~)♦

This white note can be considered as a movable clef of u t .

The fundamental note of the minor mode is black and square ( ^ ).

This black note can be considered as a movable clef of la.


218

The major mode, to whatever scale degree it may be transposed, is

always solmizated by means of the octave ut, re, mi, etc., and the minor

mode by means of the octave la, si, ut, etc.

The two tonic or fundamental notes give information about several

things:

1. By means of their position and at first glance, they make known the

scale degree where the mode is located.

2. By means of their color they determine the species of the mode,

and the ordering and the names of the notes.

3. The bass instruments, or the voice ofthe music director ["Maitre


44
de Musique"], give to the voicesthe pitch of thescale degree

where the tonic note is placed.

4. In all parts, this note is placed on and is transposed to the same

scale degree, in such a manner that in the natural form as in the

transposed, all parts solmizate alike on the same scale degrees.

Examples

Major mode in its natural place

— ---------------------------------------------------

44. See p. 290 in the Glossary.


219

Major mode transposed a degree higher than its natural scale degree

________ J°{

Others are treated similarly.

Minor mode on its natural scale degree

EsWgag
Minor mode transposed two degrees higher than its natural place

Minor mode on ut by means of flats

Minor mode transposed a degree higher than its natural scale degree

In si, minor mode, by means of sharps

The rest are treated the same way.

5. The two tonic notes eliminate the obstacle of transpositions; that

is to say, that they remove the hardship of counting all the flats

or sharps after the clefs, with the purpose of finding the scale

degree where the last of these accidentals is placed, in order to


220

apply the name of a note there. This calculation costs students

a great deal of time and [132] trouble„

4th Principles

There are two kinds of simple meters and two kinds of compound

meters. ,

Simple duple meter is indicated by a 2.

Simple triple meter is indicated by a 3»

In the one and the other of these two meters, each beat must have

the value of two eighth notes.

Compound duple meter is indicated by a barred 2,

Compound triple meter is indicated by a barred 3, $.

In the one and the other of these two meters, each beat must have

the value of three eighth notes.

The two meter signatures, simple or barred, show in an instant the

number of beats which make up a measure, instead of which the greater part

of the 19 meter signatures in use do not indicate at all the number of

beats which must be conducted; on the other hand, these two figures,

simple or barred, produce, without giving any trouble, the same effects as

the 19 meter signatures, under which the same notes would have different

values, as we have noticed before this, on page 116 [p. 192 above].

5th Principle;

To define, as much as possible, the tfue degree of slowness or

liveliness of a tempo, one of the following terms is written above or

below the meter signature;


221

Tres grave. Grave, Tree lent. Lent. ModerS, Gav. Leger. Ylte.

Tres vite.

And to suggest the taste and expression which must be given to a

melody, according to what the subject requires, one of the following words

is indicated at the head of the works

Triste or Tristement (sad or Sadly), Pathetiaue (with pathos)

douloureux (sorrowful), Onctueux (smooth), Tendrement (tenderly),

Brusguem*. (briskly), Vivement (quickly); Detach^. Marque. Pique. Mesure.

LourS, e t c . ^

45o See the explanation of this term on p. 294 in the Glossary,

46, The terms left in French apply to various rhythmic


alterations. Etienne Loulie, for example, explains that in any meter, but
particularly in triple, the half-beats are made equal in value if they move
by leaps when the motion is by step, the first half-beat is made slightly
longer. (Loulie does not make clear whether he means the first half of
every beat, or the first half-beat at the beginning of every measure.) The
former manner is called detacher les notes, while the latter is called
1 ourer. Loulif; adds that in yet a third manner, called biouer or pointer,
the first half of the beat is made much longer than the second. The first
half should, however, be written with a dot. (Elements ou principes de
musique [facsimile reprint of the Paris, I696 edition; Geneva, Minkoff
Reprints, 1971], pp. 34-35.)
As used by Jean Rousseau, the term marouer appears to mean the same
as notes in^gales, since he uses it in connection with the odd-numbered
sixteenth notes in quadruple meter and eighth notes in duple (^) meter. In
triple meter the term is used to describe the first eighth note (or the
first quarter note in | time) in each measure, while the rest are made
evenly. (Traite de la viole [facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1687 edition;
Amsterdam, Antique, 1965], p. 114.) Barbara Garvey Seagrave, however,
believes that the term refers to dynamic stress but not necessarily to the
relative length of the notes; and according to Albert Cohen's translation
of Loulie's unpublished "Supplement des Principes ou Siemens de musique",
the first half-beats are stressed more than but equal in value to the
second half-beats. (Barbara Garvey Seagrave [Barbara Garvey Jackson], "The
French Style of Violin Bowing and Phrasing from Lully to Jacques Aubert,
1650-1730” [Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1958], p. 69l Loulie,
Elements or Principles of Music [tr. and ed. by Albert Cohen from the
Paris, 1696 edition, with material from Loulie's unpublished "Supplement"
incorporated where appropriate; Brooklyn, Institute of Mediaeval Music,

\
222

[133] Finally, to indicate the degree of loudness, the terms

which follow are used: Fort (loud), Tres fort (very loud), ni trou fort

ni tron doux (neither too loud nor too soft), Doux (soft), Tres doux (very

soft)»

There is no sort of music which could not be notated and executed

by means of the simplicity of these principles, which consist only in:

lo The establishment of C, sol ut on the third line for all parts.

2. Four partitional letters for differentiating the voices.

3« Two fundamental notes which determine the species of mode and the

scale degree where the mode is located or transposed, and which

assure the order and the names of the notes, without regard to the

flats and sharps which can be encountered immediately after the

partitional letters or at the beginning of each stave.

4. Two meter figures or signatures.

5. A term which announces the degree of quickness of the tempo.

As for the rest I leave to skilled musicians who are happy enough

not to be tormented by the jealousies of their profession, to make whatever

use will please them, of this system which differs little from the one in

use, since I am retaining the five lines, the flats and sharps, the modes

1965], pp. 64 and 66-67•


As for mesure. Jean-Jacques Rousseau says that it corresponds to
the Italian a tempo or a battuta, and is used at the end of a recitative
to indicate that one must begin singing en mesure. (Dictionnaire de
musique. p. 283.) Sebastien de Brossard explains that in a recitative the
meter is almost never observed strictly; the term en mesure thus indicates
that the beats must once again be made exactly equal in length.
(Dictionaire de musique [facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1703 edition;
Amsterdam, Antique, 1964], "Battuta.”) When used in instrumental music,
mesure means the same as notes egales. (Seagrave, "The French Style of
Violin Bowing and Phrasing," p. 77.)
223

and their transpositions; in short, I retain there everything except the

usual difficulty of the transpositions, the clefs, and the greater part of

the meter signatures, which are less useful than troublesome.

End of the Fourth and Last Part

The Psalm, In Exitu Israel, which I set to music for large chorus

[”a grands Ghoeurs11] , having been sung several times at the Tuileries

concerts, the public seemed to me so content with it, that I decided to

have it printed. I will do this as soon as possible; I will add to it the

Psalm Credidi propter, for two choirs, which I had the honor of performing
4-7
for the King.

47. According to Constant Pierre, motets a, grand choeur by


MontSclair were performed several times at the Concert Spiritual during
the first part of April and on the 8th of December, 1735,' while In exitu
was performed on the 15th of August, 1737. (Histoire du Concert Spiritual.
1725-1790 [Paris, Societe Franqaise de Musicologie, Heugel, 1975], pp. 243-
245») One of the performances in 1735 may have been of Credidi Procter:
Marie Briquet states that Monteclair was not officially represented at the
Concert Spiritual until 1735? when he had a spectacular success with two
motets, one of which used a double chorus. ("Deux motets inedits de
Monteclair," Bericht uber den siebenten intemationalen musikwissenschaft-
lichen Kongress Koln 1958 [ed. by Gerald Abraham jet al.; Kassel,
Barenreiter, 1959]? p» 76.) Briquet adds that there was not time to have
these two motets engraved, and nothing remains of them. (Pierre, however,
lists earlier performances of Monteclair’s motets, in 1726 and 1734; see
pp. 233 and 243 in the Histoire du Concert Spiritual.)
CHAPTER 3

COMMENTARY

In both text and examples, the Princines de musioue summarizes the

teaching techniques of an experienced musician, somewhat cautious in

accepting new developments but very concerned that his students learn

their subject easily as well as thoroughly. The numerous small examples

illustrating specific points are arranged according to the procedure which

Monteclair followed in an earlier treatise:

...I have supported these principles with examples (or exer­


cises) capable of rendering them more comprehensible, which seems
to have been a little too neglected in other methods which have
appeared before now.

The first exercises which come immediately after the principles


should be simple, and at first I have restricted myself to this
simplicity; but as it cannot produce but an imperfect knowledge,
it is absolutely necessary to leave it by degrees in proportion as
one advances in the usage and application of the principles. This
I have done by giving exercises throughout that are more and more
elaborate...,1

The work is thus organized progressively, with related topics grouped

together; its "more elaborate exercises"— thirty dances, twenty-one

1. "...J’ay soutenu ces principes par des Examples (ou Leqons)


capables de les rendre plus sensibles, ce qui semble avoir ete un peu
trop neglige dans les autres methodes qui ont paru jusqu’a present.
"Les premieres leqons qui suivent immediatement les principes
doivent etre simples, et je me suis renferme d ’abord dans cette simplicity;
mais come elle ne sauroit produire q u ’une conoissance imparfaite, il faut
absolument en sortir par degrez a mesure qu'on avance dans 1 'usage et dans
1'aplication des principes: c'est ce que j'ay fait en donnant dans la
suite des legons de plus en plus travaillees...." Monteclair, Nouvelle
methode •pour anrendre la musique (Paris, 1709), Preface.

224
225

exercises for two voices, and seven pages of selections from Jenhte— are

placed so that they provide comprehensive reviews for the student=

The Principles reflects as well the environment of musical thought

in which Monteclair worked, and his reactions to that environment. Again,

with respect to theory as well as practice, the treatise conveys its

author’s conservatism.

Meter and Tempo

Much of the material on meter and tempo in the Principes comes

from Monteclair's Nouvelle mtlthode pour aorendre la musiaue (Paris, 1709).

The changes made between 1709 and 1736 are as significant as the

similarities. For example, the beat-patterns used in the Principes differ

somewhat from the ones given on pages 11 and 14 of the Nouvelle methode;

in both triple and quadruple meter the next to last beat is made by

ascending from left to right rather than in a horizontal direction. (See

Figs. 1 and 2 below.) At some time between 1687 and 1695? Monteclair was

in Italy as the music director ("Maitre de la Musique”) of the Prince de


2
VaudSmont. If Jean-Jacques Rousseau's observation— that while the .

Italians use downbeats for the first two beats and (presumably vertical)

upbeats for the others, the French use a downbeat only for the first beat
3
and move their hands to right and left for the rest — is accepted as

2. Information from the title page of Monteclair, Nouvelle


methode. Simone Wallon indicates that in 1687, and from 1695 on,
Monteclair is known to have been in Paris. ("Monteclair, Michel Pinolet
[Pignolet] de," Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart [ed. by Friedrich
Blume; Kassel, Barenreiter, 1949-19733, IX, col. 503.)

3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Dictionnaire de musiaue (facsimile


reprint of the Paris, 1768 edition; Hildesheim, Georg 01ms, 1969), p. 52.
accurate, then it is possible that Mont^clair's earlier versions of these

patterns represent part of his personal transition between two different

methods of conducting.

JFraper
< h

Fig. 1. Beat-Patterns in the Nouvelle methode

4 fhmps
en lev a n t .
#

2 ‘. temps ‘temps
Jroiite .

premier
2. temps . temps en
Z^Jravvt. ^Jrappant .

Fig. 2. Beat-Pattems in the Principes de musique

Monteclair himself was aware of these differences. The following

would also seem to confirm Rousseau's observation:

In France directors conduct the meter indicated by C with four


beats, and use the value of a quarter note for each beat. Those
who play instruments, however, being unable to distinguish between
the four beats by means of their feet, are obliged to make only
two very slow beats, and to use the value of a half note for each
227

one0 It is thus that directors conduct it in Italy 5 this meter is


very difficult <,4

It should be noted as well, however, that a somewhat earlier theorist,


5
Michel de Saint-Lambert, uses a pattern for triple meter which is

virtually identical to Monteclair's earlier version, but uses a pattern

for quadruple meter^ which has the second and third beats reversed from

Monteclair es later example«

Monteclair's conservative tendencies are illustrated by his use of

two different tempo terms for the 0 and 2 signatures„ In the table Of

duple meters, found on pages 60-61 above, he marks the example in $ "a 2

terns lents" and the example in 2 ”a deux terns moderes”. It is doubtful

that Monteclair derived this distinction from actual performance practice;

according to R. Peter Wolf, these two meter signatures would have been
7
considered equivalent at the time that the Princines was published» The

relationship appears to be one which he carried over from the Nouvelle

methods. In his earlier table of duple meters, found on page 11 of that

4. ”En France les Maitres de "Musique battent a quatre terns la


mesure marquee par C, et employent la valeur d'une noire pour chaque terns,
mais ceux que joiient des Instrumt?3 ne pouvant distinguer du pied les quatre
terns, sont obliges de n ’en faire que deux fort lents et d 1employer la
valeur d'une blanche pour chaque ternss c'est ainsi que les Maitres de
musique la battent en Italie: Cette mesure est fort dificile."
Monteclair, Methods facile pour aprendre a .iouer du violon (Paris, [1711
or 1712]), p. 13o

5« Michel de Saint-Lambert, Les princines du clavecin (facsimile


reprint of the Paris, 1702 edition; Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1972), p. 19«

6. Ibid.,■p. 17.

7. R« Peter Wolf, "Metrical Relationships in French Recitative of


the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" (revised' and expanded version of
an unpublished paper read at the 1974 national meetings of the American
Musicological Society), p. 9» Copy of paper provided courtesy of the
author.
228

treatise, he says that the "Double ordinaire" is conducted more slowly

when indicated by 0 than when indicated by 2, and reinforces that

statement by marking the 0 sign "Lent" and the 2 sign "Leger", At no

place in either treatise, however, does Monteclair make as specific a

comment about the relationship between the two meters as does Saint-

Lambert, who says that the beats in 2 move twice as fast as they do in 0^
The lack of precision in Monteclair*s use of tempo terminology

probably reflects the confusion which prevailed throughout the preceding

century, which (as Denise Launay puts it) was "une- periods d ’anarchie"^

as far as meter signatures and signs of proportion were concerned.

Etienne Loulie1s invention of a Chronometer^ may have made the dependence

on a tactus or unvarying pulse less necessary, but MontSclair— whose

Princines de musiaue is supposed to have borrowed many ideas from Loulie*s

own Elements ou nrincipes de musiaue^— seems either to have ignored or to

have been unaware of the existence of this device, since it is not

mentioned in the Nouvelle methods, the Methods.facile pour aorendre aT .

.iouer du violon (Paris, [1711 or 1712]), his Petite methods pour apprendre

8o Saint-Lambert, Les principes du clavecin, p.18.

9. Denise Launay, "Les rapports de tempo entre mesures binaires


et mesures temaires dans la musique franqaise (1600-1650)," Pontes artis
musicae. Nos. 2 / 3 (1965), p= 166.

10. This invention, similar to the metronome indesign and


function and standing some six feet high, is described in Etienne LouliS',
Elements or Principles of Music (tr. and ed. by Albert Cohen from the
Paris, 1696 edition; Brooklyn, Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1965),
pp. 85—90.

11. Michael Collins, "In Defense of the French Trill," Journal of


the American Musicological Society. 26, No. 3 (1973), p. 409.
229

la musioue aux enfana (Paris, [ca. 17333)» or the Prinerpeso Neither does

Monteclair make any reference to a standard by means of which his various

meters and tempos could be related to each other, as does Saint-Lambert by

equating the duration of a quarter note with the pace of a person


12
walking.

Monteclair's only direct references to proportional relationships

between meters concern those between 2 and \ on the one hand and \ and I
on the other. For the first, in the table of duple meters on page 60

above, he says that since quarter notes move more quickly than half notes,

the \ meter (marked “a deux terns lagers”) should be conducted twice as

fast as the 2 meter (marked ”a deux terns moderes", as noted above). By

extension it could be said that the term "leger” means a tempo twice as

fast as “modere". Similarly, since the same relationship is made in the

table of triple meters (found on pages 61-62 above), between I (marked

”A trois terns gays") and I (marked "A trois terns vittes”), the term "vitte"

could indicate a tempo twice as fast as "gay". (These two relationships

show that Monteclair may have had the idea of an unvarying standard of

duration in mind, since in both of them the duration of the quarter note

does not change from one meter to the other.)

The extension of the above relationship to include I as well can

be justified through an examination of the exercises on page 78 above.


3
In the third, fourth, and fifth staves the meter alternates between 4 and

with corresponding changes of tempo. On the fifth stave, where it

changes to 1 momentarily to accommodate the hemiola, the direction "double

12. Saint-Lambert, Les nrincines du clavecin, p. 17.


230

measure» once again as slow" ("Mesure double une fois plus lente") is

giveno In the third and fourth staves the directions "A trois terns graves"

and "A trois terns gays" are given for 1 and 1 respectively; it is thus

possible to conclude not only that I is to move twice as slowly as i, but

also by extension that perhaps "grave" should be conducted twice as slowly

as "gay"„

However, some problems arise if these same exercises are used when

attempting to determine the relationships between the duple and triple

meters» The first, second, and third staves have the following series of

signatures and directions: 0 A quatre tans graves, 0 A quatre terns legers,

f A deux terns legers, 2 A deux terns gays, 1 A trois terns graves, If the

assumption is made that a given tempo term denotes, the same rate of speed

in all situations, then the usage of the terms "leger", "gay", and "vitte”

creates contradictions when the relationships set up by the tables on

pages 60-61 and 61-62 above are taken into account. From those tables,

"moderS" is twice as slow as "leger", and "gay" is twice as slow as "vitte"

but twice as fast as "grave"; from the exercises, "gay" is twice as slow

as "leger" and twice as fast as "grave". Put together, these inferences

would seem to indicate that "leger" is the same as "vitte" and "moderS"

the same as "gay"; but from the tables of compound meters on pages 65-66

above, and from Monteclair's statement on page 64 that eighth notes move

faster than quarter notes, it is clear that "vitte" is at least faster

than, if not twice as fast as, "leger". Furthermore, Monteclair's own

ordering of tempo terms, which he gives on page 194 above, places "gay"

after "modere" and before "leger” and "vite". (His accompanying comments

show that he himself was perfectly aware of all the confusion.) In that
231

list "gay" is equated with the Italian "allegro" and "leger" with "presto".

Rousseau also equates "gai" with "allegro"^— his observation that the
14
tempos in French music are much less precise than in Italian music

certainly seems well taken— but Brossard» sixty-five years earlier, points

out that "allegro" is quite often used to mean "vite" and "legerement", and
_ 15
sometimes means "modere" as well. It seems fairly obvious that a

comprehensive set of relationships for Monteclair's system of meter

signatures cannot be worked out on the basis of his own comments by

themselves. Consulting the Nouvelle m'ethode for further information only

makes matters worse. For example, in the table on page 11 in that

treatise, both "leger", and "tres leger" or "vite", are used with the \

signature.

The Dances

Given the above situation, it should not be surprising that the

set of dances which Monteclair includes in the Princines is organized only

in a general fashion with respect to meter and tempo. The dances are

grouped,according to whether the meter is duple or triple, simple or

compound; within each group, the tempos are arranged generally from slow to

fast. As might be expected, the inconsistencies in ordering involve the

dances marked "gay" and "leger", with (for example) the Gavotte (marked

"Leger") and the Bourse ("Legerement") being placed after the Rigaudon

13. Rousseau, Dictionnaire de musioue. p. 224.

14. Ibid.. p. 303.

15. Sebastien de Brossard, Dictionaire de musioue (facsimile


reprint of the Paris, 1703 edition; Amsterdam, Antique, 1964), "Allegro."
232

("Gay") but before the Marche en Rondeau (also "Gay")<> There are also

some associations of meter signatures and tempo terms which differ from

those given earlier, in the tables. For example, the Passacaille and the

first Sarabande„ both slow dances and marked "Grave", have the meter

signature The Menuet and Chacone, both faster dances ("Gay"), have the

signature 3° For these four dances, Monteclair's usage is more in

accordance with the instructions given by Brossards

When this triple meter is indicated by it is appropriate for


tender and affectionate expressions, and its tempo must be
moderate, neither too fast nor too slow, etc. When it is indicated
by a simple 3, its tempo is ordinarily somewhat fast; this causes
it to be used commonly in France for Ghaconnes. Menuets, and other
gay and animated dances,^

The Sarabande legere which follows them is marked both "Gay" and "Mouvement

de Chacone", but has a signature of 1 , ^

The dances are also in groupings according to key signature, but

there appears not to be any factor determining the order of the modes used.

The treble clef on the first line is used throughout. Six of the dances

are borrowed or adapted from the similar collection on pages 34-40 of the

Mouvelle methods„ while five are based on pieces in the Petite methods:

16, "Quand on marque ce Triple par 4, il est propre pour les


expressions tendres et affectueuses. & le mouvement en doit etre modere,
ny trop-vite. ny trop-lentement« & c . Quand on le marque par un simple 3,
le mouvement en est d 1ordinaire un peu gay, c'est ce qui fait qu'on s'en
sert communement en France pour les Chacones. les Menuets. & autres Danses
gaves & animees." Brossard, Dictionaire de musiaue. "Tripola,"

17, The meter signature does not always correspond to the dance’s
country of origin; Newman Powell mentions that 3 was used more often by
the French and | more often by the Italians, ("Rhythmic Freedom in the
Performance of French Music from 1650 to 1735" [Ph.D. dissertation,
Stanford University, 1958], p. 142. For more information on the relation­
ship between Sarabande and Chaconne. see p. 85, fn. 13 above.)
one is taken from the Methods**edu violon* In general most of the

alterations made involve slight changes in rhythmic notation and the

addition of more ornamentation0 The increase in the number of agrements

may indicate Monteclair fs own preferences with respect to the performance

of the earlier versions; it may also reflect a trend which had begun to
18
develop after the death of Lully0 The only substantial alterations are

as followss Of those dances taken from the Nouvelle methods, the

Passacaille is given a new ending and the first Canarie has its second

phrase replaced. Only the first measure of the Passacaille, and the
12
incipits of the Vents on page 86 above and the untitled dance in 4 on page

89, are retained from their counterparts in the Petite methods, (Appendix

B contains as complete an identification as possible of Monteclair es

sources for and variants of his examples,)

The Exercises for Two Parts

Monteclair also adapted eleven of the twelve two-part exercises on

pages 48-64 of the Nouvelle methode and ten movements from his six Concerts

a deux flutes traversieres sans basses (Paris, [n.d,]), for use at the end

of the second section of the Principes, Similar remarks may be made about

the addition of ornamentation to these exercises, but the alterations of

material are somewhat greater than in the dances. The Nouvelle methode*s
IQ 0
version of the 5 Leqon uses "white notation", which Brossard explains in

this manners '"With this signature [1], especially in Italy, one often

18, J, R, Anthony, French Baroque Music from Beau.ioveulx to Rameau


New York, W. W, Norton, 1974), p . 112.

19, Nouvelle methode. pp. 48-49.


234

finds flagged half notes in place of plain quarter notes, and doubly

flagged half notes in place of plain eighth notes." Again, these

different versions of the exercise serve to demonstrate Monteclair's

earlier adoption,of the Italian manner of notation and his later return to
21
French procedures. Some of the exercises also have meter..signatures

which differ from those of their earlier versions. The only "program

piece" among the later exercises— the 136 Lecon, "Les harangeres" ("The

Fishwives")— unfortunately has no counterpart elsewhere.

In contrast to the dances, these two-part exercises use a variety

of clefs, probably because they are intended for "deux voix". The treble

clef on the second line predominates. Most of the exercises are for equal

or like voices, and involve some sort of imitation; the 12® Leqon is a

canon at the unison. The 2e Leqon, however, resembles a binary dance,

with its B section twice as long as the A section, secondary cadences on

the dominant (at the end of a ) and the relative minor or submediant

(halfway through B ) , and its tendency toward homophony. The 3^, 4°, 76 ,

and 8e Leqons may have been sonata movements, since they'consist of a solo

treble melody accompanied by a figured bass line; they may even have been

from the same sonata, since they are in closely related keys (the 36 , 4@ ,

and 8® Leqons are in a minor, and the 7® Leqon is in d minor). The dance

titles indicate that they could also have been taken from a suite. Of

20. "Qu’on trouve souvent sous ce signe, sur tout chez les
Italiens, des Blanches,crochees au lieu des simples Moires, & des Blanches
doublement croch&es. au lieu des Simples Croches." Brossard, Dictionaire
de musioue. "Tripola."

21. According to Albert Cohen, such a notation would have been


rare in France before 1700. (Loulie, Elements or Principles of Music.
p. 60, fn. 47.)
235

these, the 4@ and 8® La 90ns are a Gavotte and a Gourente a_ 1 "Italienne

respectively. This designation refers to the fact that the meter

signatures and the note values are half of what they would be if these
22
dances were notated in the French manner. All four of these exercises

appear to have been written in the Italian style, with chains of 7-6

suspensions (particularly in the 38 Leqon), parallel 6th chords, melodies

which outline triads or use violinistic figurations, and their use of the
0
treble clef on the second rather than the first line. In the 3 Legon

there are long tonic pedals, and the thematic material is heard in the

dominant minor after being presented in the tonic.

The 16® Legon exists in three other versions. These include (l)

the first duet (for soprano and haute-contre) in Pyrame et Thisbe. the

sixth work in Monteclair's second book of cantatas (Fig. 3 b e l o w ) (2)

the seventh movement— a "Plainte en Dialogue”— of the second Concert (Fig.

4) 1^ and (3) the 11® Lecjon of the set of two-part exercises in the

22. A. Geoffroy-Dechaume, Les "secrets” de la musiaue ancienne


(Paris, Fasquelle, 1964), p. 118, fn. 1.

23. Monteclair, Cantates a une e t _a deux voix et avec sinfonie:


Second livre (Paris, tea. 1716]), pp. 75-77. From a microfilm of Vm 7.165,
made by the Service Photographique of the Bibliotheque Nationals (Paris),
and provided courtesy of Diran Akmajian and J. R. Anthony. The privilege,
which is reprinted at the end of the second book of cantatas, was first
granted to Monteclair in 1709; the above date is suggested by Wallon.
("Monteclair, Michel Pinolet [Pignolet] de," col. 504.) The incipit of
the duet is also given in Anthony, French Baroque Music. p. 361.

24. Monteclair, Sechs Konzerte fur zwei Flbten Oder andere Instru­
ments (Violinen— -Oboen) ohne Ba/S (ed. "by Gotthold Frotscher; Heidelberg,
Willy Muller, Suddeutscher Musikverlag, 1965-1966), I, pp. 28-29. The
directions "Sans port de voix", "Coulez sans tremblement", etc. appear in
the original.
236

STS
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i i r mr e r --------—
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v ......... - ■ \& — — 1 - fJ ! aj
A
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zA
d fn i^ j/io /t.t n o j m a f f t u r j.' Q u { d a lla /'m c j / Q u d
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d
£
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s t EE
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i noj ma/Atury. .
------------ £ -- ------ ------ ------ £ - r — .-#-----------
Ly-r— r- -t t T~
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Fig. 3» Duet from Pyrame et Thisbe (ca. 1716)
237

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F i g . 3» C o n tin u ed
238

ji— c:
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Fig. 3, Continued
239

7. P l a i n t c c n D i a l o g u e

Lcntcmcnt

S u m port
d c \oix

Sans trcm blcrncnt tremblcmcnt

trcm blcrncnt

/7

ti em blem ent

S a m p ort

•)ImOriginal)mildemZusela„»deu*lems 3crochespourchsquelems.**

Fig. 4. Deuxi^ine Concert. 7th movement (n.d.)


240

2S
m

I rrinblc m cn t

Ircm blcm cnt

Sens p ort Sens p o rt

C o u lc i sons Sens
t ren.blcm cnt trtrn b lcm cn t

Fig. 4, Continued
241

Nouvelle methode (Fig, 5)^^» Between the Concert movement and the two

versions from the treatises, the differences are minors The Concert

movement is a whole step higher, and was originally scored in ^ (see, p°

195 above). There are also small melodic differences just before the

cadences (marked with letters in the examples). Although the three

textless versions differ from the vocal duet in the distribution of

melodic material between the parts, the basic form— a rondeau, / da capo

with the structure A/BAC/A— remains unaltered <>

The exercise from the Nouvelle m'ethode was probably intended more

for instruments than for voices. At the end of the Methode...du violon,

Monteclair refers those desiring further practice to the Nouvelle methode.

"where they will find twelve elaborate exercises in sonata style, which
26
they may play on two v i o l i n s A t the beginning of each of these

exercises Monteclair gives a series of clefs. These, he explains,

"correspond in their names for notes through different transpositions,

and produce the same mode on different tones or notes. One may play these

exercises on all sorts of instruments, by choosing the clef which produces


27
the most comfortable pitch level for the instruments to be used." For

25. Nouvelle methode. pp. 61-62,

26. "...ou ils trouveront douse Leqons travaillees dans le gout


des Senates, q u ’ils pouront joiier a deux Violons." Methode...du violon.
p. 24. Franepois Couperin’s remarks in I'art de toucher le clavecin
indicate that "sonata style" involved the use of fast passages with short
note values. (L’art de toucher le clavecin [ed. and Ger. tr. by Anna
Linde; Eng. tr. by Mevanwy Roberts; Wiesbaden, Breitkopf und Hartel, 19331,
pp. 22-23.)

27o . ”00oSe raportent pour le nom des nottes par differentes


transpositions et produisent toutes ,le meme mode sur differents tons ou
cordes o On poura joiier ces lecjons sur toutes sortes d ’Instruments en
242

'/ . R on deau •
,Jif JLccorr r t f f ir f ' ^ f ,f - f

i^p- .-S J . - =-._ ^ :\i:..._ . " |


r-1— H — F-i^-1 A - ^ . .
^ f ^ W'F z bt.F « ■■{i■
F
bfc i-.^,. U j

•f
]-, ■

:f- *— f- ■
•— -n
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I :— ' f

p , - , .----------- :------- -------------- 1

|i |n . r x
'\ Vf r - p., T
------------ i E i - 4 .
^
-n.— » -
. y _ .

.— < - 1
-}- j L !■ ~f~t * •-"' i » •« # • &'u #f ^
' ' . , f = =$=3L_j -J +, ..;
i .- - ,l L =dd- T * - G F V g. #
E f -
(lb
i 1.
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» » %
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^ -;■ - , ■,^ I T ^
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K H 1‘ — +--o*-+ t' *~+*g-+ --

v j r ^ - g f ^ g i

rolElC
f i r T r r ^ f E F 5F = e -*y#7
y>
%r

@ E E I3 = E+ 5 = f ±

Fig. 5. Exercise from Nouvelle methode (1709)


243

^ ............. * V
r i - i' ' f f r j ." ] H- ^ f ' >r
t - f — t i — ---- i i U ^ — r .,
T'4 :--- V i' --- =-|— r* r v r r - a - .•?•,-• - 1 V-
------ --------- H-
kr>" ' > - #.
?• f / F i r - r - r r r r ^ n T -= ^ g r ^ L ^ ; , ,,-:.}.V--!!
—i,-- - ^ _i —, . r-i__ r .-Lr-i r ■ ^ ^ <: TP"'
I - . ;■ , ■"•; '
• ■ ■,-- 1 1.-' -f
r ~ - f— , i
:,. .
:----------- U— — U."J------— ----- --i---- k-
h
Fig. 5, Continued
244

this exercise the starting note (indicated by a V r) occurs with each clef

on the space immediately below the staff. That the Frincines version

(Fig. 6) follows the Nouvelle methods version more closely than it does

the vocal version would seem to indicate that Monteclair intended the

pieces in the Princines to be used by instrumentalists as well as vocalists.

On the other hand, it should be noted that the key signature of the ^

Princines version— no sharps or flats— is the same as that of the vocal

version.

The signatures of the versions in the Nouvelle methode and the

Princines represent two forms of the minor mode. The composition uses

the same pitches in both exercises, but theoretically uses the ordering of

tones and semitones beginning on la for the 1709 version and the ordering

on re for that of 1736.

choisissant la clef qui produit le ton le plus comode aux Instruments dont
on se servira.” Nouvelle methode. p. 47.
245

A A.
n .• "jpTzp: p— j>
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vicnt'
D-tsltnicnlr.
if. H=\--
Lccon. — %— -F-f~ hH2^ TZTTp —K »
-O— F -<— Ir-r-f- iv
4-14
W = 1 1 I t i t i = y
A^- 4- ,
^ F T - f - ■ F y v r - o - - -f— nr P •f f f'Fr c r --- ~ t T 1P 3
+--1 bt P-K 3— FH■ri •\c't‘ vj:
w 1 ---
-- T' A v P ■r,.P A ^ IL-d.-J-,
F P ^ r
F-F- yc rP o — -—
i4 J*
o- ^5=
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i A r^-r
#

zX -vfr
Z3ZZE *^~F~~^ '
O ""Ht
# A P ^ # - 4 "

i ££ 3Cd^ -6>— F
3 =2:

— ,— 4^
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P f r P - M r r r j '7V7 “
7^7? . ■*J ' . r n N ----- H — J— 9 - h

-0-----. u-'^l ^ — b4-------f v - i f — 1u — 1 ■


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•fr f-P --<9— - - -0— - ■r i ^ f A f - ■"I--- ■
tk ) f " r ^f -Pj4
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f--p-f = 9 = = c -V — '- -f-’-f-f- =A t


zzqc;
g 4-- L

TTr-4~A-
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_ p .... •

r--- M ------- E
------z - H ------ M— 1-----9 - H ------- H-----

- e — r ------ ' - ■ F - p y V". - I l f 1' J 1 t ’ ft'--


4— k-
F ^ " W -

Fig. 6. Exercise from Principes de musioue


246

Signatures and Accidentals

Signatures

The problem of Monteclair ?s signatures for the minor modes is

related to the history of modal theory in France around the turn of the

18th centuryo Jean Rousseau’s Methods claire0 certaine et facile -pour

apprendre a chanter la musique (Paris 9 1678) „ in which a piece of music is

classified as major or minor depending on the size of the third above its
28
fundamental, is believed by Lyn Tolkoff to be the first French treatise

to ignore the eight- and twelve-mode systems in favor of a division of the


29
modes into two types. In his preface Rousseau remarks that his treatise

is based on common practice; his statement suggests that the two-mode


30
system had been well established by the time of the work’s publication.

Nevertheless j, a great amount of uncertainty still existed as far

as the exact nature of the minor mode was concerned. At first theorists

in France tended to use the Dorian mode, called the mode on re, as the

28. Jean Rousseau, Methods claire. certaine et facile pour


apprehdre S chanter la musidue (Xerographic copy from a microfilm of the
Paris, 1685 edition), p. 22.

29= Lyn Tolkoff, "French Modal Theory before Rameau," Journal of


Music Theory. 17, No. 1 (1973), p. 156. Imogene Horsley considers
Christopher Simpson's A Compendium of Practical Musick (London, 2nd ed.,
1667; 3rd ed., 1678) to be the first treatise to restrict the
classification of modes to major and minor. (Charles Masson, Nouveau
traite des regies pour la composition de la musioue [facsimile reprint of
the Paris, 1699 edition, with introduction by Imogene Horsley; New York,
Da Capo Press, 1967], p. vii.) Simpson speaks of "sharp" and "flat" (major
and minor) keys, and builds major and minor triads on the notes most
commonly used as finals. (A Compendium of Practical Music [ed. by Phillip
J. Lord from the London, 1667 edition; Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1970],
p. 23.

30. Tolkoff, "French Modal Theory," p. 156.


prototype. Their usage was reflected in their signatures; since only the

third and seventh above the final are minor in the Dorian mode, its

signature has one fewer flat (or one more sharp) than in present usage,

where the sixth above the final is also made minor, Etienne Loulie, for
31
example, states that when a composition ends on re, its mode is minor.

It is possible that the preference of the French for Dorian rather than

Aeolian was based on the greater antiquity of the former, since the Aeolian

was not used formally by any theorist until the publication of Heinrich
32
Glareanus' Dodecachordon in 1547, The emphasis on Dorian may also have

been an outgrowth of its numbering as the second authentic mode (after

Ionian) by French theorists of the first part of the. 17th c e n t u r y . I t

has also been pointed out that cadences on a Dorian dominant would occur
§
more naturally and frequently than those on an Aeolian dominant, since G-

was more widely accepted as a leading tone than was T$ possibly the

greater use of the Dorian mode in its natural form (that is, with no flats

or sharps in its signature) eventually brought about the belief that its

sequence of whole and half steps should serve as the model at all pitch

levels. Musical compositions and the theorists' own examples, however, do

31, Etienne Loulie, Elements ou princines de musioue (facsimile


reprint of the Paris, 1696 edition; Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1971), p. 65.

32, Walter Atcherson, "Key and Mode in Seventeenth-Century Theory


Books." Journal of Music Theory. 17, No, 2 (1973), p. 209.

33« Imogens Horsley, in Masson, Nouveau traite. p. viii. Horsley


gives a list of the principal theorists who follow this ordering.

34. Thomas Rive, "The Dorian Origin of the Minor Scale in the
Ecclesiastical Polyphony of the Sixteenth Century," Studies in Music. No.
2 (1968), pp. 25, 28-29, and 31.
248

not show a consistent application of the Dorian ordering of tones and


35
s e m i t o n e s — in actual practice, accidentals were used throughout a

composition to raise and lower the sixth, and seventh scale degrees as

desired.

Gradually the usage of accidentals came to be reflected in

definitions of the minor mode. Brossard describes both major and minor

modes as having semitones below their tonics, and adds that the minor mode

must also have a semitone above its dominant. Michel de Saint-Lambert,

anticipating that his critics will ask why he uses one more flat than

usual in his signatures for minor modes, explains that any tone (or key)

in a minor mode has essentially a minor sixth above its final, and that

therefore the flat associated with that sixth must be placed next to the

clef rather than being used as an accidental during the course of the

composition. Saint-Lambert notes that the latter practice is the one more

commonly used, but calls it a "considerable error" which had not been
37
recognized until that time. Monteclair himself offers two alternative

forms for the minor mode. On page 22 of the Nouvelle methode he says that

if the mode is minor, the fundamental note is called re when there are

flatsafter the clef, and la when the clef isfollowed by sharps. In the

present treatise (p. 33 above) he explains that the minor mode transposed

by means of flats corresponds to and is solmizated with the syllables of

35. Tolkoff, "French Modal Theory," p. 158.

36. Brossard, Dictionaire de musiaue. "Modo [9° remarque]

37. Michel de Saint-Lambert, Nouveau trait^ de I ’accomnagnement


du clavecin, de 1'orgue. et des autres instruments (facsimile reprint of
the Paris, 1707 edition; Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1972), Preface.
249

the octave on re, and that when transposed by means of sharps it uses the

octave on la* By contrast, Jean-Philippe Rameau uses the octave on re for

the minor mode throughout his TraitS de 1 'harmonies even though his

signatures (like Monteclair's) imply a Dorian ordering of intervals when

flats are used and an Aeolian series when sharps are involved, Rameau

defines his minor mode so that the sixth and seventh above the final are
39
major when the melody ascends and minor when it descends,

Monteclair's examples on pages 46-48 above show that he too alters

the sixth and seventh scale degrees as needed within a composition, but he

seems more concerned than Rameau that the solmization of a mode reflect a

certain ordering of tones and semitones, rather than the location of a

note within a scale, and in the first three parts of the Frincines he con­

sistently makes the solmization of the minor mode dependent on its

signature, However, Monteclair never explains why he makes a distinction

between sharps and flats, Both Dorian and Aeolian can serve as models for

the minor mode, since the third above the final— the primary factor in

classification— is minor in each case. The sizes of the sixth and seventh

above the final are not such critical factors, at least in a melodic

context, As mentioned above, a Dorian scale— and thus its signature—

38, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Traite de I'harmonie (facsimile reprint


of the Paris, 1722 edition; Vol, 1 .in Rameau, Complete Theoretical
Writings» ed. by Erwin Jacobi; [Rome:] American Institute of Musicology,
1967-1972), p, 247,

39, Ibid., pp. 245-246. Rameau may have chosen the octave on re
because the accidental alterations needed to produce what is presently
known as "melodic minor" are the simplest possible— one sharp is used for
ascending melodic lines, and one flat for descending lines. Although
requiring no accidentals for descending lines, the octave on la would
require two sharps for ascending passages,
250

require one more sharp or one fewer flat than do the Aeolian forms using

the same fundamental» Monteclair may have been attempting to keep his

signatures as “natural” as possible by using whichever form of minor had

the simplest signature.

In the fourth part of the Princines Monteclair changes his mind

about the fonn of the minor mode. On page 183 above he says that he uses

the octave on la for the minor mode, because it seemed more convenient to

him “for several reasons,” However, he again neglects to list his reasons

or to explain them. These reasons may have been similar to those given by

Jean Lerond d'Alembert in his Siemens de musique theorioue et pratique

(Paris, 1766)o D'Alembert explains that there are three chords— la ut mi

la, re fa la re, and mi sol si mi— whose sounds all occur naturally in the
40
gamut and which could serve as models for the minor chord, . and that he

prefers la ut mi la because even though both that chord and the one on mi

have two notes in common with the model for the major chord, ut mi sol u t ,

the chord on la includes ut, the tonic of the major mode, as one of its

common tones. Consequently, he says, it is quite easy to pass between the


41 .
modes on laand on ut, Monteclair probably wished to demonstrate an

acquaintance with and approval of the less conservative ideas of his con­

temporaries, particularly since the fourth part of the Principes is an

attempt to reform certain aspects of musical notation,

40, Jean Lerondd'Alembert, Siemens de musique theorioue et


pratique (rev, ed,j Lyon, J.-M. Bruyset, 176677 P- 65,

41, Ibid., pp. 73-74o'


Accidentals for Individual Notes

With respect to the alteration of individual notes by accidentals,

Monteclair's usage differs very little from that of other 17th- and early

18th-century theorists. In general, an accidental altered only the note

which it preceded; subsequent notes could be altered by it only if they

were immediate repetitions of the original note, with no intervening

pitches. Nicolas Metru, for example, advises those who perform his

Fantaisies a deux parties pour les violles (Paris, 1642) that "in encoun­

tering a series of two or several notes in the same place, if there is a

flat, a natural, or a sharp before, above, or below the first one, it must

not be used for the others following, for such is my intention. Jean

Rousseau *s instructions are similar to those of Metru, although he states

them in terms of their effect on the solmization of a no t e . ^ Monteclair's

own examples for the use of accidentals are found on pages 22-25 above;

other musical examples elsewhere in the treatise show that he followed the

same practice throughout the Principes. It was not until the middle of the

18th century that accidentals had more than a momentary effect. Jean-

Jacques Rousseau, for example, explains that an accidental "...alters only

the note which follows it immediately, or at most those in the same measure

42. "...rencontrant deux ou plusieurs Notes de suitte en mesme


scituation, s'il y a vn mol 4^ quare ou diesis deuant, dessus, ou
dessous la premiere, qu'il ne doit seruir aux autres suiuantes: Car tel
est mon intention." Nicolas Metru, Fantaisies a deux parties pour les
violles (Paris, Robert Ballard, 1642), "Av lectevr." From a microfilm of
VM. 4°.459, made by the Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve (Paris).

43. J. Rousseau, Methods claire. certaine et facile, pp. 9 and 13.


252

which are found on the same scale degree, or sometimes at the octave,
44
without any symbol to the contrary."

Mont^clair is inconsistent in his treatment of accidentals for

notes which extend across bar lines. In Fig. 7 below, the third stave of

music has A^s which extend from measures 21 to 22 and 26 to 27. In the

first both parts of the tied note are written with flats; in the second

A^, only the first part receives a flat. Perhaps the treatment depended on

the relative lengths of the note values used in the tie— the first A^

consists of two quarter notes, while the second A^ involves a dotted half

note tied to a quarter note. In the A^ extending from measures 35 to 36,

a quarter note is tied to an eighth note; only the quarter note is written

with a flat. Examples may be found which show that if a note's repetition

men- a m e n a ..................................m e n <t/?ie/i. Cl


sii / c./a.i/a. at .................................... (e l a y a - at.

= .men. a men . ( I ............. /ncn nmc/i, e h ............. /ne/i amen a .»


- . lc. t a . y d . , lli^. . . . . . . . . . . le,. Zx- ya., a t .......................... - tc. f u . y a at..

ri
m e n a m e n } a. . tnc/L a m e n a.
tc. f u . y a , at tc-. t u - yev at
+
t
iHi =
-f>-\

m e n etmen, a . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
%
. /nen a . . mctv.
2 . . . . . te.. ( a . aj at- . . . . . . . . . . . . t c . t n . . ycis.

Fig. 7. Accidentals Tied across Bar Lines (Princioes de musioue)

44. "[Un accident] n'altere que la Note qui le suit immediatement,


ou, tout au plus celles qui dans la meme Mesure se trouvent sur le meme
253

is not tied to the original, the accidental may or may not.extend past the
45
bar line.

Monteclair's usage is also irregular for scale degrees an octave

above or below notes affected by a signature„ Usually a sharp or flat in

a signature is repeated at the octave if there is room for it on the staff.

However, if this repetition does not appear, the original sharp or flat

does not always affect the octave.

The problem of the choice of accidentals for a given situation is

also complex. At first glance, Monteclair's use of the signs or I? to

lower by a semitone the pitch of a note, and of orjfto raise the pitch by

a semitone, appears not to have been applied in a uniform manner where

cancellation of flats or sharps in signatures is concerned, particularly

with respect to compositions in minor modes. The Premiere Lecjon (Fig. 8

below) may be used as an example. The piece is in the minor mode on C,


b
with the Dorian signature of two flats. In measure 3, the B is made a

leading tone by means of at), while in measure 29, a $ is used. In both

of these measures, the melodic line (that of the lower part) is descending.'

In measure 8, the accidental is canceled with a tj, but in measure 9,

the is raised with a $ ; in these two measures the melodic line is

Degre, & quelquefois a 1 ’Octave, sans aucun signe contraire." Rousseau,


Dictionnaire de musioue. pp. 150-151.

45. On p. 102 above, see the 6e Leqon, second and third full
measures after the first double bar; and p. 245, Fig. 6 above, third and
fourth measures from the end of the second st§ye.

46. For example, the third beats of the exercise in the minor
mode on sjL on p. 76 above clearly include F$s, but in the second measure
before the first double bar in the Bourse on p. 81, an B if is obviously
intended as the leading tone to the dominant.
254

ascending. The in measure 14 is raised (to become a raised sixth scale

degree in g minor) with a )&• An examination of other examples shows that

Prem iere L c c o u a d eu x BelTiis . to


— i—
:cl
J ---------------- , 5 0.1 o.

IniiLihotl.
-O.
Ot> ■Vo t: -o-
ra -t-to m
\ Sty't'h
15 2D
w±crzz=5:
-o- m
S B
-kcz
-L.O-i
n: 3Z
G2Z
es o «- IZ
22 T7~
W
r-Q^ 3o _ a -rO-
-0-0 ±± W o s

it-
O O -rr o tt O T y T O p^T.-O '..« & 4 o o
o-
t o-*

Fig. 8. Inconsistencies in the Use of Accidentals


(Princines de muaioue)

even though Monteclair is inconsistent, he tends to use the tj sign when

there are flats in the signature.

In the major mode, Monteclair may raise the fourth scale degree

with either a ^ or at}. The seventh scale degree is invariably lowered

with a flat and restored to its original pitch with a hj, whether or not

a sharp in the signature is being canceled. It has been noted by Robert

Preston that, as used by Jean-Marie Leelair, the t} sign in such a situation

indicates that "...the note is to be played in its •natural* state, which,


255
47
because of the key signature, happens to be s h a r p I t seems probable

that MontSclair1s choice of the flat to lower the leading tone in the

major mode and the fcj sign to raise it again may have been conditioned by

his acquaintance with the so-called "gamut of si". As described by Jean

R o u s s e a u t h e gamut of_si provides two solmizations for the octave. If

the note B is written with a b\ sign ("b quarre")» it is solmizated as si.

the leading tone. If written with a flat ("b mol"), it is solmizated as

fa. the upper note of a semitone, and the other notes in the octave are

renamed accordingly. The choice of solmizations and the size of the

seventh above the final were thus indicated by the nature of the sign

accompanying that seventh. Although Monteclair does not himself describe

the gamut of si. he appears to have considered it correct to use its two

signs with the seventh above any given final in the major mode. Jean

Rousseau also says that if a fcj sign is found in front of a note, that note

must be sung as though a had been written;^ for him, both the fcj and

t h e i n d i c a t e the choice of the larger interval above the final.

MontSclair himself says on page 7 of the Nouvelle methode that "some people

still use the flat to correct the alteration of the sharp, and the sharp to
50
correct that of the flat."

4 7 e Jean-Marie Leclair, Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo.


Part I: Onus 5. Sonatas I-V (ed. by Robert E. Preston from the Paris,
[ca. 1754] edition; New Haven, Conn., A-R Editions, 1968), p. xiii.

48. J. Rousseau, Methode claire. certaine et facile, pp. 5-8.

49. Ibid.. p. 19.

50. "Quelques personnes se servent encore du beinol pour reparer


le derangemet "du dieze, et du dieze pour reparer celuy du bSmol."
Nouvelle methode. p. 7.
S n l n n gfltlon

The history of solmization in France, as MontSclair knew it, was

largely the history of the adoption of the syllable si, for the seventh

scale degree. Even though Bartolomeo Ramos de Pareja had proposed eight

syllables for the notes of the diatonic octave as early as 1482, it was

not until a century later that the system of hexachords was generally
\
51
acknowledged as clumsy and inconvenient.

In the Guidon!an system, the notes of the gamut were named

according to their positions in one or more of the hexachords built on F,

C, and G. The hexachords all used the same syllables *(ut, re, mi, fa, sol,

la) to name the first six notes of the octave. Since the hexachords also

had the same interval arrangement, with the semitone occurring between mi

and fa, the hexachord beginning on F was used to solmizate a passage

containing a (considered part of the gamut), while the hexachord on G

was used to accommodate a B%, A musical composition was solmizated by

passing, or mutating, between hexachords as needed in order to name all

half-steps mi-fa.

During the 16th century attempts began to be made to introduce a

seventh syllable. The Belgian Hubert Waelrant (d. 1595) established a

school at Antwerp in 1547, where he taught his system of Bocedisation.

51, Martin Ruhnke, "Solmisation." Die Musik in Ge'schichte und


Gegenwart (ed. by Friedrich Blume; Kassel, Barenreiter, 1949-1973), XII,
col. 847.
. 257
52
using the syllables bo-ce-di-ga-lo-ma-ni« Before 1591, the Netherlandish

theorist Don Anselm tried to introduce the syllables si and ho (for the

seventh and eighth scale degrees) at the Bavarian court;^ the. use of these

syllables was noted by Pierre Maillart during his visit to Antwerp in


54
1574o . -In 1599 another Flemish theorist, Ericius Puteanus, published his
, 55
Modulate Pallas, in which the seventh syllable bi was used.

According to the correspondence between Marin Mersenne and M. de

Villiers, Grilles Grandjean, a schoolmaster at Sens, visited Paris some time

before 1595 and became acquainted with what was probably the system of

Puteanus. On his return to Sens, Grand jean adapted the system for his own

use, thus becoming the first in France to teach a solmization without

mutations. In Grandjean's system mi was repeated for the seventh scale


56
degree; f ut-re-mi-b fa-sol-la-mi-ut.-

52. Stephen Morelot, "Solfier," Dictionnaire liturgioue.


historioue et thgoriaue de olain-chant et de musique d'eglise (ed. by M. J.
d'Ortigue; facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1854 edition; New York, Da Capo
Press, 197l), col. 1373«

53- Ruhnke, "Solmisation," col. 847•

54o Maillart, Les tons, ou discours sur lesmodes demusique. et


les tons de I'Eglise (facsimile reprint of the Toumai, 1610 edition;
Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1972), p. 61. Maillart discusses Puteanus *s
seventh syllable, finally rejecting it as "irrelevant and useless" because
it has neither a fifth above it nor a fourth below it andthuscannot serve
as a fundamental for any mode. (ibid., p. 76.)

55. Heinrich Huschen, "Puteanus, Ervcius." Die Musik in Geschichte


und Gegenwart. X, col. 1787.

56. Herbert Schneider, Die franzosische Kompositionslehre in der


ersten Halfte des 17. Jahrhunderts (Tutzing, Hans Schneider, 1972), pp.
52-53- (See also p. 215, fn. 40 above.)
258

The syllable za was used in the system developed by Jean Lemaire»


57
who was formerly credited with the first use of si* Lemaire also took

the consonants of the original Guidonian syllables and solmizated them

with the vowel as ta-ra-ma-fa-sa-la-(za). In the notation which he

devised, the notes were represented by these consonants = Marin Mersenne»

with whom Lemaire was occasionally in contact, praised Lemaire's

syllable, stating that it was easier to sing than hi, bi, or ni because
59
one did not have to change the vowel sound after la.

The first theorists to use separate syllables for and B% appear

to have been Adriano Banchieri (Cartella musicale. 1614)^^ and Daniel

Hitzler (Extract Au/3 der Meuen Musica Oder Singkunst. 1 6 2 3 ) Mersenne

took great interest in these and other systems, and it was through his

treatises and his correspondence that solmization without mutations became

widely known in F r a n c e . W i t h the alternatives for B^ and B ^ came the

development of the "gamut of si" (see above); the earliest treatises to

use such a system were those of Guillaume Gabriel Nivers (Methode facile

.57. Ruhnke, "Solmisation," col. 848. Brossard states that Lemaire


was said to have added the syllable si "40 or 50 years ago". (Dictionaire
de musique. "Sy.")

58. Schneider, Die franzosische Komnositionslehre. p. 52.

59o Mersenne, Harmonie universelle (facsimile reprint of the


Paris, I636 edition, with introduction by Francois Lesure; Paris, Editions
du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1965), II, p. 342.

60. Hans F. Redlich, "Banchieri, Adriano," Die Musik in Geschichte


und Gegenwart. I, col. 1210.

61. Othmar Wessely, "Hitzler, Daniel." Die Musik in Geschichte und


Gegenwart, VI, col. 494.

62. Schneider, Die franzosische Komnositionslehre. p. 208.


259

pour apprendre j| chanter la musioue. 1666 and I670) and Jean Rousseau

(Methods claire„ certaine et facile pour apprendre a, chanter la musioue.

1678)»65

During Monteclair's time solmization by mutations ceased to be

widely used in France. Its place was taken by two other methods: au

naturel and transposition. According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, solmization

au naturel involves assigning each syllable to a specific note on the


64-
keyboard and using only that name for each note. Thus the major mode on
# #
D would be solmizated re-mi-fa -sol-la-si-ut -re, Rousseau believes that

this method demands too much of the memory, since the order of flats or

sharps must be kept in mind, and Since many notes will have a double name;

he would rather call the notes on the keyboard by7specific letters of the

alphabet, and use the solmization syllables to represent specific scale


I
degrees of a mode, This transposition of the solmization syllables is

more natural, he feels, than solmization au naturel— which is "unknown in

any other country,

Ornamentation— Problems in Monteclair's Discussion

The Coule and Port de voix

Most of Monteclair's comments on ornamentation are contained in

the third part of the Principes, On page 20 above, however, in the first

part of the treatise, he singles out the coule, the port de voix, and the

tremblement (which at that point he calls cadence) as the three most

63. Schneider, Die franzdsische Kompositionslehre, p. 210.

64. Rousseau, Dictionnaire de musioue. p. 437.

65. Ibid.. pp. 437-438.


260

important melodic ornaments. The symbols which he gives in the first

section are somewhat different from those given later. The port de voix.

for example, is indicated by a V sign, and the coule by small slur marks.

In the later discussion, Kont6clair says that ordinarily there is no

symbol for the coule. but that there are teachers who use small accessory

notes or slur marks for it; he also recommends that instead of the V sign,

a slanted bar be used for the port de voix. Monteclair probably had

reasons for these inconsistencies in symbols. As noted earlier, the first

two sections of the Princioes appear to be a revision and expansion of his

earlier treatise, the Nouvelle methode pour aorendre la musioue (Paris,

1709)• In that work he gives the V sign and the slur marks for the port de
^ 66
voix and the coule respectively, as may be seen in Fig. 9 below.

Monteclair seems to have assumed that his readers were already acquainted

with the Nouvelle methode. and would prefer to begin with more familiar

forms before being asked to learn new symbols.

’ *
C f ' -1 1!"
'f— — T"
u ,/ •
------U
port «*/IACLX ^ —

ecuIf -ct>utf< eoui+r


f .—
M T-=- I4 - F A r^r *— r — Lh,.
1 r 1f .t. - ... i
" r---
R ----- 2 ji sct mi W-f, ^ 1

Fig. 9. The Port de voix and Coule (Nouvelle methode)

Figs. 10 and 11 below illustrate the coule and port de voix

respectively, as they appear in the third part of the Princioes. The

66. Nouvelle methode. p. 41.


261

examples show that Mont eclair has slurred the small accessory notes to the

following,.or main, notes (the ones being ornamented) „ To make even

clearer which note is receiving an ornament, Monteclair uses the

solmization syllable of the main note for the accessory note as well, even

though their pitches are different«

Figo 10 indicates that when the interval is larger than a third,

the coule involves a repetition of the preceding note, rather than a pitch

in between the two notes 0 Putnam Aldrich has pointed out that this

particular form of the coule is the inversion of the port de voix par

intervale„^ an ornament which could be used at cadence points in bass airs

and recitatives when the melodic line included a perfect fourth or fiftho^

According to Jean Rousseau, the theorist cited by Aldrich, such a port de


69
voix is made by rising or descending through a fourth or fifth.

Monteclair himself calls the port de voix the inversion of the coule. and

juxtaposes the two ornaments (marked by I and K in Fig. 11) to illustrate

his point.

The examples for both the port de voix and the coule are

rhythmically ambiguous, since it is impossible to determine from them

whether the ornaments should be performed on or before the beat. Putnam

Aldrich believes that since the last treatises to show the port de voix as

67. Putnam Aldrich, "The Principal Agrements of the Seventeenth


and Eighteenth Centuries s A Study in Musical Ornamentation" (unpublished
Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1942), p. 89. (A list of the
various types of coul€. as defined by Aldrich, is given on p. 133, fn. 11
above.)

68. Ibid.. p. 38.

69. J. Rousseau, Methode claire. certain et facile, p. 53°


262

being performed before the beat were those of Etienne Loulie (Elements ou

princioes de musioue. Paris, 1696) and Michel de Saint-Lambert (Les

principes du clavecin. Paris, 1702), it is possible to assume that after

the beginning of the 18th century this ornament was performed on the beat,
70
in the time of the following note.

q Ticrctj cndecaidant \>Q-


P ----------- o Q
o--X u u o o- p XL

Q cc]dc. coulc TS
1= :
~%1 ■-t'.
:E
a
£d : *0 -
g c~
X a . fa. a.- r c c n u i u ut r c . f u . n i i L W o L rnii La. m i i c/2. //%/1 X t u. u t r c La a nt res

Fig. 10. The Coule (Princioes de musique)

D. B. D. E p o r t de. v o l t , .

:Q
d e n u -- to n ..
a

7 'on. .
. CJ.
i
Pori At Vnlar. -J-J P o r t A t vouc. C o u tt,.
a—
— f---
S,— j ■Uci—-T , —J— i-—U —f m m —J=—itdIX 1 .j TF1
nu ■ ^ J a . a ^ v o u c .. m e ^ J zl- ol m t- i n n ^J v L -a , ifoi la .- cl.

Fig. 11. The Port de voix (Princioes de musique)

Aldrich also states that the coule began as an anticipatory

ornament, but at some time before the third quarter of the 18th century,

it too came to be performed on the beat, taking time from the note
71
following. He calls it a melodic appoggiatura, since it is always

70. Aldrich, "The Principal Agrements," p. 15.

71. Ibid.. p. 99.


263
72
slurred to the following note. There are other scholars, however, who

consider such a classification inaccurate. Kenneth Gilbert, for example,

states that the coule cannot be called an appoggiatura, since the latter

figure is meant to receive a rhythmic accent and thus to create a stressed

dissonance with the underlying harmony, whereas the coule is merely a


73 '
passing tone. According to Gilbert, the coul£ was a device borrowed

from musical settings of French verse, where it was used very often for a

muted e_ at the end of a word or phrase. Its performance before the beat

was supposed to ensure that the muted e_ (set to a weak beat) was not

inadvertently stressed more than the preceding syllable (set to a strong

beat). It w ill,be shown later, however, that there are places in

Mont eclair’s works where the coule is used for an accented last syllable.

Since other composers are known to have used identical notations for both

the coule and the true appoggiatura from above, the interpretation of

Monteclair’s coules as occurring on or before the beat probably depends on

whether they ornament accented or unaccented syllables.

The So n .enfle and diminue

Monteclair suggests that he invented the symbols which he uses for

the son enfle and diminue. According to him, the Italian composer Giovanni

72. Aldrich, "The Principal Agrements,” p. 91.

73. Franqois Couperin, Pieces de clavecins Premier livre (ed. by


Kenneth Gilbert from the Paris, 1713 edition; Paris, Heugel, 1972), pp.
xvii-xviii.

74. Ibid.. pp. xviii-xix,

75= Aldrich, "The Principal AgrSments," p. 91. See also the


realizations given in Johann Joachim Quanta, On Playing the Flute (tr. and
Antonio Piani (1678-?), known as des Planes while he was in Paris,^ asked

him how to indicate the son enfle and diminue in his violin sonatas.

MontSclair advised him to use a line which either thickened or became


77
thinner as it was extended, with the increase or decrease in sound.
7 8
Piani*s sonatas were published in 1712, twenty-four years before the

publication of the Princines. If the symbol originated with Mont eclair,

it is curious that he waited until 1736 to say so. He does not mention it

in his Methods facile -pour anrendre 1 .iouer du violon. published in Paris


79
at either the end of 1711 or the beginning of 1712. According to

Barbara Garvey Jackson, Piani's preface to his works indicates that he is

describing the symbols for those who do not know their use; she also

believes that Monteclair may have done no more than to suggest that Piani
00
publish a symbol that was already part of common practice. Monteclair

ed. by Edward E. Reilly from the Berlin, 1752 edition; New York, The Free
Press, 1966), pp. 92-93.

76. See p. 150, fn. 28 above.

77. Like Piani"s, Monteclair's signs do not extend over more than
one or two notes of a phrase at a time. (See Giovanni Antonio Piani,
Sonatas for Violin Solo and Violoncello with Cembalo ted. by Barbara
Garvey Jackson from the Paris, 1712 edition; Madison, Wis., A-R Editions,
1975], p. viii.)

78. Lionel de La Laurencie, L'ecole francaise de violon. de Lully


a Viotti (facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1922-1924. edition; Geneva,
Minkoff Reprints, 1971), I, p. 191.

79. Information handwritten on the title page. From a microfilm


of Vm 1440, prepared by the Service Photographique of the Bibliotheque
Rationale (Paris).

80. Barbara Garvey Jackson, in a letter dated 20 April 1975, to


the present writer.
265

himself is rather vague about it— "comme elle vient de moy,” he says;

"and as it canes from me, I will use it here."

The Son glisse

Figs. 12 and 13 below show the use of the son glisse. The first

line of Fig. 13 was adapted by Monteclair from the fourth recitative of

Pan et Sirinx. the fourth work in his second book of cantatas. The

wording of his instructions is slightly different from the original,

illustrated in Fig. 12. Monteclair has also changed the meter signature

and some of the note values, but is still using the ornament as a pictorial

device. The combination of a change in pitch with a change in dynamic

level is a concept very similar to that of the sollevatione or messa di

voce, which was described as early as 1638 by Domenico Mazzocchi in the

readers9 note accompanying his Madrigali a. cinque yoci. According to

Mazzocchi, the sollevatione increases in volume as it rises in pitchj he


82
indicates it with a V. It is possible that while in Italy with the

Prince de Vaud^mont, Monteclair was exposed to Mazzocchi’s practices,

and later derived his symbol for the son glisse (if he was indeed the one

who invented it) from Mazzocchi*s V sign.

The third line of Fig. 13 is adapted from Act V, Scene 1 of Lully’s

Isis; it seems to show that the son glisse technique may be used in the

81. Monteclair, Cantates. Second livre. pp. 43-45.

82. Domenico Mazzocchi, "A gli amici lettori," Partitura de’


Madrigali a. cinque voci e, d ’altri vari.i concert! (Rome, Francesco Zannetti,
1638), p. 5. From a microfilm of K. 3 .F.I6 , made by the Department of
Printed Books of the British Museum (London).

83. See p. 225, fn. 2 above.


266

performance of the port de voix. According to Putnam Aldrich, vocal

performers were expected to add portamento when the two notes of the port
84
de voix were conjunct scale degrees. Aldrich cites Marin Mersenne, who

states that the voice must fill the entire interval with an uninterrupted

flow from one note to the other.^

rnmt </*• f9 ✓
be4%t/ t'fr** ffff.tr*t fr Jf'r*rfr Z.
37 T&-
* F
s jrornf^/it z J 7/ /zc/ z//...... f it tfe J~tj Sou....
£ ___ 12_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ !z_ _ __ _ _ £__ la _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

f.t fptjr ,ftf .ff


v
..k

£
L’trj /?/<•//.r.z <7 /v r Jou..~
/ 6 AC 6____________
p E
W> 1T =BC
;

Fig. 12. The Son glisse (Pan et Sirinx)

From top to bottom, the instructions may be translated as follows:


"Draw out [the sound] from the flat to the natural while increasing the
sound of the voice." "Imitate the voice if possible."

84. Aldrich, "The Principal Agrements," p. 32.

85. Mersenne, Harmonie universelle. II, p. 356.


267

JPorL
d e Voiac. CaxhncL'
j2I

-^4 I * '
±* i f o n C U s s c t t ejifitc. e-n nv> nhint-
v / Z U x T C J b .............................................................................. t/cs rJCHlf>U^d.

tJcHV qh'f.rc c t d in u n iu j cn dcccsi'cfcuU;.


Coulcsz, rrrm, C hubcr. Cacbpivc^
-O
-e-
d t i J l n C X U U 'c C C llL ,J L [><S7lo{
it
CotUc>
n cru la is s n r U : m o u J ~ ir Ic •S o n ,
tneunf dc dcn iL ciir.
C lin st* . It- ife n , f/t. I a
pt-hH t- n * fc a In b ln n th ju .
— i_Q____
-o-

s JSciu . . reus ........</■£, / u u r a o - st* Jl yc. mcAirs.

Fig. 13. The Son glisse (Princines de muaique)

In each of the three staves, the instructions read as follows:


"Slide imperceptibly from the flat to the natural." "Slide imperceptibly
from the Si# to the Sib, while allowing the sound to die out." "Slide in
pitch from the small note to the half note."

A Selection from Jenhte

After his explanations of the ornaments, Monteclair includes

various selections from his Biblical opera, Jenhte. This work was first

performed by the Academie Royale de Musique on the first Thursday in Lent,

the 28th of February, 1732;^ it became quite popular, and was revived

eight times between 1733 and 1761. Among Monteclair*s selections, which

have had agrements added by the composer at appropriate places, there is a

recitative sung in Act V by Iphise, the daughter of Jephte, as she stands

86. Jules Carlez, Un opera bibliaue au XVIII0 siecle (Caen,


F. Le Blanc-Hardel, 1879), p. 11.

87. Ibid.. p. 17, fn. 1.


268
88
before the sacrificial altar. In this recitative, Fig. 14 below,

Monteclair has added coulea to an accented monosyllable ("meurs", in

measure l); to the stressed penultimate syllable of a phrase with the

so-called "feminine” ending ("console", in measure 8); and to the accented

last syllable of a phrase with a "masculine" ending ("nouveau", in measure

14)o Although each of these coules fills in a descending third, to sing

them before the beat would be to work against the correct accentuation of

the text. Like the port de voix added to "seul" in measure 15, the coulis

should be sung on the beat and in the time of the notes to which they are

slurred.

Monteclair has used tremblements subits on "heureux" (measure 3 )

and "feux" (measure 5)? these, tremblements occur at the ends of phrases.

The tremblement subit is more appropriate than the tremblement feint at

"heureux", since the sense of the words is complete at that point.

"Feux", however, is the end of a dependent clause. The chord in the

continue part at that point has as a root 5^ perhaps Monteclair

considered it important to sound the chord tone immediately, rather than

to delay it with the dissonance that the preparation in a tremblement

feint would create. There is also a tremblement subit on the repetition

of "seul", at measure 16. It is indicated as such at the end of measure

15, and although the ornament used at the beginning of the next stave

88. r Monteclair, Jeohte (3rd rev. and aug. ed.; Paris, Boivin,
[1735]), pp. 218-219. From a microfilm of Vm? 299, made by the Service
Photographique of the Bibliotheque Nationals (Paris), and provided
courtesy of Diran Akmajian. The selection was freely adapted from the
full score; the introduction and other places where the voice rests were
deleted, and a few slight changes made in the notation of the rhythm.

89o Ibid.. p. 218, second stave, third measure.


269

appears to be a coule. it is unlike Monteclair's examples of coules over

large intervals because the C lies between the two notes rather than being

at the same pitch level as the first note. The combination of the

tremblement feint and tremblement subit is used on "tombeau" (measure 11),

probably as a means of breaking up the second tritone for the sake of

variety. It will be remembered that this phrase accompanied Monteclair's

explanation of the ornament on page 142 above.

Jj(i Fille d c . /r/>/Uc'>. Slcbt* 5 C'payc> 119-

J L =zz=
y M - IM' r, f |>|> S j = ^
^ nvcJMTd't nu>tv Jar b clrb trop /tew.. rcuac' S u t r a y I i t ~Lo
„ I C s- ♦ . r. . i
ZE 1EL

^ ClcL p a r dc coupadrlcs ^ca£CJI jO , dc, mxv nicn-'b av iJ'c


w 1 I cl a m «i -

%ZZ
■z CJ-'ct rruc catv-j-o . U j .^ r a /u tU lxxl^jj", cUrccticL* cui' hynv- b^xitu
tz 13 10-
94

j y p a r tly luv caucr to u t noiMV-cato. CLrb 'ci v o u j J'cud/ Cdrb a, iso u r


1 -v—--<
lJ'cuL ^

Fig. 14. Recitative from Jenhte. Act V (Princioes de musiaue)

Pronunciation

Monteclair's comments about pronunciation (pp. 155-157 above)

provide still another example of his conservative attitudes. Specifically,

he indicates that words such as mov and croit should be pronounced and
270

krwE. The pronunciation of the oi- diphthong as w£ was considered correct

until the end of the 17th century Since the beginning of the 16th

century, however, it had coexisted with two others: JE, which is thought
91
by some scholars to have come from the western part of France, and by

others to have resulted from the inability of the Italians at the French
92
court to pronounce WE; and wa, which appeared at the beginning of the

14th century and probably originated in the dialect of the Parisian lower

classes. The use of wa was considered an indication that the speaker

lacked good breeding and had a tendency not to discipline himself; even

though used by members of the Court, it was not completely accepted by


93
grammarians until after the Revolution. Since there are no universal

rules for its usage, the choice of pronunciation for the oi- diphthong in

sung texts should probably be made on the basis of the composer's own

instructions, if available„

Monteclair seems to have preferred the orthodox pronunciation of

the 17th century, but his discussion of the problem is not nearly as

comprehensive as that of some other professional musicians. For example,

Benigne de Bacilly, who considers the oi- diphthong the most problematic
94 -
in French music, explains the change in pronunciation to wet when the

90o ¥. von Wartburg, Evolution et structure de la langue


francaise (2nd ed.; Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1934), p. 145.

91. Ibid.

92. Pierre Fouche, Phonetiaue historiaue du francais (Paris,


C. KLincksieck, 1958), II, p. 277.

93. Ibid.. p. 272.

94. Benigne de Bacilly, L'art de bien chanter (facsimile reprint


of the Paris, 1679 edition; Geneva, Kinkoff Reprints, 197l), p. 283.
271
95
vowel is followed by an n» and points out that the pronunciation Et
96
should be used when the text is popular in nature« Bacilly also has a

more detailed explanation of the problems of pronunciation in general.

Whereas Monteclair merely says that "one pronounces in singing as in

speaking", except for articulating the consonants more strongly, Bacilly

distinguishes between •prononciation simple. where an effort is made

merely to make the words easily comprehensible, and declamation, in

which more force and energy are used in order to give weight to the words
97
of a recited text.

For the student of music history, the Princines de musiaue is

worthy of attention for four reasons.

1. It shows how a highly respected Parisian music teacher of the

early 18th century instructed his students.

2. The set of dances in the second part ofy the treatise provides

examples of many of the French dance types and information on

their characteristics.

3. ,Although Monteclair's comments on ornamentation are best used

in conjunction with those by other composers or theorists,

the third section of the Principes. may b e .considered a repre­

sentative description of the French agrements.

95» Bacilly, L*art de bien chanter,p. 284. Bacilly*s remarks


suggest that the nasal sound should bedelayed until after thevowel is
pronounced.

96. Ibid.. p. 287.

97. Ibid.. p. 248-249.


4o The Principes suggests, both directly and indirectly, some of

the problems facing theorists and practical musicians of the

period, and demonstrates one musician's approach to those

problems»

Monteelair was not a radical reformer, and his treatise will

disappoint those looking for theoretical speculations. Neither was it

intended for professional musicians or for specific members of the

nobilityo Monteelair had in mind the average amateur of music, and his

primary objective was the clear and comprehensible presentation of the

fundamentals of his crafto


APPENDIX A

MONTECLAIR'S DEDICATORY STATEMENT

TO HIS MOST SERENE HIGHNESS,

MONSEIGNEUR LB PRINCE DE CARIGNAN.1

MONSEIGNEUR,

I did not believe that I could assure any better the success of the work

which I take the liberty to offer to YOUR MOST SERENE HIGHNESS, than by

giving it as Maecenas a Prince who cultivates the Fine Arts. The Academie

Royale de Musique never shone so brightly in the Capital of France, until

you consented to declare yourself its Protector. Eveiy day it enjoys the

kindnesses of Y e ourj M[Ost] S[erene] H[ighness]. Ah! Who better than I

can bear this testimony to the truth? It is to you alone, MONSEIGNEUR,

that I owe all the glory that Jenhte may have brought to me. For twelve

whole years the novelty of this style in the lyric theater seemed to be an

insurmountable obstacle. It was reserved to Y[our] M[ost] S[erene]

H[ighness] to triumph over it. Behold, MONSEIGNEUR, what moves me to

1. Victor-Amadeus of Savoy (1690-1741), Prince de Carignan and


Comte de Soissons; lieutenant general of the armies of France and Savoy
from 1734 until his death. Carignan maintained an active musical
establishment at his home, the Hotel de Soissons, with private concerts
given there until 1741. His musical director was the Abbe Casanova; his
proteges included Michel Blavet, Jean-Pierre Guignon, and the singer Marie
Antier. (Maurice Barthelemy, Andre Canrora, sa vie et son oeuvre, 1660-1744
[Paris, A. et J. Picard, 1957], p. 134, fn. 2; Marcelle Benoit, Versailles
et les musiciens du Roi [Paris, A. et J. Picard, 1971], p. 42.) Carignan
was also responsible for the premiere of Baiocco e, Serpilla. the first
Italian intermede to be performed at the Opera, on 7 June 1729. (Irene

273
274

reappear under auspices which have already been so fortunate for me. My

recognition rekindles my zeal, and bqt first successes are my surety. Is

more needed, MONSEIGNEUR, in order to beg you to cast a favorable glance

on my homage, and to permit me to say with very deep respect

MONSEIGNEUR,

of YOUR MOST SERENE HIGHNESS

[I am] the very humble,

obedient, and submissive

servant.

Monteclair,

Mamczarz, Les intermedes comiques italiens au XVIII6 siecle [Paris,


Editions du Centre Rationale de la Recherche Scientifique, 1972], p. 232.)
In 1730 Carignan succeeded the due d ’Antin as one of the directors of the
Academie Royale de Musique. The dismissal of AndrS-Gardinal Destouches,
then inspector general of music and dance, and the rapid succession of -
inspectors between 1730 and 1733 suggest that Carignan attempted to
consolidate his control of the directorship through a series of political
manoeuvres. (More detailed information concerning this complex situation
may be obtained by consulting the following: Charles Malherbe, biblio­
graphic commentary to Jean-Philippe Rameau, Hinnolvte et Aricie [rev. ed.
by Vincent d'Indy? Vol. 6 in Rameau, Oeuvres completes, ser. ed. by
Camille Saint-Saens; facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1893-1924 edition;
New York, Broude Brothers, 1968], p. xxvi; Gustave Chouquet, Histoire de
la musique dramatique en France denuis ses origines .iusqu 'a nos .iours
[Paris, Firmin-Didot, 1873], p. 312; Benoit, Versailles et les musiciens
du Roi, p. 42; Neree Desarbres, Deux siecles a 1'On^ra. 1669-1868 [Paris,
E. Dentu, 1868], p. 11; and Barthelemy, Andre Campra. p. 134=1
APPENDIX B

SOURCES AND/OR VARIANTS OF

MONTECLAIR'S EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES

As the student progresses through the Princines de musiaue. his

exercise material comes more and more frequently from actual compositions—

a natural reflection of the expected increase in his skill and compre­

hension. The following list is an attempt to locate those compositions,

as well as other versions in which the examples or exercises may appear.

It does not include material such as the large example on page 24 above,

whose first three staves have been taken almost unaltered from the Nouvelle

methods, page 8, fifth through eighth staves; such material is not

obviously a complete composition or part of a composition.

The works of Monteclair cited by sigla in the list are as followss

Cantates 5 voix seule et avec simfonie: Premier livre (Cantates l), Paris,

1 ‘auteur, rca. 1709] and Cantates a une et a deux voix et avec sinfonies

Second livre (Cantates II). Paris, 1 'auteur, [ca. 1716], both contained in

a microfilm of Vm 7.165, made by the Service Photographique of the Biblio-

theque Nationals (Paris); Methods facile pout anrendre a .iouer du violon,

(Mfv). Paris, 1'auteur, [1711 or 1712], in a microfilm of Vm 1440, made by

the Service Photographique of the Bibliotheque Nationals; Nouvelle methods ~.

•pour anrendre la musiaue (Nm), Paris, 1*auteur, 1709, in a xerographic copy

of MT.6.A2.M77, and Petite methods pour apprendre la musiaue aux enfans

(Pm). Paris, Boivin, [before 1753], in a xerographic copy of MT.742.M59,

275
both made by the Library of Congress | Sachs Konzerte fur zwei Flb'ten oder

andere Instruments (Violinen— Oboen) ohne Ba/S .(SK), ed. by Gotthold

Frotscher from the Paris, pi.d.] edition, Heidelberg, Willy Muller,

Siiddeutscher Musikverlag, 1965-1966; and the present translation (Trans)„

Other works cited are Jephtjs, 3rd rev, and aug, ed,, Paris, Boivin, [1735]»
2
in a microfilm of Vm, 299, made by the Service Photograph!que of the

Bibliotheque Nationals; and Les festes de I'ete. new edition of 29 Sep­

tember 1716, with added entree, Paris, J,-B,-Christophe Ballard, 1716, in

a microfilm of M1520,M78,F3, made by the Library of Congress, The Biblia

sacra .tuxta Volgatam Clementinam. ed, by members of the Paris Theological

Faculy and the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Rome, Typis Societatis S, Joannis

Evang,, DesclSe, 1956, and John R, Bryden and David G. Hughes, An Index of

Gregorian Chant. Cambridge, Mass,, Harvard University Press, 1969, were

also consulted, as was the Recueil general des operas reoresentes par

1 8Acadimie Rovale
■ ,
de Musioue depuis
. c . oeS8ES» oen—^iniMifiMiMggrwff.Tyj 4Jim
e*aG*oaeae*eaeeee»wesaB*m6»gO im
son etablissement,
jrwnrmtimwirsimuij& taeaai^eso . -wl r
facsimile reprint
A
of

the Paris, 1703-1746 edition, Geneva, Slatkine Reprints, 1971,

For each selection, the entry in the list gives its page number in

the translation and a title, text incipit, meter or tempo marking, or some

other means of identifying the piece on that page. The third part of the

entry gives all known sources or variants, with either page numbers or

references to specific acts and scenes, Fragments having several locations

in the present translation are cross-referenced, If no counterpart was

found for a selection, that part of the entry is left blank, with the

expectation that future consultation of sources presently inaccessible will

provide additional information.


277

Page(s) in Title. Text Incinit. or Source or Variant


Translation Other Identification of Text and/or Music

52 Carillon Trans, 125

79 A Capella. en contre-
point Mm, 24, En Mi, incipit
(5 mm)
Trans, 120-121

80 Entree de ballet

80 Rigaudon

80 Gavotte

81 Bourse m , 35
Les festes de 1'ete". 50,
Premiere Entree,
Scene 7

81 Marche en Rondeau Cantates I. Mo. 8: Le


retour de la naix.
92-95 (last air)
Mfv, 24

81 Gaillarde

81 Pastourelle de Jepht^ Jenhtf. Act IV, Scene 3,


Premiere Pastourelle

82 Pavane Mm. 36

82 Air vilageois m , 36
Les festes de I'ete. 123,
Troisieme Entree, Scene
6, Premier Air

82 Taobourin de JephtS Jenhte. Act II, Scene 6


Trans, 162, 7th stave

82 Courente a la maniere
Francois© m, 37

85 Passaeaille m , 37
Pm. 64, incipit (2 mm)

84 Sarabands

84 Menuet
278

togetaj in Title* Text Incioit* or Source or Variant


Translation Other Identification of Text and/or Music

84-85 Chacone

85 Sarabande legere

85 Passepied S a , 40

86 Canarie [1st] M* 39
Sa. 73
Les festes de 1 ’ete, 145»
Quatrieme BntrSe,
Scene 6

86 Air Infernal

86 Vents Pm. 7 5 p incipit (l m)

87 Loure

87 Gigue

87 Air* Trompettes et
Haubois

87 Cora de chasse

88 Canarie [2nd]
9
88 Lent* 4

88 Legere
2
89 P m . 8 2 p Ciciliene en
Rondeau, incipit (l^- m)

89 Napolitaine

99 Premiere Leqon

99 2e Leqon

100 36 Leqon

100 4@ Leqon

100-102 5® Leqon Nm. 48-49, Prmiere Legon


SC, I, 6-7, Ergaier
Concert. Prelude
279

bagels) in Title. Text Inciplts or Source or Variant


Translation Other Identification of Text and/or Music

102 6® Legon Ifeu 50, 2® Leqon


I, 36-37, Troiaigme
Concert. Air

103 7 Legon

103-104 8® Leqon

104 96 Leqon m , 56-57, 7 Leqon


SK. II, 16-17, Quatrieme
Concert, la Piearde

105-106 10 Legon Nm. 50-52, 3@ Leqon


II, 24-25, Cinauieme
Concert. Gay, incipit
(4 mm)

106 11 Leqon Nm. 58, 8® Leqon


S K . I, 16-17, Premier
Concert. Plainte
Les festes de l'et€.
41-42, Premiere Entree,
Scene 7, Air en
dialogue

107 12 Le<jon
_e
107-108 13 Le<pon

109 146 Le<?on N m . 55-56, 6 Leqon

109-110 15® Leqon Nm. 59-60, 96 Leqon


S K . II, 12-13, Quatrieme
Concert. 1'Italienne

110-111 16 Leqon Cantates II. No. 6:


Pyrame et Thisbf. 75-77
(first duet)
Nm . 61-62, 11® Leqon
SK. I, 28-29, Deuxleme
Concert. Plainte en
Dialogue

112 17 Leqon N m . 54-55, 5® Leqon


SK. I, 46-47, Troisieme
Concert. Fugue
280

PageGg.) in Title. Text Incinit. or Source or Variant


Translation Other Identification of Text and/or Music

115 18® Leqon Nm. 52-54, 4® Leqon


S K . IIf 6-7, Quatriime
Concert. Dialogue

114 19S Le<?on

114-115 20® Lepon

115-116 2le Leqon Nm. 62-64, 12 Leqon


S K . I, 18-19, Premier
Concert. Fugue

118 MCoulez Charmants


Ruisseaux" Nm. 42-43, Air (text only)

120 Amen

120-121 & Capella N m . 24, Bn Mi, incipit


(4 mm)
Trans, 79

121 Amen

122 Amen/Alleluya

122-123 Amen/Alleluya

123-124 Motet for Two Treble


Voices Psalm 17 (l8), verses 2-6
(text only)

125-129 Carillon

Trans, 52

133 "Fai tomber ton


tonnerre" Jenhte. Act III, Scene 4;
sung by Almasie (ori­
ginal in soprano clef,
or C clef on 1st line)

135 "La douleur que je


sens’*

135 "Helas 5 helas!" Trans, 154, 1st stave

136 "Doux repos"


281

Page(s) M Title. Text Incinit. or Source or Variant


Translation Other Identification of Text and/or Music

136 "Dans ces deserts”

136 ”Et de ma main”

140 "Marchez5 courez,


voles” Jenhte. Act I, Scene 5;
sung by Phinee

140 “Rivages du Jourdain" Jenhte. Act I, Scene 1;


sung by JephtS"
Trans, 158

140 "Du jour qui nous luit"

141, 142 "Mes yeux eteignez


dans vos lames" Jenhte. Act II, Scene 3;
sung by Iphise

141 "La gloire de votre


retour” , Act I, Scene 2 5
sung by Abdon

142 ”Je descends au


tombeau" Jenhte. Act V, Scene 55
sung by Iphise
Trans, 164, 8th stave

146 "Mota est terra”

146 "Tout tremble devant


le Seigneur” Jenhte. Act I, Scene 4;
chorus

150 "Volez petits oyseaux”

153, 1st stave ”11 les enfle de ses


soupirs” Cantates II. No. 4s Pan
et, Sirinx, 44 (4th
recitative)

153, 2nd stave "Je meurs de douleur”

153, 3rd stave "Heureuse si je meurs” Lullyi Isis. Act V,


Scene 1; sung by lo

154, 1st stave "Helas! Belas’” Trans, 135


282

Page (j.) la, Title, Text Incinit, or Source or Variant


Translation Other Identification of Text and/or Music

154» staves 1-2 "Ma Pille, Ah* cet


Autel" Jephte', Act V, Scene 5?
sung by Almasie

154, staves 2-3 "Eh! comment!"

154? 3rd stave "0! douleur mortelle"

154, 4th stave "Ah! quel bonheur"

154, 4th stave "Ah vengeons nous"

156 "6 sagesse admirable!"

157 "Entends mes tristes


cris"

158-159 "Rivages du Jourdain" Jephtg, Act I, Scene 1


Trans, 140

159, 4th stave


-161 "Jephte, tout Israel
va flechir" Jephte, Act I, Scene 3

162, 1st stave "Un doux espoir" Jephte, Act I, Scene 5

162, 4th stave "Notre crainte est


bannie" Jephte, Act II, Scene 6

162, 7th stave "Tout rit a nos voeux" Jepht£, Act II, Scene 6
Trans, 82

162, 10th stave


-163 "Que nos chants" Jephte, Act III, Scene 6

163, 6th stave "Nous vivons dans


1*innocence" Jephtg’, Act IV, Scene 3

163, 9th stave "Que tout brille" Jephtg1, Act IV, Scene 3

164, 1st stave "Malheureux un coeur" Jephte, Act IV, Scene 6

164, 6th stave "Je meurs" Jephte, Act V, Scene 5


Trans, 142

168; 175-176 "Vous passes sans me


voir" Lully 2 Phaeton, Act I,
Scene 3
283

P aeeW is . #tl%, Test Incipitc or Source or Variant


Translation Other Identification of Text and/or Music

177 ”11 est temps de finir” Lullys AmadiSo Act III,


Scene 2

178„ 180 "Du. celebre Roland" Lullys Roland, Prologue;


sung by Demogorgon

180-181 "Les Dieux punissent


la Fierte" Lully5 Persee„ Act I,
Scene 1; sung by Cephee

184-185 "Mais quel est ce


guerrier?” Lullys Roland. Act IV,
Scene 5

186 "Je vois Ammon" Jenhte. Act II, Scene 2

187 "Pompeux apprets" Jeohte. Act III, Scene 5


GLOSSARY

The terms in the following Glossary are each used at least twice

in the Principes de musigue= Some of them require explanations because of

the context in which they appear or because their meanings have changed

since the 18th century« Others lack concise English equivalents. The

definitions below are based primarily on the following sources: Sebastian

de Brossard, Dictionaire de musiaue. facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1703

edition, Amsterdam, Antique, 1964; Dictionnaire universe! francois et

latin,..[Dictionnaire de Trevoux]. new edition, corrected and augmented,

Paris, Delaune et al,, 1743-1752; and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Dictionnaire

de musiaue. facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1768 edition, Hildesheim,

Georg 01ms, 1969»

A CAPPELLA, Used by Monteclair in conjunction with en contrepoint in the

exercises on pages 79 and 120-121 above, A caooella is the equivalent of

alia breve and often accompanies the (j) sign; the alia breve style was

considered the opposite of the style galant.^ For musicians of the early

17th century, the expression_a caooella was a reference to what was

considered orima orattica or former practice— the polyphonic contrapuntal

styles of Palestrina and such Netherlandish composers as Ockeghem and

Josquin des Prez, It was also used to indicate sections with a full

1, Robert Bonington, The Interpretation of Early Music, new


version (New York, St. Martin's Press, 1974), pp. 421-423.

284
setting in choral style (whether vocal, instrumental, or both), with all
2
parts having similar rather than contrasting material. According to

Brossard, "da Capella" indicates that all voices and instruments must

perform the same part, even at fugue entrances, in order to make a louder
3
sound. He equates the term with the French gros choeur or grand choeur.

ASPIRATION, Used by Monteclair to mean "exhalation". The term appears in

his explanations of five of the ornaments $ the accent. which is

“a mournful exhalation or elevation of the voice1* ("une aspiration ou

elevation douloureuse de la voix"— p. 135 above); the tremblement. which

"is produced...without.the coules...being shaken out...by means of

exhalations" ("se forme...sans que les coules...soient secouez par

1*Aspiration"— p. 137); the flat£, made with "many small soft exhalations"

("plusieurs petittes aspirations douces"— p. 145)? the balancement. whose

aspirations are "slower and more marked" than those of the flate ("plus

marquees et plus lentes"— p. 146); and the sanglot. formed by "a violent

exhalation which can be heard externally only as a muffled and suffocated

breath" ("une aspiration violente qui ne fait entendre au dehors qu'un

souffle sourd et suffoque"— p. 153). Although aspiration usually means


4
"inspiration" or "inhalation", according to the Dictionnaire de Treyoux,

it is difficult to imagine the first four ornaments listed above being

produced on an inhalation of breath. The word makes more sense with its

2. Hermann Zenck, "a cappella," Die Musik in Geschichte und


Gegenwart (ed. by Friedrich Blume; Kassel, Barenreiter, 1949-1973), I,
cols. 69—72,

3. Brossard, Dictionaire. "Capella."

4. Dictionnaire de Trevoux. I, cols. 743-744.


other meaning, as a grammatical term for the sound and formation of the

letter H. Jean-Antoine Berard explains that H is pronounced by closing

the throat slightly and rendering the H aspirated by means of a small

agitation of the chest. It would be reasonable to conclude that

aspiration means "exhalation" with respect to the first four ornaments.

The nature of the sanglot. however, is less clear. Monteclair's examples

for that ornament (on p. 154 above) show the use of a sanglot for a word

beginning with a consonant ("quel", in the last stave); an inhalation,

rather than an exhalation, would be easier to make before such a word. On

the other hand, the phrase "Sanglot ou Helan" (elan, "impetus" or "effort")

is used for the exclamation "Ah" (also in the last stave). It is possible

that by aspiration Monteclair means any audible inhalation or exhalation,

depending on the situation.

CHANT. Melody or melodic line; the most important voice or part in a

composition. Rousseau notes that in its most restricted sense, chant

refers to vocal melodies, while the term svmphonie is applied to

instrumental melodies.^

CHORDS (CORDS). Frequently means "note", "tone", or "sound" in addition to

meaning "string” ; more specifically; as used by Monteclair in his comments

( on modulation (p. 93 above), it refers to the fundamental tones of a mode.^

5. L'art du chant (facsimile reprint of the Paris, 1755 edition;


Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1972), pp. 57-58.

6. Rousseau, Dictionnaire. pp. 84 and 274.

7. Rousseau also gives it this definition, (ibid.. p. 134«)


287
8 g
According to Charles Masson and Brossard, however, it generally means a

note or tone within the octave. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

the intervals in the octave were often derived by comparing the pitches

produced by strings of differing lengths.^ The term for ^strings" was

evidently extended to mean the notes themselves.

CONTREPOINT. When Monteclair uses this term with a single melodic line,

as he does in the exercise on page 79 above, he is probably asking for some

sort of contrapuntal improvisation around that melodic line. For example,

one might begin with imitation at the fourth below, as in Fig. 15. (The

top voice is Monteclair’s original exercise.) In such a situation the

- + * ' +'

..
1.
1.1.-.'■—— — 1— — —
Czr/: 0 : J r. .
£^— —— --
P

Fig. 15. A Possible Contrapuntal Improvisation


on Monteclair’s Exercise

8. Nouveau traite des regies pour la composition de la musique


(facsimile reprint of the 2nd edition, Paris, 1699; New York, Da Capo
Press, 1967), p. 15.

9. Brossard, Dictionaire. ’’Corda." Brossard's additional comment


concerning this term— that the expression "belles Cordes" in reference to
a composition means that its sounds are well arranged and well thought out
or prepared ("bien menagez bien recherchez")— would seem to contradict
Philip Gossett’s translation of "belles Cordes" as "beautiful strings", in
Jean-Philippe Rameau, Treatise on Harmony (tr. and ed. by Philip Gossett
from the Paris, 1722 edition; New York, Dover, 1971), p. liii.

10. For example, see the discussion of the monochord and cithara
in Heinrich Glarean, Dodecachordon (tr. and ed. by Clement Miller from the
288

Fig. 15, Continued

results could be considered the type of counterpoint called chant sur le

livre. in which such parts of the liturgy as antiphons or introits were

embellished with improvised melodic lines. The plainsong over which the

improvisation was made was sung with strictly equal note values, while

those improvising created note-against-note counterpoint, imitated the

chant melody, and occasionally used passages with shorter notes.^ As

noted earlier (p. 79, fn. 8 above), the incipit of the exercise cited here

was developed elsewhere by Monteclair in several different ways. Since

the terms contrepoint and a. cappella are often associated with church

music, there is reason to wonder whether these exercises, as well as others

Basel, 1547 edition; tn.p.j, American Institute of Musicology, 1965), I,


pp. 85-84 and 87-95.

11. Jean Prim, "Chant sur le Livre in French Churches in the 18th
Century." Journal of the American Kusicological Society. 14, No. 1 (l96l),
pp. 38-42.
on pages 71-79> 99-116, and 119-129 above„ were not taken by Monteclair

from his motets (most of which are lost) or from his Canons ja 8 parties ji

capella sur le nlain-chant (also lost)o

DECONTTER (DECOMPTER)« To ascend or descend diatonically in stepwise motion

between the two notes of an interval which one wishes to sing correctly,

naming the pitches in between. In his translation of Etienne Loulie1s

Elements ou orineioes de musioue (Paris, 1696)^ Albert Cohen has rendered

this word as “to d e d u c e p o s s i b l y because the solmization syllables of a

hexachord, when sung in ascending order, were known in Latin as a

deductiOo ^ Loulie*s treatment of deconter is more thorough than that of

Monteclair, If one wishes to find the name of a given note, Loulie

explains, one begins on the line where the clef is located and names the

scale degrees in order until the note in question has been reached, without

singing anyof the notes. If the pitch of one, but not both, notes in an

interval is known, one begins with the known pitch and singsthe scale

degrees in stepwise fashion from the first note to the second, again naming
15
the notes with their solmization syllables,

12, Simone Vfallon, “Monteclair, Michel Pinolet (Pignolet) de,"


Die Musik in Geschiehte-und Gegenwart, IX, col, 504,

15, Etienne Loulie, Elements or Principles of Music, tr, and ed,


by Albert Cohen from the Paris, 1696 edition; Brooklyn, Institute of
Mediaeval Music, 1965,

14, Brossard, Dictionaire, "Deduttione," (See p, 50, fn. 15


above, in the first part of the present translation.)

15, Etienne Loulie, Elements ou orineioes de musioue (facsimile


reprint of the Paris, 1696 edition; Geneva, Minkoff Reprints, 1971), pp.
79-80.
MAITHE DE MdSIQUE. Either "music teacher" or "rehearsal director, vocal

coach", depending on the context. It does not appear to have meant "voice

teacher"; according to Rousseau, a maitre a chanter taught the correct use

of the voice, the reading of notation, and a knowledge of the language and

its accents, while a maitre de musioue was a person hired to compose music

and to have it performed» In Italy, the person who wrote an opera always

directed its performance, Positions involving the direction of music not

necessarily one's own, however, were seldom found except at churches.

Consequently a person in such a position was known as a "chapel master"

(maitre de chanelle). ^ In France, on the other hand, the maitre de

musioue had a clearly defined function with respect to opera performances.

A royal regulation of 1714 states that the maitre de musioue was to appear

at the AcadSmie Royale de Musique three mornings a week, to rehearse the

actresses in their roles and to teach the music to those who did not yet

know it. For all rehearsals and performances he was to be one of the first

at the theater; he would make sure that the chorus was ready to sing, and

would give it cues as necessary. His position was distinct from that of

the batteur de mesure. who conducted and maintained morale in the


17
orchestra.

MELODIE. Brossard defines this term as the effect made by a series of

sounds arranged and sung one after the other in such a manner as to please

16. Rousseau, Dictionnaire. pp. 271-272.

17e Jacques-Bernard Durey de Noinville, Histoire du theatre de


1 'Academie Rovale de Musique en France (facsimile reprint of the 2nd
edition, Paris, 1757; Geneva, Mirikoff Reprints, 1972;, I, pp. 135-137,
291

the ear,"*"® while for Rousseau it means the actual succession of such

pitches o Rousseau believes that the nature of the rhythmic organization

determines the character of the melodie; without a beat, or regularly


19
recurring accent, a series of notes cannot be considered a melodic line.

MODULATION. In its older sense, the organization of tones within a given

mode, and the melodic and harmonic progressions appropriate to that mode.

According to this earlier definition, the pitches determining the mode

(tonic, mediant, and dominant) are to be heard more often than the others,

and the melody is to proceed in a diatonic fashion. In addition, according

to Monteclair’s Nouvelle methods« modulation means the use of these


20
"essential notes" for the formation of any melodic cadences. Brossard

extends the definition. Modulation, he states, involves using a variety

of tempos and ornaments ("figures"), in order to make the melody


21
"expressive, without being boring or too affected." During Monteclair’s

lifetime, however, the older meaning was gradually replaced by the present

one. Thus for Brossard modulation also means leaving the mode from time
22
to time, while Rousseau defines it as the art of taking both melody and

harmony through several modes successively, in a manner pleasing to the

18. Brossard, Dictionaire. "Melodia."

19. Rousseau, Dictionnaire. p. 274.

20. Monteclair, Nouvelle methode pour anrendre la musioue (Paris,


1709), p. 19.

21. "...expressif sans etre ennuyeux ny trop affecte.” Brossard,


Dictionaire. "Modulations."

22. Ibid.
292
ear and in conformance with accepted procedures— a definition he considers
23
the one more commonly used. The concept of modulation as a change of

mode can be found as early as 1691, in the Dictionnaire math^natioue of

Jacques Ozanam. His definition is similar to that of Rousseaus Modulation

is the manner in which a melody is made to move through its mode, leave it

in a proper way, re-enter it without shocking the ear, and finish on its

fundamental n o t e . ^

MUSIQUE. May refer specifically to polyphonic compositions, rather than

including monodic music such as plainchant. Denise Launay points out that

during the 17th century there were three levels of music (at least in

religious compositions)s plainsohgj fauxbourdon. or note-against-note

counterpoint around a Gregorian cantus firmus: and music composed in


25
figural counterpoint. The assumption that this classification was

continued into the 18th century is supported both by Bros sard's comment

that compositions with several differing melodic lines heard simultaneously


26
are properly called "music*1, and by Rousseau’s definition: "...it is

called figural counterpoint when different ornaments and values of notes

are found in it, and themes, fugues, and imitations are made in it; it is

23. Rousseau, Dictionnaire. p. 295•

24o Jacques Ozanam, Dictionnaire math^matioue (Amsterdam, 1691),


p. 659. Prom a microfilm of 529.K.8, made by the Department of Printed
Books of the British Library (London), and provided courtesy of Mark
Lindley.

25. Denise Launay, "Church Music in France, (a) I63O-6O," in Opera


and Church Music. 1630-1750 (ed. by Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune; Vol. 5
in The New Oxford History of Music: London, Oxford University Press, 1975),
pp. 418-419<>

26, Brossard, Dictionaire. "Musica Harmonica."


clearly sensed that all this cannot he done without the help of the meter,
27
and that this plainchant then becomes true music „53 Musioue may also

mean "a piece of music" or "a musical composition"„ as when Monteclair

refers to "les beaux Tons d ’une Musique" ("the beautiful tones in a musical

composition"— p» 92 above) or to "Musiques Latines” ("religious pieces in

Latin"— p. 123)°

NATUBELo Monteclair’s occasional use of this term to mean "diatonic" can

be explained by the belief of theorists and others that the intervals of

the diatonic scale occurred naturally, that is, in nature, Brossard says

that a diatonic modulation ("melodic progression") uses an ordering or set

of intervals given it by nature, which the most ignorant will observe


28
naturally if they have accurate ears and voices to any degree; Pierre

Bourdelot and Pierre Bonnet express another popular belief of the time

when they state that diatonic music is common among savage and barbaric
29
peoples, In the present treatise the term is used to mean "diatonic”

primarily in the first section and particularly in its opening pages,

where the division of the octave and the diatonic intervals are presented.

Throughout most of the treatise, however, natural is used in a corollary

sense to denote situations in which no sharps or flats are employed,

27, ",,«on 1'annelle.».Contre-noint figure, quand i l s ' y trouve


differentes figures ou valeurs de Notes, & qu'on y fait des Desseins, des
Fugues, des Imitationss on sent bien que tout cela ne peut se fairs qu'a
1 ’aide de la Mesure, & que ce Plain-Chant devient alors de veritable
Musique," Rousseau, Dictionnaire. p. 123.

28. Brossard, Dictionaire. "Diatonico."

29° Pierre Bourdelot and Pierre Bonnet, Histoire de la musioue et


de ses effets (facsimile reprint of the Amsterdam, 1725 edition; Graz,
Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1966), I, p. 37.
Rousseau explains that the term is applied to modes whose notes are not

altered in any way by accidentals."^ Ely extension, it may also be applied

to individual notes. Thus when Monteclair says on page 23 above that the

hj sign moves a note back to its original pitch— its "intonation naturelle"

— he means that the note takes the pitch which it would have had if

unaffected by an accidental. Similarly, exercises in the major mode "on

its natural scale degree" are exercises in the major mode with nosharps

or flats in its signature, on C. Rousseau points out that the major mode

on C is the only "natural" mode, properly speaking, but adds that the

major modes on G and F and the minor modes on A and D may also be called

"natural" since their essential notes (tonic, mediant, and dominant)— and
31
therefore their signatures— are written without sharps or flats.

PATHETIQUE. A term used for music capable of arousing the various

passions. According to Brossard, the chromatic genus with its major and

minor semitones is appropriate for the pathetic style, as is a careful use

of the dissonances of augmented and diminished intervals. Variety in the


32
tempos used*— lively or languid, slow or quick— is also desirable.

Rousseau states that pain and sadness are the passions most particularly

depicted; he remarks, somewhat sarcastically, that in French music in the

pathetic style, sounds are shrill, strong, and drawn out, and the tempo is
33
so slow that one loses all sense of the meter. The ornamentation and

30. Rousseau, Dictionnaire. p. 318.

31. Ibid.

32. Brossard, Dictionaire. "Pathetico."

33° Rousseau, Dictionnaire. p. 3&7.


295

rhythmic alteration which occurred often in the pathetic s t yl e ^ would

also have hindered a clear perception of the beat.

SUPPOSITION. As used by Monteclair, the mental substitution of another

clef for the one actually on the page, in such a way that the second clef

will locate the tones and semitones (and therefore the solmization

syllables) in the same places on the staff as does the actual clef, but

will do so without sharps or flats in its signature. Thus a C clef on the

third line, without sharps or flats, would have its names for lines and

spaces in the same positions as would a G clef on the second line with

three sharps. An early use of the term supposition with this meaning

occurs in Jean Rousseau, Methods claire, certaine et facile pour apprendre

a chanter la musioue (Paris, 1683). Jean Rousseau gives tables of the


35
most common transpositions, with the clefs to be supposed for them;

clefs with signatures of one flat are included, probably because B*3 was

considered a "natural" note in the Guidonian gamut. During the last half

of the 17th century and the early years of the 18th century, however,

supposition referred to a manner of using dissonances. A dissonant note

— often a passing tone— was introduced as a substitute for the consonant

note which it preceded or followed, and then treated as though it were

that consonant note. Such notes par supposition were not to be used to

34. Newman Powell, "Rhythmic Freedom in the Performance of French


Music from 1650 to 1735" (Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1958),
pp. 130-132.

35. Jean Rousseau, Methods claire. certaine et facile pour


apprendre ji chanter la musioue (Xerographic copy from a microfilm of the
Paris, 1683 edition), pp. 21-32.
296

form or to avoid parallel fifths or octaves, Brossard’s definition of

supposition' concerns the notes of a part moving against a held note in

another part. The moving notes must conform to the following ruless

(l) If moving in stepwise motion, some of the notes may be dissonant; if

the motion is disjunct, all notes must be consonant, (2) In a passage

moving stepwise, if the number of notes is even, the odd-numbered notes

must be consonant and the even-numbered notes dissonant with the held note

(assuming the note values to be equal in the moving part), (3) If three

notes move against a held note, the first is always consonant, while the

second and sometimes the third may be dissonant, Brossard remarks that

there are many exceptions to these rules, particularly in music with a


37
quick tempo,

SYNCOPE (SINCOPFS), Syncopation, When defining this term (p. 55 above),

Monteclair neglects to mention its affective connotations in a melodic

context, Brossard states that it may be used to express sighs or sobs in

conjunction with sad and languishing moods," and may serve as an expression
38
of joy in more animated tempos, Monteclair also fails to explain its

harmonic function, which was generally as a suspended note in the


39 ^
preparation of a dissonance. The Dictionnaire de Trevoux defines it in

36. Albert Cohen, "La Supposition and the Changing Concept of


Dissonance in Baroque Theory," Journal of the American Musicological
Society. 24, No. 1 (l97l), pp. 71-74.

37. Brossard, Dictionaire. "Suppositions."

38. Ibid.. "Syncope."

39. Cohen, "La Supposition." p. 69.


297

more general contrapuntal terms, as the use of a single note in one part

simultaneously with several shorter notes in another part; it also defines

"une note syncopee” as a dotted note, half again as long as it would be

ordinarily.^ Monteclair himself defines it as a note which begins on the

last half of a beat and continues through the first half of the following

beat,

40, Dictionnaire de Trevouz, V, col, 1889,


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^ in eaeaem
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