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Notes on LEA 6 14.

Islam Democracy – Known as Islamic democracy, two


kinds of democratic states can be recognized in the
I. Different forms of government and their Islamic countries.
functions:  A democratic state which recognizes Islam as
1. Anarchy – From the Greek word anarchia “without state religion.
ruler”. May refer to the following:  A democratic state which endeavor to institute
 No rulership or enforced authority. Sharia.
 Absence of government. 15. Liberal Democracy – or Constitutional Democracy is
 A social state in which there is no governing the dominant form of democracies in the 21 st century.
person or group of person, but each individual Liberal democracies may take various constitutional
has absolute liberty. forms:
 Absence or non-recognition of authority and  Republics as the US or India or France
order in any given sphere.  Constitutional Monarchy as UK or Spain
2. Aristocracy – Derived from the Greek word 16. Messianic Democracy – Is a neologism used by Jacob
aristokratia “the rule of the best”. Aristocracy is a form Talmon.
of government in which a select few as most wise, 17. Non-Partisan Democracy – Also “no-party
strong or contributing citizens rule, often starting as a democracy”. Is a system of representative government
system of cooption where a council of prominent or organization such that universal and periodic
citizens add, leading soldiers, merchants, land owners, elections take place without reference to political
priest, or lawyers. parties.
3. Authoritarianism – It is a political system controlled 18. Participatory Democracy – Sometimes called “direct
by non-elected rulers who usually permit some degree democracy” is a process promoted by the New Left in
of individual freedom. the early 1960s and on the 1980s, emphasizing the broad
4. Totalitarianism – Considered being an extreme version participation of constituents in the direction and
of authoritarianism. operation of political systems.
5. Autocracy – Is a form of government in which the 19. Religious Democracy – Means that the values of
political power is held by a single, self-appointed ruler. religion play a role in the public arena in a society
6. Communist State – Characterized by a single-party populated by religious people.
ruler of a Communist party and a professed allegiance to 20. Representative Democracy – Founded on the principle
a communist ideology as the guiding principle of the of elected individuals representing the people, as
state. opposed to either autocracy or direct democracy.
7. Confederation – Usually created by treaty but often 21. Republican Democracy – Is a republic which has
later adopting a common constitution, confederation democratic forms of government. One of the key
tend to established for dealing with critical issues. principal is free and open debate prior to casting a vote.
8. Corporatocracy/Corpocracy – Is a form of 22. Social Democracy – Is a political ideology of the left or
government where a corporation, a group of centre-left that emerged in the late 19th century from the
corporations, or government entities with private socialist movement and continues to exert influence
components, controls the direction and governance of a worldwide.
country. 23. Sociocracy – Is a system of governance using consent-
9. Consociational State – A state which has major internal based decision making among equivalent individuals
divisions along ethnic, religious, or linguistic lines. Ex. and an organizational structure based on cybernetic
Belgium, Lebanon, Switzerland. principles.
10. Demarchy – “Dem” being short for demos meaning 24. Soviet Democracy – Sometimes referred to as “council
people, and “archy” meaning rule. Is a hypothetical democracy” is a form of democracy in which workers’
political system run by randomly selected decision councils called “soviets”, consisting of worker-elected
makers who have been selected by sortition. Referred to delegates, form organs of power possessing both
as “democracy without elections”. legislative and executive power.
11. Direct Democracy – Classically termed pure 25. Totalitarian Democracy – Is a term made famous by
democracy, comprises a form of democracy and theory Israeli historian J.L. Talmon to refer to a system of
of civics wherein sovereignty is lodge in the assembly government in which lawfully elected representatives
of all citizens who choose to participate. maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens,
12. Grassroots Democracy – Is a tendency towards while granted the right to vote, have little or no
designing political processes where as much decision- participation in the decision-making process of the
making authority as practical shifted to the government.
organization’s lowest geographic level of organization.
13. Illiberal Democracy – Is a governing system in which
although fairly free elections take place, citizens are cut
off from real power due to the lack of civil liberties.