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By Premanand Lotlikar

● Layered Tasks
● OSI Model
● Layers in the OSI Model
● TCP/IP protocol suite
● Addressing
Layered Taskas
Sending a letter
OSI Model
OSI Model

● Is a set of protocols that allows any two

different systems to communicate regardless
of their underlying architecture
● It is NOT a protocol; It is a model for:
○ Understanding and designing a network
○ Which is flexible, robust and interoperable
Layered Architecture
● OSI model composed
of 7 layers
● Related functions
collected into discrete
groups (layers)
● Each layer has
functions distinct from
● Allows complete
Peer-to-Peer Processes
Information moves down in the sending device and moves up in the
receiving device
Interface defines the information and services a layer must provide
Interfaces provide modularity to a network
Exchange in OSI model
OSI Model in working
Layers in the OSI Model
Physical Layer

● Functions required to carry bit stream over

physical medium
● Deals with mechanical and electrical
specifications of the interface and
transmission medium
Physical Layer

● Physical layer also concerned with:

○ Physical characteristics of interface and medium
○ Representation of bits (how 0 & 1 changes to
○ Data rate
○ Synchronization of bits
○ Line configuration (P2P, Multipoint)
○ Physical Topology
○ Transmission mode (simplex, half-duplex,
Data Link Layer

● Transform physical layer into a reliable link

● Makes the physical layer appear error-free to
the upper layer
Data Link Layer

● Framing
● Physical addressing (address of
● Flow control
● Error control
● Access control (which device has control over
the link)
Hop-to-Hop Delivery
Network Layer

● Responsible for source-to-destination delivery

of a packet
● Logical addressing
○ Adds logical address of the sender and receiver
● Routing
Source-to-Destination delivery
Transport Layer

● Responsible for process-to-process delivery of

the entire message
● Ensures that the entire message arrives intact
and in order
Transport Layer

● Service-point addressing
○ Port address
○ NL gets each packet to the correct computer; TL gets
the entire message to the correct process
● Segmentation and Reassembly
○ Each segment contains sequence number
● Connection control
○ Connectionless or Connection oriented
● Flow control (end2end; rather than single link)
● Error control (end2end; rather than single link)
Transport Layer
Session Layer

● It is the network dialog controller

● Establishes, maintains and synchronizes
interaction among communicating systems
Session Layer

● Dialog control
○ Half-duplex or Full-duplex
● Synchronization
○ Transfer of 1000 pages
○ Sensible to keep a check after every 100 pages
○ If 523 page fails, retransmitting only 500th page
onwards and not all the pages from 1 onwards
Presentation Layer

● Concerned with the syntax and semantics of

the information exchanged
Presentation Layer

● Translation
● Encryption
● Compression
Application Layer

● Enables user to access the network

● Provide user interfaces and support for
services like email, DBMS, remote file etc
Application Layer

● Network Virtual Terminal (remote logon)

● File transfer, access and management
● Mail services
● Directory services
Summary of layers
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
TCP/IP Protocol Suite

● Was developed prior to OSI model

● Original suite was defined as having 4 layers:
○ Host-to-Network, Internet, Transport, Application
● Today TCP/IP five layers are:
○ Physical
○ Data Link
○ Network
○ Transport
○ Application
TCP/IP and OSI model

● Physical & Data Link Layer

○ Does not define any specific protocol
○ Supports all standard and proprietary protocols
● Network Layer
○ Internetworking Protocol (IP)
○ IP uses 4 supporting protocols:
IP Protocols

● Internetworking Protocol (IP)

○ Unreliable, connectionless protocol
○ Best-effort delivery: no error checking or tracking
○ Data packets are called Datagrams
○ Datagrams can be out of sequence or duplicated
○ IP keeps NO track of routes and no facility for
IP Protocols

● Address Resolution Protocol (ARP):

○ Associate a logical address with a physical address
● Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP):
○ Allows host to discover its Internet address when it
knows only its physical address
● Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP):
○ Used to send message of datagram problem back to
the sender
● Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP):
○ Facilitates simultaneous transmission of a message
to a group of recipients

● Transport Layer:
○ Represented by TCP and UDP
○ Responsible for delivery of a message from one
process to another
○ User Datagram Protocol (UDP):
■ Adds only port address, checksum, error control and
length information
○ Transmission Control Protocol (TCP):
■ Reliable stream transport protocol
■ Connection oriented

● Four levels of addressing:

○ Physical
○ Logical
○ Port
○ Specific
Relationship of layers and
Physical Addresses

● Address of the node as defined by the

● It is included in the frame used by data link
● Lowest level address

A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address.
Logical Addresses

● Necessary for universal communication;

independent of underlying physical network
● Logical addresses are for unique identity
irrespective of the underlying physical network
● Currently logical address in the Internet is
● No two publicly addressed and visible hosts
on the Internet can have the same IP address
IP addresses
Port Addresses

● Q) The Internet model include:

● A) physical, data link, network, transport, and
application layers
● Q) The transport layer is responsible for
● A) process-to-process delivery of the entire
● Q) The network layer oversees
● A) host-to-host delivery of individual packets
● Q) Processes on two or more devices
communicating at a same layer are called:
● A) Peer-to-peer processes