Physiology of the Muscular System

A. General Functions 1. Movement 2. Heat Production a. How? via catabolism b. Skeletal muscle contractions contribute important part of homeostasis of body T. 3. Posture c. Continued, partial contraction of many skeletal muscles help make every day movements relatively stable (sitting, standing, walking, running ) B. Characteristics or properties of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 1. Excitability (aka irritability) a. Ability to be stimulated allows for response by muscle tissue to nerve signals. 2. Contractility a. Ability to contract or shorten which pulls on bones for movement. 3. Extensibility a. Ability to extend or stretch; allows for muscles to return to resting length C. Overview of the Muscle Cell 1. Structural Terms a. Fiber: cell (muscle fibers rather than muscle cells due to threadlike shape) b. Sarcolemma: plasma membrane c. Sarcoplasm: cytoplasm 2+ d. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (pumps in Ca ): analogous, but not identical to endoplasmic reticulum e. Muscle fibers contain numerous mitochondria (ATP producers) and several nuclei (protein synthesis) f. One muscle fiber consists of i.Many myofibrils which consist of y Many myofilaments (thick and thin) g. T tubules (transverse tubules): unique to muscle fibers; allow electric signals or impulses sarcolemma to move deeper into cell D. The Sarcomere 1. Basic contractile unit of the muscle fiber a. Z-line or Z-disk: thin filaments directly attach to the disk; Z-line to Z-line = 1 sarcomere b. M line: made of protein molecules that hold together and stabilize thick filaments (myosin) c. A band: runs entire length of thick filaments d. I band: includes Z-line and ends of thin filaments e. H zone: middle region of thick filaments f. Elastic filaments: titin (connectin); thought to give myofibrils elasticity g. Dystrophin: helps anchor fiber to surrounding matrix so muscle doesn t break during a contraction. E. Myofilaments 1. Each muscle fiber has 1000+ myofibrils a. Myofibril contains 1000+ myofilaments i.4 different proteins: (pg. 315, fig. 11-4 a, b, & c at bottom) y Myosin (thick) (compare to golf clubs) myosin heads have chem. Attraction to actin y Heads called cross bridges when attached to actin y Actin (thin) (beads): active binding sites are on actin but are covered by tropomyosin at rest y Tropomyosin (thin): covers active sites of actin during rest; held in place by troponin y Troponin (thin): spaced at intervals on thin filament; thought to hold tropomyosin in place F. Mechanism of Contraction 1. http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/movies/actin_myosin_gif.html 2. http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/041393878/student/animations/actin_myosin/actin_myosin.swf 3. The players of excitation of the sarcolemma: a. Motor neuron b. Motor endplate

Myosin cross bridges. 324. Smooth. Contraction phase Ca binds to troponin and sliding begins 2+ c. fast. Muscle Tone 1. 11-11 a. Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs 1. Myography muscle graphing a.Energy Sources for Muscle Contraction 1. Muscle Relaxation 2+ a. A. ATP a. Treppe: The Staircase Phenomenon a. d. Ca combine with troponin which causes tropomyosin to shift exposing the active sites of actin. Terms i. & intermediate fibers. 323. http://bioactive. store O2 by binding to myoglobin (red muscle vs. can no longer sustain the contraction d. Catabolism of glucose releases energy to be stored in CP and ATP b. 2+ b. A muscle contract more forcefully after it has contracted a few times than when it first contracts b. Relaxtion phase Ca pumped back to SR 4. white fibers or pink tone) c. Glucose and Oxygen a. Troponin loses Ca and tropomyosin recovers the open bonding sites. Electrical impulse continues inwardly along T tubules which triggers Ca2+ to be release from SR. Myosin heads bind to active sites and pull thin myofilaments past them. Flaccid: not firm or stiff . c. box 11-5 Sports and Fitness a. After SR releases Ca . fig. Threshold (electrical) stimulus applied to produce a twitch contraction 3. Kind of contraction exhibited by normal skeletal muscle most of the time I. Neuromuscular junction (synapse) d. Motor neuron and all muscle fibers to which it attaches b.mrkirkscience. fig. Muscle fibers return to resting length G. Myosin heads release (ATP) from active site only to bind to the next active site pulling again. Anaero: very rapid process c. Motor Unit pg. it begins pumping the ions back into the SR. (Heat Production) a. c. Contraction (Sliding Filament Theory) a. As a rule: the fewer fibers innervated by motor neuron. Hypothalamus determines drop in T compared to set point T (37°C). Warm muscles have more rapid Ca2+ diffusion and accumulation in sarcoplasm occurs 5. 11-12) 2+ a. 322 fig. Breakdown of Creatine phosphate releases energy to resynthesize ADP + P ATP 2. Anaero: lactic acid buildup carried to liver and converted back to glucose build up of lactic acid causes burning sensation 4. the more precise the movements 2.c. Read pg. Latent period: stimulus travels through sarcolemma and T tubules to SR triggers Ca release 2+ b. Tetanus a. signals skeletal muscles to shiver to T. Muscle fibers store glucose in form of glycogen. Read box 11-4 on pg.html 5. The Twitch Contraction (pg. 323. 320. Acetylcholine [ACD] (neurotransmitter) 4. 11-13 c & d) b. ATP binds to myosin and then hydrolysis occurs to release energy and Pi c. Hydrolysis RX b. unable to bind to open sites. 2+ b. Aerobic Respiration vs. Compare/contrast slow. H. Aero: max amount of energy b. e. sustained contractions (pg. Anaerobic Respiration a.com/38/ch38intro. 3.

multiunit i. Myopathies: muscle disorders a. # of fibers contracting simultaneously c. Muscle Injury 3. Read pg. No T tubules 2+ b. No tetanic contractions thus ATP does not run low bringing fatigue f. v. Sustains impulse longer Ca remains in Sarcoplasm longer e. 332 & 333 2. Muscular Dystrophy 5. Hernias .Multiunit individual fibers: respond to nervous input (blood vessels) K.Recruitment: the orderly increase in number of activated motor units with increasing strength of voluntary muscle contractions. Myasthenia Gravis 6. tension changes (dynamic tension) pushing on wall or wall sits J. Smooth Muscle a. Visceral vs. Synctium (group contracts together) b.Spastic: involuntary and abnormal contraction of muscle or muscle fibers or of a hollow organ that consists largely of involuntary muscle fibers iii.Length-tension relationship. Muscle Infections 4. Self-exciting 2+ d.Spinal reflex: any reflex action mediated through a center of the spinal cord. Ca comes from extracellular fluid c. Isotonic: = tension. iv. Isotonic and Isometric Contractions a.ii. no striations d. length changes (static tension) lifting weights b. Amount of load 3. Recruitment of other motor units will increase strength d. The Graded Strength Principle a.Visceral peristalsis: autorhythmic contractions that push contents progressively through lumen of tracts ii.short initial length (sarcomeres already compressed) or overextension weakens (thick and thin myofilaments are too far away from each other) 2. thus. Isometric: same length. Mechanisms of Disease 1. Cardiac Muscle a. Intercalated disks c. Characteristics of Cardiac and Smooth Muscle 1. Sarcomeres present. Not organized into sarcomeres. fibers have striated appearance 2. Metabolic condition (ATP/oxygen/glucose levels) b.

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