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# M ATH 150 S AGE M ATH L INEAR A LGEBRA C HEAT S HEET Last Updated July 29, 2017

## I�������� Notes M�����/V����� Entries and Components M����� Operations

Indices start at � • v[i] • A*B
When specifying rows, columns, or entries of a Entry in position i of vector v Product of matrices A and B, if de�ned
matrix, count by starting with �. • A+B
• A[i,j]
Entry in row i and column j of A Sum of matrices A and B, if de�ned
Row vs Column Vectors
Sage does not differentiate between row and col- • A.row(m) • A.echelon_form()
umn vectors. Vectors are interpreted as needed mth row of A as vector Echelon form of matrix A
so operations are de�ned, if possible. • A.column(m) • A.rref()
mth column of A as vector Reduced echelon form of matrix A
Specify the ring • A.inverse()
Sage needs to know which space our matrices • A.rows()
List of rows of A as list Inverse of matrix A (if de�ned)
and vectors are de�ned in, even when de�ning a
particular matrix. The Sage keys for common sets • A.determinant()
• A.columns()
are Returns determinant of matrix A
List of columns of A as list
RR = reals, QQ = rationals, ZZ = integers • A.transpose()
Specifying the ring is optional but highly recom- • A.submatrix(m,n,nrows,ncols)
Returns transpose of matrix A
mended. nrows ⇥ ncols submatrix of A beginning at
entry A[m, n] • A.rank()
Returns rank of matrix A
D������� M������� ��� V������ • A.matrix_from_rows(list)
• A = Matrix(FF, [[row0],[row1],...]) Forms new matrix from rows of A listed in
De�nes speci�c matrix with entries in the V����� Operations
list
ring F • v.norm()
• A.matrix_from_columns(list) Norm of vector v
ex: A = Matrix(RR,
 [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]])
1 2 3 Forms new matrix from columns of A listed
de�nes A = in list • v.norm(1)
4 5 6 Sum of entries of vector v
• v = vector(FF, list)
S������ Matrices • v.len()
De�nes speci�c vector with entries in the
Number of entries of v
ring F • random_matrix(FF,m,n)
ex: v = vector(RR, [1,0,8,6]) Random m ⇥ n in �eld F • v.dot_product(u)
ex: A = random_matrix(QQ,2,4) Dot produce of vectors v and u
A is random 2 ⇥ 4 matrix with entries in Q • v.cross_product(u)
M����� Property Testing
• identity_matrix(n) Cross produce of vectors v and u
Return boolean value (true or false)
n ⇥ n identity matrix:
• A.is_invertible() R�� Operations
ex: I4 = identity_matrix(4)
• A.is_symmetric() I4 is 4 ⇥ 4 identity matrix • A.swap_rows(n,m)
• A.is_singular() Interchange rows n and m
• Augment matrices A and B: A.augment(B)
• A.is_orthogonal() ex: A = Matrix([[1,2],[3,4]]) • A.rescale_row(n, c)
• A.is_scalar() N = A.augment(identity_matrix(2)) Multiply entries of row n by c
• A.is_zero()  Add c times row m to row n
1 2 1 0
• A.is_diagonalizable() N=
3 4 0 1
M ATH 150 S AGE M ATH L INEAR A LGEBRA C HEAT S HEET Last Updated July 29, 2017

## J������ Matrices S������ a System of Equations O���� Useful Functions

• A.augment(B) Example system with solution x = 1, y = 5 • Solve equation
Augment matrices A and B solve(x^2-4==0, x)
ex: A = Matrix([[1,2],[3,4]]) 3x y=2
solve(x^2-4==0, x)
N = A.augment(identity_matrix(2)) x y=6
returns • Roots of polynomial
 Method �: De�ne augmented matrix and reduce (x^2-3*x).roots(x)
1 2 1 0 A = Matrix([[3,-1,2],[-1,-1,6]])
N= • Factor polynomial
3 4 0 1 S = A.rref()
S (x^2+8*x-9).factor()
• A.stack(B)
Stack matrix A over B prints • Limits
ex: A = Matrix([[1,2],[3,4]]) [ 1 0 -1 ] limit(x^2+5*x, x=2)
N = A.stack(identity_matrix(2)) [ 0 1 -5 ]
• Derivatives
returns 2 3 diff(x^2+4*x, x)
1 2 Method �: De�ne coef�cient matrix and vector,
63 47 then solve • Antiderivative
N =6 41 05
7
A = Matrix([[3,-1],[-1,-1]]) integral(x^2+4*x, x)
0 1 b = vector([2,6]) • De�nite Integral
S = A.solve_right(b) integral(x^2+4*x, x, 0, 4)
V����� Spaces and Properties S
• VectorSpace(FF, n) prints • Simplify Expressions
n dimensional vector space over F (-1, -5) ((x^2-4)/(x+2)).simplify_rational()
ex: V = VectorSpace(RR,2) ((x-2)*(x+6)).expand()
de�nes V = R2 C�������� and Basic Math
• V.dimension() • Sage constants: pi, e, i, oo, log2 P�������
Dimension of space V • Products See Sage documentation for a complete list of
• V.basis() a = 4*9 plot options, such as titles, colors, line widths,
Canonical basis of space V • Powers �lls, and much more.
• V.is_subspace(W) a = 8^2
• plot(x^2,(x,-4,20))
Test if W is a subspace of V • Roots
• MatrixSpace(FF, m, n) a=sqrt(16) • circle( (3,5), 2 )
Space of m ⇥ n matrices over F • line([(1,5),(3,7)])
ex: V = MatrixSpace(QQ,2,3) S�����
• List: [1,2,3] • polygon([(0,0), (1,3), (2,5), (0,4)])
space of 2⇥3 matrices with rational entries
• Tuple: (1,2,3) • L = plot(x^2, (x,-2,2), rgbcolor=(1,0,0))
E����������� and Eigenvalues N = plot(x^4, (x,-2,2), rgbcolor=(0,0,1))
• Set: {1,2,3}
• A.eigenvalues() show(L+N)
List of eigenvalues of A • range(n)
List 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1 • bar_chart([3,5,-1,2,8,4,3,2,5] )
• A.eigenvectors_right()
List of triples: • range(m,n) • M = [[1,3,4,2],[2,4,1,0]]
(eval, evector, multiplicity) List m, m + 1, . . . , n 1 matrix_plot(M, colorbar=True)
• A.characteristic_polynomial() • Comments: Start line with # • L = [[1,3],[2,5],[2,7],[1.8,2.9]]
Characteristic polynomial of A • Comparison: ==, <, >, <=, >=, != scatter_plot(L)