Skeletal Muscle Actions
The muscular system consists of skeletal muscles and their associated connective tissues. It does not include cardiac muscle or smooth muscle, which are associated with the systems in which they are found, such as the cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, or other organ systems. A skeletal muscle may attach a bone to another bone (often across a joint) or a bone to another structure, such as skin. When the muscle contracts, one of the structures usually remains stationary, while the other moves. The following terms refer to this characteristic of muscle contraction.
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The origin of the muscle is the muscle end that attaches to the stationary structure, usually bone. The insertion of the muscle is the muscle end that attaches to the moving structure. The belly of the muscle is that part of the muscle between the origin and insertion.
Several muscles usually influence a particular body movement:
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The prime mover is the muscle that is most responsible for the movement. Synergists are other muscles that assist the prime mover. Synergists may stabilize nearby bones or refine the movement of the prime mover. Antagonists are muscles that cause a movement opposite to that of the prime mover. If the prime mover raises an arm, then its antagonist pulls the arm down. An antagonist is generally attached to the opposite side of the joint to which the prime mover is attached.
Names of Skeletal Muscles
Skeletal muscles are often named after the following characteristics:
Number of origins. Biceps, triceps, and quadriceps indicate two, three, and four origins, respectively. Location of origin or insertion. The sternocleidomastoid names the sternum (“sterno”) and clavicle (“cleido”) as its origins and the mastoid process of the temporal bone as its insertion. Location. In addition to its origin or insertion, a muscle name may indicate a nearby bone or body region. For example, the temporalis muscle covers the temporal bone. Shape. The deltoid (triangular), trapezius (trapezoid), serratus (sawtoothed) and rhomboideus major (rhomboid) muscles have names that describe their shapes. Direction of muscle fibers. The terms rectus (parallel), transverse (perpendicular), and oblique (at an angle) in muscle names refer to the direction of the muscle fibers with respect to the midline of the body.
with fascicles attached to both sides of a central tendon. or they can bulge at their bellies and be spindle shaped. it can shorten to nearly half its relaxed length.
Muscle Size and Fascicles
The size of a muscle influences its capabilities. Terms such as flexor. In a unipennate pattern. grouped together to form a muscle. extensor. Muscle fibers are grouped into fascicles. Circular fascicles are arranged in concentric rings. or fusiform. Pennate fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a long tendon that extends across the entire muscle.• •
Size. or straplike. longus (longest). and brevis (shortest) are common suffixes added to muscle names. In contrast. the muscle resembles one half of a feather (the tendon is represented by the shaft of the feather). When a muscle fiber (cell) contracts. which are. an increase in the number of muscle fibers increases the strength of the contraction. The longer a muscle fiber.
Major Skeletal Muscles
The major skeletal muscles are described in following tables and figures. minimus (smallest). Parallel fascicles can be flat. Common fascicle patterns follow:
Parallel fascicles have their long axes parallel to each other. and adductor are added as prefixes to muscle names to indicate the kind of movement generated by the muscle. The size (length) and number of fascicles determine the strength and range of movement of a muscle. abductor. in turn. Maximus (largest). Muscles with this pattern form sphincter muscles that control the opening and closing of orifices. A multipennate pattern of fascicles resembles three or more feathers attached at their bases. Action. then the greater range of movement it can generate. A bipennate pattern resembles a complete feather.
bends. as in skin of upper lip disgust Depressor labi inferioris Temporalis Masseter Medial pterygoid Lateral pterygoid Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis O: mandible I: skin of lower lip O: parietal bone I: mandible O: zygomatic arch I: mandible lowers lower lip raises mandible. or extends
. kissing compresses cheek. blinking closes lips. grimacing raises edges of mouth. opens & corner of mouth mouth O: mandible I: skin of chin O: fascia on masseter muscle I: skin at corner of mouth O: zygomatic bone I: skin around mouth protrudes lower lip. surprised pulls scalp back. closes mouth
O: sphenoid & maxilla I: mandible raises mandible. side-to side mouth motion O: ternum & clavicle I: temporal bone O: cervical & thoracic vertebrae I: flexes & rotates head rotates. side-toside mouth motion O: sphenoid & maxilla I: mandible raises mandible. whistling
O: fascia in upper chest I: mandible lowers mandible. pouting lateral movement of lips.TABLE 1 Muscles of the Head and Neck Muscle Epicranius:frontalis Epicranius:occiptalis Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Buccinator Platysma Mentalis Risorius Zygomaticus Origin/Insertion O: galea aponeurotica I: skin around eyes O: occipital bone I : galea aponeurotica O: maxillary & frontal bones I: eyelids O: muscle fibers around mouth I: skin around mouth O: maxilla & mandible I: orbicularis oris Action raises eyebrows. closes mouth raises mandible. surprised closes eyelids. smiling
Levator labi superioris O: infroarbital margin of maxilla I: raises upper lip.
and Abdominal Wall Muscle Semispinalis capitis Splenius capitis Deltoid Pectoralis major Infraspinatus Teres major Latissimus dorsi Levator scapulae Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Trapezius Rhomboideous major/Rhomboideus minor Origin/Insertion O: cervical & thoracic vertebrae I: occipital bone Action extends & rotates head
O: c & t vertebrae I : occipital & extends and rotates temporal bone head O: clavicle & scapula I: humerus abducts. ribs. Thorax. & rotates scapula adducts & rotates scapula
. I : scapula & clavicle O: c & t vertebrae I: scapula flexes. rotates arm extends. elevates ribs stabilizes scapula. sternum. adducts. rotates arm elevates scapula stabilizes scapula. elevates ribs elevates. flexes. or extends head depresses hyoid bone depresses hyoid bone
TABLE 2 Muscles of the Neck. & rotates arm rotates arm extends. bends. extends. adducts. ribs I: humerus O: scapula I: humerus O: scapula I: humerus O: vertebrae. & rotates arm O: clavicle. Shoulder. ilium I : humerus O: cervical vertebrae I: scapula O: ribs I: scapula O: ribs I: scapula O: occipital bone & c & t vertebrae.Muscle
Origin/Insertion temporal bone head
Semispinalis capitis Longissimus Omohyoid Sternohyoid
O: cervical & thoracic vertebrae I: occipital bone O: cervical & thoracic vertebrae I: temporal bone O: scapula I: hyoid bone O: sternum & clavicle I: hyoid bone
rotates or extends head rotates. adducts.
ribs I: linea alba. ulna I: radius O: ulna I: radius O: ulna I: radius Action flexes & adducts arm flexes arm. aids inspiration pulls ribs together. compresses abdomen compresses abdomen. vertebrae O: ilium. ribs I: ribs extends vertebral column extends vertebral column
TABLE 3 Muscles of the Arm and Forearm Muscle Coracobrachiolis Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Triceps brachii Anconeus Pronator teres Pronator quadratus Supinator Origin/Insertion O: scapula I: humerus O: scapula.Muscle Rectus abdominis
Origin/Insertion O: pubic crest & symphysis I: xiphoid process & ribs O: ribs I : linea alba. xiphoid process O: lower border of rib above I: upper border of rib below O: upper border of rib below I: lower border of rib above O: lower ribs. glenoid cavity I: radius O: humerus I: ulna O: humerus I: radius O: humerus I: ulna O: humerus I: ulna O: humerus. sternum I: central tendon
Action flexes vertebral column. aids expiration aids inspiration
External oblique Transverse abdominis External intercostals Internal intercostals Diaphragm Spinalis Longissimus Iliocostalis
O: lumbar & thoracic vertebrae I: extends vertebral thoracic & cervical vertebrae column O: lumbar & cervical vertebrae I : temporal bone. rotates trunk compresses abdomen elevates ribs. ilium O: ilium. & rotates hand flexes forearm flexes forearm extends forearm extends forearm rotatesforearm rotates forearm rotates forearm
. flexes forearm.
ulna I: fifth metacarpal
Action flexes & abducts wrist flexes & abducts wrist flexes finger 2–5 flexes distal fingers 2–5 flexes wrist extends & abducts wrist extends & adducts wrist
O: humerus I: distal phalanges extends fingers 2–5 extends extends thumb extends index finger abducts & extends thumb
Extensor pollicis brevis O: radius I: phalanx of thumb thumb Extensor pollicis longus O: radius I: phalanx of thumb Extensor indicis Abductor pollicis longus O: ulna I: index finger O: radius & thumb I: first metacarpal
TABLE 4 Muscles of the Thigh and Leg Muscle Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Pectineus Adductor longus Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Origin/Insertion O: ilium. flexes. flexes. & rotates
. & rotates thigh adducts. flexes. & rotates thigh adducts. ischium I: femur Action extends & rotates thigh abducts & rotates thigh adducts & flexes thigh adducts.Muscle Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor digitorum profundus Palmaris longus Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum
Origin/Insertion O: humerus I : metacarpals O : humerus. metacarpals O: humerus. sacrum. radius I: phalanges O: ulna I: phalanges O: humerus I : flexor retinaculum O : humerus I : second metacarpal O: humerus. ulna. coccyx I: femur O: ilium I: femur O: pubis I: femur O: pubis I: femur O: pubis I: femur O: pubis. ulna I : carpals.
extends thigh flexes & rotates leg. fibula I: phalanges of toes O: femur I: calcanues O: tibia. femur I: patella. tibia O: ischium. extends thigh flexes & rotates leg. flexes leg plantar flexes foot
. flexes thigh extends leg extends leg extends leg flexes & rotates leg. femur I: patella.Muscle
Gracilis Sartorius Quadriceps femoris: rectus femoris Quadriceps femoris: vastus lateralis Quadriceps femoris: vastus medialis Quadriceps femoris: vastus intermedius Biceps femoris (hamstrings) Semitendinosus (hamstrings) Semimembranosus Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Gastrocnemius Soleus
O: pubis I: tibia O: ilium I: tibia O: ilium. extends thigh dorsiflexes & inverts foot dorsiflexes & everts foot. extends toes plantar flexes foot. flexes leg extends leg. femur I: fibula O: ischium I: tibia O: ischium I: tibia O: tibia I: 1st metatarsal & cuneiform O: tibia. tibia O: ilium. fibula I: calcaneus
adducts thigh & flexes leg flexes & rotates thigh. femur I: patella. tibia O: ilium. femur I: patella. tibia O: ilium.
Figure 1The major skeletal muscles—anterior superficial view.
.Figure 2The major skeletal muscles—posterior superficial view.
Figure 3The major skeletal muscles—lateral view.
.Figure 4The major skeletal muscles–anterior superficial view. posterior superficial view. and posterior deep view. anterior deep view.
Figure 5The major skeletal muscles—anterior superficial view. and posterior deep view. anterior deep view.
. posterior superficial view.
. posterior superficial view. anterior deep view. and posterior deep view.Figure 6The major skeletal muscles—anterior superficial view.