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ISSN(P): 2319-3972; ISSN(E): 2319-3980

Vol. 5, Issue 1, Dec - Jan 2016, 1-14

© IASET

PSO, SA, PS, GODLIKE, CUCKOO, FF, FP, ALO, GSA and MVO

1

CHRISTU NESAM DAVID. D, 2S. ELIZABETH AMUDHINI STEPHEN & 3AJAY JOE, A

1

Scholar, Karunya University, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India

2

Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics Karunya University, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India

3

Scholar, Karunya University, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India

ABSTRACT

The objective functions used in Engineering Optimization are complex in nature with many variables and

constraints. Conventional optimization tools sometimes fail to give global optima point. Very popular methods like

Genetic Algorithm, Pattern Search, Simulated Annealing, and Gradient Search are useful methods to find global optima

related to engineering problems. This paper attempts to use new non-traditional optimization algorithms which are used to

find the minimum cost of designing welded beam to obtain global optimum solutions. The cost, number of iterations and

the total elapsed time to complete the problems are all compared using these ten non-traditional optimization methods.

KEYWORDS: Welded Beam Design, Pattern Search, Simulate Annealing, Pattern Search, GODLIKE, Cuckoo Search,

Firefly Algorithm, Flower Pollination, Ant Lion Optimizer, Gravitational Search Algorithm, Multi-Verse Optimizer

INTRODUCTION

Welding can be defined as a process of joining metallic parts by heating to a suitable temperature with or without

the application of pressure. Welding is an economical and efficient method for obtaining a permanent joint of metallic

parts. There are two distinct applications of welded joints.

Welding process are broadly classified with the following two groups

• Welding process that use heat alone to join the two parts

• Welding process that use a combination of heat and pressure to join the two parts. (Bhandari.V.B)

The welding process that uses heat alone is called fusion welding process. In this method the parts to be joined are

held in position and molten metal is supplied to the joint. The molten metal can come either from the parts themselves

called Parent metal or external filler metal is supplied to the joint. The joining surface of two parts becomes plastic or even

molten under the action of heat. When the joint solidifies, the two parts fuse into a single unit.

A beam is a member subjected to loads applied transverse to the long dimension, causing the member to bend.

Beams are frequently classified on the basis of supports or reactions. A beam supported by pins, rollers or smooth surfaces

at the ends is called simple beam. A beam support will develop a reaction normal to the beam but will not produce a

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

2 Christu Nesam David. D, S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen & Ajay Joe, A

moment at the reactions. If either or both ends of a beam projects beyond the supporters, it is called simple beam with

overhang.

Description

A beam A is to be welded to a rigid member B. The welded beam is to consist of 1010 steel and is to support a

force P of 6000 lb. The dimensions of the beam are to be selected so that the system cost is minimized. A schematic of the

system is shown in the figure 1.

The diagram illustrates a rigid member (A) welded onto a beam. A load is applied to the end of the member. The

beam is to be optimized for minimum cost by varying the weld and member dimensions

X = ( h, l , t , b ) = ( x , x , x , x )

1 2 3 4 .

This includes limits of the shear stress, bending stress, buckling load and end deflection. The variables x1 and x2

are integer multiples of 0.0625 inch, but for this application are assumed continuous. (Amie Mesari, 2012) (Hong-Shaung

Li, Siu-Hui Au, 2010)

PARAMETERS:

E = 30 ×10 6 psi

G = 12 ×10 6 psi

L = 14 in

τ = 13600 psi

max

σ = 30000 psi

max

Cost Minimization of Welded Beam Design Problem Using 3

PSO, SA, PS, Godlike, Cuckoo, FF, FP, ALO, GSA and MVO

δ = 0.25 in

max

Load (lb)

P = 6000 lb

COST FUNCTION:

The performance index appropriate to this design is the cost of a weld assembly. The major cost components of

such an assembly are (1) set up labour cost, (2) welding labour cost, and (3) material cost:

f (X ) = C +C + C

0 1 2

C = set up cost

0

1

C = material cost

2

Setup Cost C

0

The company has chosen to make this component a weldment, because of the existence of a welding assembly

line. Furthermore, assume that fixtures for setup and holding of the bar during welding are readily available. The cost C

0

1

Assume that the welding will be done by machine at a total cost of $10/hr (including operating and maintenance

expense). Furthermore, suppose that the machine can lay down a cubic inch of weld in 6 min. The labour cost is then

$ 1 hr min $

C = 10 6 V = 1 3 Vw

1 hr 60 min w

in 3 in

w

Material Cost C :

2

C =C V + C V

2 3 w 4 B

3

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

4 Christu Nesam David. D, S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen & Ajay Joe, A

4

B

1

V = 2 h2 l = h2 l

w 2

V = x2x

weld 1 2

And

V = t b (L + l )

B ’

V = x x (L + x )

bar 3 4 2

f ( X ) = h 2 l + C h 2 l + C t b (L + l )

3 4

(3 1 2 4 3 4

)

f ( X ) = 1 + C x 2 x + C x x (14.0 + x )

2

1 2 3 4 2

Weld stress

x

τ ( X ) = τ 2 + 2τ τ cos θ + τ 2 Where cos θ = 2

1 1 2 2 2R

Weld stress has two components τ and τ , where τ the primary stress acting over the weld throat area and τ

1 2 1 2

is a secondary torsional stress.

P 6000

τ = =

1 2 x x 2 x x

1 2 1 2

Cost Minimization of Welded Beam Design Problem Using 5

PSO, SA, PS, Godlike, Cuckoo, FF, FP, ALO, GSA and MVO

MR

τ =

2 J

x

M = P L + 2 = 84000 + 3000 x

2 2

2

x2 x + x

R = 2 + 1 3

4 2

x 2 x + x 2

J = 2 2 x x 2 + 1 3

1 2 12 2

Bar bending stress: The maximum bending stress can be shown to be equal to

6 PL = 504000

σ (X )=

x x2 x x2

4 3 4 3

Bar deflection. To calculate the deflection, assume the bar to be a cantilever of length

4 PL3 = 2 . 1952

δ (X ) =

E x3x x3x

3 4 3 4

x2x6

4.013 E 3 4

36 x3 E

P (X ) = 1− = 64746.022 (1 − 0.028234 x ) x x 3

c 4G 3 3 4

L2

2L

CONSTRAINT:

The shear stress at the beam support location cannot exceed the maximum allowable for the material

τ (X ) ≤ τ

max

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

6 Christu Nesam David. D, S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen & Ajay Joe, A

τ ( X ) ≤ 13600

The normal bending stress at the beam support location cannot exceed the maximum yield strength for the

material

σ (X ) ≤ σ

max

504000

≤ 30000

x x2

4 3

16.8 ≤ x x 2

4 3

x ≤ x

1 4

c x 2 + c x x ( L + x ) ≤ 5.0

3 1 4 3 4 2

1 2 3 4 2

0.125 ≤ x

1

The deflection cannot exceed the maximum deflection

δ (X ) ≤ δ

max

2 .1952

≤ 0 .25

3

x x

3 4

8.7808 ≤ x 3 x

3 4

P ≤ P (X )

c

3 3 4

0.0926697859 ≤ (1 − 0.028234 x ) x x 3

3 3 4

Size constraints

Cost Minimization of Welded Beam Design Problem Using 7

PSO, SA, PS, Godlike, Cuckoo, FF, FP, ALO, GSA and MVO

x ≥ 0. 1

1

x ≥ 0 .1

2

x ≤ 10

3

x ≤2

4

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION (Janga Reddy.M, D.Nagesh Kumar, 2007) (Ali Riza Yildiz, 2008)

The mathematical formulation of the objective function f ( X ) which is the total fabrication cost mainly

comprised of the set-up, welding labour and material cost is as follows

The objective is to minimize the cost of the welded beam design problem.

1 2 3 4 2

Subject to

τ (X ) ≤ τ

max

σ (X ) ≤ σ

max

x ≤ x

1 4

1 2 3 4 2

0.125 ≤ x

1

δ (X ) ≤ δ

max

P ≤ P (X )

c

Where

x

τ ( X ) = τ 2 + 2τ τ 2 + τ 2

1 1 2 2R 2

P

τ =

1 2 x x

1 2

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

8 Christu Nesam David. D, S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen & Ajay Joe, A

MR

τ =

2 J

x

M = P L + 2

2

2

x2 x + x

R= 2 + 1 3

4 2

x 2 x + x 2

J = 2 2 x x 2 + 1 3

1 2 12 2

6 PL

σ (X )=

x x2

4 3

4 PL3

δ (X ) =

E x3 x

3 4

x2 x6

4.013 E 3 4

36 x3 E

P (X ) = 1−

c 4G

L2

2L

Size constraints

0 .1 ≤ x ≤ 2

1

0.1 ≤ x ≤ 10

2

0.1 ≤ x ≤ 10

3

0.1 ≤ x ≤ 2

4

Cost Minimization of Welded Beam Design Problem Using 9

PSO, SA, PS, Godlike, Cuckoo, FF, FP, ALO, GSA and MVO

COMPARATIVE RESULTS

0.6

0.5

Thickness of the weld

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

PS

GL

FP

MVO

Cuckoo

FF

GSA

PSO

SA

ALO

Methods

6

Length of the weld x2

5

4

3

2

1

0

PS

Cuckoo

PSO

ALO

SA

FF

GSA

GL

FP

MVO

Methods

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

10 Christu Nesam David. D, S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen & Ajay Joe, A

10

length of material x3

8

6

4

2

0

PS

GL

FP

MVO

Cuckoo

PSO

SA

FF

GSA

ALO

Methods

0.8

Thickness of the material x4

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

PS

GL

FP

MVO

Cuckoo

PSO

SA

FF

GSA

ALO

Methods

4

3.5

3

2.5

cost

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Cuckoo

PS

FF

GSA

PSO

SA

GL

FP

ALO

MVO

Methods

Cost Minimization of Welded Beam Design Problem Using 11

PSO, SA, PS, Godlike, Cuckoo, FF, FP, ALO, GSA and MVO

120000

100000

Iterations

80000

60000

40000

20000

0

ALO

PS

FF

GSA

PSO

SA

GL

FP

MVO

Cuckoo

Methods

70

60

50

elapsed time

40

30

20

10

0

PS

GL

FP

Cuckoo

FF

GSA

PSO

SA

ALO

MVO

methods

With the two extreme values of the parameters the optimization is carried out with different solvers. As they are

stochastic type the results may vary from trial to trial. So the problem is made to run for 20 trials. (Elbeltagi.E., Tarek

Hegazy.I., Grierson D., 2005) And an average of all trials are taken as a final value of the parameter by the solver. The

solvers are compared with three different criteria.

1. Consistency:

For minimum run time of the problem we have PS (0.746971 seconds), PSO (1.235504 seconds).

3. Minimum Evaluation:

This Criterion will determine the effectiveness of the algorithm. From the table we see that the PS and PSO

algorithm have minimum evaluation of 5 and 178 respectively.

Of all the algorithms, Pattern Search algorithm is the most simplest followed by Particle Swarm Optimization.

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

12 Christu Nesam David. D, S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen & Ajay Joe, A

Thus it is seen that the PS solver satisfies all the criteria. Even though the pattern search satisfies all the above

criteria, the cost becomes maximum whereas the cost in PSO is 1.7423. Therefore the particle swarm optimization has the

minimum cost with time 1.23 seconds and 178 iteration. So the appropriate algorithm for welded beam design is suggested

as Particle Swarm Optimization.

CONCLUSIONS

In the present study the PSO algorithm is proposed as a simple and efficient optimization technique for handling

welded beam design problem. PSO algorithm is a population based technique which follows a stochastic iterative

procedure to locate the optimum or a reasonably near- optimum solution for the welded beam design optimization.

Performance evaluation of the PSO algorithm through welded beam design optimization reveals the efficiency of this

technique in solving practical optimization problems. Although in the present study the PSO algorithm is utilized only for

solving welded beam design optimization problem, it can be easily employed for solving other types of optimization

problems as well.

REFERENCES

1. Ala'a Abu-Srhan, Essam Al Daoud. (2013). A Hybrid Algorithm Using a Genetic Algorithm and Cuckoo Search

Algorithm to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem and its Application to Mutltiple Sequence Alignment.

International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 61, 29-38.

2. Ali Riza Yildiz. (2008). Hybrid Tagychi-Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving Engineering OPtimization

Problems. International Journal of Industrial Engineering, 15(3), 286-293.

3. Amie Mesari, A. V. (2012). Reactive Search Optimization: Application to MultiObjective Optimization Problems.

Applied Mathematics , 1572-1582.

4. Bhandari.V.B. (n.d.). Design of Machine Elements. New Delhi: The Mc-Graw -Hill Company Limited.

5. Elbeltagi.E., Tarek Hegazy.I., Grierson D. (2005). Comparision among Five Evolutionary-based Optimization

Algorithms. Advanced Engineering Informatica, 19, 43-53.

International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering, 2(4), 479-487.

7. Hong-Shaung Li, Siu-Hui Au. (2010). Solving Constrained Optimization Problems Via Subset Simulation. 4th

International Workshop on Reliable Engineering Computing, (pp. 439-453).

8. Janga Reddy.M, D.Nagesh Kumar. (2007). An Efficient Multi-objective Optimization Algorithm based on Swarm

Intelligence for Engineering Design. Engineering Optimization, 39(1), 49-68.

Cost Minimization of Welded Beam Design Problem Using 13

PSO, SA, PS, Godlike, Cuckoo, FF, FP, ALO, GSA and MVO

APPENDIES

Tables having the option set and stopping criteria for the optimization methods

www.iaset.us editor@iaset.us

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