Baking and Baking Science

PART ONE WILL BE DEVOTED TO BREAD BAKING INGREDIENTS, AND HOW EACH INGREDIENT REACTS IN RELATION TO OTHER INGREDIENTS WHEN MIXED TO FORM A DOUGH.

Questions or Comments

Part One - Bread Baking Ingredients and Dough Strengtheners and Anti-Staling Ingredients Part One (A) - Temperature -Heat Transfer and High Altitude Baking Part one (B)- Maintenance Engineering Scholarships worth $4,000 offered by American Institute of Baking Part Two - Principles of Bread Production-Latest Developments in Dough Processing Procedures & Dough Processing Equipment Part Three - Bread Formula Construction Part Four - Variety Breads Part Five - Basic Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries Part Six - Demonstrations Make - Up of Basic Sweet Dough Part Seven - Demonstrations Make - Up of Danish Pastries Part Eight - French Pastries Part Nine - PIES INCLUDING FUNCTIONS OF INGREDIENTS, PIE DOUGHS AND PIE FILLINGS, PLUS MIXING AND MAKE-UP DEMONSTRATIONS Part Ten- Cake Ingredient Functions, Formula Balancing, Mixing Procedures, and Small Quantity Baking Cake Formulas Part Ten (A-1)-DECORATING CAKES; AMOUNT OF BATTER TO USE IN PANS; ALSO CAKE DECORAING EQUIPMENT Part Ten (A-2)- COOKIES-FUNCTION OF INGREDIENTS, RECIPES AND DEMONSTRATIONS

Part Ten (A-3)- ICINGSPart ELEVEN- HOT ROLLS AND BUNS (DINNER ROLLS, PARKERHOUSE ROLLS, CLOVERLEAF ROLLS AND FINGER ROLLS) ALSO ROLLING JELLY ROLLS
Part Eleven - (A)-BROWN AND SERVE DINNER ROLLS

Part TWELVE -Bread Baking Demonstrations Part THIRTEEN -Military Field Baking Operations Demonstrated Part FOURTEEN -BAKERY SANITATION INCLUDING FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) REGULATIONS

BASIC INGREDIENTS
Flour. Wheat flour is essential because it is milled from the only cereal grain known to contain the proteins glutenin and gliadin which when combined with water form gluten, the elastic material which holds the gas produced by the chemical reaction of the yeast enzymes on sugar. As in building a house, the frame must be built. Gluten forms the framework of bread and also the cell structure of the interior of the loaf. Rye flour contains both glutenin and gliadin but is incapable of forming gluten because there are substances in rye flour that interferes with it's ability to form gluten. That is the reason why wheat flour must be included as a large percentage of the flour in rye bread formulas. How to separate the gluten from wheat flour. First you must wash out all the starches from a mixture of flour and water as follows: 1. Mix a small amount of flour (about 8 ounces) with just enough water to form a stiff ball of dough. 2. Soak the ball of dough in water for about 30 minutes. 3. Over a fine mesh sieve, and under running water from a faucet, wash out all the starch. When all the starch has been removed the water will run clear. Warning, if you try to wash gluten from soft wheat flour (cake flour), you will be able to get only a tiny bit of gluten from it. Hard wheat flour (bread flour) will yield a large amount of gluten. Rye flour will yield zero amount of gluten. If you bake the ball of wet gluten at about 400 degrees F. until all the mositure has evaporated and cut the dry gluten in half, you will see how gluten forms the frame work (structure) of baked products. How to separate glutenin and gliadin from gluten.

Once you have washed out the starches, you end up with raw wet gluten. If you soak the ball of gluten in pure ethyl alcohol, the glutenin and the gliadin will separate out. The gliadin is the sticky part and will form long tiny silky looking strands when touched with the finger. The glutenin on the other hand will look and feel like tough raw rubber. Types of wheat used to produce bread flour. Hard spring wheat and hard winter wheat are the best types of wheat for producing quality breads. Spring wheats are grown in the Northwest where there is less rainfall than in other wheat growing areas. This results in a higher percentage of protein and a lower percentage of starch than wheats grown in the Southwest where more rain falls. Hard spring wheat generally produce loaves with greater volume than winter wheats, but with slightly more open crumb texture. Millers combine the two types of wheat in their blend to improve interior loaf characteristics. Hard White Wheat grown in some Western States, is also used in bread production. It is slightly lower in protein than spring and winter wheats. Bakers add Vital Wheat Gluten and/or Dough Strengtheners to doughs to make up for the deficiency. Duram Wheats which contain a higher percentage of proteins than does most other types of wheats are used primarily in making spaghetti and macaroni products. Milling of wheat into flour. Basically, after the wheat has been cleaned and tempered, and the percentage of moisture within the grain has been adjusted, the wheat passes through several reduction rollers. The grounded middlings are separated into several streams of flour by sieving and bolting. The bran particles which have been removed are used in cereals. Some are also used for animal feed. 100 pounds of cleaned wheat generally yield only about 70 to 76 pounds of middlings which can be ground into various grades of flour. Grades of flour. Whole wheat flour is flour produced from 100 percent of the wheat. By adding Vital Wheat Gluten to their formulas bakers are producing high quality White Whole Wheat Bread. Straight grade of flour. This is all of the flour produced after the outer portion (bran and germ) have been removed. 100 pounds of wheat will produce about 72 pounds of straight flour. Straight flour is simular to all purpose flour found in grocer stores. Patent flour is a highly refined flour which remains after all the clear flours have been removed. Patent flours are produced from the intermost part of the wheat where the best quality proteins are located. 100 pounds of wheat will produce only about 40 to 60 pounds of patent flour, and the middlings that remain go into clear flours. Clear flour is the portion of the flour remaining after the patent flour streams have been separated. Clear flour generally contain a higher percentage of protein than the other grades, but the quality of the protein is lower. This type pf flour is generally used to produce French bread. It is also mixed with wheat flour and rye flour by the baker to produce loaves with greater volume. Flour bleaching and maturing. In order to produce quality breads from fresh milled flour it must be allowed to age or mature in storage for about a month. Bleaching and

maturing agents are used to artifically age and whiten the flour. This results in flour that can be used immediately after milling to produce a quality product. Strength of flour is its ability to be made into well piled loaves. The flour should have a high content of quality protein to retain gas and contain enough natural sugars and diastatic enzymes to produce enough sugar from the starch for uniform gas production. Tolerance is the ability to produce a quality product for some time after the optimum fermentation time has elapsed. and in the event that the dough was overmixed. Enrichment of flour is the process of replacing the vitamins and minerals removed during the milling process.. Most of the vitamins and minerals are located in the outer portions of the wheat, and since most of the outer portions of the wheat are not used to produce the best grades of flour, these essential elements must be replaced. The exception is whole wheat flour. Enzymes in flour. The two most important enzymes in flour are protease and diastase. Protease conditions the gluten, improving its elasticity and its ability to retain the gas produced during fermentation. Diastase changes some of the starch in flour to dextrins and maltose sugar. Some flours do not contain a sufficient amount of diastase enzyme due to poor climatic conditions under which the wheat was grown. Sproted wheat can be added to the flour by the miller or the baker can add a specially prepared diastatic malt in his formula. Rye flour is a finely ground flour prepared from the rye grain. It contains about the same amount of protein as wheat flour. However, the flour contains gummy substances which prevent formation of gluten, accounting for the small compact loaves of bread made made from a dough containing only rye flour. To produce rye bread with acceptable volume, not more than 20 percent dark rye flour, 30 percent medium rye flour,and 40 percent light rye flour can be used in the formula. White bread flour must be used in the formula so enough gluten can be formed to hold the gas during fermentation, and to form the structure of the texture. Water. Water is a basic ingredient in bread baking. It would be impossible to produce a loaf of bread without water in some form. There are several types of water. Hard water produces better quality bread than any type of water. Soft water weekens the gluten during mixing and fermentation. This can be corrected to some degree by increasing the percentage of salt in the formula slightly and by using mineral yeast food in the formula. Alkaline water is the most harmful, because it doesn't only weaken the gluten, but retards fermentation. Yeast likes a slightly acid medium to perform at its best. The weakening of the gluten and retarding effect on yeast can be corrected by using an acid ingredient such as vinegar ( acedic acid ) or lactic acid. Special types of mineral yeast food has been developed to correct this problem. Yeast is one of the essential ingredients in bread production. It is a one cell plant which multiplies by a process known as budding. Under the right conditions of water, sugars, warmth, and dissolved minerals, yeast causes fermentation. Yeast is available in compressed form which must be kept under refrigeration until it is ready to be used and active dry yeast which need not be refrigerated. Active dry yeast has an extended

shelf life. Both will generally produce satisfactory results. However, a majority of large Commercial Bread Bakeries use compressed yeast in their formulas. When using active dry yeast half as much active dry yeast is required as compared with compressed yeast. Enzymes in yeast consist of invertase, maltase, zymase and protease. There are others, but they are not important in bread production. The protease enzyme in yeast is only active if the cell wall of the yeast is damaged in some way. That is the only time it can penetrate the cell wall of the yeast. There are always a few damaged yeast cells especially in dry yeast where some cells are damaged during the drying process, or in yeast that has gotten a little old. If the protease enzyme does penetrate the cell wall of the yeast, it will weaken the gluten. Invertase enzyme is an entercelluar enzyme. Sucrose, ( cane or beet sugar ) when dissolved enter the cell wall and are changed to dextrose and fructose, which are later changed by the enzyme zymase ( below ). Maltase attacks malt sugar. The malt sugar is changed to two molecules of the simple sugars dextrose. Zymase is the enzyme which changes the simple sugars, dextrose and fructose into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol, and several esters which result in producing the unique aroma flavor and taste of breads. Also, the gas produced causes the dough to rise.. Fermentation will be discussed in more detail in a later paragraph on bread production procedures. Salt is another essential ingredient in quality bread production. It has several functions. It regulates fermentation. Too little salt causes the dough to ferment too fast and wild, while too much salt slows down the fermentation process. Salt is a very powerful ingredient and it must be scaled very carefully when weighing the ingredients for the dough. In the proper amount, salt produces good grain and texture, because it strengthens the gluten allowing it to fully mature during fermentation. It also prevents the growth of wild yeast and bacteria. A whiter crumb is produced and last but not least, it brings out the taste and flavor of bread.

ENRICHING INGREDIENTS
Sugar. Cane or beet sugar ( sucrose ) are basically the same. They are both compound sugars and must be changed to simple sugars by the yeast enzyme invertase before the yeast can convert them to carbon dioxide gas and alcohol by the yeast enzyme zymase. Dextrose also known as corn sugar is produced by converting corn starch into sugar. It is interchangeable with cane and beet sugar in bread production. However, its sweetening value is only about 72 as compared to a sweetness value 0f 100 for cane or beet sugar. Fructose or levulose, found in fruits, molases, and honey is a left handed sugar which means it reflects polarized light to the left whereas dextrose reflects polarized light to the right. High fructose has in recent years been produced from corn starch by a special process which was unknown just a few years ago. It has a sweetening value considerably higher than any other type of sugar ( about 172 ).

Lactose sugar is sugar found in milk, and is not fermentable by bakers yeast. At the end of the baking process it remains as lactose sugar in the baked bread. Its sweetening value is very low compared to the other sugars. Functions of sugar. Sugar is not considered an essential ingredient in bread baking. This is because flour contains a small amount of natural sugars and some starch is converted to sugar during the fermentation process. It does have many important functions. Some of the added sugar is converted to carbon dioxide and alcohol by the yeast enzymes. It provides necessary sweetness, helps to produce a golden brown color of the crust, improves the texture of the crumb, helps to retain moisture in the crumb and adds to the nutritional value of the bread. High percentage of sugar as used in sweet doughs and Danish pastry doughs retard yeast activity. That is the reason why when increasing the percentage of sugar in doughs, the percentage of yeast must be increased by the same proportion. Milk.Several years ago non fat dry milk was the type of milk generally used in bread baking, but today it has become too expensive to use by most commercial bread bakeries. In it's place they use milk subsitutes such as milk whey in combination with other ingredients such as soyflour. Functions of milk are many. It has a stabalizing effect on fermentation, preventing wild fermentation. It improves crust color because of the lactose sugar it contains. The lactose sugar is not fermentable by baker's yeast. It also improves texture, crumb color, flavor and taste, and keeping quality of the baked loaf. If non fat dry milk is used in bread it must be heated to a high enough temperature during the drying process to destroy bacteria which weakens the gluten in the dough. Milk dried by the vacuum drying process must be properly heat treated prior to being dried otherwise considerable difficulty can be expected during mixing and fermentation of the dough. Shortenings are available from many sources. Most any type of shortening can be used in bread production with satisfactory results. Functions of shortening. Shortening acts as a lubricant in the dough, making the dough more pliable, prevents stickeness, and reduces the amount of dusting flour necessary during the make-up process.. When shortening is used, the dough expands more easily and smoothly. In the baked product it makes the crust more tender, improves the keeping quality and produces a crumb that is soft and chewey. Because of the cutting effect on the bran in whole wheat flour, it is almost impossible to produce a loaf of whole wheat bread with acceptable volume without using shortening in the formula. Optional ingredients. To produce a variety of quality breads, optional ingredients are required. They result in uniformity of products and efficiency of operations, assist in increasing the tolerances of doughs due to production variables, and help to satisfy the demand for variety in the flavor and taste of breads. Mold inhibitors prevent bread from becoming molded. Mineral yeast food was developed to stabilize water by adding mineral salts, which are essential in dough fermentation and conditioning. Mineral salts condition soft water, and acid salts neutralize the alkalinity of alkaline water which is harmful to

yeast and gluten. Doughs made with mineral yeast foods are not sticky and are very soft. They go through machines with less trouble and will mold up free of air pockets. Following are some of the improved loaf characteristics resulting from the use of mineral yeast foods: Greater loaf volume and ovenspring, improved texture and crumb color, better crust color, and greater uniformity. Dough Strengthening Enzymes.Wheat Flour contain between 2 and 3 percent Pentosans which are the residual cell wall material that is left as a result of milling wheat into flour. When an enzyme named Xylanases is added to the dough, it breaks down the pentosans resulting in strengthening doughs and improving the baked product. Xylanase enzymes also strengthen multi-grain doughs and doughs for rolls and buns. This a very powerful enzyme therefore only 100 to 200 parts per million can be used to achieve the desired results. Malt cereal syrup is available with low diastatic activity, high diastatic activity, and non diastatic activity depending upon the amount of diastase enzymes they contain. Low diastatic malt is produced for use with flour which has a fair amount of diastatic enzymes. High diastatic malt is used with flours which have a relatively small amount of diastatic enzymes. Non diastatic malt would be used with flours having a relatively high amount of diastatic enzymes. The amount of enzymes contained in malt is controlled by the manufacturer by heating the malt to various temperatures during production. Malt syrups are concentrated products made by evaporating the water extract of malted barley and other cereal grains. In addition to containing diastatic enzymes, diastatic malt also contain enzymes which assist in adjusting proteolytic action of the dough to compensate for flours of different proteolytic content. High diastatic malts will also be high in proteolytic activity and vice versa. As mentioned in previous paragraphs, diastase enzymes convert some of the starch to dextrins and maltose sugar while protease enzymes condition the gluten in dough. In addition to enzyme functions, malted cereal syrup contain a high percentage of fermentable maltose sugar as well as soluble proteins and natural salts which serve as valuable yeast nutrients. Rye flavoring is a concentrated flavoring ingredient in powdered form. It gives rye bread an acetic taste as well as a spiced flavor. A preliminary sour dough is not required to enhance the flavor and aroma of rye bread. Poppy seeds are used as a topping for French breads and rolls. They produce a nutty flavor in the baked product. Just before the loaves or rolls are loaded in the oven, they are washed with a cooked cornstarch wash which is thin enough to brush on or spray on. Egg wash can also be used. The seeds are then sprinkled on. The wash keeps the seeds from falling off the loaf or rolls. Seame seeds are small oval-shaped seeds of the sesamum family. The seeds are pearly white in color and produce a rich, toasted nut flavor. They are, like poppy seeds, sprinkled on washed French breads and rolls. Staling of Bakery Products and Mold Infection There are three ways in which bakery products stale. They are Starch Retrogradation (Firming of the Crumb) and by getting infected by molds and rope. See below.

In simple terms, Staling of crumb (firming of crumb)-is the process the starch molecules go through when they shrink upon cooling. Starch molecule consists of a very long chain of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen that are stretched out when warm and feel soft. Upon cooling, the chain shrinks and thus become firm which is called staling. You have probably experienced that when a stale product is warmed, it becomes soft. The starch chain has stretched again. Upon cooling, it shrinks again and become firm. Anti-Staling Ingredients.. 1.Emuliifiers. For the past several years bakers used emulsifiers called bread softeners to produce bread that will remain soft for a longer period of time. It is added to the dough during mixing. Some of the more common ones are monoglycrides, calcium steroyl lactylate, and sodium steroyl lactylate. The softening action takes place after the bread is baked. Also, Potato bread will reist staling because potatoes act as anti-staling ingredients to some degree. Some anti-staling ingredients also perform as dough conditioners or dough strengtheners. 2.Enzymes. Enzyme manufacturers are hard at work on generic engineering and protein engineering producing enzymes to extend the shelf life of bread many fold. In a paper presented at the 1999 American Society of Baking's Annual Convention, it was stated that some of these enzymes are available now. However, since every baker wants to have one better, enzyme manufacturers will continue to work on developing better ones. It was also stated that there is a lag time of between 2 and 3 years between the time a specific enzyme is identified and actually having it available for the baker to use. Advantages of Using Enzymes instead of Chemicals. Since enzymes are produced from natural ingredients, they will find greater acceptance by the housewife than when chemicals are used. 3.Mold and Mold Inhibitors. Sanitation plays a very important role in preventing mold in bread. Mold spores do not survive baking temperatures. The interior of the loaf, when it comes out of the oven is about 210 to 212 degrees F. which will destroy any mold spores which may be present in the dough. Therefore, bread and other bakery products can only be contaminated after they leave the oven. Some of the more dangerous areas for mold contmination are storage rooms, and slicing machine blades which come in direct contact with the interior of the loaf where there is an abundant supply of food and moisture. Mold spores also thrive in dark places. You can extend the length of time that it takes bakery products to mold by several days by using Mold Inhibitors such as Calcium Propionate for yeast raised doughs and sodium propionate in chemically leavened products. Propionates are present in many foods, but in very small amounts. Swiss Cheese, however is an exception. For this reason, Swiss Cheese rarely molds, unless it is improperly developed. Propionates may be obtained by the oxidization of propyl alcohol, forming propionic acid. The propionic acid is in turn combined with other chemicals to form the well known Sodium and Calcium propionates sold under different Trades Names. Mold Inhibitors react as an alkaline in doughs, and since yeast doesn't like an alkaline condition, Mineral Yeast Foods containing monocalcium phosphate are added to the dough. Monocalcium Phosphate reacts as an acid in doughs therefore counteracting the alkaline which is

formed by the propionates. Also, vinegar can be used at the rate of about 1 pint per 100 pounds of flour. Inhibitors are called inhibitors, because not enough is used to kill the mold. They only retard the growth of molds. Bread will mold eventually if kept in a warm moist invironment. The amounts of Calcium Propionates to use in bread varies with the climate, season of the year, or type of product. Dark Breads require more than White Breads. For average climates, 2.5 to 3.5 ounces are used per 100 pounds of flour in White Breads and 4.0 to 5.0 ounces are used in Dark Breads. Types and Color of Molds. There are many different types of molds and they have different colors. Mold spores are practically everywhere, because they are very tiny and are carried in the air. They are so tiny that they can only be seen under a microscope. Mold Spores are like seeds that you plant in the garden. When they come in contact with the proper food, moisture and warmth, the spores produce mold plants which you can see with the naked eye. Rope. Rope is a bread disease caused by the bacteria, Bacillus mesentericus. This disease breaks down the cells of the bread and leaves a sticky, pasty mass. When the crumb is pressed together, and pulled apart, it will stretch into long, sticky, web-like strands. The product will have the odor of overripe cantalope. The rope bacteria are too small to see with the naked eye, but they can be seen with a microscope. The bacteria can be present in the ingredients, especially flour and yeast. Unlike mold, rope spores are not destroyed by baking temperatures. Calcium propionate, sodium diacetate or one pint of vinegar per 100 pounds of flour can be used in bread doughs to increase the shelf life of the product. If the bakery is contaminated, thorough cleaning with special chemicals will be necessary and/or the bakery may have to be steam cleaned. NOTE: SODIUM PROPIONATE IS USED IN CAKE BAKING (NOT CALCIUM PROPIONATE). To lower the Ph to 6.5 (Most effective Ph) in cakes when using Sodium Propionate is to use an acid ingredient and then you would have to do some experiments to determine how much to use. Some of the acid ingredients which you might use in the event you wanted to try to lower the Ph of your products are listed below. 1. Monocalcium phosphate., 2. Anhydrous monocalcium phosphate, has greater stability by being coated with potassium and aluminum phosphates. 3. Sodium aluminum phosphate. 4. Cream of tartar or potassium acid tartrate. Representative Ph ranges of various types of finished cakes (not their batters) follows: White layer cakes 7.0 to 7.5; Devil's food cake 8.0 to 9.0; Angel food cake 5.2 to 6.0; yellow layer cake 6.7 to 7.5 and chocolate cake 7.5 to 8.0.

One Text Book on Baking (Breadmaking Technology) by Wulf T. Doerry published by the American Institute of Baking recommends using a 5 percent solution of potassium sorbate to spray the products as they leave the oven. This method is quite effective against mold growth, since the preservative is concentrated on the serface of the product where recontamination with mold spores takes place. Sorbate Spray Applicators are available for spraying the potassium sorbate solution. One text book (Baking Science and Technology), Third Addition, Volume 1 by E. J. Pyler published by Sosland Publishing Company suggest using 0.03 to 0.125 percent of Sorbic Acid based on batter weight in cakes, pies. pie fillings,fruit cakes and icings. At that level it will not affect the taste and flavor of the finished product. The problem with sorbic acid is that it is not effective at high Ph (9.0 or higher) such as in devils food cake. Acknowledgments. Material on Mold and Mold Inhibitors was also derived from the following sources: 1. A Treatise on Baking by The Fleischman Division of Standard Brands, Inc. 2. Conversion Factors and Technical Data of the Industry by The Research Department, Pillsbury Mills, Inc.

On the left is wife Rhoda, in the center is daughter Yvonne in the center below is Great Grandson Donivan and on the right is the author Willie Prejean This completes part one - bread baking ingredients. Part two will be devoted to Bread Production Procedures followed by part three - Bread Formula Construction, then variety breads in part four, followed by sweet dough and Danish pastries in part five. A demonstration including photographs in part six and part seven.

PART ONE- (A) --Temperature and humidity including measuring & controling instruments
Questions or Comments THE PROPER MAINTENANCE AND REGULATION OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN THE PRODUCTION OF QUALITY BAKERY FOODS IS OF THE UTMOST IMPORTANCE IN REGARDS TO THE EFFICIENT AND SUCCESSFUL OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT OF A BAKERY. QUALITY INGREDIENTS AND THE HANDLING OF THE SAME THROUGHOUT THE VARIOUS STAGES OF PRODUCTION WILL NOT RESULT IN A QUALITY PRODUCT UNLESS THE DOUGH TEMPERATURE AND THE TEMPERATURE

AND HUMIDITY OF THE BAKERY ARE PROPERLY REGULATED. MODERN DAY BAKERIES UTILIZE SPECIAL AUTOMATIC AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT TO ACCOMPLISH THIS. IN VIEW OF THE IMPORTANT PART WHICH TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY PLAYS IN THE SUCCESSFUL OPERATION OF A BAKERY, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT EVERY BAKER UNDERSTAND IN A GENERAL WAY THE FOLLOWING POINTS: 1. What is meant by temperature and humidity. 2. How temperature and humidity are measured. 3. What effect does temperature and humidity have on the fermentation and conditioning of doughs. (This information is covered in Part Two, Bread Production Procedures). 4. The proper dough temperature to be maintained. How determined and calculated. (This information is covered in Part Two also). 5. The proper temperature and humidity to be maintained in the various parts of the bakery, and how this is controlled. The following paragraphs contain a discription of these points: A. TEMPERATURE AND HEAT. Temperature is considered the degree of hotness or coolness of any object. Scientist describe temperature as the intensity of heat. B. WAYS IN WHICH HEAT IS TRANSMITTED. 1. CONDUCTION. Upon holding a metal rod at one end, the molecules will vibrate and pass the effect on down the line so that the other end becomes hot also. If a copper wire is held in one hand and a glass rod held in the other of the same size and length, and they are both placed over a flame, the heat will pass along the copper wire long before it will pass along the glass rod. The result will be that the copper wire will have to be dropped long before the glass rod has a chance to even feel warm where it is being held. Usually good conductors of heat are good conductors of electricity and vice versa. Liquids and gasses are poorer conductors of heat than metals. Iron conducts heat 100 times better than water and water conducts heat 25 times better than air. 2. CONVECTION. In the case of water, convection is explained by the fact that when water is heated, it expands. This decreases its density and the warm water rises. The movement of the water sets up convection currents. A good example is cake batters such as marble cake. The convection currents cause swirls of batter to rise from either side and go downward in the center causing a certain design of the two types of batter being used, usually yellow cake batter and chocolate came batter. 3. RADIATION. Radiation is heat sent out in straight lines. Most of the heat in ovens is radiated heat. Light objects reflect heat and dark objects absorb heat. In turn, dark objects radiate more heat than light objects. Iron will heat or bake faster when dark than when shiny. Following are examples which will illustrate this principle:

3a. Take two pieces of sheet metal about 10 inches wide and 18 inches long. 3b. Paint one of the pieces BLACK and one WHITE. 3C. Bend about 6 inches of each piece so that the short end will face horizontal so when it is placed on a table, the vertical end will stand up straight. 3d. Melt the ends of two candles and cause one candle to stick to the DARK PIECE OF METAL and the other candle to stick to the WHITE PIECE OF METAL. 3e. Place the two pieces of metal about 4 inches apart with the candles facing outwards. 3f. Place a BUNSEN BURNER BETWEEN THE TWO PIECES OF METAL MAKING SURE THAT THERE IS EQUAL DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO. LIGHT THE BUNSEN BURNER. 3g. Because the dark metal will absorb heat faster than the white metal, the candle will fall off long before the one on the while metal does. 3h. Another example is when baking pastries containing dark and light colored fillings. If one coffee cake is filled with a dark colored filling and one is filled with a light colored filling, and the two are placed on the same baking pan, the coffee cake containing the dark filling will bake sooner than the one with the light colored filling and the crust will be darker. 3i The same holds true if for example apple pies and cherry pies are being baked at the same time. The cherry pie will bake faster and to a darker degree than will the apple pie. 3j. Bakers have also observed that the old Sweedish baking pans which were dull black in color, were more efficient than our modern tin-plated pans. A bright new tinplated pan will not bake bread as well as the same pan after it has been properly burned- in. Burning -in produces a coating of tin oxide which is dark, and therefore it is capable of absorbing more of the radiated heat from the oven. In turn, the radiated heat is transferred to the bread being baked. The burning-in is accomplished as follows: 3k.. The new shiny pan is placed in an oven having a temperature of 375 degrees F. to 425 degrees F. for a period of several hours until the surface starts to acquire a bluish tinge. It is recommended that the oven doors be left open to permit free circulation of air throughout the baking chamber. 3l. Caution must be taken not to place the baking pans in oven having a temperature above 425 degrees F. , because tin has a melting point of approximately 439 degrees F. If the tin is allowed to melt, it will peel away from the steel plate, leaving the steel exposed so that it may rust. 3n. While the pans are still warm, grease them lightly with a smooth flowing shortening. The melted fat fills in the tiny pores in the metal which have been opened

during the heating process. When the metal cools, the pores are closed, entrapping a small amount of shortening rendering the pan ready for the baking process. Note: If the pans are to be glazed, it will not be necessary to grease the pans. Usually pans are sent to a company which specializes in the glazing of pans. The glaze will last for quite some time, and when the bread starts to stick to the pans, the glazing process must be repeated. C. MEASUREMENT OF HEAT. 1. The British Thermal Unit (BTU). In measuring the amount of heat used in accordance with the British System, a unit termed a British Thermal Unit or B.T.U. is employed. This is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree F. Thus, the specific heat of water is defined as the amount of heat necessary to raise it's temperature 1 degrees F. The specific heat of all other subances that you use every day have specific heats lower than water. Therefore, 1 BTU will raise one pound of any other common substance more degrees F. than it will raise 1 pound of water. EXmples: BTU Will Raise one one one one one one one one 1 Pound of. Degrees F.. Water Cake batter Flour Aluminum Copper Silver Lead 1 2 2-1/2 5 10 20 30 Bread Dough 1-1/2

2. Heat of evaporation of water. When a container of water is placed on a burner, the water gets hotter and hotter until it boils. Then no matter how much heat is applied to the container, if there is a free outlet for the steam to escape, the temperature remains constant at 212 degrees F. at sea level. The heat energy which seems to be absorbed in the process of boiling the water with out change in temperarure is called the HEAT OF VAPORATION or THE LATENT HEAT OF STEAM. The HEAT OF VAPORATION is the energy needed to pull the molecules of water from one another and set them free as steam. Experiments have shown that the HEAT Of VAPORATION of water is about 972 BTU'S. In other words, it takes 972 BTU'S to of heat to change 1 pound of water at 212 Degrees F. into steam at 212 degrees F. It takes more than five times as much heat to change 1 pound of water into steam as it does to change 1 pound of water from the freezing point 32 degrees F., to the boiling point of 212 degrees F. 3. Boiling point of water at High Altitudes. Degrees F. 210 Altitude in Feet. Location.. 1000 Phoenix

208 206 204 201.5 199 186

1,900 2,900 4,100 5,300 7,000 14,000

Spokane/TD> Boise, Idaho Helena, Mont. Denver, Col Santa Fe, N.M. Pikes Peak

3a. Water will boil at lower temperature under vacuum. 3b. Water will also boil at higher temperature under pressure. 4. Baking Cakes At High Altitudes As we go higher in altitude, the pressure of the atmosphere becomes less, therefore less leavening action is needed. Up to 2,000 feet no adjustment is needed. After 2,000 feet up to 15 percent less baking powder is needed, and progressively less is needed as we go higher. Past 5,000 feet reduce baking powder 45 percent. Past 6,500 feet reduce baking powder 60 percent and increase water by 20 percent. Water is increased because water boils at a lower temperature and there is an increase in evaporation. (At Pikes peak, a pressure cooker is necessary to cook beans and potatoes, because water boils at 186 degree F rather than 212 Degrees F, at sea level so it doesn't get hot enough to cook them). Additional Adjustments: 1. Beginning at 2,500 feet add 2-1/2 percent more eggs or egg whites. Gradually increase eggs until at 7,500 feet 15 percent more eggs are needed. 2. Over 4,500 feet grease baking pans slightly heavier, and increase oven temperature approximately 25 degrees F. 3. Less beating of eggs and egg whites are nmeeded for Angel Food Cakes and Sponge Cakes. . D. TEMPERATURE.- FAHRENHEIT and CENTIGRADE SCALES. The measurement of temperature is expressed in terms of degrees. 1. According to the Farenheit System, 32 degrees F. indicates the temperature at which ice melts, and 212 degrees F. is the temperature at which water boils under standard conditions (at sea level). 2. According to the Centigrade Scale, the freezing point of water is 0 degrees C, and the boiling point 100 degrees under the same conditions. E. MEANS OF MEASURING TEMPERATURE. Necessity of the use of Temperature Measuring Instruments. 1. THERMOMETERS. Ordinary glass tube thermometers may be used for determining the temperature of the ingredients. However, a standard Dough Thermometer with a long metal base should be available for use in checking the dough temperature. Farenheit thermometers ordinarily are used in the bakery, but if Centigrade readings must be used, the Fahrenheit readings can be converted easily to Centigrade degrees.

1a. The rule for converting Fahrenheit degrees to Centigrade degrees is: Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit reading. Then multiply the answer by 5/9. This will give the Centigrade degree. 1b. Example: Suppose it is desired to express 77 degrees F. in terms of degrees Centigrade, then 77 minus 32 equals 45. 45 times 5/9 equals 25 Degrees Centigrade.

THE DOUGH THERMOMETER IS USED TO CHECK THE TEMPERATURE OF THE DOUGH IMMEDIATELY AFTER IT HAS BEN DISCHARGED FROM THE MIXER AFTER COMPLETION OF MIXING. 2. MERCURY THERMOMETER. 2a. The ordinary mercury thermometer is perhaps the best known instrument for measuring temperature. The operation of a mercury thermometer is based on the fact that mercury or quicksilver expands when heated and contracts when cooled to a much greater extent than glass. The amount of this expansion or contraction corresponds to the change in temperature and therefore may be used to indicate the existing temperature at any time. 2b. A simple mercury thermometer consists of a heavy glass tube of very narrow bore and has a bulb at one end containing mercury. The other end of the tube is sealed tightly. The thermometer tube is so graduated or marked that it will indicate correctly

the prevailing temperature to which the thermometer is exposed. Mercury thermometers can be constructed covering ranges of temperatures between 38 degrees below zero Fahrenheit and about 900 degrees above zero Fahrenheit. 3. DIAL THERMOMETERS. The basic principle upon which this type of instrument operates is similar to that described for the mercury thermometer. The bulb tubings are filled with mercury gas. The bulb is placed at the point where temperature is to be determined. A rise in temperature at the location of the bulb increases the internal pressure which is transmitted through the tubing. The mechanism is so arranged that this increase in internal pressure causes a hand to move across a graduated dial. The extent of this movement naturally depends on the temperature at the location of the bulb. Therefore the temperature is indicated on the dial accurately and immediately. 4. ELECTRIC PYROMETER. This instrument is sometimes called an electric thermometer, but is different from either the mercury thermometer or the metallic expansion thermometer in it's mode of operation. The electric pyrometer is generally used for high temperature measurements such as that of ovens. 5. RECORDING TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTS. In order to secure a permanent record of any particular location, ( fermentation room, proof box, or oven) recording devices have been constructed in connection with various types of temperatureindicating instruments. These recording attachments usually consist of a chart which is gradually moved by clockwork and a pen point which is attached to the temperature indicating needle. This pen point rests on the moving chart and in this way marks down the temperature in the form of a line. Therefore at the end of the day there will be a complete record on the chart of the temperature at all times during the day. Such recording devices are used to good advantage in modern bakeries, and are generally termed Recording Thermometers. 6. TEMPERATURE REGULATING DEVICES. 6a. In bakeries equipped with air conditioning equipment where air is circulated through the dough fermentation room, make-up room or proof box at the desired temperature and humidity, the problem of maintaining proper atmospheric conditions is considerably simplified. Temperature regulating devices are available for doing this automatically. Such regulators are often spoken of as thermonstats. 6b. ELECTRIC CONTACT TEMPERATURE CONTROL. The function of this instrument is to control the temperature of gas or electric baking ovens, or doughnut machines, by opening or closing motor operated valves, or other electrical devices. It can be set for any desired temperature and the control point is quickly and easily changed. The bulb is placed at the point where the temperature is to be controlled and the case containing the indicated dial may be located at any convenient point. The temperature changes at the bulb are transmitted by pressure through the tubing to the mechanism which starts or stops the motor or other controlled device. At the same time the instrument indicates the actual temperature at the location of the bulb. 6c. RECORDING TEMPERATURE REGULATOR. This instrument not only regulates the temperature, but records on a chart, the temperature that has been maintained. The temperature may be quickly changed by inserting a turning key

which moves a pointer on the chart to any degree of temperature desired. Such an instrument is accurate and sensitive. It operates by means of compressed air, opening or closing valves in order to regulate the temperature. It may be used in connection with proof boxes to control the temperature or as a double duty system to control both the wet and dry bulb temperatures, thus regulating the relative humidity, and at the soame time producing a record of these temperatures on one chart. F. HUMIDITY. Roughly speaking, humidity means the wetness of the atmosphere, or in other words, the amount of moisture or water vapor contained in air. It is a well known fact that on some days the air is dryer or less humid than on other days. 1. DEFINITION OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY. Relative humidity means the relative amount of moisture contained in air at a definite temperature in comparision with the amount of water vapor which air at that temperature is capable of holding. Relative humidity is expressed in terms of percentage. All air narurally available under ordinary conditions contain some moisture, but let us suppose, for the sake of example, that we did have air at a certain temperature which contained no moisture. This air would have a relative humidity of 0 percent. If however, this air at the same temperature were saturated with all the water vapor it could hold, then it would have a relative humidity of 100 percent. If this were to contain 70 percent of the maximum amount of all the moisture it could possibly hold at this temperature, it would have a relative humidity of 70 percent. The higher temperature the greater the amount of water vapor which can be held by the air. Therefore, hot air can hold much more moisture than cooler air, and in the summer time, the air is often more humid than in the winter time. If air with fairly high humidity were chilled, it would soon have a relative humudity of 100 percent and then drops of water would begin to separate out in the form of dew. 2. MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY. The maintenance and control of humidity in all parts of the bakery, dough fermentation room, proof box, oven etc. is of the utmost importance in the efficient production of quality bakery foods. The proper humidity in different parts of the bakery may be secured by the use of automatic air conditioning equipment as explained earlier. 3. MEANS OF MEASURING RELATIVE HUMIDITY. The percentage of relative humidity in the various parts of the bakery is measured by an instrument known as a hygrometer. There are several different types of such instruments which can be used. 3a. WET AND DRY BULB THERMOMETER. The principle on which the wet and dry bulb thermometer operates so as to indicate the relative humidity of the atmosphere is based on the fact that when water or any liquid evaporates it has a cooling effect, and that the faster this evaporation, the greater the cooling effect. This point may be demonstrated by wetting the hand with water and then fanning the moistened surface so that the water will evaporate or dry quickly. Everyone is familar with the cooling sensation produced. The wet and dry bulb thermometer arrangement merely consists of two thermometers identically alike, mounted close together on a frame. The mercury bulb of one of these thermometers is left exposed to the air. This is called the dry bulb thermometer. The mercury bulb of the other thermometer is tightly covered with a wick or cloth, the other end of which extend into a small vessel or tube of water. The water soaks up through the wick and the mercury bulb is

surrounded by a thin layer of water and is therefore always wet. This is called the wet bulb thermometer. Due to the cooling effect of the evaporation of the water, the wet bulb will ordinarily read lower than the dry bulb thermometer. The difference in the readings of these two thermometers at any one time depends upon the rate of the evaporation of the water surrounding the mercury bulb of the wet bulb thermometer. Since water evaporates more slowly in humid air than it does in drier air, it can be easily seen that there will be less evaporation of the water in the wick where the relative humidity is high than when it is low. Consequently, the lower the relative humidity the greater will be the difference between the readings of the wet and dry bulb thermometers, and vice versa. If, for instance, the air is saturated with moisture, or in other words, if the relative humidity is 100 percent, then there would be no difference at all between the readings of the two thermometers. In using the wet and dry bulb thermometer arrangement it is necessary that an adequate supply of clean distilled water be kept in the resorvoir at all times so that the wick will always be thoroughly wet. Frequent replacement of wicks by new ones is important. The entire wick must also be kept clean and free from dirt or anything which would interfere with the free seepage of water through it. It is also a good idea to fan the wet bulb thermometer slightly before making the actual readings. The actual difference in temperatures noted is an indication of the percentage or degree of relative humidity of the atmosphere at the time and place that the readings are made. By referring to a chart which may be secured from the U. S. Weather Bureau, the actual relative humidity can be secured. Such charts are usually supplied with the wet and dry bulb thermometers when purchased along with instructions on how to read the chart.

THE WET AND DRY BULB THERMOMETER IS USED TO REGISTER THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WET BULB AND THE DRY BULB THERMOMETER OF THE FERMENTATION ROOM AND OF THE PROOFING CABINET SO THAT THE PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY CAN BE DETERMINED BY REFEERRING TO THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY TABLE SHOWN BELOW.

SEE STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR READING THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY TABLE TO DETERMINE PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF THE FERMENTATION ROOM AND OF THE PROOFING CABINET. 3b. MAKING THE READINGS. At ordinary barometric pressure the relative humidity chart will give the baker the necessary data covering the range of relative humidities ordinarily encountered in the different sections of the bakery. In using such a chart proceed as follows: 3b1. Note the room temperature by reading the dry bulb thermometer. 3b2. At the same time read the wet bulb thermometer. 3b3. Then refer to the Relative Humidity Table, locating the reading in the left-hand vertical column which corresponds to the existing room temperature. 3b4. Then follow this line over horizontally until it meets the column headed by the number of degrees representing the depression on the wet bulb thermometer (or in other words the difference between the dry bulb and wet bulb thermometers). The number thus located represents the existing percentage of relative humidity. Example: Suppose the reading of the dry bulb thermometer is 80 degrees F. and the corresponding reading of the wet bulb thermometer is 72 degrees F. The difference between these readings is 8 degrees. Therefore the existing relative humidity is 68 percent. 3c. HUMIDITIGUIDE This instrument is a special type of wet and dry bulb thermometer, and the principle of its operation is basically the same as the the one discussed above. However, the humiditiguide is equipped with a semi-automatic scale located between the individual wet and dry bulb thermometers. This scale can be adjusted by a knob at the top, so as to determine the existing relative hunidity as indicated by the difference in temperature of the two thermometers. This instrument indicates relative humidity with unusual accuracy, but at the same time is small and easy to use, and does not require referance to a separate Relative Humidity Table as is the case with the ordinary wet and dry bulb thermometer. The wet bulb, which is kept moist by a wick running into a water container, should be fanned before taking a reading, as with the ordinary wet and dry bulb thermometer.

3d. HYGRODEIK. The hygrodeik is a special form of wet and dry thermometer which is so arranged that reference to the relative humidity tables is not necessary. The hygrodeik is constructed with a certain chart placed between the two thermometers. This chart is so drawn that curved lines start from all points on each thermometer. Whenever it is necessary to ascertain the percentage of relative humidity, the small sliding pointer is moved to the scale to the left and set at the temperature on the scale corresponding to the reading of the wet bulb thermometer. The index arm of the instrument is then swung to the right until the line meets the curved line originating to the degree on the right hand scale corresponding to the reading of the dry bulb thermometer. When the sliding pointer is directly over the intersection of these two curved lines, the prevailing relative humidity will be shown by the location of the index arm over the scale at the bottom of the instrument. Therefore the percentage of relative humidity may be read directly. 3e. RECORDING HYGRODEIK (Wet and dry bulb type). A familiar form of recording hygrometer is an instrument consisting of a combination of wet bulb thermometer and a dry bulb thermometer. This instrument is constructed so that the respective temperatures registered by each of these instruments will be recorded in the form of lines drawn by pen points on a revolving chart which constitutes the face of the instrument. Therefore, there will be a continuous record of the wet and dry bulb thermometer readings at all times. From these two readings as recorded on the chart, the percentage of relative humidity can be readily secured for any given time. In this way, the baker will have a permanent record of existing relative humidity at the location of the recording hygrometer. THIS COMPLETES THE INFORMATION ON TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: MATERIAL ON TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IS IN PART DERIVED FROM THE FOLLOWING SOURCES: 1. A Treatise on Baking, Standard Brands, Inc. 2. Conversion Factors of the Industry, Research Department, Pillsbury Mills, Inc. 3. Notes taken during classes at the American Institute of Baking, and at the Oklahoma Tech School of Baking.American Institute of Baking

PART TWO- (A) --principles of bread production Including the Latest Developments in Dough Processing Procedures and Dough Processing Equipment
Questions or Comments

INTRODUCTION Bread production operations must be carefully planned, for once ingredient mixing has begun, the process cannot be interrupted without serious damage to the baked product. Dough formulas and dough schedules are determined in advance and followed as closely as possible. In preparation of the production schedule, the previous day's schedule is used as a guide. Formulas must be constructed so that only enough dough is mixed to fill the oven to capacity. There are seven major steps involved in the production of bread using the conventional method of bread production. The continuous mixing method will be discussed briefly. NOTE: PART THREE which will follow will discuss and demonstrate bread formula construction and the exact amount of each ingredient to use in a dough batch. Large scale production of bread ( using mechanical equipment ) is covered in PART TWELVE- BREAD BAKING DEMONSTRATIONS. Bakery-Net Bakery-Net has a list of Bakery Equipment Manufacturers and Baking Ingredient Suppliers. Variety breads is covered in PART FOUR, Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries is covered in PART FIVE, Demonstrations on make-up of Sweet Rolls is in PART SIX, Demonstration on make-up of Danish Pastries is in PART SEVEN, FRENCH PASTRIES is covered in PART EIGHT, CAKES are covered in PART TEN, and DINNER ROLLS including demonstration of make-up are covered in PART ELEVEN. PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS: STEP 1. The first step in preparation for mixing is assembling and weighing the ingredients. Some ingredients require special preparation. The yeast, whether compressed or dry must be be suspended in water in according to manufacturer's instructions. NOTE: NEVER SUSPEND DRY YEAST IN COLD WATER. If you do, reducing agents contained in the yeast will be released into the dough which will weaken the gluten. Some, but not all bakers put Compressed Yeast directly into the dough without suspending it in water, especially when using some of the new types of yeast. The temperature of the water is important in controllig dough temperature. If mechanical refrigeration equipment is not available to chill the ingredient water, ice may be required. Most bakeries are equipped with mixing machines that circulate chilled water or refrigants through coils between the walls of the mixing bowl. In that case ice would not be required. However, if ice is required, the procedure for determining how much ice to use will be demonstrated following the demonstration on how to determine the required water temperature to get the dough out of the mixer at the proper temperature. Following are the procedures used to determine the required water temperature: To control the dough temperature during mixing, the following factors must be known and applied:

A. Desired dough temperature at completion of mixing. B. In this example,desired dough temperature is 80 degrees F. C. Available water temperature. D. Pounds of water in the formula. E. Number of BTU's of heat that one pound of ice removes from it's surrounding area when it melts from a solid to a liquid ( 144 BTU's ) F. Temperature of mixing room. G. Temperature of flour. H. FRICTION FACTOR. This is the amount of heat that is created during the mixing process. At the end of this lesson, the procedure for computing the Friction Factor of a mixing machine will be demonstrated. Assuming the following conditions exist, calculate the required water temperature, pounds of ice to use when required, and pounds of water to be subtracted from the formula, depending upon how many pounds of ice will be required. A. Mixing room temperature= 85 degrees F. B. Flour temperature= 82 degrees F. C. Friction Factor= 30 degrees F. for this example. Temperature of available water= 70 degrees F. PROCEED AS FOLLOWS A. Add 85 plus 82 plus 30 which equals 197. B. Multiply desired dough temperature which is 80 times 3 = 240 . C. Subtract 197 from 240 which equals 43 degrees which is the temperature that the water needs to be for the dough to come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. To determine how much ice is required when the water is warmer than the required 43 degrees F. proceed as follows: A. Subtract 43 degrees which is the desired water temperature from 70 degrees which is the temperature of the water available. The answer is 27 degrees which is the number of BTU's of heat that must be removed from each pound of water in the formula. NOTE: ONE OUUND OF ICE WILL REMOVE 144 BTU"s OF HEAT FROM ONE POUND OF WATER. B. Multiply 27 degrees times 379.7

(the total number of pounds of water in the formula). The answer is10,251.9 (the total number of BTU's to remove from the water). C. Divide 10,251.9, the total number of BTU's to remove by 144, the number of BTU's that one pound of ice removes. The answer is 71.2 pounds of ice to use. D. Subtract 71.2 pounds of ice from the number of pounds of water called for in the formula. Therefore, 308.5 pounds of water plus 71.2 pounds of ice equals 379.7 pounds of liquid called for in the formula. E. Therefore, in this situation, the dough will come out of the mexer at 80 degrees F. COMPUTATION OF FRICTION FACTOR. NOTE: THE FACTOR VARIES WITH DIFFERENT MIXING MACHINES, AND MIXING TIMES. THE FASTER THE MIXING MACHINE OPERATES, AND THE LONGER THE MIXING TIMES THE GREATER WILL BE THE FRICTION FACTOR. THEREFORE, THE FRICTION FACTOR WILL NEED TO BE DETERMINED WHEN A DIFFERENT MACHINE OR DIFFERENT MIXING TIME IS USED. TO DETERMINE THE FRICTION FACTOR FOR A PARTICULAR MACHINE AND MIXING TIME, A TEST DOUGH MUST BE RUN. ASSUMING THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS EXIST PROCEED AS FOLLOWS: A. Room temperature is 85 degrees F. B. Flour temperature is 82 degrees F. C. Temperature of water used was 43 degrees F. D. The total of the 3 factors above is 210. Note: In this example, the bakery is equipped with a water chilling machine, so no ice will be required. We will assume that the dough came out of the machine at 80 degrees F. Proceed as follows: E. Subtract 210 from 240. The answer is 30 which is the friction factor that must be used when this particular machine and particular mixing time is used. MIXING THE DOUGH.-NOTE: ALL PRODUCTION PRECEDURES DISCUSSED IN THIS PART ARE DEMONSTRATED IN THE PART TITLED "BREAD BAKING DEMONSTRATIONS" STEP 2. The purpose of mixing the dough is to distribute the yeast cells throughout the dough, distribute food for the yeast, and to form and develop the gluten. Gluten is formed when the two proteins of the flour, gliadin and glutenen come in contact with water. The time required to develop the gluten depends on the strength of the flour, and the speed of the machine. Generally speaking, the

stronger the flour proteins the longer it takes to develope the gluten and the faster the machine, the shorter the mixing time. An experienced baker can easily determine when the gluten has been fully developed by taking a small piece of dough out of the mixer and stretching the dough between the fingers. NOTE: THIS IS DEMONSTRATED IN PART TWELVE TITLED "BREAD BAKING DEMONSTRATIONS". A properly developed dough will not be sticky and the dough will stretch paper thin and becomes almost transparent to where one can almost see through it. (See Demonstration Below). Mixatron.Different types of flour differ greatly in their mixing requirements. Mixatrons which were developed several years ago are still useful in asisting the mixer operator in determining when the dough has been mixed to its optimum gluten development.

Mixer operator checking to determine when the gluten has been fully developed during mixing.

MIXING METHODS STEP 2a. In small and medium size bakeries, the two methods used to mix doughs are the Straight Dough Method and the Sponge and Dough Method. Most of the large commercial wholesale bakeries use the Continuous Mixing Method which will be discussed in a later paragraph. STEP 2b. STRAIGHT DOUGH METHOD. In the straight dough method of mixing all dough ingredients are mixed at one time, and prepared fpr a single fermentation process. Generally, the fermentation time for the straight doughs will vary from 2-1/2 hours to 3 hours. These doughs are also punched after about 80 percent of the fermentation time has elapsed and given an additional 20 percent fermentation before make-up. This is covered in more detail in a later paragraph. Doughs produced by this method results in breads with course grain and texture and the crumb is not as soft as that produced by other methods. The baked loaf will not have as much volume as one made with the Sponge and Dough Method. The Straight Dough Method is demonstrated in PART TWELVE titled "BREAD BAKING DEMONSTRATIONS". STEP 2c. SPONGE AND DOUGH METHOD. In the Sponge and Dough Method, there are two mixing periods and two fermentation periods. Part of the formula ingredients are mixed and allowed to ferment for 4 to 6 hours. How to determine the length of the fermentation of sponges is covered in a later paragraph. This is called the sponge. After the fermentation process is completed, the second part is called the Dough. Basically, the fermented sponge is thrown back into the mixer and the ingredients for the second part are added. The fermented sponge and all the second ingredients are mixed together to form the dough. After the gluten has been fully developed, the dough is dumped into a stainless steel dough trough and given a second fermentation time. As compared to the sponge, the fermentation time of the dough is very short (15 to 20 minutes). Dough Transfer Systems. There are many methods used to transfer doughs from one point to another. Briefly they are: 1. Cutting the dough in large pieces by hand and transfering it from the dough trough to the mixing machine or to the divider.. 2. By Locating the mixer on the second floor, the dough is dumped from the dough trough through a hole in the floor into the divider hopper. 3. Dough Trough Hoists have been designed to lift dough troughs filled with fermented sponges to be returned to the mixer to be mixed into doughs. They are also designed to lift remixed doughs to be dumped into the divider hopper. 4. Other methods available are, Conveyor Transfer Systems, Dough Pumps, and Rotary Dough Feeders or Chunkers. Some doughs such as Frozen Doughs, Many Bread Doughs and Stiff Doughs are not suitable to be transferred by the Dough Pump. One reason why it is not suitable for some types of doughs is because it creates heat during the transfer process.

CONTINUOUS MIXING METHOD The Continuous Mixing Method is very popular among large commercial bakeries. The bread produced by this method has very fine tight grain similar to the grain of cake. The Continuous Bread Making System uses the following basic elements: A liquid ferment, brew or liquid sponge is prepared and allowed to ferment in stainless steel tanks under controlled temperature conditions for several hours. The fermented mixtures are cooled by the use of refrigerated coils between the walls of the tanks until ready to be used. This process eliminates setting individual sponges and doughs, and the need for dough troughs and large fermentation rooms. A method of bringing together continuosly all the ingredients in the right proportion for the dough. After going through the developer, what happens next varies with different bakeries. Some bakeries run the dough through conventional make-up equipment, rather than extruding the dough directly into the pan as was done a few years ago, because it is claimed that a better quality loaf results. FERMENTATION EXPLAINED STEP 3. Fermentation starts immediately after the yeast is put into the mixture. However, the fermentation period is considered to begin when the sponge or dough is dumped out of the mixer into the dough trough and rolled into the fermentation room which is maintained at a temperature of 80 degrees F. and 75 percent relative humidity. The chemical changes that occur continues until the yeast is killed by the heat of the oven. This is when the internal temperature reaches about 140 degrees F. The fermentation period is considered to end when the dough goes to the divider to be divided into individual loaf pieces (loaves). STEP 3a. Leavening the dough is one of the essential things that take place during fermentation. Carbon dioxide gas is produced and held by the gluten network. This causes the whole dough mass to expand which helps to condition the gluten as was mentioned previously. STEP 3b. Alcoholic fermentation is the most desirable type of fermentation. To insure that this type of fermentation predominates, the dough should come out of the mixer between 78 degrees F. and 82 degrees F. and kept in an 80 degree F. fermentation room with 75 percent relative humidity. NOTE: The instrument used to determine percent relative humidity is called a Wet and Dry Bulb Thermometer and a Relative Humidity Table can be found in PART 1ATEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY. Due to chemical changes that take place during fermentation , the sponge or dough will increase to about 85 degrees F. and 90 degrees F. which is still in the range of alcoholic fermentation. In the alcoholic range, a small amount of acetic acid and lactic is produced which is beneficial. However, at higher temperatures a lot more of these acids are produced along with butyric acid which is very undesirable. This results in a poor quality product having a strong undesirable taste and flavor. The crust will have a pale straw color, the loaf will have poor symmetry of form and a very

open grain. The crumb will have a yellowish color rather than a bright white color. STEP 3c. Fermentatiopn of Straight Doughs. Because fermentation time before the punch varies, doughs must be tested at different intervals. The time to punch is determined by inserting the hand as far as the wrist gently into the dough and observing the dough closely when the hand is withdrawn. When the proper fermentation time has been reached, the dough will neither collapse nor spring back, but will sink slightly around the depression. NOTE: This is demonstrated in PART TWELVE titled "BREAD BAKING DEMONSTRATIONS". STEP 3d. Punching the dough. When the proper time for punching has arrived, use both hands and punch down through the center from one end of the dough trough to the other. Then with both hands, grasp one side of the dough and pull on top. Repeat the operation, folding the oposite side of the dough. Punching equalizes the temperature of the dough, the gluten has been relaxed after it's constant tension during the period of expansion. This helps to strengthen and further develop the gluten. This is also demonstrated in PART TWELVE titled "Bread Baking Demonstrations:. STEP 3e. Fermentation time after the punch. Time after punch can be determined accurately by using fermentation ratios. For example, if a dough ferments for 2 hours before the punch and a generally used 80/20 fermentation ratio is used, the time after the punch can be determined by dividing 120 minutes by 80 perecent, (120/80) equals 150 minutes which represents 100 percent of the time. Subtract 120 minutes which equals 80 percent of the time from150 minutes which represents 100 percent of the fermentation time (150-120=30 minutes (fermentation time remaining after the punch). NOTE: AS YOU KNOW WHEN WORKING WITH PERCENTAGES, THE DECIMAL MUST BE MOVED TWO PLACES TO THE LEFT. Note: Following are two Fermentation Ratio Diagrams, one for an 80/20 Fermentation Ratio and one for a 70/30 Fermentation Ratio. One of the diagrams, the 80/20 diagram gives you a picture of the above calculations. The other diagram gives you a picture of the 70/30 Fermentation Ratio if it was used. Different Fermentation Ratios may need to be used depending on the strength of the flour or for example if Mineral Yeast Food or other ingredients that has an effect on the gluten are used in the formula. The 80/20 Fermentation Ratio would be used for an average flour. If a stronger flour is used, then the 70/30 Fermentation Ratio may produce better results.

One Fermentation Ratio Diagram showing the 80/20 Fermentation Ratio and the other diagram shows the 70/30 Fermentation Ratio. STEP 3f. Fermentation of the sponge. Fermentation time for sponges vary from 4 to 6 hours depending upon the strength of the proteins of the flour, temperature of the sponge, and the amount of yeast used. Basically the same procedure is used to determine fermentation time of the sponge as for straight doughs, with the exception that the sponge is not punched, but observation is made to determine when the sponge begins to recede slightly. This is normally known as the breaking point of the sponge. Another method used by some bakers is to observe when the sponge become wavy on top. When this occurs, this represents 80 percent of the total fermentation time. The remaining 20 percent fermentation time is calculated the same way as was used to determine time after the punch for straight doughs. MAKE-UP CONSISTS OF DIVIDING, ROUNDING, INTERMEDIATE PROOFING, MOLDING AND PANNING. NOTE: All of the steps are demonstrated in PART TWELVE titled 'BREAD BAKING DEMONSTRATIONS. NOTE: Major improvements have been made in recent years on Make-Up Equipment due to the development of Dough Conditioners , Oxidation Agents and Enzymes. The baker is able to produce more extensible doughs by fully

developing them in the mixer. Dough Dividers have been developed which punishes the dough a great deal less than those used in the past. Also, Belt Rounders are capable of rounding and sealing the dough without the use of dusting flour. The most signifiant new development is in Intermediate Proofing where the proofing time has been reduced to three minutes or less due to development of new ingredients and Extrusion Dividers. The information below explains Make-Up Procedures used prior to the new development and which are still being used by many bakeries . STEP 4a. Dividing and scaling consists of cutting the dough (by hand or machinery) into loaf size pieces and weighing the pieces to insure uniformity. Because of the average loss of about 12 percent during make-up, proofing, baking and cooling, this loss must be taken into account. To produce a loaf of bread weighing 1 pound (16 ouncea) the dough piece must be scaled about 18 ounces. STEP4a(1). Rounding is the process of rounding the scaled pieces of dough into a round ball with smooth unbroken skin over it's entire surface. The unbroken skin will retain the gas generated within the dough piece during the intermediate proofing period. STEP4a(2). Intermediate proofing is the process of giving the rounded dough pieces a short rest period (about 12 to 15 minutes) to recover from the effects of the dividing and rounding machine. The rest period allows the dough to relax after undergoing a great deal of punishment while being forced under a lot of pressure while being extruded from the divider pockets. Without the rest period the dough would be tight and rubbery and would not go through the molder sheeting rollers without tearing. The intermediate proofing machine has small pockets or baskets covered with canvas traveling within an enclosed draft free area. STEP 4a(3). MOLDING. Upon completion of the intermediate proofing period, the dough pieces are molded into the shape desired. In the molder the dough passes through three distinct stages. Flattening is done in the head rollers of the molder. Second, the sheeting rollers sheet the dough into a flat piece of dough and the curling rollers and thread rollers twirl each piece of sheeted dough and give it a cylindrical shape. Next, the drum or pressure plate rolls and seals the loaf into it's final form. Conventional molders curl the dough in the same direction that it was sheeted. It is difficult to produce bread with a close uniform grain with this type of molder. For this reason some bakers twist two pieces of dough together or use cross grain molders. Cross grain molders curl the dough in the opposite direction from which it was sheeted. That is, the dough is caused to turn right or left after it has been sheeted and is then curled. This is called cross grain molding. Cross grain molding and twisting two pieces of dough together prior to putting them into the baking pan both produces loaves with a close smooth grain and texture. STEP 4a(5). Pan proofing is the process of rolling the panned and racked molded dough pieces quickly into the dough proofing cabinet which is well insulated and maintained at a temperature of 95 degrees F. to 98 degrees F. and a relative

humidity of 85 percent. NOTE: In recent years, bakers have increased the temperature of proof boxes to110-120 degrees F. with a relative humidity of 90 percent. Under these conditions the loaves are allowed to proof for about 45 to 60 minutes. At the end of the proofing period, they double in size. STEP 5. Baking the bread. note: This is demonstrated in PART TWELVE titled "BREAD BAKING DEMONSTRATIONS At the end of the pan proofing period, the loaves are loaded quickly, but carefully into the oven for baking. In large commercial bakeries the panned loaves are carried automatically on conveyor belts and loaded automatically into the oven. Oven temperatures vary from about 425 degrees F. to 450 degrees F. During the first minutes of the baking process the carbon dioxide gas within the dough expands. This expansion causes a very rapid rise of the dough known as ovenspring. Fermentation is more vigorous and more rapid at this stage than at any previous stage. When the inside temperature of the loaf reaches 140 degrees F. the yeast is killed and fermentation ceases. Alcohol produced during fermentation evaporates in the form of vapor. After the ovenspring the pliability of the dough gradually lessons and the dough becomes set and slowly change to bread. Some of the moisture evaporates, the starch becomes gelatinized and more digestible, the gluten and other proteins become coagulated. After the loaf sets, the intense heat dries out the part exposed to the air and causes a crust to form. The golden brown color of the crust is the result of chemical changes in the starch, sugar and milk known as a browning reaction (Mailard reaction) also known as carmelization. Within the loaf, the crumb near the crust is subjected to a temoerature as high as 300 degrees F. The temperature gradually decreases towards the center of the loaf at which point it reaches about 212 degrees F. the same temperature at which water boils at sea level. At this temperature the gluten becomes stiff enough to give the loaf permanent form and retain it's structure. When the baking process is complete, the loaves are unloaded manually or automatically and either dumped on cooling racks or travel on enclosed air conditioned conveyor belts to the cooling area. The loaves are allowed to cool for about 1 hour at which point the internal temperature of the loaf drops to about 100 degrees F. and is ready to be sliced and wrapped or bagged. STEP 7. Slicing and packaging. Automatic slicing and wrapping or bagging machines and tying machines completes the seven major steps in bread production. The bread is ready to be shipped to grocery stores and other food establishments to be consumed by the public. NOTE: The next procedure to be covered is PART THREE-BREAD FORMULAS AND BREAD FORMULA COMPUTATIONS, and then PART FOUR-VARIETY BREADS. PART FIVE-BASIC SWEET DOUGH AND DANISH PASTRY DOUGHS FOLLOWS. PART SIX AND PART SEVEN will include photographs of Willie Prejean demonstrating make-up procedures fpr Sweet Rolls, Danish Rolls and Danish Coffee Cakes. PART EIGHT covers FRENCH PASTRIES, CREAM PUFFS & ECLAIRS. Make up demonstrations are demonstrated.

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Part Three - Bread Formulas and Bread Formula Construction
Questions or Comments

INTRODUCTION THERE HAVE BEEN A GREAT DEAL OF PROGRESS IN THE METHOD USED TO CONSTRUCT BREAD FORMULAS. MANY YEARS AGO BREAD FORMULAS WERE EXPRESSED IN PAIL, BUCKET OR GALLON METHOD. TODAY, FORMULAS ARE EXPRESSED IN PERCENTAGES, AND IS REFERRED TO AS THE BAKER'S PERCENTAGE METHOD. THEN THE FORMULA IS CONVERTED TO POUNDS AND OUNCES. THE METHOD USED TO ACCOMPLISH THIS WILL BE DEMONSRTATED. WHEN EXPRESSING FORMULAS IN THE PERCENTAGE SYSTEM, 100 POUNDS OF FLOUR ALWAYS REPRESENT 100 PERCENT. PERCENTAGES OF ALL THE OTHER INGREDIENTS ARE BASED ON THE FLOUR. ALTHOUGH IT IS CONFUSING TO MOST PEOPLE, IT IS A VERY ACCURATE METHOD AS YOU WILL SEE. WITH THIS METHOD THE AMOUNT OF INGREDIENT NECESSARY TO PRODUCE A GIVEN AMOUNT OF BREAD CAN BE CALCULATED RIGHT DOWN TO POUNDS AND FRACTIONS OF OUNCES. THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF A WHITE BREAD FORMULA USING THE BAKER'S PERCENTAGE METHOD:
INGREDIENT Bread flour Water, variable Yeast, compressed Salt Sugar Shortening Milk, dry, nonfat TOTAL FORMULA PERCENT PERCENT 100 60 2 2 5 5 6 -----------180

Construction of a bread formula to determine pounds and ounces of each ingredient to use to produce 500 pounds of bread. Note: Dough losses weight by giving off gasses and moisture and by a small amount of dough that sticks to the mixer. This amount of loss averages about 2 percent. Dough also losses weight during the proofing, baking and cooling. This loss usually average about 11 percent. These losses must be taken into consideration when constructing a bread formula. The total percentage loss equals 13 percent.

The following example explains how to take the above losses into consideration when determining the exact weight of each ingredient to use in the formula to produce a certain amount of bread:

1. Pounds of bread required=500 pounds. 2. 100% = ( Total percentage of ingredients to use to produce 500 pounds of bread ). 3 Total loss = 13 %. a. 100% - 13% = 87% after loss. This is the net percentage of bread ( 500 ) that can be roduced from 100% of ingredients. b. To find how much 100% ingredients equals, it is necessary to divide 500 pounds of baked bread by 87%. This is referred to as the amount of dough required to produce 500 pounds of bread. Note: Remember that when using percentages, you must move the decimal point two points to the left. Example: c. 500 pounds of bread required divided by .87= 574.71 pounds of ingredients to use in the formula. d. 574.71 pounds of ingredients divided by the total formula percent ( 180% ) =319.28 pounds of flour to use. e. Since all ingredients in the formula are based on the flour, the percent of each ingredient is multiplied times the pounds of flour in the formula. Example:
Ingredient Pounds Flour ( 100% ) = 319.28 Water ( 60% times 319.93 pounds of flour ) = 191.57 Yeast ( 2% times 319.93 ) = 6.40 SALT ( 2% times 319.93 ) = 6.40 Sugar ( 5% times 319.93 ) = 16.00 Shortening ( 5 % times 319.93 ) = 16.00 Milk, dry nonfat ( 6 % times 319.93 ) = 19.20 ----------------Total pounds of ingredients = 574.71

Note: The above computations shows that the baker's method of formula construction is a very accurate method. The 574.71 total pounds is easily converted to pounds and ounces as follows: The .71 pounds is converted to ounces by multiplying the .71 times 16 ( 16 ounces in a pound ) =11.36 ounces . To change .36 of an ounce to fractions of an ounce multiply the .36 times 16 = 53/4 ounces. Total pounds of ingredients = 574 lbs 113/4 ounces. Note: For all practical purposes, the pounds of flour would be rounded off to 575 pounds. The 191.57 pounds of water would also be rounded off to an even 191 or 192 pounds. All other ingredients however would be scaled to the closest fraction of an ounce.

Note: The above formula would be used as it is in the straight dough method of mixing. It can easily be converted to the sponge-and-dough method. Converting the straight dough formula to a sponge-and-dough formula. First the baker must decide what percentage of the flour in the straight dough formula will go into the sponge dough formula. This varies with the strength of the flour and with a flour having a relatively high protein content. Also if the protein is of very good quality, 75% of the formula flour would go into the sponge, and 25% would go into the dough. The amount varies depending on several factors, and through experience, the baker can determine what percentages produce the best results. Other percentage ratios can be used such as 60/40,70/30, etc. The bakers percentage system of formula computation applies as well to the sponge and dough method as it does to the straight dough method. In the following example, a 70/30 ratio will be used. Proceed as follows:
Sponge Ingredients Flour the formula ) Water, variable ) Yeast, compressed sponge and dough ) Dough Flour formula) Water, variable Salt formula ) Sugar formula ) Shortening formula ) Milk, dry nonfat formula ) Percentage 70% 60% 2%

( based on the total flour in ( based on the sponge flour only ( based on the total flour of

30 60 2 5 5 6

( based on total flour in the ( based on dough flour only ) ( based on total flour in the ( based on total flour in the ( based on total flour in the ( based on total flour in the

Note: To simplify things, none of the optional ingredients were used in the demonstration. If they were used, the mineral yeast food and the emulsifier would have gone in the sponge and the mold inhibitor would have gone in the dough. The malt cereal sirup usually goes into the sponge. Note: At this time it is a good idea to mention why water is always listed as variable in bread formulas. That is because no two flour has the same absorption quality. Only experience will determine this. This usually changes each time a new shipment of flour is received. CONVERTING THE ABOVE STRAIGHT DOUGH FORMULA FOR PRODUCING 574.71 POUNDS OF DOUGH TO THE SPONGE-AND-DOUGH METHOD WILL BE DEMONSTRATED NEXT. PROCEED AS FOLLOWS:

Ingredients of Ingredients Flour 223.49 # of flour Water 134.09 # of Water Yeast, compressed 6.40 # of Yeast

Sponge Ingredients Percentage Weight of Flour 70% 60% 2% times times times 319.28 =

Weight

223.45 = 319.28 =

Total weight of ingredients going into the sponge 363.98 pounds

=

Ingredients ingredients Flour of Flour Water of Water Salt of Salt Sugar of Sugar Shortening of Short. Milk, non fat dry of Milk ---------Total weight pounds Total weight Total weight Total weight

Percentage 30 % times 60 % times 2% times 5% times 5% times 6% times

Dough Ingredients Weight of Flour 319. 28 = 95.78 = 319.28 = 319.28 = 319.28 = 319.28 =

Weight of 95.78 # 57.47 # 6.40 # 16.00 # 16.00 # 19.20 # ----------

of ingredients going into the dough = of ingredients going into the sponge = of ingredients going into the dough = of ingredients in sponge and dough =

210.85 363.98 pounds 210.85 pounds 574.77 pounds

Note: Due to rounding off of fractions, the formula is off only 0.06 of an ounce which is less than one ounce. Mixing the sponge. Prepare the ingredients for the sponge in accordance with information contained in Part Two, Principles of Bread Production. 1. Temper the water. 2. Mix the sponge only about 3 or 4 minutes because full gluten development is not required at this time. 3. Have the sponge come out of the mixer at 76 degrees F. rather than 80 degrees F for the dough. Sponges ferment for several hours, therefore the temperature rise during fermentation will remain in the alcoholic fermentation range. Note: When the sponge is returned to the mixer after it has gone through the fermentation stage, to be remixed with the dough ingredients, the dough must be mixed until the gluten has been fully developed ( as explained in Part Two, Principles

of Bread Production ). The dough temperature should be about 80 degrees F when it comes out of the mixer. This completes part three on Bread Formulas and Bread Formula Construction. Today people are demanding a variety in foods, part four - Variety Breads will help you to meet this demand. Part five - Basic sweet dough and Danish pastries. Part six and part seven will include photographs of Willie Prejean demonstrating make-up procedures for sweet rolls, Danish pastries and coffee cakes.

PART FOUR - VARIETY BREADS
Questions or Comments INTRODUCTION It's BEEN SAID THAT VARIETY IS THE SPICE OF LIFE. THEREFORE, VARIETY BREADS PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN THE ENJOYMENT OF ANY MEAL. FOLLOWING ARE EXAMPLES OF FORMULAS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF VARIETY BREADS AND A BRIEF DISCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCEDURES. NOTE: Although Artesian Breads which are mostly made by hand in retail shops, are not covered, they are becoming very popular in some parts of the country. Bakery Equipment Manufacturers are beginning to manufacture the specialized equipment necessary to produce this type of bread in large quqntities. RAISIN BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER's PERCENTAGES Ingredients Flour,bread Water, variable Yeast, compressed Salt Sugar Shortening Milk,dry nonfat Raisins Cinnamon ground Mineral yeast food Emulsifier ( bread softener ) Percent 100 65 4 2 6 5 6 60 0.05 0.25 0.25

There is a slight difference in the mixing procedure as compared to white bread doughs in that the raisins are not added until the gluten has been fully developed. Once the gluten has been fully developed, the raisins are added, and then the dough is mixed in slow speed in order to keep from crushing the raisins. Mix only long enough

to distribute the raisins throughout the dough. Also, the raisins can be soaked for a few minutes and then drained before being added to the dough. Fermentation, dividing, rounding, intermediate proofing, molding, panning, proofing, baking and cooling are the same as for white bread doughs. "Note" The reason for using a larger percentage of water in the formula is because raisins absorb water and if water is not increased slightly, the dough would be too stiff making it difficult to run through the machinery. RYE BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER's PERCENTAGES Ingredients Flour, rye Flour, clear grade, wheat Water, variable Yeast, compressed Salt Sugar Shortening Mineral yeast food Emulsifier ( bread softener ) Caraway seeds ( whole or ground ) Rye flavor Percent 30 70 58 2 2 2 2 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

Note: Water is variable in the formula because rye flour absorbs considerably more water than wheat flour, darker rye flours absorb more water than lighter rye flours, and if making pan type rye bread, more water is used than for hearth type bread. Mixing the rye dough. Rye dough should be mixed slightly stiffer than white bread. Rye doughs also produce best results if mixed in slow speed to keep from over mixing the dough. Remember, rye flour does not have gluten forming properties, so there is less gluten to develop. Rye doughs produce better quality bread if developed by natural hydration rather than by high speed mixing. The doughs should be mixed slightly cooler than white bread ( 76°F ). Either the straight dough method or the sponge-and-dough method of mixing can be used Fermentation of rye doughs. Rye flour is more fermentative than wheat flour because rye flour contains a larger percentage of natural sugars, diastase and protease enzymes and is slightly higher in natural acidity than wheat flour, all of which have an acceleration effect on gas production and gas retention. Therefore, rye doughs require less fermentation time than doughs containing only wheat flour. Using the fermentation ratio as discussed earlier is the best way to determine how long to ferment the dough. Make up of dough. Dividing, rounding and intermediate proofing are basically the same as for white bread. Rye bread may be baked in regular round top bread pans, on sheet pans or directly on the hearth of the oven. If baked on sheet pans or on the

hearth, the dough must be mixed stiffer than if baked in regular bread pans so the loaf will keep its shape without flattening out. Less proof is also required. Proofing rye bread doughs. Hearth type rye bread is generally proofed on special wooden boards which have had corn meal sprinkled onto them. When the proofing period is completed, the loaves are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and a sharp object about the size of a pencil is punched about half way through the loaf about two inches apart the full length of the loaf. Another method is to use a very sharp knife and making several diagonal shallow cuts along the top of the loaf. The purpose of punching (docking ) or cutting the loaf before baking is to prevent the loaf from having wild cracks. Special hearth type pans are available to speed up the operation. They are made from a fairly thick metal which looks like a screen. When this type of pan is used, corn meal is not required.

The perforated pan is used to bake French and Rye breads when the oven doesn't have a suitable hearth on which to bake the bread. Baking the bread. If low pressure ( moist ) steam is available the steam is injected into the oven just prior to loading the loaves into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. The steam is then turned off. Steam produces a shiny glossy crust color and helps to prevent wild breaks in the loaves. Note: Low pressure ( moist ) steam is steam under 15 pounds per square inch. High pressure steam is dry steam and would be of no benefit. Cooling, slicing and packaging. Baked rye breads are handled the same as other types of breads FRENCH BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER's PERCENTAGES Ingredients Flour, clear, wheat Water, variable Yeast, compressed Salt Percent 100 56 2 2

Sugar Shortening Mineral yeast food

2 2 0.25

French breads and Vienna breads are made from a lean to semi-rich formula. A strong clear grade of wheat flour is recommended, but a good grade of patent flour can be used with good results. The interior of the French bread is more open and the texture usually has holes. Also, the crust is more thoroughly baked than pan bread which accounts in part to its finer taste and flavor. The dough should be mixed slightly cooler (about 76 degrees F.) and the gluten should be fully developed, but not over mixed. It should also be fully fermented but not over- fermented. French bread is made up in a variety of shapes. The pointed or baton shapes are the most popular. Also, a small strip or strand of dough is stretched and placed on top of the full length of the loaf. This eliminates having to dock or cut the top of the loaf after proofing. Loaves are also made by braiding three or more pieces of dough together. Proofing and baking are carried out in the same manner as for rye bread, with the exception that poppy seeds or sesame seeds are sprinkled on top of the loaves after they have been washed with cornstarch wash or egg wash. French bread should be thoroughly baked to produce the desirable characteristics of the crust. A plentiful supply of low pressure steam should be used as in rye breads. French bread can also be baked on sheet pans, screens or directly on the hearth.

Just before the French loaves are loaded into the oven they are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and cut or docked. Sesame seeds or Poppy seeds can be sprinkled on the loaves at this time. Low pressure steam in injected into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. This produces a shiny crust color.

The perforated pan is used to bake French and Rye breads when the oven doesn't have a suitable hearth on which to bake the bread. SANDWICH (PULLMAN ) BREAD Sandwich ( Pullman ) bread is made using the standard white, whole wheat or wheat bread formula, and mixed, fermented, made up, intermediate proofed and molded the same. The molded pieces of dough are placed into long rectangular pullman pans having a cover which is placed on top. The covers can be put on as the molded pieces of dough are placed in the pans or they can be put on after proofing and just before the pans are loaded into the oven. The loaves should be given a slightly shorter proof than regular round top bread (about three fourth). This is to allow for the ovenspring which will cause the dough to reach the cover, forming a flat top rather than a round top. Avoid too much underproof, because this will result in the dough not reaching the cover and a rounded loaf rather than a square loaf. Overproofing on the other hand causes the dough to push the cover up slightly and come out of the pan at the edges, resulting in poor symmetry.

The pullman pan is used to bake sandwich bread. The cover is put on just before the loaves are loaded into the oven to form a square loaf. After the bread is fully baked, unload the oven, remove the cover, manually or mechanically. Dump the bread out of the pan and place the loaf upside down on cooling racks or conveyor belt. Purpose of placing the baked loaf upside down is to allow the loaf to retain its square shape. Cooling, slicing and packaging are handled the same as other types of breads POTATO BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER's PERCENTAGES Ingredients Flour, bread, wheat Potato Flour Water, variable Yeast, compressed Salt Sugar Shortening Milk, dry nonfat Mineral yeast food Percent 100 3 65 2 2 6 5 6 0.25

Mix the dough using the same procedures as for white pan bread. Potato Flour contain approximately 75% carbohydrates occurring in the form of gelatinized starch. This gelatinized starch is readily converted to maltose sugar by the flour enzyme diastase. This is the reason why potatoes speed up the fermentation process. Potatoes also contain growth promoting mineral substances which stimulate yeast development. Emulsifiers ( bread softeners ) are not needed because potatoes function as stale

retarding agents which helps to reduce the rate at which the bread crumb becomes firm. Make up of dough etc. are the same as for white bread. WHOLE WHEAT OR WHEAT BREAD. Percentages of bread ingredients are the same as for white bread with the exception that whole wheat bread contain only whole wheat flour, whereas wheat bread contain both whole wheat and white flour in various amounts. For example, 75% whole wheat flour and 25% white flour or 50% whole wheat flour and 50% white flour. All bread production procedures are the same as white bread. Since whole wheat flour absorbs more water than white flour, an increase in formula water will be necessary NOTE: HARD WHITE WHEAT FLOUR WILL MAKE EXCELLENT QUALITY WHITE WHOLE WHEAT BREAD. USUALLY IT WILL BE NECESSARY TO ADD 3 TO 4 POUNDS OF VITAL WHEAT GLUTEN PER 100 POUNDS OF FLOUR WHICH IS PERMISSIBLE BY "GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES". DOUGH STRENGTHENERS SUCH AS "calcium steroyl lactylate, or sodium steroyl lactylate" ARE ALSO PERMISSIBLE IN THE AMOUNT OF ABOUT 4 OUNCES PER 100 POUNDS OF FLOUR. Many other varieties of breads can be produced using 7 Grain Cereals, Corn Meal, Cheese, Dehydrated Garlic, Dehydrated Onions, and Nuts in the formula. Also, as mentioned above Artesian Breads are becoming very popular as are Pita Breads/Pocket Breads. Note: In part five - Basic Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries, Sweet Roll & amd; Coffee Cake Fillings and Glazes will be covered.

PART FIVE - SWEET DOUGH, DANISH PASTRIES AND COFFEE CAKE FILLINGS AND STREUSEL TOPPING
Questions or Comments INTRODUCTION THE BASIC SWEET DOUGH IS USED TO PRODUCE A WIDE RANGE OF SWEET ROLLS, AND TO PRODUCE DANISH ROLLS AND COFFEE CAKES. TO PRODUCE A MORE TENDER AND FLAKY DANISH ROLL AND COFFEE CAKE, THE RECIPE IS GENERALLY MODIFIED BY ADDING ADDITIONAL SUGAR, SHORTENING, EGGS AND YEAST. ALSO, BUTTER OR MARGARINE IS ROLLED INTO THE DANISH DOUGH. MANY TYPES OF FILLINGS AND TOPPINGS ARE USED, AND DIFFERENT FLAVORED ICINGS ARE APPLIED TO THE BAKED PASTRIES. BASIC SWEET DOUGH FORMULA Ingredients Sugar, granulated salt Mace or Nutmeg Pounds Ounces 0 0 0 11 1-3/4th 0-1/4th

Shortening Eggs, whole Water *, variable Lemon extract Yellow color

0 0 1 0 0

11 15 6 0-1/4th few drops

*Temper water so dough will come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. Mix the above ingredients well. Ingredients Water, 110 degrees F. Yeast,dry Pounds Ounces 0 0 14 3-1/4th

Add dry yeast to the warm water and mix together well. Let set about 5 minutes. After the water and yeast have set for about 5 minutes, mix them well again and add to the above ingredients. Ingredients Flour, bread Milk, dry non fat Pounds Ounces 5 0 0 3

Add dry milk on top of flour to keep from forming lumps, then add to above and mix using the dough hook until gluten is properly developed. The dough will clean sides of the bowl and should be soft and slightlt sticky. The dough should come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. and fermented for about 1-1/2 hours before make=up. NOTE: TO COMPLETE THE REMAINDER OF THIS PART, WILLIE PREJEAN WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO TELL WHEN THE GLUTEN HAS BEEN FULLY DEVELOPED DURING THE MIXING PHASE; WHEN THE DOUGH IS READY TO BE PUNCHED DURING THE FERMENTATION PHASE;, HE WILL ALSO PUNCH AND FOLD THE DOUGH. IN PART SIX HE WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO MAKE A VARIETY OF SWEET ROLLS AFTER THE DOUGH HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO RISE AGAIN AFTER THE PUNCH.

Stretching the dough to determine if the gluten has been fully developed

Testing to determine if the dough is ready to be punched HR>

Dough receeds slightly indicating it is ready to be punched

Folding the dough after it has been punched MAKE-UP OF SWEET ROLLS To make 54 sweet rolls ( 1 sheet pan ) divide the dough into 5 pounds 8 ounce pieces. Form into oblong shape and allow to rest on work bench or in sheet pans which have been dusted with flour for 15 to 20 minutes to relax so the dough will roll out more easily. With rolling pin, roll dough about 12 inches wide and 5 feet long. Brush sheeted dough with melted butter or margarine leaving about one inch at bottom without fat. Brush egg wash on this area so the dough will seal when rolled up into cylinder. Sprinkle raisins, chopped nuts, etc. on buttered portion. Next sprinkle a

prepared cinnamon sugar . Curl into round cylinder. Cut into cinnamon, butterfly rolls, etc. weighing about 2 ounces. Place made up rolls on greased pan, proof in moist, warm place until double in size. Bake in 350 t0 375 degree F. oven until golden brown. NOTE: To check if thoroughly baked, check bottom of roll. When brown on bottom, the rolls should be baked. Ice with sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glazed top. To make coffee cakes, scale dough pieces about 8 ounce or 12 ounce pieces. Shape into oblong loaves. Allow to rest for 15 to 20 minutes. Roll dough with rolling pin about 6 inches wide and 8 inches long. Fill with any filling available such as pie filling, buttercream icing with chopped nuts, cinnamon sugar, and streusel sprinkled on top, raisins, coconut, etc. When using pie filling or jam as the spread, sprinkle cake crumbs or streusel on top to absorb the moisture. Curl and shape as as you would when making cinnamon rolls. Various cuts can be made on top or the cylinder can be split in the center and formed into a twist. Also the coffee cake can be shaped in the form of a ring, heart, or fan. The shapes into which they can be made will be limited only by your imagination. Place on greased sheet pan about 4 inches apart to allow for expansion. Wash top of coffee cake with egg wash. Chopped nuts or streusel can be sprinkled on top. Proof, bake and ice as for cinnamon rolls. DANISH PASTRIES Danish Pastries are made from a Basic Sweet Dough Formula which has been modified to include a higher percentage of sugar, shortening, eggs, and yeast. The dough is mixed at a much lower temperature (about 72 degrees F.) than for other types of yeast doughs and are generally not mixed long enough to develope the gluten. The dough is taken to the work bench immediately after mixing and is not given any fermentation time. It also has butter or margarine rolled into the dough immediately after completion of mixing. Purpose of rolling the fat into the dough is to produce a tender, flaky pastry. The amount of fat used to roll into the dough varies from 2 to 4 ounces per pound of dough depending upon the richness desired and the desired flakiness. The consistency of the mixed dough and butter or margarine used for rolling should be about the same. This is to prevent the fat from being forced into the dough during the rolling process. The dough containing the fat should be given three-three folds or two-four folds (this will be demonstrated in PART SEVEN). After each roll, the dough is placed in the refrigerator for about 30 minutes to relax to make it easier to accomplish the next roll. After the rolling process is completed the dough may be left in the refrigerator only long enough to be thoroughly chilled before make-up or it may be left in the refrigerator over night provided it is covered with a damp cloth to prevent it from drying out. Any type of filling and topping such as chopped nuts or streusel topping can be used. After proofing and baking, the pastries are iced with a sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glaze on top. SWEET ROLL AND COFFEE CAKE FILLINGS, GLAZE AND STREUSEL TOPPING FOLLOWS: ALMOND FILLING>/B> Ingredients Almond paste Pounds Ounces 5 0

sugar, granulated Salt Margarine Eggs, whole Cake crumbs Water Vanilla

5 0 1 2 6 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 2 1

PROCEDURE: Mix thoroughly and refrigerate until needed. CINNAMON SUGAR MIXTURE Ingredients Sugar, granulated Cinnamon Salad oil Pounds Ounces 5 1 0 0 4 4

PROCEDURE: Mix together well to eliminate cinnamon dust. COTTAGE CHEESE FILLING Ingredients Cottage Cheese Sugar, granulated Margarine Flour, cake Eggs, whole Salt Lemon extract Vanilla CARMEL GLAZE Ingredients Sugar,brown Margarine Flour, bread Honey or syrup Salt DATE NUT FILLING Pounds Ounces 3 2 0 2 0 8 0 4 0 0-1/2 Pounds Ounces 50 14 0 12 08 14 0 0-1/4th 0 0-14th 0 0-1/4th

Ingredients Dates, pitted Sugar, brown Water Pecans, chopped

Pounds Ounces 2 0 1 1 8 8 8 0

PROCEDURE: Boil sugar and dates about 5 minutes. Add chopped pecans and mix. STREUSEL TOPPING Ingredients Sugar,granulated Margarine Flour, bread Salt Cinnamon Pounds Ounces 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0-1/4 0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Mix sugar, fat, salt and cinnamon thoroughly. Note: A few drops of yellow color and lemon extract can be added at this time. Add flour and mix until a crumb like texture is obtained. Medium to small lumps are desired. Do not over mix. This completes PART FIVE Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries. Part Six and Part seven will include photograph of Willie Prejean demonstrating make-up procedures for sweet rolls Danish Pastry Rolls and Coffee Cakes.

PART SIX - WILLIE PREJEAN DEMONSTRATING MAKE - UP OF PASTRIES
Questions or Comments

Willie Prejean scaling the sweet dough after fermentation.

Stretching the dough.

Bring the ends into the fold.

Flattening the folded dough.

Folding the flattened dough from front to back.

Sealing the dough. Allow dough to relax for 15 to 20 minutes.

Rolling dough out on bench.

Buttering the top 3/4th of the rolled dough.

Adding cinnamon and sugar over raisins.

Starting to roll dough into cylinder.

Cutting the dough into 2 ounce rolls.

Cutting the dough with squirrel cage cutter.

Rolls panned in rows 9 x 6.

Proofed rolls ready to be baked.

Forming butterfly rolls with rolling pin.

Panned butterfly rolls ready for proofing.

Icing the baked rolls.

Making the first fold after dough has been buttered and sprinkled with cinnamon sugar.

Making second fold to form cinnamon twists.

Twisting and panning the rolls after dough is cut.

PART SEVEN - WILLIE PREJEAN DEMONSTRATING MAKE - UP OF DANISH ROLLS AND COFFEE CAKE
Questions or Comments

Spotting butter or margarine on 2/3rds of Danish pastry dough.

Folding the 1/3rd part of unbuttered dough over buttered portion.

Folding other 1/3rd buttered portion over unbuttered side.

Rolling dough to about 1/2 inch thick. Repeat the 3 fold. Refrigerate the folded dough for about 30 minutes.

Remove the dough from refrigerator. Roll the dough to about 1 / 2 inch thick again. Repeat the 3 fold, and refrigerate the dough until ready to be made up into Danish Rolls and Coffee Cakes.

Rolling the Danish Dough after the completion of the rolling and folding process has been completed and after the dough has been refrigerated for about 30 minutes.

Paint rolled dough with melted butter or margarine.

Sprinkle cinnamon sugar mixture on bottom half of rolled dough.

Fold unsugared top portion of dough onto sugared portion.

Cut folded dough into strips weighing about 2 ounces.

Start rollong and twisting strips into cylindrical shape.

Continue rolling until strip is formed into long thin cylinder.

Curl strip in circle and tuck end under.

Paint egg wash on rolls before proofing. Chopped Pecans or streusel can be sprinkled on top after eggwash.

Pan in rows four by five. Wash with egg wash.

Add lemon or pineapple filling on top after proofing. Struesel can be sprinkled on top.

Forming pretzel.

Pan pretzels in rows four by five.

Coffee cake. Scale pieces of dough eight to twelve ounces. Roll about six inches wide and ten inches long. Spread filling on top.

Roll and seal dough for Danish Coffee Cake.

Shape into ring fitting ends of roll together.

Alligator coffee cake. Cut about 2 /3 through roll at 45 degree angle. Pull cut pieces left and right.

Heart shape coffee cake. Fold roll front to back and press ends together.

Cut down center to about one inch from pressed ends.

Open roll to form heart shape. Wash with egg wash. Put on pan and proof before baking.

PART SEVEN - WILLIE PREJEAN DEMONSTRATING MAKE - UP OF DANISH ROLLS AND COFFEE CAKE
Questions or Comments

Spotting butter or margarine on 2/3rds of Danish pastry dough.

Folding the 1/3rd part of unbuttered dough over buttered portion.

Folding other 1/3rd buttered portion over unbuttered side.

Rolling dough to about 1/2 inch thick. Repeat the 3 fold. Refrigerate the folded dough for about 30 minutes.

Remove the dough from refrigerator. Roll the dough to about 1 / 2 inch thick again. Repeat the 3 fold, and refrigerate the dough until ready to be made up into Danish Rolls and Coffee Cakes.

Rolling the Danish Dough after the completion of the rolling and folding process has been completed and after the dough has been refrigerated for about 30 minutes.

Paint rolled dough with melted butter or margarine.

Sprinkle cinnamon sugar mixture on bottom half of rolled dough.

Fold unsugared top portion of dough onto sugared portion.

Cut folded dough into strips weighing about 2 ounces.

Start rollong and twisting strips into cylindrical shape.

Continue rolling until strip is formed into long thin cylinder.

Curl strip in circle and tuck end under.

Paint egg wash on rolls before proofing. Chopped Pecans or streusel can be sprinkled on top after eggwash.

Pan in rows four by five. Wash with egg wash.

Add lemon or pineapple filling on top after proofing. Struesel can be sprinkled on top.

Forming pretzel.

Pan pretzels in rows four by five.

Coffee cake. Scale pieces of dough eight to twelve ounces. Roll about six inches wide and ten inches long. Spread filling on top.

Roll and seal dough for Danish Coffee Cake.

Shape into ring fitting ends of roll together.

Alligator coffee cake. Cut about 2 /3 through roll at 45 degree angle. Pull cut pieces left and right.

Heart shape coffee cake. Fold roll front to back and press ends together.

Cut down center to about one inch from pressed ends.

Open roll to form heart shape. Wash with egg wash. Put on pan and proof before baking.

PART EIGHT - French Pastries and Cream Puff-Eclairs
Questions or Comments FRENCH PASTRY IS A SPECIALTY PASTRY PRODUCT THAT TESTS THE ABILITY OF THE PASTRY BAKER. ON THE OTHER HAND CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS ARE DELICIOUS DESERTS WHICH ARE NOT DIFFICULT TO MAKE IF DIRECTIONS ARE FOLLOWED CAREFULLY. FRENCH PASTRY IS MADE FROM A VERY RICH DOUGH CONTAINING A LARGE AMOUNT OF BUTTER OR MARGARINE SOMETIMES COMBINED WITH A SPECIAL PUFF PASTRY SHORTENING . A CREAM PUFF IS A ROUND HOLLOW SHELL MADE FROM A PASTE CONSISTING OF WATER, SHORTENING, BUTTER, OR MARGARINE , SALT, FLOUR, AND EGGS. AT THE END OF THE RECIPES, STEP BY STEP DEMONSTRATIONS WILL BE GIVEN ON PRODUCING THESE SPECIALTY PASTRIES. FRENCH PASTRY DOUGH RECIPE Ingredients Flour, Bread salt Puff Pastry Shortening Water, Ice-cold MIXING METHOD ONE Add all the ingredients of the recipe except the (Puff Pastry Shortening) in the mixing bowl. Mix the dough until the gluten is fully developed using the Dough Hook. Place the mixed dough on work bench which has been dusted with flour. Shape the dough into an oblong shape about 12 inches wide and 20 inches long. Spot the Puff Paste Shortening on two thirds of the dough as is demonstrated in PART SEVENDEMONSTRATION DANISH PASTRY. Fold and roll the dough just as you would a Danish Pastry Dough being careful not to break through the dough by using excessive pressure on the rolling pin. Refrigerate for about 30 minutes between rolls to Let the dough relax. Cover the rolled dough with a damp cloth to keep a crust from forming. Pounds Ounces 4 0 4 2 0 1 0 4

Repeat the rolling process 3 times. After the final roll, and after the dough has been refrigerated for an additional 30 minutes or overnight, it is ready to be made up into a variety of French Pastries, some of which are demonstrated below. MIXING METHOD TWO Place the flour, the Puff Pastry Shortening and salt into the mixing bowl. Work the fat into the dough either by hand or with the mixing paddle just as you would for mixing a pie dough. Mix only long enough so that the flour is only partially covered with fat leaving lumps of fat about the size of marbles. Add water to the partially coated flour and mix only long enough to form a dough. ( Do not overmix ). Place dough on a flour coated work bench. Place the mixed dough on work bench which has been dusted with flour. Shape the dough into an oblong shape about 12 inches wide and 20 inches long and roll it into an oblong shape about 1/2 inch thick, being careful not to break through the dough by using excessive pressure on the rolling pin. Lap dough to form three folds. Let dough relax for about 30 minutes, covering it with a damp cloth to keep a crust from forming. Repeat this step three or four times, brushing flour off dough each time, and being careful not to damage the dough with too much pressure on the rolling pin. Refrigerate for about 30 minutes or overnigh. Make-up the various items such as Cream Horns and Patty Shells demonstrated below. Many other varieties such as Palm Leaves can also be made. NOTE: Cream horns can be filled with a marshmallow type meringue or any type of filling desired. Patty shells can be filled with a Shrimp Newburg type filling, Chicken a-la King or any other type filling. MAKING CREAM HORNS FROM FRENCH PASTRY

ROLL THE FINISHED FRENCH PASTRY DOUGH ABOUT 12 INCHES WIDE AND 1/8TH INCH THICK. CUT INTO STRIPS ABOUT ONE INCH WIDE.

WASH DOUGH STRIPS WITH LIGHT COATING OF WATER OR EGG WASH.

ROLL STRIP ONTO METAL OR PAPER CREAM HORNS STARTING AT SMALL END OF HORN.

COMPLETE ROLL BY OVERLAPPING STRIPS WHILE ROLLING ON CREAM HORN. MAKING PATTY SHELLS

CUTTING THE DOUGH WHICH HAS BEEN ROLLED TO AN EVEN THICKNESS OF ABOUT 1/4TH TO 1/2 INCH THICK AND 15 INCHES WIDE WITH A SHARP CUTTER

USING SMALL SHARP CUTTER, MAKE SHELL BY CUTTING OUT CENTER TO FORM RING

COMBINE CUT PORTIONS ( SCRAP DOUGH ) AND PRESS TOGETHER. ROLL THE SCRAP DOUGH ABOUT 1/8TH INCH THICK. DOCK ROLLED DOUGH FOR SHELL BOTTOM

CUT DOCKED DOUGH WITH SAME CUTTER USED TO CUT RINGS

AFTER TRIMMINGS ARE REMOVED, WASH THE DOCKED BOTTOMS A FEW AT A TIME WITH A LIGHT COATING OFWATER OR EGG WASH SO THE RINGS WILL STICK TO THE BOTTOMS

PLACE RINGS ON BOTTOM PIECES TAKING CARE TO MATCH EDGES EVENLY

1. Baked cream horns 2. Baked patty shells CREAM PUFF AND ECLAIR RECIPE Ingredients Water Butter or Margarine Pounds Ounces 5 2 4 0

Combine water and fat together and bring to rolling boil making sure the fat has melted completely. Ingredients Flour, Bread Pounds Ounces 3 0

Add flour to boiling mixture stirring constantly until cooked into a thick paste. Remove from heat. Ingredients eggs, whole salt Pounds Ounces 5 0 4 1

Place cooked mixture into mixing bowl and mix a few turns with the mixing paddle to cool the mixture slightly. Add the salt to the eggs. Add eggs and salt mixture slowly while mixing and mix to a smooth batter. NOTE: The amount of eggs varies so it may be necessary hold back on a small amount of eggs or the eggs may have to be increased slightly to obtain a smooth batter. Drop on lightly greased pans which have

been dusted with flour. Bake at 400 degrees F. for about 30 minutes. Reduce heat to 300 degrees F. to dry out the inside of the Puffs and Eclairs to keep them from falling. When Bread Flour is used in the recipe as is the case with this recipe, the top of the baked product will crack somewhat. If a smooth top and a more tender product is desired, then Cake Flour can be used. CREAM FILLING FOR CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS Ingredients water sugar Pounds Ounces 1 1 8 8

Bring water and sugar to a boil. Ingredients Corn starch water Pounds Ounces 0 0 8 8

Suspend starch in water and add to boiling mixture while stirring vigorously with hand whip. Cook until thick and clear. Remove from heat. Ingredients Sugar granulated salt milk, nonfat dry Butter or margarine Pounds Ounces 0 0 0 0 12 1/4th 6 1/2 4

Add sugar, salt,dry milk and butter or margarine to cooked mixture and stir until dry ingredients are dissolved and butter or margarine is melted. Ingredients Eggs Pounds Ounces 1 4

Beat the eggs slightly with a hand whip. Pour 1/4th of cooked mixture over eggs and stir vigorously. NOTE: Reason for pouring part of the egg over eggs is to prevent the eggs from coagulating too soon which would result in a lumpy mixture. Ingredients Vanilla salt Pounds Ounces 0 0 1/2 1/4th

Add vanilla to cooked mixture and stir. At this point if a shiffon type cream is desired, a small amount of meringue can be folded into the cooked mixture while still hot. Refrigerate until ready to be used.

MAKING CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS

PANNING CREAM PUFF BATTER BY HAND

PANNING ECLAIR BATTER USING PASTRY BAG

FILLING CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS WITH MACHINE

1. FILLED CREAM PUFFS TOPPED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AND POWDERED SUGAR 2. FILLED ECLAIRS TOPPED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AND POWDERED SUGAR This completes part eight on French Pastries and Cream Puffs-Eclairs. Following these recipes will be photos of step by step demonstrations by Willie Prejean on make-up and finishing procedures for Cream Horns, Patty Shells, Cream Puffs and Eclairs.

PART NINE - PIES INCLUDING INGREDIENT FUNCTIONS, PIE DOUGHS AND PIE FILLINGS, PLUS MIXING AND MAKE-UP DEMONSTRATIONS
Questions or Comments INTRODUCTION THE AVERAGE AMERICAN HAS A WIDE CHOICE OF DESSERTS, WITH PIES UNDOUBTEDLY BEING THE NUMBER ONE CHOICE. TO QUALIFY AS THE TRUE FAVORITE OF AMERICAN DESSERTS, PIE MUST BE OF TOP QUALITY. IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO PRODUCE QUALITY PIES, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE BAKER KNOW WHAT EACH INGREDIENT DOES, WHY THEY ARE USED AND HOW THEY ARE USED. CLASSIFICATION OF PIES Pies are generally classified into three main classifications as follows: Double Crust Pies such as Fruit Filled Pies, Baked Custard Pies, and Pre-Baked Shell Type Pies. PIE CRUSTS- Pie crusts are divided into three main classifications such as:

1. LONG FLAKE. To produce a long flake, the flour and shortening are mixed only until the fat is about the size of walnuts. 2. SHORT FLAKE. To produce a short flake, the flour and shortening are mixed until the fat is the size of peas. 3. MEALY TENDER CRUST. To produce a mealy tender crust, the flour and fat are mixed until there are very few fat particles. Slight variations or combinations of the three mixing methods listed above are used by some bakers. Also, the dough may be mixed by hand or by using the Pastry Blender Attachment when using a mixing machine. If a Pastry Blender Attachment is not available the Mixing Paddle can be used. When using the mixing machine, extra care must be used to prevent overmixing the flour and fat together and also after the water has been added. PIE DOUGH INGREDIENTS. 1. FLOUR- Flour is the main structure builder in pie doughs. Pastry flour generally produces superior pie doughs, however, a combination of 60 percent bread flour and 40 percIent cake flour can produce quality pies if the dough is mixed properly. If all bread flour is used, the dough will shrink excessively when baked and the crust will be tough. On the other hand, if all cake flour is used, the amount of shortening used must be reduced otherwise, the dough will be very difficult to handle during make-up. 2. SHORTENING- Shortening is responsible for flakiness, tenderness, taste, palatability and keeping quality of the crust. Shortening may be animal, vegetable or a blend of animal and vegetable. Butter, margarine, and lard produced from hog fat, are highly flavored. Many years ago, lard was the favorite of bakers. Today, bakers use a combination of lard and vegetable shortening. Too high a percentage of shortening in the formula will result in excessive tenderness of the crust and too low a percentage will produce a tough crust. 3. SALT- Salt enhances the flavor of other ingredients. Salt also has a strengthening effect upon the flour proteins which is desirable. 4. COLORING AGENTS- Coloring agents are generally used to to assist in developing the golden brown crust color during baking. For example when sugars and milk are used in pie dough, they carmelize during baking. The disadvantage of using these ingredients is that they tend to destroy the flake and increase moisture absorption in the crust after baking. Some bakers use a pie wash such as a mixture of equal parts of water and eggs which has been beaten slightly with a wire whip. Milk and eggs or melted butter can also be used. The wash is painted on or sprayed on the top of the pie just before loading them into the oven. The wash containing eggs produce a shiny glazed surface to the crust, but they tend to make the crust soggy. Butter produces a more tender crust, but the crust will not have a glaze, and will tend to be dull in color. 4. WATER- Water dissolves the salt, developes the flour proteins, and controls the consistency and temperature of the dough. Excessive water in the dough is undersible because it takes longer to bake the crust, and toughens the crust. NOTE: WATER USED IN THE DOUGH SHOULD BE ICE COLD TO PREVENT SOFTENING

THE FAT IN THE DOUGH. IF TIME PERMITS, THE MIXED DOUGH SHOULD BE CHILLED IN THE REFRIGERATOR SLIGHTLY. THIS WILL ASSIST IN KEEPING THE DOUGH FROM BEING STICKY DURING MAKE-UP. PIE FILLING INGREDIENTS Although an attractive, tender, flaky, golden brown crust with good flavor, taste and aroma is necessary, a quality, attractive and tasty filling will in the end determine the final quality of the pie. NOTE: SOME WELL KNOWN BAKERY INGREDIENT MANUFACTURERS MAKE AVAILABLE TO THE BAKER HIGH QUALITY PREPARED FRUIT PIE FILLINGS AND CREAM PIE FILLINGS. BAKERS USE THESE PREPARED MIXES TO SAVE TIME AND LABOR COSTS. FOR THOSE BAKERS WHO PREFER TO PREPARE THEIR OWN PIE DOUGH AND PIE FILLING FORMULAS, THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION CAN BE USED AS A GUIDE: PIE DOUGH BAKER'S PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA Ingredients Flour Shortening Salt Sugar Milk, Dry Nonfat Ice Water Minimum Maximum 100 50 3 0 0 20 100 75 4 10 5 50

PIE DOUGH TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA Ingredients Flour Shortening Salt Sugar Milk, Dry Nonfat Ice Water Minimum Maximum 44 24 0.5/ 0 0 15 50 32 1.0 3 2 24

FRUIT PIE FILLING TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA

Ingredients Sugar Salt Glucose Sirup Cornstarch Fruit Juice or Water Butter

Minimum Maximum 15 0 0 3 35 30 0 25 0.25 20 4 50 45 1.5

CREAM PIE FILLING TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA Ingredients Sugar Salt Eggs or Yolk Milk, Nonfat Dry Chocolate Cocoa Cornstarch Fruit Juice & Rind Butter CREAM TYPE PIES Cream for Cream Type Pies are generally poured into pre-baked pie shells and topped with Meringue. There are several methods of prepaing meringue, however the use of a cooked type meringue is recommended, because the meringue is more stable and will not break down or weep during storage or when chilled in the refrigerator. The meringue is made using a commercially prepared special stabalizer or with a cooked cornstarch mixture. THE FORMULA FOR THE COOKED MERINGUE INCLUDING INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE IT IS INCLUDED LATER ON IN THIS PAGE CUSTARD PIE FILLING TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA Ingredients Sugar Salt Eggs or Yolk Minimum Maximum 16 0.125 10 20 0.25 20 Minimum Maximum 15 0.125 10 0 5 3 4 4.5 0 25 0.25 20 10 7 4 5 6.5 3

Milk, Nonfat Dry Spices Cocoa Cornstarch Pumpkin Butter CORNSTARCHES

5 0.125 0.125 0 28 0

8 7 0.5 1.5 36 1.5

THERE ARE SEVERAL TYPES OF STARCHES AVAILABLE TO THE PIE BAKER FOR THICKENING THE FRUIT JUICES AND OR MILK AND WATER. 1. PURE FOOD POWDERED STARCH- A pure refined corn starch prepared from ordinary field corn. This type of starch is not as stable as the Waxy Maise Starch and will break down and become watery after long storage or when used to thicken fruit juices containing a high acid content such as cherry or pineapple juices. It contains amylase and amylopectin. It can be modified to increase it's clarity and stability. 2. WAXY STARCH-This type of starch is refined and modified. It is prepared from waxy maise. This is an exceptionally clear, gel-producing starch with a short tender body and extreme stability. Waxy starches generally swell faster than other starches, but they also become thinner during cooking. The cooked filling will not get thicker when the pie cools as does that made with regular starch. 3. PRE-GELATINIZED STARCH (COLD WATER STARCH)- This starch is generally know as INSTANT STARCH. It does not require cooking. The juice is drained from the fruit. If insufficient juices are present in the fruit, water can be added to make up the shortage. All the dry ingredients (starch, sugar,salt, spiced, etc.) of the filling are blended together thoroughly in a dry mixing bowl. Add the liquids (juices and water when used) gradually to the dry ingredients and mix until smooth. Carefully fold drained fruit into thickened mixture. Chill filling in refrigerator until ready to be used. Regardless of the type of starch used, the prepared filling should be chilled in the refrigerator before being used to reduce the possibility of the filling boiling out of the pie during baking. Generally if the oven is heated to about 450 degrees F before the pie is loaded into the oven, the crust will be fully baked before the filling gets hot enough to come to a boil and spill out of the pie. 4. TAPAIOCA STARCH-This type of starch is also used in pie fillings by some bakers. One of the charaacteristics of all starches is their ability to swell when cooked in water or fruit juices. They become gelatinized and in turn cause the mixture to be thickend. FRUIT USED IN PIES

THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF FRUITS WILL PRODUCE QUALITY PIES IF PROCESSED PROPERLY: 1. FRESH FRUIT-Wash, drain and mix into a slurry of cooked starch, sugar, salt, drained juice and water plus any spices or other ingredients such as lemon juice, and butter that may used. Refrigerate until ready to use. 2. FROZEN FRUIT-Thaw, drain the juice, cook a slurry of drained juice and water, starch, sugar and salt, etc. and mix the fruit into the slurry. NOTE: If sugar has been added to the fruit, this must be taken into consideration. Excess sugar in the recipe will interfere with the ability of the starch to form a jell. 3. CANNED FRUIT-Drain the juice, if insufficient juice is present, add water to make up the shortage. Cook a slurry of drained juice, water when added, starch, sugar, salt and other ingredients when used. Then mix the fruit into the cooked mixture. 4. DEHYDRATED AND DRIED FRUITS-Reconstitute, cook into a slurry as for other types of fruits and mix the fruit into the cooked mixture. Today, dried fruits are not shriviled as they once were. They should be considered fresh fruit from which water has been removed. Years ago when dried fruits were used, it was necessary to soak them in water for 8 hours or overnight. Today that is no longer necessary. Quick cooking is the secret to producing quality pies from dried fruits without ending up with broken, mashed, or dark or yellow unpleasant color. FOLLOWING ARE A FEW FRUIT PE FILLING FORMULAS USING REGULAR STARCHES AND FILLINGS USING COLD WATER STARCHES (INSTANT STARCHES) APPLE PE FILLING USING NO. 10 CAN CANNED APPLES AND COOKING WITH REGULAR STARCH Ingredients JUICE OR WATER Pounds Ounces 2 0

PROCEDURE: BRING WATER TO BIOL Ingredients STARCH WATER Pounds Ounces 0 0 3-1/2 6

PROCEDURE: SUSPEND STARCH IN WATER. ADD TO BOILING WATER STIRRING CONSTANTLY. COOK UNTIL THICK AND CLEAR Ingredients SUGAR SUGAR, BROWN SALT Pounds Ounces 0 0 0 12 12 0-1/4TH

CINNAMON BUTTER LEMON JUICE

0 0 0

0-1/4TH 4 0-1/2

PROCEDURE: MIX DRY INGREDIENTS TOGETHER, ADD TO COOKED SLURRY. STIR UNTIL SUGAR AND SALT ARE DISSOLVED AND THE BUTTER IS MELTED. NOTE: BUTTER IS OPTIONAL. ADD LEMON JUICE AND THEN POUR COOKED SLURRY OVER FRUIT AND BLEND CAREFULLY. CHILL FILLING IN REFRIGERATOR UNTIL READY O BE USED. APPLE PIE FILLING USING NO.10 CANNED APPLES AND USING COLD WATER STARCH (INSTANT STARCH) Ingredients SUGAR SUGAR, BROWN SALT CINNAMON Pounds Ounces 0 0 0 0 12 12 0-1/4TH 0-1/4TH

PROCEDURE: BLEND ALL DRY INGREDIENTS THOROUGHLY IN A DRY BOWL. Ingredients JUICE OR WATER BUTTER LEMON JUICE Pounds Ounces 2 0 0 0TR> 4 0-1/2

PROCEDURE: GRADUALLY ADD WATER TO THE DRY MIXTURE ABOVE STIRRING CONSTANTLY UNTIL SMOOTH. ADD LEMON JUICE AND STIR INTO THE MIXTURE. POUR THICKENED MIXTURE OVER APPLES AND FOLD IN GENTLY. CHILL FILLING UNTIL READY TO BE USED. CHERRY PiE FILLING USING NO. 10 CAN CANNED CHERRIES AND COOKING WITH REGULAR STARCH Ingredients JUICE Pounds Ounces 2 0

PROCEDURE: BRING JUICE TO BIOL Ingredients STARCH WATER Pounds Ounces 0 0 4-1/2 6

PROCEDURE: SUSPEND STARCH IN WATER. ADD TO BOILING WATER STIRRING CONSTANTLY. COOK UNTIL THICK AND ORIGINAL COLOR IS OBTAINED. SHUT OFF HEAT. Ingredients SUGAR SALT BUTTER LEMON JUICE Pounds Ounces 2 0 0 0 8 0-1/4TH 4 0-1/2

PROCEDURE: MIX DRY INGREDIENTS TOGETHER, ADD TO COOKED SLURRY. STIR UNTIL SUGAR AND SALT ARE DISSOLVED AND THE BUTTER IS MELTED. NOTE: BUTTER AND LEMON JUICE ARE OPTIONAL. ADD LEMON JUICE AND THEN POUR COOKED SLURRY OVER FRUIT AND BLEND CAREFULLY. CHILL IN REFRIGERATOR UNTIL READY TO BE USED. CHERRY PIE FILLING USING NO.10 CANNED CHERRIES AND USING COLD WATER STARCH (INSTANT STARCH) Ingredients SUGAR SALT INSTANT STARCH Pounds Ounces 2 0 0 8 0-1/4TH 4-1/2

PROCEDURE: BLEND ALL DRY INGREDIENTS THOROUGHLY IN A DRY BOWL. Ingredients JUICE BUTTER LEMON JUICE Pounds Ounces 2 0 0 0TR> 4 0-1/2

PROCEDURE: GRADUALLY ADD JUICE TO THE DRY MIXTURE ABOVE STIRRING CONSTANTLY UNTIL SMOOTH. ADD LEMON JUICE AND STIR INTO THE MIXTURE. LEMON JUICE AND BUTTER ARE OPTIONAL. POUR THICKENED MIXTURE OVER CHERRIES AND FOLD IN GENTLY. CHILL FILLING UNTIL READY TO BE USED. PIE DOUGH FORMULA Ingredients PASTRY FLOUR SALT Pounds Ounces 5 0 5 3

SUGAR DRY MILK SHORTENING

0 0 3

3-1/2 1 4

PROCESURE: SIFT ALL DRY INGREDIENTS TOGETHER. BLEND SHORTENING AND DRY INGREDIENTS TO ABOUT THE SIZE OF PEAS WITH THE PASTRY BLENDOR ATTACHMENT. THIS WILL PRODUCE A SHORT FLAKE PIE CRUST. IF A LONG FLAKE IS DESIRED, BLEND THE SHORTENING AND DRY INGREDIENTS TO ABOUT THE SIZE OF WALNUTS. TO PRODUCE A MEALY PIE CRUST, BLEND THE SHORTENING AND DRY INGREDIENTS UNTIL VERY FEW LUMPS REMAIN Ingredients ICE WATER Pounds Ounces 2 0

PROCEDURE: DEMONSTRATING MIXING PIE DOUGH USING THE PASTRY BLENDER ATTACHMENT

Mixing pie dough by machine using the Pastry Blender Attachment. If PASTRY BLENDER ATTACHMENT is not available, use the MIXING PADDLE ATTACHMENT, but be very careful not to overblend the dry ingredients and the shortening. Also don't overmix the dough after the water has been added. The dough can also be mixed by hand.

Cutting pie dough mass with hand scraper prior to forming dough into a cylinder

Forming dough into a cylinder prior to scaling dough into individual size pieces

Hand scaling dough pieces for bottom and top crusts. NOTE: In large bakeries scaling of dough pieces is accomplished automatically using special machines

Hand rolling pie dough using small rolling pin

Machine rolling pie dough pieces. NOTE: Some bakeries mass produce pies using automatic pie making machines where the dough is never touched by human hands. There are also bakeries that have semi-automatic pie making machines where some procedures require that the baker do some of the work.

After the bottom crust has been placed in the pie pan, the edges of the pie dough are painted with egg wash to assist the top crust to seal to the bottom crust

Hand filling pie shell with prepared and chilled cherry pie filling. In large pie making operations this procedure is accomplished automatically by machine.

Trimming the excess dough from the pie after the top crust has been docked to let steam out of the pie and placed on top of the pie. If the top is not docked, the steam created during baking will force the top crust to break away from the bottom crust.

The pie making machine shown is capable of producing 50 or more fruit pies per minute automatically. The machine is made by the Colborne Manufacturing Co. There are other manufacturers of automatic pie making machines..

Removing excess dough for making custard pies such as pecan and pumpkin pies, etc. PECAN PIE FORMULA Ingredients Sugar, granulated Cake Flour SALT Nutmeg Eggs Karo sirup Pounds Ounces 1 1 0 0 6 10 0 0 0-1/2 0-1/2 8 0

Procedure-Place all above ingredients into mixing bowl and beat in low speed with wire whip until well mixed. Ingredients Water Vanilla Pounds Ounces 2 0 0 0-1/2

Procedure-Add water and vanilla to above mixture and continue beating in slow speed for about 2 minutes. or until well mixed. Place 0-1/2 Cup macaroon cocoanut into bottom of unbaked pie shell (OPTIONAL). Also Add 1 to 1-1/2 cups of fresh pecans to the unbaked pie shell. Place unbaked pie shells containing

cocoanut and pecan in 350 degree to 400 degree F. oven. Fill unbaked pie shell containing cocanut and pecan with prepared pecan pie filling. Bake about 30 minutes or until filling has set. PUMPKIN PIE FORMULA Ingredients Sugar,brown Salt Cinnamon Nutmeg Ginger Milk, dry Pounds Ounces 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0-1/4th 0-1/4th 0-1/4th 0-1/4th 8

Procedure-Place all above dry ingredients into mixing bowl and mix together. Ingredients Eggs, slightly beaten Pounds Ounces 1 12

Procedure-Add slightly beaten eggs to above dry ingredients and mix in. Ingredients Water Pounds Ounces 4 0

Procedure-Add water to above mixture and mix in Ingredients Pumpkin Pounds Ounces 5 0

Procedure-Add pumpkin to above mixture and mix thoroughly. Place unbaked pie shells in 350 degree to 400 degrees F. oven. Fill unbaked pie shells with pumpkin pie filling. Bake about 30 minutes or until filling has set

Filling pecan pies or pumpkin pies after the unbaked shells have been loaded into the oven.

Docking pie dough for pre-baked pie shell such as for chocolate cream pies, lemon chiffon pies, coconut cream pies, etc.

Trimming excess dough from pie dough that has been docked for pre-baked pie shell. Purpose of docking the dough is to prevent the crust from raising away from the pie plate and to prevent large bubbles from forming. FOLLOWING IS A FORMULA FOR FRESH LEMON CHIFFON PIE. NOTE: After the meringue has been folded into the hot fresh lemon filling, and the prebaked pie shell filled, the pie can be finished off by crumbling some pre-baked pie crust into a sifter and forcing it through the sifter and sifted on top of the pie. The top of the pie can be garnished by placing a MARASCHINO CHERRY in the center of the pie. If desired, rather than adding pie crumbs on top of the pie, meringue can be applied and browned off in the oven LEMON CHIFFON PIE FILLING Ingredients WATER Pounds Ounces 15 0

PROCESURE: Bring water to boil Ingredients CORNSTARCH WATER Pounds Ounces 2 3 2 0

PROCEDURE: Suspend starch in water and add to boiling water stirring constantly and cook until mixture is thick and clear. Ingredients SUGAR SALT BUTTER Pounds Ounces 9 0 0 0 0-3/4th 12

PROCEDURE: Add to cooked mixture and stir until sugar and salt are dissolved and the butter is melted.

Ingredients EGG YOLKS

Pounds Ounces 3 0

PROCEDURE: Beat egg yolks slightly. Pour 1/4th of the cooked mixture over slightly beaten egg yolks and mix thoroughly with hand wire whip. Pour the egg mixture back into the steam kettle containing 3/4th of the cooked mixture stirring constantly and bring to a boil again. Cut off heat. WASH 30 LEMONS, and grate the rind from the lemons. Squeeze the juice from the lemons and add the grated rind to the juice. Add juice and rind to the cooked mixture. DO NOT HEAT AFTER JUICE HAS BEEN ADDED OR THE ACID IN THE JUICE WILL BREAK DOWN THE STARCH. NOTE: THE MERINGUE FOR THE CHIFFON PIES ( BELOW ) SHOULD BE PREPARED AT THE SAME TIME THAT THE FILLING IS BEING COOKED. THE MERINGUE SHOULD BE FOLDED GENTLY INTO THE COOKED MIXTURE WHILE THE FILLING IS STILL HOT. POUR THE CHIFFON FILLING IN PRE-BAKED PIE SHELLS WHILE FILLING IS STILL HOT. FORMULA AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING COOKED MERINGUE Ingredients WATER Pounds Ounces 1 8

PROCEDURE: BRING WATER TO BOIL Ingredients Starch Water Pounds Ounces 0 0 3 6

PROCEDURE: Suspend starch in water, add to boiling water and cook until thick and clear Ingredients Sugar Pounds Ounces 2 10

PROCEDURE: Add sugar to cooked mixture and bring to a boil again. Remove from heat Ingredients Egg Whites Salt Pounds Ounces 1 0 12 0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Add salt to egg whites. Beat eggs in medium speed until a peak is formed on the finger when it is dipped into the whites and withdrawn. Pour hot

cooked mixture over beaten eggs in slow stream while continuing beating until the mixture forms a peak when a finger is dipped into the beaten mixture and withdrawn. Ingredients Vanilla Pounds Ounces 0 0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Add vanilla to meringue and stir in. Apply on top of Cream Pie or chiffon pie while meringue is still warm. Bake at 375 Degrees F. until golden brown. NOTE: THIS MERINGUE WILL NOT BREAK DOWN AND BECOME WATERY.

Filling pre-baked pie shell with cream or chiffon pie filling directly from the steam kettle.

Spreading meringue on top of cream pie or chiffon pie using spatula

Three types of pies, pre-baked pie shell filled with Cream Filling or Chiffon Filling and topped with meringue, Double Crust Cherry Fruit Pie, and One Crust Custard Pie (Pumpkin Pie). This completes PART NINE on Pies.

PART TEN - Cake Ingredient Functions, Formula Balancing , Mixing Procedures and Small Quantity Baking Cake Formulas
Questions or Comments

CAKE IS A BAKED BATTER MADE FROM SUGAR, EGGS, SHORTENING, MILK AND LEAVENING MIXED TOGETHER IN SUCH A WAY TO PRODUCE A FLUFFY, FINE GRAINED BAKED PRODUCT. THERE ARE TWO BASIC TYPES, "BATTER TYPE" WHICH CONTAINS A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF SHORTENING AND THE "FOAM TYPE" WHICH CONTAINS LITTLE, IF ANY SHORTENING AT ALL. FROM THESE TWO BASIC MIXES, MANY VARIETIES OF CAKES CAN BE MADE. QUALITY CAKES DEPEND ON MANY FACTORS SUCH AS INGREDIENTS USED, MIXING METHOD, BATTER TEMPERATURE, BAKING, ETC. BALANCING OF CAKE FORMULAS WILL ALSO BE DISCUSSED IN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS:

INGREDIENTS
Each ingredient used in cake baking is employed for the specific characteristics it has and/or the result it has on the finished product. If these effects are understood, the ingredients may be selected with the assurance that the products produced will be good.. Flour. Flour is the primary structure builder in most cakes. The gluten formed during mixing coagulates during baking and assists in supporting the heavy weight of sugar and shortening. Cake flour used in cake baking is made from soft wheats. Flours milled for bread baking will be made from hard wheat. Cake flour should have a low protein content (7 to 9 percent). Cake flour should be properly bleached, because bleaching helps to carry more sugar and shortening as well as water during mixing. Cake flour should also have a P.H. of around 5.2 which is slightly acid. This acidity helps to mellow or soften the gluten. Sugar. Sugar is used in cake as a sweetener. Sugar is considered a tenderizer because of its tenderizing effect resulting from the softening action on flour proteins. Sugar lowers the carmelization point of the batter, allowing the cake crust to color at a lower temperature. Sugar helps to retain moisture left in the baked cake after baking thereby keeping the cake moist and edible for several days. A portion (about 50 percent) but not all of the sugar may be replaced with sirup. When this is done, the liquid content of the sirup must be deducted from the liquid going into the mix. For example, if 50 pounds of cane sugar is to be replaced with a sirup containing 80 percent sugar solids, it will be necessary to divide 50 pounds of needed sugar solids 50, by 80 percent (the percentage of sugar solids contained in the sirup) equals 62.5 pounds of sirup to use. Multiply 62.5 pounds of sirup times 20 percent (the percentage of water in the sirup) equals 12.5 pounds of water in 62.5 pounds of sirup. Subtract 12 pounds of water from the amount of water called for in the formula so the water content of the formula will remain constant. The greater the percentage of sugar contained in the formula, the longer the cake will stay fresh. The amount to use will be covered later under formula balance. For optimum results, sugar must be completely dissolved in the batter. This is the reason why in balancing a cake formula, especially in HIGH RATIO CAKES (Cakes containing greater quantities of sugar and water than flour in the formula) water must exceed the sugar in the formula. Salt. Salt is used primarily for taste and to tone down the sweetness.

Shortening. Shortening incorporates air in the cake batter during mixing. This air helps to obtain volume in the baked cake. It also tenderizes the cake. In making HIGH RATIO cakes, an emulsified shortening must be used to form an emulsion. Regular shortening is not capable of forming an emulsion when large amounts of sugar and liquid are used. If not enough liquid is used to dissolve the sugar, the cake will collapse in the center. Eggs. Eggs furnish structure, moisture, flavor, color, and food value to the cake. Their most valuable contribution is structure. The proteins in the eggs coagulates during baking and assists the flour as a structure builder. Egg is the only ingredient that can be used to regulate the toughening action in a cake. If a weak flour is used, the eggs can be increased. If the percentage of shortening (a tenderizer) called for in the formula is increased, the eggs must be increased also. It is important to know the percentages of fat, moisture, and protein content of eggs when balancing cake formulas. To get the same amount of solids when using egg whites in lew of whole eggs, the amount of egg whites would have to be increased and the moisture going into the mix must be decreased. To get the same amount of moisture when using egg yolks in lew of whole eggs, the moisture content must be increased. The amount of eggs to use in a cake formula will be discussed in formula balance. Milk Solids. Milk solids have a binding effect on the protein of the flour, thereby increasing the toughness in a cake. A portion of the total solids in milk contain lactose sugar, which carmelizes at a low temperature (270 to 275 degrees F.). It is used to control crust color. It, along with the proteins in milk, adds food value and flavor to the cake, and helps to retain moisture in the cake. If liquid milk is used in lew of dry milk powder, it will be necessary to know the liquid content of the milk in order to make adjustments to the formula so the formula can be properly balanced. The various types of milk are composed of the following percentages of components: Fresh whole milk is composed of 8.5 percent solids; 3.5 percent butterfat; 88 percent water. Milk, Dry Whole is composed of 72 percent solids; 26 percent butterfat; 2 percent water. Milk, Solids Nonfat is composed of 97 percent solids; 1.5 percent butterfat; 1.5 percent water. Leavening. Cakes are leavened mainly in three ways. Incorporation of air during mixing, chemically leavened and vapor pressure created in the oven. The manner of leavening depends upon the type of cake being made in regard richness of formula, consistency of batter and baking temperature. Cakes low in water and high in ennriching ingredients get a larger amount of leavening during mixing and require less chemical leaveners than cakes made from lean formulas high in liquids. In addition to leavening the cake, chemical leaveners control the eating qualities of the cake. Excess soda , for example results in an undesirable "soapy taste". Baking Soda is necessary to produce the rich red color in Devils Food Cake. However, one must be careful not to use too much soda in the formula. To produce a chocolate cake having a brown crumb color rather than a red crumb color, Baking Soda must be left out. Some types of cakes require no chemical leavening. Examples are the true Pound Cake and the Basic Sponge Cake. These two cakes are leavened entirely by physical means such as air incorporated in the batter during mixing and vapor pressure created during

baking. This is the reason why these types of cakes require a longer mixing period and precise control of temperature of the batter during mixing. Liquids. Liquids in some form is required in every cake formula. The liquid may be in the form of water, liquid milk, eggs or any other ingredient which contain water. Water has several functions in cake production. It developes the gluten, dissolves the sugar, makes the function of baking powder possible, regulates the batter consistency, and controls the temperature of the batter. It is possible to carefully regulate the water portion of the formula by figuring the liquid content of any liquid ingredient used in the batter. The amount of water going into the cake formula is partially controlled by the type of shortening used. An emulsified type shortening will carry considerably more water in the mix, thus allowing the use of more sugar such as in High Ratio Cakes The total liquids (Liquid in the form of water and the liquid contained in the eggs) should always equal or exceed the weight of the sugar in the formula, because all of the sugar in the formula must be dissolved to produce a quality cake. Formula Balance. In order to create a cake batter that will produce high quality cakes, certain amounts of the different ingredients have to be put together in a definite sequence at controlled mixing speed, time and temperature. The general relationship of ingredients that have to be brought into balance, differ according to the type of cake to be produced. In other words, the formula balance for batter cakes differs considerably from that of the foam type cake (Sponge cake and Angel food cake). These will be discussed separately. The following general rules apply to Batter type cakes: RULE 1. The weight of the sugar should equal or exceed the weight of the flour. There is a top limit, of course in the amount of sugar which can go into a cake. For White and Yellow Layer Cakes, 145 percent sugar-flour ratio seems to be about the generally accepted practical top limit. Higher sugar-flour ratios are possible in cakes containing cocoa or chocolate. The more cocoa or chocolate used in the formula, the higher the sugar-flour ratio can be. The amount of liquid also become significant in determining the amount of sugar to use. When RULE NO. 1 is applied and a specific amount of sugar is selected, both the amount of sugar and the amount of flour become fixed. To set up the formula, it then becomes necessary to consider the amount of shortening, eggs and liquid which can be used. As the percentage of shortening is increased, the percentage of eggs must be increased by the same amount. This is due to the fact that shortening is a tenderizer and to keep the cake from being over tenderized, additional structure in the form of eggs is needed. RULE 2. The weight of eggs should equal or exceed the weight of the shortening. In applying this rule, the type of cake desired must be considered. For example, a true pound cake will have equal parts of shortening or butter, sugar.flour and eggs. A high ratio layer cake will have about 50 or 60 percent as much shortening as flour and the eggs should at least equal the amount of shortening in the mix. Eggs generally exceed the shortening by 5 or 10 percent. Since shortening carries air into the batter, a cake with a high percentage of shortening will be classified as a rich formula. The air carried by the shortening will result in less chemical leavening being needed. RULE 3. The combined weight of the eggs plus the liquid, should equal or exceed the weight of the sugar. In layer type cakes, the weight of the liquids usually exceed the

sugar by 20 t0 30 percent. In devils food cake, the liquids usually exceed the sugar by 40 to 50 percent. In pound cakes, best results are obtained if the liquids and sugar are nearly equal because pound cake batter needs to be slightly thicker. SPONGE CAKE. The basic sponge cake is composed of flour, eggs, sugar, salt and vanilla. Following is an example of a Basis Spong Formula In Baker's Percent: Ingredients Flour, cake Sugar Eggs Salt Percent 100 166 166 3

Economical Sponge Cake By the addition of flour to the above Basis Formula, the following rules may be applied to produce a more economical cake: For each part of flour added, add the following: 0.75 to 1 part Sugar; 0.75 to 1 part Liquid Milk; 0.015 to 0.030 parts Baking Powder; 0.03 parts salt, and 0.01 part Vanilla. Mixing Procedure. Heat equal parts of sugar and eggs to 110 Degrees F. Whip the egg and sugar mixture until a crease forms and remains without closing up when a couple of fingers are dragged across the top of the mixture. Dissolve the added sugar and liquid milk and add alternately with the flour when the flour is folded in (Do not overmix) when flour is folded in. Following are examples of balancing Cake Formulas: Layer Cakes (In Baker's Percent). Ingredients Flour, Cake sugar shortening, emulsified Eggs, Whole Salt Milk, Dry Nonfat Baking Powder Liquids-water+eggs Minimum Maximum 100 100 30 30 2 7 3 100 100 145 60 70 4 15 6 125

Pound Cake (In Baker's Percent). Ingredients Flour, Cake sugar shortening, emulsified Minimum Maximum 100 100 40 100 125 100

Eggs, Whole Salt Baking Powder Liquids-water+eggs

40 2 0 100

100 3 2 125

Note: For White Pound Cake use Egg Whites instead of Whole Eggs and use10 t0 20 Percent more Whites than Shortening and use 2 to 4 Percent Baking Powder. This completes the information on ingredients used in cake baking, their functions and also information on formula balance. Examples of formula balance are also included. Cake Mixing Procedures. There are several ways to mix Batter-Type Cakes. The preferred way of mixing is the 2-stage method because of its simplicity and small chance for error. Regardless of the method used, the bowl must be scraped frequently to keep the batter smooth at all times. The shortening should be plastic, not too hard or too soft. The mixer should be started and run in slow speed until all the ingredients are combined to prevent splashing. Use the correct size bowl for the amount of batter being mixed. Have just enough batter in the bowl to cover the mixing paddle. The finished batter should be between72 and 78 degrees F. Two-Stage Method. Carefully weigh all the ingredients. 1. Sift all dry ingredients together including the dry milk when used.. Place the shortening, dry ingredients, and about 75 percent of the water into the mixing bowl. Mix for 3 minutes at medium speed ( 2nd speed in a 3 speed machine). Scrape bowl down thoroughly. 2. Combine eggs, remaining water and vanilla. Add slowly to ingredients in mixing bowl while mixing in slow speed. Scrape bowl down again. Mix for 3 minutes in medium speed. Streamlined Method. Place all ingredients, except eggs, in the mixing bowl. 1. Using the wire beater attachment, beat the batter at high speed for about 1 minute. 2. Add the eggs and stir in slow speed for about 1 minute. This method requires a slight reduction in baking powder (about 20 percent less) due to the greater aeration of the batter during mixing. Sugar Water Method. Place all of the sugar and slightly half the weight of the water in the mixing bowl. 1. Agitate the mixture for about 30 seconds, or intil the sugar is dessolved. (Remember to reduce the baking powder by approximately 20 percent). 2. Add the dry ingredients and the shortening and mix until the batter is smooth.

3. Add the eggs and the remaining water, and mix until the batter is smooth. Flour-Shortening Method (Blending Method). In the blending method, place the flour and shortening in the mixing bowl. Blend them together until the flour particles are thoroughly coated by the fat. 1. The remaining dry ingredients (sugar, salt, baking powder, and dry milk when used used) are then added and blended well. 2. About 75 percent of the liquid is added and the mixture is mixed until it is homogeneous. 3. The remaining liquid, including the eggs is added in small portions and the mixing is continued for about 5 minutes, making sure to scrape the bowl occasionally to assure a smooth batter. Foam Type Cakes. Sponge and angel food cakes are mixed differently from batter-type cakes because is necessary to incorporate airinto the mix to obtain the desired volume. The eggs are beaten with a portion of the sugar and salt to form a foamy mass. When liquid is included in the formula, it is added gradually to the beaten egg, sugar, and salt mixture. The flour, starch when used, and the baking powder are sifted together and gently folded into the whipped mixture. 1. Sponge Cake-Regular. When whole eggs or egg yolks are used in the sponge mix, the volume will be improved if they are mixed with the sugar and salt and heated over a hot water bath to a temperature of 100 to 110 degrees F. The sugar will dissolve more readily and become more evenly distributed as when making jelly rolls. Do not overheat the eggs, because if the eggs are partially cooked, the volume of the finished product will be reduced. Beat the mixture until it is light and until it will hold a crease when a finger in drawn across the top of the batter. To aid the rolling process when making jelly rolls, a portion of the sugar can be substituted with sirup. Angel Food Cake. Angel Food Cake is prepared from egg whites, granulated sugar, salt, vanilla and cream of tartar, and flour. Mixing Method. (Make sure the mixing bowl and the beater are free of any grease). 1. Using a wire beater, beat the egg whites, cream of tarter, salt and vanilla until foamy. The egg whites should be fairly cool (about70 degrees F.) 2. Add approximately one-half the sugar in a slow stream, and beat to a wet peak (the foam will form a peak and will feel wet to the finger) . Note: When the peak feels dry to the finger, the mixture has been overbeaten. 3. Sift the flour and the remaining sugar 5 times and gently fold this mixture into the beaten mixture. Note: Normally the folding step is done by hand, but can be done with the machine if done very carefully. As soon as all the lumps disappears, quit folding.

4. After completing the folding step, deposit the mixture into grease free Angel Food pans and bake at about 400 Degrees F. 5. Place baked cake upside down on a wire cooling rack until thoroughly cooled before removing from the pan. If this is not done the cake will shrink and be low in volume. <B. Chiffon cakes are another variation of foam cakes. These formulas contain a high percentage of liquid, with egg yolks and egg whites forming the greatest portion of the liquid. The aeration comes from two sources, the air beaten into the egg whites, and the baking powder incorporated as part of the other ingredients. Salad oil makes up the shortening of the mix. Except for the higher egg content and salad oil used, the formulas are very similar to high sugar layer cake formulas. The mixing procedure consists of two stages as follows: 1. All the ingredients except the egg whites and about one-half the sugar are mixed to form a batter. To make a lemon or orange shiffon cake, a small amount of lemon juice or orange juice may be added, or the extract can be used. 2. The egg whites, the remaining 0ne-half of the sugar the cream of tartar, and vanilla are whipped separately to form a medium peak as in Angel Food Cake. Remember that the bowl and wire attachment should be free of grease. 3. The batter which was mixed previously, is gently folded into the beaten meringue. The principle of baking is the same as for Angel Food Cake, except the oven temperature should be slightly lower, about 350- to 375 degrees F. The cake is usally baked in an Angel Food Cake pan, but can be baked in layer cake pans or sheet pans. SMALL QUANTITY BATTER CAKE FORMULAS. CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING MIXING METHODS WHICH WAS DISCUSSED ABOVE: (1) TWO-STAGE METHOD (2) STREAMLINED METHOD (3) SUGAR-WATER METHOD (4) FLOUR -SHORTENING METHOD (Blending method). YELLOW CAKE FORMULA-LOW SUGAR (Equal amounts of flour and sugar. INGREDIENT Flour, Cake Sugar, granulated Salt Baking powder Milk, nonfat dry Shortening,emulsified Eggs, whole Water Vanilla POUNDS OUNCES 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 5 1/2 3/4th 2 9-3/4thTR> 10-1/2 0 0-1/2

HIGH RATIO YELLOW CAKE (120 PERCENT SUGAR) INGREDIENT Flour, Cake Sugar, granulated Salt Baking powder Milk, dry nonfat Shortening, emulsified Eggs, whole Water Vanilla 0 POUNDS OUNCES 3 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 9-1/2 1-1/2 3 2-1/2 12 13 12 1-1/4

DEVILS FOOD CAKE. The mixed batter need not be rushed to the oven, because it is is stable since it contains Double Action Baking Powder. INGREDIENT Flour, cake Sugar, granulated Salt Baking powder Baking soda Cocoa Milk, dry nonfat Shortening, emulsified Eggs, whole Water Vanilla POUNDS OUNCES 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 11-1/4th 9-1/2 1-1/4th 0-3/4th 1-1/2 8-3/4th 2TR> 12 10 10 1-1/4th

DEVILS FOOD CAKE. Note: Baking Soda and vinegar is used instead of Baking Powder, so this batter must be baked as soon as it is finished mixing since Soda and vinigar are not double acting. INGREDIENT Flour, cake Sugar, granulated Salt Baking soda Cocoa Milk, dry nonfat POUNDS OUNCES 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 6-1/2 1/2 3/4th 3-1/2 2TR>

Shortening, emulsified Eggs, whole Water Vinegar Vanilla

0 0 1 0 0

9-1/4th 10 1-1/2 0-3/4th 0-3/4th

SPICE CAKE-HIGH RATIO(117 PERCENT SUGAR). INGREDIENT Flour, cake Sugar, granulated Salt Baking soda Baking powder Cloves Allspice Cinnamon Milk, dry nonfat Shortening, emulsified Eggs, whole Water Molasses Vanilla BANANA CAKE. INGREDIENT Flour, cake Sugar, granulated Salt Baking soda Baking powder Milk, dry nonfat Shortening, emulsified Bananas, peeled Eggs, whole Water Vanilla POUNDS OUNCES 3 3 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0-1-1/4TH 1-1/4TH 1-1/2 1 6TR> 12 8 2 1-1/4th POUNDS OUNCES 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 9 0-1-1/2 0-1/2 2 0-1/2 0-1/2 1 3-3/4th 14 12 0 8 1-1/4th

GINGERBREAD. . INGREDIENT Flour, cake Sugar, granulated Salt Baking soda Baking powder Ginger Cinnamon Shortening, emulsified Molasses Eggs, whole Water Vanilla SPONGE CAKE. . INGREDIENT Sugar, granulated Eggs, whole Egg yolk Salt POUNDS OUNCES 1 1 0 0 10 0 10 0-1/2 POUNDS OUNCES 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 14 11 0-1/2 0-3/4TH 0-1/2 0-1/2 0-1/2 9TR> 8 8 0 1-1/4th

MIXING PROCEDURE. Place all above ingredients in mixing bowl and heat over hot water bath to 110 degrees F. Beat with wire beater until light and thick. INGREDIENT Sirup Water Vanilla POUNDS OUNCES o 0 0 5 10 0-1/2

MIXING PROCEDURE. Combine sirup, water, and vanilla and heat in a separate container over a hot water bath to 160 degrees F. Add slowly to the whipped mixture and mix 1/2 minute in slow speed. INGREDIENT Flour cake Milk dry non fat Baking powder POUNDS OUNCES 1 0 0 8 2 0-1/2

MIXING PROCEDURE.Sift flour, milk dry nonfat, and baking powder twice, and fold into above mixture by hand. Grease layer cake pans and deposit 8 ounces of the sponge batter in each 8-inch pan. For 13 inch to 18 inch sheet pan, scale 2 pounds 12 ounces of the sponge batter in each pan. Bake at 400 degrees F for about 10 minutes. Note: To make jelly rolls, place a sheet of parchment paper on the work bench, sift a thin coating of powdered sugar on top of the paper. As soon as the cake comes out of the oven, dump the sheet of baked cake onto the sugared paper. Spread1 pound of jelly over the hot cake and roll into jelly roll. This completes the information Cake Baking. < P>