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Volume 2, Issue 6: 239-243 (2012) ISSN-2252-0430

Ahmed Y. Mohammed* and Moayed S. Khaleel

University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Department of Dams and Water Resources Eng, POBox 11244, Mosul, Iraq,

ABSTRACT: In this paper the effect of the lower gate edge on the water surface profile (W.S.P) have been

studied in a rectangular flume with four gate openings (2, 3, 4 and 4.5) cm, five upstream of water heads

(18.9,21,24,26 and 28.9) cm and five gate cases (vertical and inclined vertically by angle (45) o with and

opposite to flow direction )with horizontal and sharp lower edge ( inclined by angle (45) o ) Were adopted in

the experiments. The results show that the convergence length for inclined gate with flow direction and

horizontal edge increases by (28.7)"%" with respect to vertical, while decreases by (21.4)"%" when gate

inclined opposite to flow direction and horizontal edge. The convergence angle decreases by (38.7)"%"

when gate inclined with flow direction and horizontal edge, while increase by (22.4)"%" when gate inclined

opposite flow direction and horizontal edge. The horizontal lip for the inclined gate with flow direction

reduced the (W.S.P) convergence angle and then reduced the scour downstream sluice gate.

Keywords: sluice gate, water surface profile, tail water, finite elements

LIST OF SYMBOLS:

Noutsopoulos and Fanariotis (1978), Swamee, (1992),

H1 L Upstream water depth Ohtsu and Yasuda (1994) and Lin et al. (2002) studied

a L Gate opening the characteristics of flow under vertical sluice gate

k1 Vertical gate constant experimentally using laboratory channels.

k2 Inclined gate constant While Rajaratnam and Humphries (1982) and

Contraction water depth Hager (1999) studied the characteristics of flow upstream

yo L

Tail water depth

vertical sluice gate experimentally and Nago, (1978) and

yt L

L Horizontal distance of (W.S.P) from gate

Montes (1997) deal with characteristics of under flow of

x

L Vertical distance (depth) of (W.S.P) from channel

inclined sluice gate, and (Swamee et al., 2000) studied

y bed the characteristics of flow under skew sluice gate

experimentally using laboratory channel and obtained

L L Length of convergence

equations for the elementary discharge coefficient using

Sluice gate sloping angle

these equations.

(W.S.P) convergence angle This paper present the results of an experimental

Gate lip angle investigation on a vertical and inclined sluice gate, and

Qm L3/T Measured discharge the effect of the gate lip and its inclination on water

g L/T2 Acceleration due to gravity surface profile (W.S.P) downstream gate.

INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENTS

A sluice gate is a hydraulic structure for The experiments were carried in the hydraulic

controlling the discharge, and the flow under sluice gate laboratory/college of engineering / Mosul University.

can be divided into two types, free flow and submerged The used flume has a rectangular section, 10 m long, 30

flow. cm wide and 45 cm depth with glass walls and

The free flow occurs when the tail water level is aluminium bed, Figure 1. The discharge measurements

equal or less than the gate opening and the water surface have been carried by a weir 30 cm wide and 15 cm depth

is smooth, while the submerged flow occurs when the tail fixed at the channel end.

water level is above the gate opening and the water The sluice gates were manufactured from wood 30

surface become rough. cm wide 40 cm height and 6 mm thickness, they installed

Many studies have been made to study free and in five different positions: a- Vertical with horizontal

submerged flow discharged through the sluice gate edge, b- Inclined with flow direction with horizontal

(Rajaratnam and Subramanya, 1967, Isaacs, 1977, Cheng edge, c- Inclined opposite flow direction with horizontal

et. al., 1981, Masliyah et al., 1985 and Finni and Jeppson, edge, d- Inclined with flow direction with sharp edge, e-

1991) studied the characteristics of flow under vertical Inclined opposite flow direction with sharp edge. Figure 2

sluice gate theoretically using numerical and finite The gates were installed at a distance 2.9m from

elements methods. (Smith, 1977), Rajaratnam, (1977), the channel entrance, to ensure uniform flow and suitable

distance downstream gate for measurements.

To cite this paper: Mohammed A.Y, and Khaleel M.S. 2012. The Effect of a Sluice Gate Edge on Water Surface Profile. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 2 (6): 239-243.

Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

239

Four gate openings (a=2, 3, 4 and 4.5 cm), were (different discharges) were used, for each gate opening,

considered to ensure same openings in all gate cases which will make the total number of experiments equal

(A1=2cm, B1=3cm, C1=4cm, D1=4.5cm) and five to (100) runs, i.e. twenty experiments for each gate case

upstream water levels (H=18.9,21,24,26 and 28.9 cm)

b=0.3m

weir

Top view

1.4m Sluice 10m

Gate

0.45m

Channel basin

Side view

pump

Figure 1. Channel sketch

H1

H1

a

a yt yo

yo

a) Vertical with horizontal edge

with horizontal edge

H1

H1

a yo yt a

yo

c) Inclined opposite flow direction d) Inclined with flow direction with sharp edge

with horizontal edge

H1

a

yo

To cite this paper: Mohammed A.Y, and Khaleel M.S. 2012. The Effect of a Sluice Gate Edge on Water Surface Profile. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 2 (6): 239-243.

Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

240

WATER SURFACE PROFILE: Figure 5 refers to the water surface profile for gate

The water surface profiles (W.S.P) of flow inclined (=45)o with flow direction with sharp edge

discharged from the sluice gate have been drawn for all (=45). The length of contraction extend to distance

gate openings and gate cases: ranged from L=3.9 to 8.7cm downstream the gate

Figure 3 shows the water surface profile for the (increases by (27.0)"%" with respect to vertical gate) and

vertical gate (=0) with horizontal edge (=0). The the angle of the converging decreases by (30.6)"%" with

length of contraction (L) continue to a distance from 3 to respect to vertical gate, table (2).

7 cm from the total distance of water surface profile (x) Figure 6 shows the water surface profile for the

downstream gate then it could be seen that the gate inclined (=45)o opposite flow direction with

convergence disappears (be straight line). horizontal edge (=0). The convergence length continue

From table 1 the angle of converging stream to distance ranged from L=2.4 to 5.4 cm down stream the

issuing about (=49)o and the distance required for gate (decreases by (21.4)"%" compared with vertical

convergence to disappear (length of contraction (L)) is gate) while the angle of the convergence increases by

found to be a function of gate openings. (22.4)"%" compared with vertical gate, table 3.

Figure 7 refers to the water surface profile for the

L a……………………………………. (1) gate inclined (=45)o opposite the flow direction with

L = k1*a ………………………………...(2) sharp edge (=45o), the length of contraction extend to a

distance ranged from L=2.5 to 5.6 cm downstream gate,

Where: table (3) (decreases by (18.33"%") with respect to

L= length of convergence (cm) vertical gate) and the angle of convergence increases by

k1= constant for vertical gate. (18.3)"%" with respect to vertical gate.

a= gate opening. (cm). From Figures 3-7 the distance required for water

surface profile convergence to disappear (the distance L)

Table 1. Characteristics of (W.S.P) convergence for for gate inclined with and opposite flow direction, with

vertical gate horizontal and sharp edge is found to proportion with

Case of gate L (cm) k1 gate (openings, slops and lower edge), so:

Vertical 3–7 1.5 49 L a,, ………………………………...(3)

L = k2 *a * * …………………...……(4)

Where:

= W.S.P converging stream angle Where:

Figure 4 shows the water surface profile for the = gate inclined angle with vertical

gate inclined (=45)o with flow direction with horizontal k2 = constant for inclined gates.

edge (=0), in table (2) the length of contraction continue = gate lower edge angle.

to distance ranged from L=3.95 to 8.8 cm downstream (in all figures above only the results of four experiments

the gate (increases by (28.7)"%" compared with vertical were shown, since it was not possible to show all the

gate) and the angle of the converging stream issuing from twenty runs on diagram)

the gate decreases by (38.7)"%" compared with vertical

gate.

Table 2. Characteristics of (W.S.P) convergence for gate inclined with flow direction

"%" "%" "%"

Inclined gate cases L (cm) Increasing from k2 Increasing from decreases from

vertical vertical vertical

o

(=45) (=45) o

3.9 – 8.7 27.0 1.95 30 34 30.6

(=45)o (=0) o 3.95 – 8.8 28.7 1.97 31.3 30 38.7

Table 3. Characteristics of (W.S.P) convergence for gate inclined opposite flow direction

"%" "%" "%"

Inclined gate cases L (cm) decreases from k2 decreases from Increasing from

vertical vertical vertical

o

(=45) (=45) o

2.5 – 5.6 18.33 1.25 16.67 58 18.3

o o

(=45) (=0) 2.4-5.4 21.4 1.2 20 60 22.4

To cite this paper: Mohammed A.Y, and Khaleel M.S. 2012. The Effect of a Sluice Gate Edge on Water Surface Profile. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 2 (6): 239-243.

Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

241

5 5

4.5 C1

4.5

4

C1

B1 4 B1

3.5 A1 3.5 A1

D1 D1

Y (cm)

3

Y (cm)

3

2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0

0 (W.S.P)

5 distance X (cm)

(W.S.P)5distance

X (cmX 10

) (cm) 15 0 X (cm ) 10 15

o o

Figure 3. (W.S.P) for the vertical gate (=0) with Figure 7. (W.S.P) for gate inclined (=45)

o

horizontal edge (=0) (Where (x) is the horizontal opposite the flow direction with sharp edge (=45)o

distance of (W.S.P) from the sluice gate, and (y) is

the vertical distance (depth) of (W.S.P) from

CONCLUSION

channel bed to sluice gate opening)

From the experiments and the analysis of results it

can be see that the inclined gate at (45)o opposite the

5

C1

direction of the flow at maximum decrease in the water

4.5

4 B1 surface convergence distance with (21.4"%") less than

3.5 A1 the vertical gate, while the inclined gate at (45)o in the

D1

3 direction of the flow an increase in the water surface

Y (cm)

2

vertical gate.

1.5

1

The horizontal lip of the gate gives an increase of

0.5 the water surface convergence distance in the case of

0 inclined gates in the direction of flow, while it decreases

0 5 X (cmX) (cm)

(W.S.P) distance

10 15 the convergence distance for the inclined gates opposite

Figure 4. (W.S.P) for gate inclined (=45) in o the direction of flow.

the direction of flow with horizontal edge (=0)o. REFERENCES

4.5 C1 (1981). Boundary Calculations of Sluice and

B1

4 Spillway Flows. J. Hydra. Div., ASCE, 107(10),

3.5 A1

D1 1163-1178.

Y (cm)

3

2.5 2. Finnie J.I. and Jeppson R.W. (1991). Solving

2 Turbulent Flows Using Finite Elements. J. Hydra.

1.5 Eng., ASCE, 117(11), 1513-1530.

1 3. Hager W.H. (1999). Underflow of Standard Sluice

0.5 Gate. Experiments in Fluids, 27(4), 339-350.

0

4. Isaacs L.T. (1977). Numerical Solution for Flow

0 5 distance

(W.S.P) X (cm X )(cm)10 15

under Sluice Gates. J. Hydra. Div., ASCE, 103(5),

Figure 5. (W.S.P) for gate inclined (=45)o in the 473-481.

direction of flow with sharp edge (=45)o. 5. Lin C.H., Yen J.F. and Tsai C.T. (2002).

Influence of Sluice Gate Contraction Coefficient

on Distinguishing Condition. J. of Irr. and Dra.

5 Eng., ASCE 128(4), 249-252.

4.5 C1 6. Masliyah J.H., Handakumark. , Hemphill F. and

4

B1 Fung L. (1985). Body-Fitted Coordinates for Flow

3.5 A1

3 under Sluice Gates. J. Hydra. Div., ASCE, 111(6),

Y(cm)

D1 922-933.

2.5

2 7. Montes J.S. (1997). Irrotational Flow and Real

1.5 Fluid Effects under Planar Sluice Gates. J. Hydra.

1

0.5 Eng., ASCE, 123(3), 219-232.

0 8. Nago H. (1978). Influence of Gate Shapes on

0 5 distance X (cm)10

(W.S.P) 15 Discharge Coefficients. Proc. Of JSCE, 10(2), 59-

X(cm )

71.

Figure 6. (W.S.P) for gate inclined (=45)o 9. Noutsopoulos G.K., and Fanariotis S. (1978).

opposite flow direction with horizontal edge (=0)o Discussion of Free Flow Immediately Below

Sluice Gates. J. Hydra. Div., ASCE, 104(3), 451-

455.

To cite this paper: Mohammed A.Y, and Khaleel M.S. 2012. The Effect of a Sluice Gate Edge on Water Surface Profile. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 2 (6): 239-243.

Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

242

10. Ohtsu I. and Yasuda Y. (1994). Characteristics of

Supercritical Flow below Sluice Gate. J. Hydra.

Eng., ASCE, 120(3), 332-346.

11. Rajaratnam N. (1977). Free Flow Immediately

Below Sluice Gates. J. Hydra. Div., ASCE,

103(4), 345-351.

12. Rajaratnam N. and Humphries J. A. (1982). Free

Flow Upstream of Vertical Sluice Gates. J. Hydra.

Res., IAHR, 20(5), 427-437.

13. Rajaratnam N. and Subramanya K. (1967). Flow

Equation for the Sluice Gate. J. Irr. & Dra. Div.,

ASCE, 93(9), 167-186.

14. Smith D.G. (1977). Discussion of Free Flow

Immediately Below Sluice Gates. J. Hydra. Div.,

ASCE, 103(2), 1340-1341.

15. Swamee P.K. (1992). Sluice Gate Discharge

Equation. J. Irr. & Dra. Div., ASCE, 118(1), 56-

60.

16. Swamee P.K., Pathak S.K., Mansoor T. and Ojha

S. P. (2000). Discharge Characteristics of Skew

Sluice Gates. J. of Irr. and Dra. Eng., ASCE

126(5), 328-334.

To cite this paper: Mohammed A.Y, and Khaleel M.S. 2012. The Effect of a Sluice Gate Edge on Water Surface Profile. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 2 (6): 239-243.

Journal homepage: http://www.ojceu.ir/main/

243

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