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aerospace structural applications. The cost premium for A356.

0 is usually
justifiable in light of its better properties (strength, ductility, and fluidity)
compared to 356.0.
There are a number of other types of castings. Die castings (ASTM B85)
are produced by the introduction of molten metal under substantial pressure
into a metal die, producing castings with a high degree of fidelity to the die.
Die castings are used for castings produced in large volumes because they
can be produced rapidly within relatively tight dimensional tolerances. Investment
castings (ASTM B618) are produced by surrounding, or investing,
an expendable pattern (usually wax or plastic) with a refractory slurry that
sets at room temperature, after which the pattern is removed by heating and
the resulting cavity is filled with molten metal. ASTM also provides a
specification
for high-strength aluminum alloy castings (ASTM B686) used in
airframe, missile, or other critical applications requiring high strength,
ductility,
and quality.
Dimensional Tolerances Suggested standards for dimensional tolerances
for castings are given in the Aluminum Association�s publication Standards
for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Castings. Tolerances are held on
castings only when purchasers specify them with orders. This is unlike the
case for rolled and extruded products, for which standard dimensional tolerances
are held by the mill even when purchasers do not specify them. The
dimensions of castings can be hard to control because of difficulty in predicting
shrinkage during solidification and warping due to uneven cooling of
thick and thin regions. Without requirements, castings may be produced with
dimensions that deviate more widely than you anticipated.
Minimum Mechanical Properties Minimum mechanical properties for some
cast alloys taken from ASTM B26 and B108 are shown in Table 3.9. Unless
shown otherwise in the ASTM specifications and Table 3.9, the values given
are the minimum values for separately cast test bars, not for production castings.
Minimum strengths for coupons cut from actual production castings
must be no less than 75% of the values given in Table 3.9. Elongation values
of coupons from castings must be no less than 25% of the values in Table
3.9; in other words, they may be considerably less than the values in the table.
Minimum mechanical properties (tensile ultimate and yield strengths and percent
elongation in 2 in. [50 mm]) for separately cast test bars of cast aluminum
alloys are also given in Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent
Mold Castings and the Aluminum Design Manual, Part V, Material Properties.
All strengths in these tables must be multiplied by 0.75 and all elongations
by 0.25 to obtain values for specimens cut from castings. The ASTM B26
and B108 specifications are updated more frequently than the Aluminum Association
publications and so may better reflect current industry standards.
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