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3 Difference method

n

ur is of the form ur f (r ) f (r 1) , then

r 1

n n

ur f (r ) f (r 1)

r 1 r 1

f (1) f (0) f (2) f (1) f (3) f (2)

f (4) f (3) ... f (n) f (n 1)

f (0) f (n)

f (n) f (0).

To conclude,

n

If ur f r f r 1 , then u r f n f 0 .

r 1

Or equivalently

n

If kur f r f r 1 , then ur

1

f n f 0 .

r 1 k

where k is a constant.

f r f r 1 , then this method cannot be used.

9

Example 8:

1 2 2 3 3 4 ... r (r 1) ... as the difference of two

functions of r and r – 1. Hence find the sum of the first n

terms of the series.

Solution:

factor to the end of the general term ur :

Step 3: Find f (r 1) :

f (r ) f (r 1)

10

Tips:

(A) If the general term,

you can add one more factor to the end of the general term ur , so

as to form a sequence f (r ) and then apply the difference

method.

(B) If the general term,

remove one more factor at the end of the general term ur , so as

to form a sequence f (r ) and then apply the difference method.

Example 9:

terms of the series

1 1 1 1

... .

2 3 3 4 4 5 (n 1)(n 2)

Example (10):

n

2

r 2 r 3 .

r 1

11

5.3 Test of Convergence

If ar converges, then lim ar 0 . Equivalently, if

r 1 r

r r

diverges.

Example (11):

n2

Show that the series 2 diverges.

n 1 5n 4

Example 12:

r

Use Divergence Test to determine whether diverges

r 1 ln r

or not.

12

5.3.2 The Integral Test

1, and let ar f r . Then the series ar is convergent

r 1

if and only if the improper integral f x dx is

1

(a) If f x dx is convergent, then a

1

r 1

r

is

convergent.

(b) If f x dx is divergent, then a

1

r 1

r

is divergent.

13

Example 13:

series converges or diverges.

14

5.3.3 Ratio Test

Let ar be an infinite series with positive terms and let

r 1

ar 1

lim .

r ar

b) If 1 , or , the series diverges.

c) If 1, the test is inconclusive.

Example 14:

Use the Ratio Test to determine whether the following

series converges or diverges.

15

5.4 Power Series

Definition

n

a x

n 0

n

a0 a1 x a2 x 2

a3 x 3

a n x n

n

a (

n 0

x a ) n

a0 a1 ( x a ) a2 ( x a ) 2

a n ( x a ) n

a0 , a1 , a2, , an , are constants.

16

5.4.1 Expansion of Exponent Function

1 2 1 3 1 4

e 1 x x x x

x

2! 3! 4!

1 n

e x .

x

n 0 n !

Example (15):

Given

1 2 1 3 1 4 1 n

e 1 x x x x x

x

2! 3! 4! n!

Write down the first five terms of the expansion of the

following functions

2x

(a) e

x 1

(b) e

Example (16):

Write down the first five terms on the expansion of the

function, 1 x e

2 x

in the form of power series.

17

5.4.2 Expansion of Logarithmic Function

1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5

ln(1 x) x x x x x

2 3 4 5

1 6 1 7

x x

6 7

ln 1 x is valid for 1 x 1.

By assuming x with x , we obtain

1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5

ln(1 x) x x x x x

2 3 4 5

1 6 1 7

x x

6 7

Thus, this result is true for 1 x 1 or 1 x 1.

18

Example (17):

following functions

(a) ln 1 3x

(b) 3ln 1 2 x 2

1 3x

Example (18):

1 x ln 1 2 x .

2 3

19

5.4.3 Expansion of Trigonometric Function

as

x3 x5 x 7 x9

sin x x

3! 5! 7! 9!

x 2 x 4 x 6 x8

cos x 1

2! 4! 6! 8!

Example (19):

Given

x 2 x 4 x 6 x8

cos x 1

2! 4! 6! 8!

Find the expansion of cos 2x and cos 3x . Hence, by

using an appropriate trigonometric identity find the first

four terms of the expansion of the following functions:

(a) sin x

2

(b) cos x

3

20

5.5 Taylor and the Maclaurin Series

Example 20:

Obtain the Taylor series for f ( x) 3x 2 6 x 5 around the point

x 1.

Ans: 2 + 3(x-1)2

Example 21:

Obtain Maclaurin series expansion for the first four terms of

e x and five terms of sin x . Hence, deduct that Maclaurin series for

1 1

e x sin x is given by x x 2 x3 x5 ...

3 30

Example 22:

Use Taylor’s theorem to obtain a series expansion of first five

terms for cos x . Hence find cos620 correct to 4 dcp.

3

Ans: 0.4695

21

Example 23:

If y ln cos x , show that

2

d2y dy

1 0

dx 2 dx

Hence, by differentiating the above expression several times,

obtain the Maclaurin’s series of y ln cos x in the ascending

power of x up to the term containing x 4 .

Solution:

22

Finding Limits with Taylor Series and Maclaurin Series.

Example 24:

ex 1 x

Find lim 2

.

x 0 x

Ans: ½

Example 25:

x 2 2cos x 2

Evaluate lim 4

.

x 0 3x

Ans: 1/36

Series.

Example 26:

integral.

1 2

a) e x dx

0

1

b) x cos( x3 )dx

0

23

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