Emergency Collets

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Emergency Collets

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Emergency collets are another 5C-collet variation. Emergency collets are made with a

standard collet mount

that is hardened and ground to size. The opposite end of the collet is soft and can be

machined to meet

individual workpiece requirements. Emergency collets are available in two basic styles,

collet and step collet.

The collet style, Figure 3-21, externally holds smaller parts and the step collet style,

Figure 3-22, is for parts to

6.00” in diameter. The collet type can be used for longer parts, providing the diameter is

smaller than 1.063”.

The step-collet type is for larger-diameter parts that are relatively thin, .50” or less.All rights

reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means without written permission of Carr

Lane

Manufacturing Company.

Carr Lane Manufacturing makes no representations or warranties of any kind, including, but not limited to, the warranties

of fitness for particular

purpose or merchantability. No such representations or warranties are implied with respect to the material set forth herein.

Carr Lane Manufacturing

shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or in part from the reader’s use

of, or reliance upon, this

material.

The reader is expressly warned to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities

described herein and to avoid all

potential hazards. By following the instructions and suggestions contained herein, the reader willingly assumes all risks in

connection with such

instructions and suggestions.

Numerous trademarks appear throughout this book. Delrin® and Zytel® are registered trademarks of E.I. DuPont de

Nemours & Co. All other

trademarks contained herein are those of Carr Lane Manufacturing Co. and its affiliates.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN-978-0-9622079-2-1

Thirdaccelerated depreciation—Any depreciation that produces larger deductions

for depreciation at an earlier period in a project’s life cycle.

accounting period—The length of time covered by a statement of income.

One year is the accounting period for most financial reporting; publicly

listed companies prepare financial statements for each quarter of the

year and also for each month.

accounts payable (trade payables)—Money owed to creditors for items

or services purchased from them.

accounts receivable (trade credit)—Money owed by customers, or the

balance sheet account that measures the amount of outstanding receivables.

acid-test ratio—A ratio that measures the liquidity of short-term assets

C. SEC Filings

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) files are available via

Bloomberg in EDGAR files, or some companies have access to their

SEC filings on their Web sites. In accordance with the Securities and

Exchange Commission Act of 1934, all companies that have publicly

issued securities must file various statements with the SEC and also

distribute them to the stockholders.2.2 Risk Categories

A company’s general risk management principles should be based on

identifying key risks, such as:

1. Strategic risks. Risks must be taken into account in strategies.

There is a correlation among strategy planning, decision making,

and risk analysis.

2. Operational risks. Sourcing belongs to operational risks. The quality,

correct timing, and scheduling of materials; optimal pricing;

and supply interruption can be categorized under sourcing risks.

A poor supplier base is a potential factor in sourcing risks.

3. Hazard risks. Hazard risks cause damage to assets (for example,

buildings or machinery) or intellectual assets (for example, brand

or product liabilities). Typically, hazard risks can be insured.

4. Financial risks. Financial risk is the threat of losing an asset or income.

Thus, financial risk involves two elements: (1) the individualThe range is often plotted on control charts

as discussed in Section C of this

chapter.

One of the disadvantages of using the range as a measure of dispersion is that

it uses only two of the values from the data set: the largest and the smallest. If

the data set is large, the range does not make use of much of the information contained

in the data. For this and other reasons, the standard deviation is frequently

used to measure dispersion. The value of the standard deviation may be approximated

using numbers from the control chart. This method is explained in Part 4,

“Process Capability,” of Section C of this chapter. The standard deviation can also

be found by entering the values of the data set into a calculator that has a standard

deviation key. See the calculator manual for appropriate steps.

Although the standard deviation is seldom calculated by hand, the following

discussion provides some insight into its meaning. Suppose it is necessary

to estimate the standard deviation of a very large data set. One approach would

be to randomly select a sample from that set. Suppose the randomly selected

sample consists of the values 2, 7, 9, and 2. Naturally, it would be better to use a

larger sample, but this will illustrate the steps involved. It is customary to refer to

the sample values as “x-values” and list them in a column headed by the letter

x. The first step, as illustrated in Figure 2.7a, is to calculate the sum of that column

x, and the mean of the column x–. Recall that

x

x

n

Median. The median is the value that has approximately 50 percent of the values

above it and 50 percent below. To find the median, first sort the data in ascending

order. If there is an odd number of values, the median is the middle value of

the sorted list. If there is an even number of values, the median is the mean of the

two middle values. The common symbol for median is x~, pronounced “x wiggle.”

Example: The list in the previous example is first sorted into ascending

order: 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 6 7 7 8 9

Since there are 13 values, the median is the seventh value in the sorted list, in this

case

x~ = 4

Example: Find the median of the six-element set 12.7 12.9 13.5 15.0 15.0 17.2

The values that represent the center of a data set are called, rather awkwardly,

measures

of central tendency. There are three commonly used measures of central

tendency: mean, median, and mode.

Mean. Mean is statistical jargon for the more common word “average.” It is calculated

by finding the total of the values in the data set and dividing by the number

of values. The symbol used for “total” is the Greek capital sigma, . The values of

the data set are symbolized by x’s and the number of values is usually referred

to as n. The symbol for mean is an x with a bar above it (x–). This symbol is pronounced

“x bar.” The formula for mean is

x

x

n

The Binomial Distribution. The prefix “bi-” implies the number two, as in bicycle

(two wheels) and bipartisan (two political parties). The binomial distribution is

used when every object fits in one of two categories. The most frequent application

in the quality field is when every part is classified as either good or defective,

such as in valve leak tests or circuit continuity tests. In these cases there are two

possibilities: the valve either leaks or it doesn’t; the circuit either passes current or

it doesn’t. If data on the amount of leakage or the amount of resistance were collected,

the binomial distribution would not be appropriate. The word defective is

often used in binomial distribution applications. A typical example might consider

the number of defectives in a random sample of size 10. Notice that the number

of defectives is not a continuous variable because, for instance, between two

defectives and three defectives there are not an infinite number of other values,

that is, there can’t be 2.3 defectives. That is why this distribution is called discre

Control Charts

One of the disadvantages of many of the tools discussed up to this point is that

they have no time reference. The chart may clearly demonstrate that a process had

a problem but gives no clue as to when the problem occurred. This section will

illustrate a number of time-related techniques. The discussion will culminate with

control charts.

The Run Chart. If a specific measurement is collected on a regular basis, say every

15 minutes, and plotted on a time scale, the resultant diagram is called a run chart.

An example of a run chart is shown in Figure 1.13.

One of the problems of the run chart is that the natural variation in the process

and in the measurement system tends to cause the graph to go up and down

when no real change is occurring. One way to smooth out some of this “noise” in

the process is to take readings from several consecutive parts and plot the average

of the readings. The result is called an averages chart. An example is shown in

Figure 1.14.

One of the dangers of the averages chart is that it can make the process look

better than it really is. For example, note that the average of the five 3:00 p.m. readings

is .790, which is well within the tolerance of .780–.795, even though every

one of the five readings is outside the tolerance. Therefore, tolerance limits should

never be drawn on an averages chart. To help alert the chart user that the readings

are widely dispersed, the averages chart usually has a range chart included

A Pareto chart of this data would list the causes on the horizontal axis and the percent

of occurrences on the vertical axis. The causes are listed in order of decreasing

number of occurrences. The Pareto chart is shown in Figure 1.11.

The Pareto chart shows that the people working to reduce the number of

occurrences should put their main efforts into preventing outages caused by animals.

If they expended a lot of resources preventing transformer leakage and were

able to eliminate it completely as a cause of power outage, it would still solve only

about six percent of the occurrences.

A Pareto chart often shows one source as the overwhelming cause of defects.

However, in some cases it may be necessary to do some creative grouping to obtain

a single cause that accounts for the bulk of the problem. Suppose a team is seeking

to reduce the number of defective valve stems from a multi-stage machine operation.

They gather the following data on the types of defects observed:

causes in each category by going around the room and asking each person

to suggest one cause and its associated category. As each cause is selected, it is

shown as a subtopic of the main category by attaching a smaller line to the main

“bone” for that category. This activity continues until the group is satisfied that all

possible causes have been listed. Individual team members can then be assigned

to collect data on various branches or sub-branches for presentation at a future

meeting. Ideally the data collection process should consist of changing the nature

of the cause being investigated and observing the result. For example, if voltage

variation is a suspected cause, put in a voltage regulator and see if the number of

defects changes. One advantage of this approach is that it forces the team to work

on the causes and not symptoms, personal feelings, history, and various other

baggage. An alternative to the meeting format is to have an online fishbone to

which team members may post possible causes over a set period of time.

conflicts (see Figure 4.9). In the end, however, all parties must

consent to the WBS before building a schedule - a task that

can also try anyone's patience.

Building a WBS also threatens people (see Figure 4.10).

They do not want to list the work that they will perform. They

may fear being held accountable or constantly being tracked.

In other words, they feel that they may lose their autonomy.

Many team members, especially those who are prima donnas,

feel that way. The client often wants a good WBS so it can

track progress, that is, as long as it is not being tracked. Senior

management will express an interest in a WBS but only at a

high level. The project manager prefers a WBS to generate

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