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Per-capita availability of water has declined to 1,000 cubic metres, which

places Pakistan in the category of water-scarce countries. Despite the lower

per-capita availability, Pakistan continues to waste water at an alarming pace.

Water conveyance efficiency of Pakistan is 55% and irrigation efficiency is

41%. Almost 45 MAF of water is lost during canal and watercourse flow.
Pakistan also wastes large quantities of water due to lack of water storage
facilities. The country has storage capacity for merely 30 days against the
minimum requirement of 120 days.

Significance of storage also has special relevance for Pakistan as the country
receives 84% water during the summer season. Precipitation also varies
considerably across the country ranging from 100 mm (Balochistan) to 1,500
mm (Northern Areas). Variability is too applicable in terms of seasons, about
60% precipitations occur during July-September.

Non-availability of storage facilities paves the way for the wastage of water in
summer and scarcity during rest of the year. The situation will be further
aggravated in the future due to climate change and increasing population.

A report by the United Nations Development Programme said that water

demand would increase by 14% in 2025 due to increase in population (2017
million). However, estimates need to be revised as population is increasing at a
higher rate as compared to government estimates. Last year’s population
census shows that Pakistan has a population of 221 million. So we have
already crossed the mark of 217 million with the government unable to invest
in the sector.

Water is direly needed in every sphere of life including agriculture, livestock,

industry, environment and domestic. Agriculture is a major consumer of water
with 93% followed by the domestic and industrial sectors.

Water is also a cheap and renewable source of energy. Hydropower can

contribute in multiple ways to the national economy. It will help to make our
industry competitive in the international market. Our GHG emissions would be
lower, which will project Pakistan as an environment and climate-friendly
country. Many countries are investing in production of hydropower on a larger
scale. Norway produces about 96% of its electricity from hydropower

Despite the multifaceted challenges, the sector is still a victim of political point-
scoring and interests. Provinces are fighting over the distribution of water and
building of storage facilities. The Kalabagh Dam is the worst victim of this
political game and point-scoring. The dam had to be built in early 1980s or
1990s according to the World Bank report way back in 1960s. But it is still on
the list of disputed items and provinces are unable to resolve the issue.
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa’s (K-P) political parties have developed an elaborate list
of objections on various grounds but the most prominent is logging of the city.
However, these objections need to be verified by sold, independent and
scientific research and evidences.

Sindh has its own objections due to a trust-deficit. Sindh feared that being a
low riparian country it might have to suffer water shortage due to dam
building. There are also frequent complaints about the non-availability of water
which are used to create bad blood about Punjab. The reality is that we are not
storing water for the lean period, as 84% is available during summer months
(about 128 MAF). Another major element of debate is distrust about Punjab.
For resolving issues Punjab must come forward to clear all doubts of smaller
provinces. It is necessary to build storage capacity on a priority basis.

Currently Pakistan has storage facility of only 11 MAF and uses almost 45 MAF
during summers from the available water for crops, animals, industry and
household purposes. This means that the rest of the amount of water is being
discharged in the sea. Average annual flow down the Kotri has been calculated
at about 31 MAF. It is worth mentioning here that required amount of flow
down the Kotri is 8.6 MAF, which means that 23 MAF is wasted every year. So
there is a problem of mismanagement. Balochistan is mostly missed in the
debate on water sharing and distribution. Balochistan criticises Sindh for low
availability of water, as Balochistan is low riparian to Sindh. Balochistan has
vast potential for agriculture and generation of livelihoods for hundreds of
thousands of people.

Unfortunately, it could not exploit its potential due to lack of availability of

water for a number of reasons. First, Balochistan lies in semi-arid to hyper-arid
areas where precipitation rate is very low. Second it does not get its required
amount from the available resources due to lack of water storage facilities
across the country. Third, there is political bargaining among the provinces to
get major chunk of available water. It has turned Balochistan into a non-
productive region.

Climate change will aggravate the situation. In the short-term there would be
floods due to rapid glacier melting and erratic rainfall patterns. In the long-run,
the country will have to face shortage of water, which will further worsen the
prevailing situation. Recently UNDP categorised Pakistan as one the countries
most affected by climate change.

Pakistan has to realise that we have reached a point where we need to take
practical measures to tackle the crisis.