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Chapter 8-Polar Coordinates

Chapter 8-Polar Coordinates

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POLAR COORDINATES

8.2 Relationship between Cartesian and Polar

Coordinates

8.3 Forming polar equations from Cartesian

equations and vice-versa

8.4 Sketching polar equations

- Method 1: Table

- Method 2: Test of symmetries

1

8.1 Polar Coordinates System

Definition:

ordered pair (r ,θ ), that is P ( r ,θ ) where

r - distance from origin to P

θ - angle from polar axis to the line OP

P( r, θ )

θ

O

Note:

(i) θ is positive in anticlockwise direction, and it

is negative in clockwise direction.

(ii) Polar coordinate of a point is not unique.

(iii) A point (− r ,θ ) is in the opposite direction of

point (r ,θ ).

2

Example: Plot the following set of points in the

same diagram:

( ) ( ) (− 3,225 )

(a) 3,225 ! , 1,225 ! , !

⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞

(b) ⎜ 2, ⎟ , ⎜ 2,− ⎟, ⎜ − 2, ⎟

⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

a)

b)

3

For every point P(r,θ) in , there exist 3

more coordinates that represent the point P.

P ( 2, 450 )

Example:

whose polar coordinates are given as the following:

(

(a) P 1,45!) ( ) (

(b) Q 2,−60 ! (c) R − 1,225 ! )

4

8.2 Relationship between Cartesian and Polar

Coordinates

1) Polar Cartesian

x = r cosθ y = r sinθ

2) Cartesian Polar

2 2 y

r= x +y tan θ =

x

5

Example: Find the Cartesian coordinates of the

points whose polar coordinates are given as

⎛ 7π ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞

(a) ⎜1, ⎟ (b) ⎜ − 4, ⎟ (

(c) 2,−30 ! )

⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠

6

Example: Find all polar coordinates of the points

whose rectangular coordinates are given as

(a) (11,5) (b) (0,2 ) (c) (− 4,−4)

7

8.3 Forming polar equations from Cartesian

equations and vice-versa.

coordinates, and conversely, use equation

x = r cos θ y = r sin θ r = x2 + y2

polar equations.

8

Example: Express the following polar equations in

rectangular equations.

3

(a) r = 2 sin θ (b) r =

4 cos θ + 5 sin θ

9

8.4 Graph Sketching of Polar Equations

(1) Form a table for r and θ . ( 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ).

From the table, plot the (r ,θ ) points.

The polar equations is symmetrical

(a) about the x-axis if f (− θ ) = f (θ )

- consider in range [0, 1800] only

(b) about the y-axis if f (π − θ ) = f (θ )

- consider in range [0, 900] and [2700, 3600]

(c) at the origin if f (π + θ ) = f (θ )

- consider in range [0, 1800] or [1800, 3600]

10

Example 1: Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin θ

Solution: (Method 1)

Here is the complete table

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210

0 1.0 1.732 2 1.732 1 0 -1.0

-1.732 -2 -1.732 -1 0

11

Method 2

Symmetrical test for f (θ ) = 2 sin θ

Symmetry Symmetrical test

f (− θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About x-axis

f (π − θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About y-axis

f (π + θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About origin

12

Since r symmetry at y-axis, consider in range

[0, 900] and [2700, 3600]

0 30 60 90 270 300 330 360

0 1.0 1.732 2 -2 -1.732 -1 0

13

3

Example 2: Sketch the graph of r = − cos θ

2

Symmetry Symmetrical test

f (− θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About x-axis

f (π − θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About y-axis

f (π + θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About origin

14

Since r symmetry at x-axis, consider in range

[0, 1800] only.

0 30 60 90 120 150 180

3

r = − cos θ

2

15

Example 3: Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 2 θ

Symmetry Symmetrical test

f (− θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About x-axis

f (π − θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About y-axis

f (π + θ ) = f (θ ) ?

About origin

16

Since r symmetry at ____________, consider in

range ____________ only.

r = 2 sin 2 θ

17

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