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Confronting Racism

Audience
Staff, Faculty, and Administration at Fleming College

Rationale for Training


Due to the increase in international populations at the College, negative incidents towards minorities have increased, student to student and more rarely,
teacher to student. This training aims to increase the knowledge of what contributes to racism in post-secondary schools, using the history of Indigenous
racism in Canada as the context that learners will consider as they progress through the course. This training will be used when and if a staff incident occurs, as
well as for the purposes of annual re-training and staff on-boarding.

Course Delivery

Delivery Method: Face to Face Workshop Total Duration: Session 1 - 8 hours


2 sessions Session 2 – 4 hours

Equipment: • Laptop Resources: • Knowledge check sheets (1 per participant – Units 1)


• Projector • Knowledge check answer keys (Unit 1)
• Chart Paper • Document: Racism in Post-Secondary – Incident Frequency
• Markers • Video: A Look at Race Relations through a Child’s Eyes
• Lined paper • Document: Colonization Timeline
• Pens • Elizabeth Furniss: The Burden of History: Colonialism and the Frontier Myth in a Rural
Canadian Community
• Video: Worlds Collide: The Story of Us - Episode 1
• Video: Hunting Treasure: The Story of Us, Full Episode 2
• Quiz: Historical Events to 1870s
• Historical Events to 1870s Answer Sheet
• Indian Act 1876
• Elizabeth Furniss: Victims of Benevolence excerpt
• Video: Canada’s cultural genocide of Indigenous Peoples
• DiMascio: Beyond Church & State - Who knew what, when about residential schooling in
Canada
• Trevithick: Native Residential Schooling in Canada - a review of the literature
• Video: We were children
• Video: Canada's Dark Secret
• Video: The Impacts of Residential Schools
• Reconciliation Plan Rubric
• Battiste, M. (2013). Decolonizing education: Nourishing the learning spirit. Saskatoon,

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SK: Purich Publishing.
• Statscan
• TedX-Are you biased? I am | Kristen Pressner | TEDxBasel
• Finding and Removing the Bias Within Us - Anthony Wermers -TEDxYouth@Conejo
• Harvard’s Implicit Bias Test
• Percentage of Respondents with Each Score (appendix F)
• Bias Strategy Rubric
Learning Outcomes: 1. Learners will be able to describe the major events in the history of colonialism.
2. Learners will be able to summarize the impacts of colonialism on Indigenous communities.
3. Learners will be able to analyze the role of racism in historical and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples.
4. Learners will be able to develop a plan for reconciling Indigenous and Canadian relations, using their knowledge of colonial history
and its impacts on Indigenous communities.
5. Learners will be able to discuss influences that create, maintain, or contest identities and differences.
6. Learners will be able to analyze how their own cultural background may affect or has affected their interactions with others.
7. Learners will be able to construct a personal strategy to address racist incidents they encounter in the workplace and community.

Course Structure: Unit One: History of Colonization


Unit Two: Confronting Racism in Education

Course Introduction/Overview
TIME CONTENT TEACHING METHODS/KEY POINTS RESOURCES
1h Course Introduction • Introduction
• Personal Introduction ▪ Introduce yourself including a brief summary of training experience
• Agenda & Learning and your role at the College.
Outcomes • Agenda
• Rationale for Training ▪ Review training units/learning outcomes:
• Lead-In • Unit One: History of Colonization
➢ Learners will be able to describe the major events in the
history of colonialism.
➢ Learners will be able to summarize the impacts of colonialism
on Indigenous communities.
➢ Learners will be able to analyze the role of racism in historical
and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples.
➢ Learners will be able to develop a plan for reconciling
Indigenous and Canadian relations, using their knowledge of
colonial history and its impacts on Indigenous communities.

• Unit Two: Confronting Racism in Education


➢ Learners will be able to discuss influences that create,

August 8, 2018 Course: Confronting Racism 2


maintain, or contest identities and differences.
➢ Learners will be able to analyze how their own cultural
background may affect or has affected their interactions with
others.
➢ Learners will be able to construct a personal strategy to
address racist incidents they encounter in the workplace and
community.

• Rationale for Training


▪ Summarize for the participants the need for this training, ensuring you • Document: Racism in Post-
cover: Secondary – Incident
▪ In general terms, data findings that show the incidents of racial Frequency (appendix A)
discrimination in post-secondary education
▪ The lack of data related to post-secondary education and
incidents of racism
▪ College employees must understand cultural differences and
treat diverse cultures respectfully, and ensure that students treat
each other respectfully.
▪ Considering racism in the context of Indigenous experience
provides a highly relevant and personal environment for analysis
of the origins of Canadian systemic racism in education and
society
▪ Western-based education systems need to incorporate
Indigenous content and methods in order to counter the implicit
biases in the existing education system, which work against the
needs of Indigenous learners.
▪ Lead participants in a discussion around the data on hate crimes and
lack of data re: post-secondary education.
▪ Guiding Questions: What can you infer about racism in post-
secondary schools, from this data on hate crimes? Why do you
think post-secondary schools have not been tracking incidents of
racism on campus?

• Course Lead-In Activity (as part of rationale)


▪ View video, as a study on the origins of racism and the passive nature • Video: A Look at Race
in which racism is installed and maintained in society. Relations through a Child’s
Explain Key Term: Implicit Bias - attitudes or stereotypes Eyes
that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in
an unconscious manner; activated involuntarily and
without an individual’s awareness or intentional control.

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▪ Pair participants for discussions on their own experiences with racism
(or lack thereof) when growing up. Encourage participants to pair up
with someone of a different ethnic background, if possible.
▪ Guiding Questions: Did you experience racism when growing up?
Who did the racism originate from? How did you deal with
this/these events? Do you think your experiences (either having
experienced racism or not) have changed the way you interact
with others? Do you think your interactions have been influenced
by an implicit bias?
▪ Solicit volunteers to share what they learned about implicit bias and
racism from the video, the results of their peer discussions, and what
differences/similarities they found between their experiences.
▪ Highlight this video as an example of the importance of confronting
racism, recognizing that different lived experiences influence how we
interpret the world and each other, being aware of our biases that
influence how we interact with other ethnicities.

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Unit One: History of Colonization

Learning Outcomes/Objectives:

1. Learners will be able to describe the major events in the history of colonialism.
2. Learners will be able to summarize the impacts of colonialism on Indigenous communities.
3. Learners will be able to analyze the role of racism in historical and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples.
4. Learners will be able to develop a plan for reconciling Indigenous and Canadian relations, using their knowledge of colonial history and its impacts on
Indigenous communities.

Unit One: History of Colonization


TIME CONTENT TEACHING METHODS/KEY POINTS EVALUATION METHOD RESOURCES
15m Unit Introduction • Introduction
• Introduction ▪ Introduce the unit: this unit
focuses on the history of
colonization of Indigenous
people and the historical
contrasts between Indigenous
and European cultures. Major
events, treaties, and land claims
are explored, in addition to the
residential school system and its
impacts on Indigenous people
and culture.

• Agenda & Learning • Agenda


Outcomes ▪ Review learning outcomes:
➢ Learners will be able to
describe the major events in
the history of colonialism.
➢ Learners will be able to
summarize the impacts of
colonialism on Indigenous
communities.
➢ Learners will be able to
analyze the role of racism in
historical and contemporary
experiences of Indigenous
peoples.
➢ Learners will be able to

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develop a plan for
reconciling Indigenous and
Canadian relations, using
their knowledge of colonial
history and its impacts on
Indigenous communities.

6h • Content • Review content on colonization


history:
▪ Review the Colonization • Document: Colonization
Timeline Timeline
▪ Review and discuss Elizabeth • Elizabeth Furniss: The Burden
Furniss: The Burden of History: of History: Colonialism and
Colonialism and the Frontier the Frontier Myth in a Rural
Myth in a Rural Canadian
Canadian Community
Community, p. 33-34
▪ Theme(s): Treaties, (appendix B)
Assimilation, Land Rights
▪ Lead participants in a discussion
on the colonization timeline and
how the themes of treaties,
assimilation, and land rights
relate to Furniss’ book.
▪ Guiding Questions: What
role does racism play in the
events described in the
colonization timeline? How
did the establishment of the
reserve system promote
assimilation? How did
attitudes towards the
Indigenous change in the
years after Douglas?
▪ View video: ‘Worlds Collide: The
Story of Us - Episode 1’ • Video: Worlds Collide: The
▪ Theme(s): Colonial Story of Us - Episode 1
History
▪ View video: ‘Hunting Treasure:
The Story of Us, Full Episode 2
(10:38 – 17:47)’ • Video: Hunting Treasure: The
▪ Theme(s): Colonial Story of Us, Full Episode 2

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History
▪ Explain the focus of the • Formative: Quiz based on
historical events quiz and major historical events • Quiz: Historical Events to
administer the quiz leading up to residential
1870s
schools
▪ Review content on the Indian Act: • Historical Events to 1870s
▪ Review the Indian Act 1876 Answer Sheet
▪ Theme(s): Government
control of aboriginal life: • Indian Act 1876
Indian status, land,
resources, wills,
education, band
administration, cultural
practice restrictions.
▪ Review and discuss Elizabeth
Furniss: Victims of Benevolence, • Elizabeth Furniss: Victims of
Chapter One Benevolence Excerpt
▪ Theme(s): Colonial
(appendix C)
policies which led to the
assimilation and
destruction of
Indigenous culture –
Superiority of European
culture, Assimilation in
best interest of
Indigenous, Christian
conversions
▪ Lead participants in a discussion
on how the European’s attitudes
towards Indigenous people
influenced the Indian Act.
▪ Guiding Questions: Which
attitudes Europeans had
toward Indigenous people
were the most damaging?
What did Europeans base
these attitudes on? Were
these attitudes justified?
Why or why not? What role
did the Indian Act play in
setting the tone for

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residential schools?
▪ Administer knowledge check • Formative: Knowledge • Knowledge check sheet 1
assessment and explain the check worksheet based on • Knowledge check sheet -
focus content from Furniss, answer key 1
Colonization timeline, and
the Indian Act
▪ Review content on Residential
Schools
▪ View video: Canada's cultural
genocide of Indigenous Peoples • Video: Canada’s cultural
▪ Review and discuss DiMascio: genocide of Indigenous
Beyond Church & State - Who Peoples
knew what, when about • DiMascio: Beyond Church &
residential schooling in Canada, State - Who knew what, when
p. 89 – 94
about residential schooling in
▪ Theme(s): Residential
schools, Experience of Canada
children in residential
schools, impact of Euro-
Canadian educational
policies on Indigenous
people
▪ Lead participants in a discussion
on how the European’s attitudes
towards Indigenous people
influenced the Indian Act.
Guiding Questions: Which
attitudes Europeans had
toward Indigenous people
were the most damaging?
What did Europeans base
these attitudes on? Were
these attitudes justified? Why
or why not?
▪ Review and discuss Trevithick: • Trevithick: Native Residential
Native Residential Schooling in Schooling in Canada - a review
Canada - a review of the
of the literature
literature, p. 56 – 67
▪ Theme(s): Colonial
policies which led to the
assimilation and

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destruction of Indigenous
culture – Superiority of
European culture,
Assimilation in best
interest of Indigenous,
Christian conversions
▪ Form small groups and assign
each group one of the following
impacts of residential schools.
separation of brothers and
sisters, prohibition of native
language, separation of children
from their parents, first-time
schooling experience, denial of
examples of healthy parenting,
destruction of cultural
transmission methods
▪ Have groups brainstorm a list of
ways that their given impact
may have influenced the
contemporary experiences of
Indigenous peoples

▪ View video: ‘We were children’ • Video: We were children


▪ Theme(s): Residential
schools, Experience of
children in residential
schools
▪ View video: Canada's Dark • Video: Canada's Dark Secret
Secret (13:14 – 18:36)
▪ Theme(s): Residential
schools, Experience of
children in residential
schools, colonial policies
▪ Review content on impacts of
colonialism and residential schools
on Indigenous communities
▪ View video: The Impacts of • Video: The Impacts of
Residential Schools
Residential Schools
▪ Theme(s): Residential
schools, Experience of

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children in residential
schools, impacts of
residential schools

• Reconciliation Plan
▪ Explain the synthesis of • Summative: Learners
knowledge on the history of develop a reconciliation • Reconciliation Plan Rubric
colonization, assimilation plan which includes: a) a
policies, residential schools, and description of the events
their impacts; that the learners that have led to a need to
will draw on to draft a reconcile, b) an analysis of
reconciliation plan. the impacts of said events,
▪ Highlight that this activity is an c) the role that racism
individual writing assessment to played in these events, d) a
ensure the participants high level plan to address
understand the required each of the impacts caused
information and provides an by these event.
opportunity for participants to
ask questions to clarify their
understanding of the key
themes.
▪ Explain the assignment
instructions and that learners
are to come to the next session
with the completed
reconciliation plan
▪ Ask participants to present any
questions on the section for
which they require clarification

10m Conclusion • Learning Objectives


• Refer back to objectives ▪ Review the learning objectives covered:
• What’s coming next ➢ Learners will be able to describe the major events in the history
of colonialism.
➢ Learners will be able to summarize the impacts of colonialism on
Indigenous communities.
➢ Learners will be able to analyze the role of racism in historical
and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples.
➢ Learners will be able to develop a plan for reconciling Indigenous

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and Canadian relations, using their knowledge of colonial history
and its impacts on Indigenous communities.
▪ Connect the themes learned in this unit to the next, by explaining
that knowledge of the history of colonization in Canada provides the
context in which racism will be examined in the next unit.
▪ Introduce next section: Confronting Racism

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Unit Two: Confronting Racism

Learning Outcome/Objectives:

1. Learners will be able to discuss influences that create, maintain, or contest identities and differences.
2. Learners will be able to analyze how their own cultural background may affect or has affected their interactions with others.
3. Learners will be able to construct a personal strategy to address racist incidents they encounter in the workplace and community.

Unit Two: Confronting Racism


TIME CONTENT TEACHING METHODS/KEY POINTS RESOURCES
5m • Introduction • Introduction • Battiste, M. (2013).
• Topic and chapter – tie into ▪ Introduce section and topics, referring to Agenda Decolonizing
course outline ▪ Remind participants that the knowledge in this next section will education: Nourishing
• Review, tie in to previous provide information on the reasons for contemporary racism and the learning spirit.
material how to confront it, using Battiste’s book, Decolonizing Education. Saskatoon, SK: Purich
Publishing.
• Agenda • Agenda • Statscan
▪ Review learning outcomes: • TedX-Are you biased? I
➢ Learners will be able to discuss influences that create, maintain, or am | Kristen Pressner
contest identities and differences. | TEDxBasel
➢ Learners will be able to analyze how their own cultural background • Finding and Removing
may affect or has affected their interactions with others. the Bias Within Us -
Anthony Wermers -
➢ Learners will be able to construct a personal strategy to address their
TEDxYouth@Conejo
own racial bias and racist incidents they encounter in the workplace • Harvard’s Implicit Bias
and community. Test
• Percentage of
Respondents with
Each Score (appendix
F)
• Bias Strategy Rubric
TIME CONTENT TEACHING METHODS/KEY POINTS EVALUATION METHOD RESOURCES
60m • Content ▪ Review content influences that
create/maintain identities and
differences
▪ Review and discuss Battiste, • Battiste, M. (2013).
M. (2013). Decolonizing Decolonizing
education: Nourishing the education:

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learning spirit., p. 130 – 136 Nourishing the
▪ Theme(s): Indian Act, learning spirit.
government policies, Saskatoon, SK:
self-narratives, concept Purich Publishing.
of race, cognitive (appendix D)
imperialism
▪ Lead participants in a
discussion on how existing
constructions of policies and
knowledge helps to create,
maintain, or contest identities
and differences.
Guiding Questions:
According to Battiste, what
are the major influencers
that perpetuate racism? Do
you agree? Why or why
not? How do you recognize
when your perception of
race is being manipulated?
Who designed the course
content in your course?
What resources did they use
and who wrote those
resources? Were there any
minority voices or
viewpoints included? If not,
why do you think that is?
▪ Review and discuss Battiste, • Battiste, M. (2013).
M. (2013). Decolonizing Decolonizing
education: Nourishing the education:
learning spirit., p. 137 - 139 Nourishing the
▪ Theme(s): Indian Act, learning spirit.
government policies, Saskatoon, SK:
self-narratives, concept Purich Publishing.
of race, cognitive (appendix E)
imperialism
▪ Form small groups and have • Statscan
learners go to the Statscan
website to find data on the
symptoms of racial oppression

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from p. 138: assign each
group one of the following:
poverty, substandard housing,
water and sanitation, health,
maternal care, birth defects,
disabilities, children in care,
unemployment, stress,
suicide.
▪ Have groups develop a
paragraph to present to the
group the data and ties their
given symptom back to
contemporary or historical
policy that created or helps to
perpetuate it.

▪ Review the content on how one’s • TedX-Are you


own cultural background may biased? I am |
affect or has affected their Kristen Pressner |
interactions with others TEDxBasel
▪ View TedX-Are you biased? I
am | Kristen Pressner |
TEDxBasel *note to learner’s
this talk is in the context of
women leaders, but the
explanations are applicable to
our biases on Indigenous
people and how to reflect on
them to make change
▪ View Finding and Removing • Finding and
the Bias Within Us | Anthony Removing the Bias
Wermers | EDxYouth@Conejo Within Us -
Anthony Wermers -
TEDxYouth@Conej
• Provide learners with the link o
to the implicit bias test to help • Harvard’s Implicit
inform their personal bias Bias Test
strategy. Explain the purpose • Percentage of
of the test to identify one’s Respondents with
own personal biases, that we Each Score
may not be aware of

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consciously. (appendix F)

• Bias Strategy
▪ Explain the synthesis of ➢ Summative: Learners develop a • Bias Strategy Rubric
knowledge on the origins of personal strategy to address their
racial bias, identification of own racial bias and racist incidents
our own biases, and methods they encounter in the workplace
to combat said biases. and community. In the strategy,
▪ Highlight that this activity is learners should list the biases
an individual writing identified by the Harvard test and
assessment to ensure the explore the origins of the bias and
participants understand the how to they plan to combat it.
required information and
provides an opportunity for
participants to ask questions
to clarify their understanding
of the key themes.
▪ Explain the assignment
instructions and that learners
are to submit the strategy by
email for marking
• Ask participants to present
any questions on the section
for which they require
clarification

5m Conclusion • Learning Objectives


• Refer back to objectives ▪ Review with the class the learning objectives covered:
• Thank you ➢ Learners will be able to discuss influences that create, maintain, or
contest identities and differences.
➢ Learners will be able to analyze how their own cultural background
may affect or has affected their interactions with others.
➢ Learners will be able to construct a personal strategy to address their
own racial bias and racist incidents they encounter in the workplace

August 8, 2018 Course: Confronting Racism 15


and community.
• Thank You
• Thank the participants and state that you hope the knowledge of the
colonization history in Canada, knowledge of how the systemic racism it
created continues to be maintained today, realizations of our own
implicit biases, and the self-developed strategy to combat our own bias
and those of others will be valuable in their role as educators and
education workers.

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Appendix A

Racism in Post-Secondary – Incident Frequency


There is no available public data on the frequency of incidents of incidents of racism in post-secondary education. However, the instructor can review with the
class the information below, or alternatively bring up the links for the class to see and discuss the information.

Source: https://www.universityaffairs.ca/opinion/in-my-opinion/universities-serious-data-gap-race/

Summary:

• A recent report showed 63 of 76 Canadian universities could not provide data about their racial demographics – because they haven’t asked their
students.
• Expressions of support for diversity that aren’t backed up by data represent a failure to accept obligations under human rights law
• For data to be as useful as possible we need comparable, public data across the sector.

Source: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54915-eng.htm

This data is representative of Canadian society overall, not specifically in post-secondary education. However, the data provides insights into the cultural
makeup of the country and reported hate crimes against minorities across the Country.

Summary:

• Canada has a very multicultural and diverse population. According to the 2016 Census data, 22.3% of Canadians reported being members of a visible
minority group, an increase of 3 percentage points since the 2011 National Household Survey.
• Aboriginal people comprised 4.9% of the population in 2016, up from 4.3% in 2011 (Statistics Canada 2013a).
• In 2016, 48% of all police-reported hate crimes were motivated by hatred of a race or ethnicity. Much of this increase was a result of more hate crimes
targeting South Asians (+24 incidents) and Arabs and West Asians (+20 incidents).
• Despite posting a decrease in 2016, crimes targeting Black populations remained one of the most common types of hate crimes (15% of all hate crimes).
• Non-violent offences motivated by hatred of a race or ethnicity made up 55% of police-reported hate crimes in 2016.
• For hate crimes targeting race or ethnicity, 32% of those accused of hate crimes were under 25 years old.
• Approximately 50% of individuals accused of hate crimes targeting Black populations were under the age of 25, and 81% were male.
• From 2010 to 2016, persons accused of hate crimes targeting East and Southeast Asian populations were largely male (85%). In addition, accused tended
to be young (39% were under the age of 25).
• The majority (56%) of persons accused of hate crimes against Aboriginal populations were under the age of 25 and 89% of all accused were male.

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Appendix B

Furniss: The Burden of History: Colonialism and the Frontier


Myth in a Rural Canadian Community

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Appendix C

Elizabeth Furniss: Victims of Benevolence

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Appendix D

Battiste, M. (2013). Decolonizing education: Nourishing the


learning spirit., p. 130 – 136

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Appendix E

Battiste, M. (2013). Decolonizing education: Nourishing the


learning spirit., p. 137 – 139

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Appendix F

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References

AlJazeera English. (2017, Jun 13). Canada’s Dark Secret. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peLd_jtMdrc

Battiste, M. (2013). Decolonizing education: Nourishing the learning spirit. Saskatoon, SK: Purich Publishing.

Blinks, T. (2015).Timeline of Canadian Colonialism and Indigenous Resistance. Retrieved from https://ipsmo.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/timeline-game-
handout-version.pdf

Carl. J., Robson, K., & Gallagher-MacKay, K. (2017). Universities have a serious data gap on race. Retrieved from https://www.universityaffairs.ca/opinion/in-
my-opinion/universities-serious-data-gap-race/

CBC News. (2018, Mar 21). Canada's cultural genocide of Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5Gi0ycmekE

CBC. (2017, Apr 9). Hunting Treasure | Canada: The Story of Us, Full Episode 2. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8rheibq-nM

CBC. (2017, Apr 3). Worlds Collide - Canada: The Story of Us, Full Episode 1. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWdOQE459vg

CNN. (2012, Apr 2). A Look at Race Relations through a Child’s Eyes. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPVNJgfDwpw

DiMascio, A. (2012). Beyond Church & State - Who knew what, when about residential schooling in Canada. The First Peoples Child & Family Review. 7(2). 85-96

Furniss, E. (2011). The Burden of History: Colonialism and the Frontier Myth in a Rural Canadian Community. UBC Press.

Furniss, E. (1995). Victims of Benevolence: The Dark Legacy of the Williams Lake Residential School. Arsenal Pulp Press.

Government of Canada. (1876). The Indian Act. Retrieved from http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100010252/1100100010254

Harvard. (2011). Implicit Associated Test. Retrieved from https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/canada/takeatest.html

Pressner, K. (2016, Aug 30). Are you biased? I am | Kristen Pressner | TEDxBasel. TedX Talks. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bq_xYSOZrgU

RTW Integrated Health Management. (2018, Feb 16). The Impacts of Residential Schools. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tew2OKv45dI

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Aboriginal peoples. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/subjects/aboriginal_peoples?p=3-All#all

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Police Reported Hate Crime in Canada, 2016. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54915-
eng.htm

Trevithick, S. (1998). Native residential schooling in Canada: a review of literature. Canadian Journal of Native Studies. 18(1). 49-86

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Wermers, A. (2016, May 25). Finding and Removing the Bias within Us | Anthony Wermers | TEDxYouth@Conejo. Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6lRmEdP4fA

Wolochatiuk, T. (2012). We were children. [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.nfb.ca/film/we_were_children/trailer/we_were_children_ trailer/

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