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Şirtſ) 3 merican ºbition,

CORRected And improwed

columbia college, NEw-York.

—— Ne desinat unquam
Tecum Graia loqui, tecum Romana vetustas.


W. E. Dean, Printer, 70 Frankfort-Street.

Cºo sº. Hºſsa, so



- Southern District of New-York, ss.

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the 14th day of March, A. D. 1825, in the 49th year of the
Independence of the United States of America, W. E. Dean, of the said District, hath depo
sited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as Proprietor, in the
words following, to wit:
“A Classical Dictionary, containing a copious account of all the Proper Names mention
ed in Ancient Authors, with the value of Coins, Weights, and Measures used among the
Greeks and Romans; and a Chronological Table. By J. Lempriere, D. D. Fifth Ameri
can Edition, corrected and improved by Charles Anthon, Adjunct Professor of Languages
and Ancient Geography in Columbia College, New-York.
Ne desinat unquam
Tecum Graia loqui, tecum Romana vetustas.
In conformity to the Act of Congress of the United States, entitled “An Act for the en
couragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors
and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned.” And also to an Act,
entitled “An Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled an Act for the encouragement of Learn
ing, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of
such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the
arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.”
Clerk of the Southern District of New-York.



If the present dedication be not in strict unison with the regulations of li.
terary etiquette, my only apology is, that, in affixing to these pages the name of
my best adviser and friend, I am giving utterance to feelings too sacred in their
nature to be trammelled by the mere customs of the day. Nor indeed, apart
even from every consideration of duty and attachment, do I see any good rea
son to abandon the course which I am pursuing, or to doubt for a moment of its
Propriety. I might, it is true, have selected some more titled individual, and
have sent forth my humble labours under other and more imposing auspices ;
but where could l have found one more ardently attached to the splendid
exertions of departed intellect 2 or, (if a brother be allowed to express the
opinion,) one better qualified to appreciate the genius and the taste of antiquity ?
Allow me to occupy your attention for a few moments, in relation to the
work which is here presented, and the improvements, if they deserve to be so
termed, that have been made in it. To the student who is desirous of an ac
quaintance with the general features of ancient times, the Classical Dictionary
of Dr. Lempriere has always been recommended as a sure and accurate guide;
and so high a reputation has the work obtained, as to have passed through
more than twelve editions in England, and four in our own country. That it is
in many respects worthy of great commendation, few will deny, since, from the
direct bearing which it exercises upon the studies of the young scholar, it
cannot but prove to him a pleasing and valuable auxiliary ; while the man of
general reading will be enabled to glean from its pages, information on almost
any point of antiquity which he may wish to investigate. That it is worthy,
however, of the blind admiration which many seem to entertain for it, or can
be considered as accurate in many of its details, no one who has bestowed upon
it the same patient examination which I have done, will be disposed to affirm.
Having had frequent occasion to refer the young student to the pages of
Lempriere, I was often startled by the strange answers which a perusal of the
work led him to give to questions that had been proposed, and having my at
tention thus drawn to a closer examination of the volume, I soon became con
Vinced that it was a strange medley of valuable materials and miserable trash,
ºf correct information and careless conjecture ; and, what was far worse, that
the precept of the Roman Satyrist, which no instructor of youth should for a
moment lose sight of, was violated on almost every page. There seemed,
indeed, to be a strange pruriency on the part of the author, and one totally
irreconcileable with his sacred profession, to bring forward on many occasions
what should have remained covered with the mantle of oblivion. Often, in
Place of stating important particulars respecting an individual or a nation, some
disgusting trait of moral deformity was alone mentioned, and it was thought fit
information for the youthful student, to call his attention to what could have no
ºther tendency than to initiate him in the mysteries of heathen iniquity... "
trust that I shall not be thought to have used too unsparing a hand in removing
what was thus offensive; my only regret indeed is, that I have allowed "Y
[.. iv. J
portion of it to remain. Worse than idle are all the efforts of the scholar, if
moral purity be a stranger to his breast, and vainly will he toil in the rich mine
of antiquity, if every step exposes him to some fatal damp, which may pros
trate for ever both his principles and his happiness.
It was with no small pleasure, therefore, that I received from a very respect
able quarter, an application to edit the Classical Dictionary of Dr. Len
priere. Upon stating my opinion of the work, the proprietor, with great libe
rality, placed it entirely under my controul, and allowed me to make whatever
alterations I might deem proper The incessant labour which a work of this
kind required, no one can well imagine, who has not had the evil fortune, I
might almost call it, of being engaged in a similar undertaking. Every leisure
moment which could be obtained from the fatiguing routine of Academic in
struction, and from the two elementary works which I chanced to be editing
when the offer was made for the present volume, has, I need not tell you how
faithfully, been bestowed upon this almost Herculean task. Application such
as this, however, could not but prove injurious to health, and long before the
end of the volume was reached, I was compelled to relinquish the original
plan, and make additions only where they could not in any way be omitted.
The result of all this is, that Lempriere's Dictionary is here offered in a far
less offensive garb than heretofore, and with such alterations as I trust cannot
but prove useful. The plan pursued by me has been to enclose the added
portions in brackets, an arrangement which, though to some it may occasion
ally wear an awkward appearance, was yet the best and least ostentatious that
could be devised. The number of additions, many of which constitute entire
articles, is above three thousand, exclusive of simple references from one part
of the volume to another. Besides these, alterations have been silently made,
on almost every page, in the language of the original. To some the additions
may appear, so numerous, as to give rise to the suspicion that many things
have been altered or added in the mere spirit of correction. The answer to
such is, that even now the work is highly susceptible of still farther improve
ment, and that my chief fear is, lest they who are well acquainted with these
subjects may censure me for having allowed so much to pass uncorrected.
The most important head in Lempriere's Dictionary is that of ancient geo
graphy, and on this by far the largest portion of my time has been bestowed.
My principal guide has been the excellent work of Mannert,” which is, I be
lieve, little known in this country, and yet forms one of the most valuable
treatises in this department of instruction. I have in almost every instance
given him the preference to D'Anville, not from any wish to depreciate the
merits of the latter, but from a firm conviction of the decided superiority of the
German scholar. _Much valuable matter has also been obtained from the geo
graphy of Malte-Brun. The additions made to the geographical articles in
Lempriere will prove, I trust, the more useful, inasmuch as those parts of the
original whose place they supply were written in a manner so utterly careless
and inaccurate, as, in most instances, to bid defiance to any thing short of total
As far as relates to Classical criticism or controversy, the best writers have
been uniformly consulted, and, where the limits of the volume would not ad
mit of any extended detail, a reference has been made to such works as will
furnish more ample sources of information. As often too as it was practicable,
an account of the latest and best editions of ancient authors has been given, in
addition to those already cited by Dr. Lempriere.
The Chronological table has been retained unaltered, except that the erro
neous mode of computation, established by Dr. Lempriere, has been rectified
in a note at the beginning of the table, for the substance of which I am indebted
* Geographie der Griechen und Romer, ausihrem Schriften dargestellt, von Konrad Man
nert, K. Baierischem Hofrath und Prof. der Geschichte in Altdorff, 10 vols. 8vo. -
[ v )

to the Classical Geography of Dr. Butler, the learned editor of Æschylus. The
tables of Measures, &c. have also been allowed to remain.

In addition to all that has been said, it is deemed necessary to state, that, in
order to make room for the new matter, much useless lumber has been thrown
out of the work. Of what possible value can it be to the scholar to learn
merely of one individual, that he was “a soldier,” of another, that he was “a
sailor,” of a third, that he was “a man of Peloponnesus ” or what good end
can it answer to crowd a book with the name of every petty village in Greece,
unless that name be associated with some feature of her history ! And yet all
this was done in the original work, on almost every page, to the continual ex
clusion of valuable and interesting information.
In the remarks which I have made respecting the work of Dr. Lempriere, I
have been actuated selely by a sense of duty, not by any wish to deprive his
memory of the honours which have been conferred upon it. To borrow the
idea of the great critic of antiquity, he deserves rather to be commended for
what he has done, than to be censured for what he has left undone. Far be it
from me, therefore, to rob him in any way of the praises which are his due.
“—— Ille habeat secum, servetgue sepulcro !”
Preface to the Sixth American Edition. .

In presenting a new edition of Lempriere's Dictionary to the notice of

the public, the editor feels himself called upon to tender his sincere acknow
ledgments for the very flattering patronage which has been extended to
his labours. The rapid sale of the previous impression has induced him to
spare no efforts toward rendering the present volume still more deserving of
public patronage, both as regards typographical appearance and the nature
of the additions which have been made to the work itself. Not only have ail
the articles previously altered or added been carefully revised, and, whenever
it appeared requisite, materially enlarged, but many of them have also
been written anew ; and, besides this, important and extensive additions been
still farther made to the work . It was stated in the preface to the fifth edition
that the whole number of additions which had been appended to the volume
amounted to above three thousand; in the present edition they exceed four
thousand. In making this statement, the editor is conscious of being actuated
by any other than feelings of ostentation, or a wish to magnify his labours by
an imposing display of their numerical strength. He owes it to himself, how
ever, to be thus explicit respecting the nature and extent of those labours,
lest any may imagine that he is desirous of elevating his own reputation upon
the ruins of another's fame, or of acquiring for himself a character for scho
larship by a few specious and paltry improvements.
The articles on which the most labour has been bestowed are the following :
Aristoteles, Cannae, Capua, Carneades, Carthago, Caucasus, Celtae, Chaldaea,
Cicero, Cimmerii, Cyclopes, Daricus, Decemviri, Delphi, Diogenes, Dithy
rambus, Druides, Eleusis, Epicurus, Eridanus, Euphrates, Falernus, Ganges,
Gigantes, Graecia, Hercules, Hetruria, Homerus, Horatius, Hyperborei,
Ierne, Imaus, India, Indus, Iones, Josephus, Italia, Julianus, Jupiter, Lace
daemon Lectonia, Mare Mediterraneum, Melita, Memnonium, Mercurius,
Meroë, Musae, Musæus, Moeris, Mycale, Mycenae, Nepos, Niger, Nilus, Ilias,
Odyssea, Orosus, Orpheus, Osiris, Padus, Paestum, Palestina, Palmyra, Pan
dora, Pantheon, Pelasgi, Phaëton, Phoenicia, Phetius, Pindarus, Piraeus. Pla
to, Pomptinae Paludes, Prometheus, Pyramides, Pythagoras, Quintilianus,
Quintus Curtius, Roma, Rubicon, Sallustius, Samaria, Scylax, Seleucia, Sena
tus, Seres, Sibyllae, Sidon, Silius Italicus, Sophocles, Sphinx, Stephanus, Ste
sichorus, Strongyle, Suidas, Sunium, Syene, Symmachus, Tacitus, Tanais, Ta
probane, Tarsus, Taurus, Tentyra, Terentius, Thales, Thebae, Thermopy
las, Thucydides, Thule, Tigris, Troja, Valerius Maximus, Varro, Velleius Pa
terculus, Veneti, Vesuvius, Ulpianus, Xenophon, Zeno, Zenobia. Of these
articles many occupy several columns.
Along with the additions that have been made to the present volume the editor
has introduced whatever appeared new and interesting in the theories of the
day. He has taken the liberty also of occasionally intruding theories of his
own. Regarding these last with a partial eye, as every one is induced to re
gard the creations of his own imagination, he has been bold enough to place
them by the side of other and more approved theories, not from the vain de
| vii |
sire of instituting a comparison between his own and the labours of others, but
that the presence of the latter might in some degree shield his own efforts
from the animadversions of sober and cautious criticism. As regards the na
ture of some of the articles which have been just particularly enumerated, the
reader will find under Aristoteles, an enlarged biography of that philosºpher;
under Carthago, an account of the ancient Punic literature ; under Chaldaea, a
theory respecting the Sclavonic origin of the Chaldaean race ; under Cicero,
an analysis of the works of that illustrious Roman ; under Cyclopes, a theory
respecting their location and the etymology of their name ; under Daricus,
remarks on the value of that coin ; under Decemviri, a theory respecting the
origin of the Roman laws ; under Druides, some remarks on that singular
priesthood ; under Eleusis, an explanation of the probable object of the mys
teries; under Eridanus and Phaëton, remarks respecting the existence, in
former ages, of a milder temperature in the north of Europe; under Falernus,
an account of the Roman wines, and the situation of the Falernian vineyards;
under Gigantes, an argument against the possible existence, at any period, of
a gigantic race ; under Gracia and Iones, a theory respecting the movements
and history of the earlier tribes of Greece; under Hercules, a theory identify
ing that hero with the sun; under Hatruria, a theory reconciling the conflict
ing opinions of the learned in relation to the origin of the Etrurians ; under
Homerus, remarks upon the several theories which have been started respect
ing the poet and his works, and an attempt to prove that alphabetic writing
was known in the age of Homer ; under Horatius, remarks upon the
Epistle to the Pisos ; under Hyperborei, a theory respecting the early set
tlements of the human race; under Ierne, remarks upon the early
religious system of Ireland ; under Inaus, a full account of that remarkable
chain ; under Josephus, remarks upon the works of that writer, and upon the
passage in which mention is made of our Saviour; under Italia, a theory res
Pecting the early population of that country : under Jupiter, an analysis of the
religion of Greece; under Lacedæmon, remarks respecting the affinity be
tween the Lacedæmonians and Hebrews ; under Lectonia, a theory respecting
that ancient land, now sunk beneath the waters of the Mediterranean ; under
.Mediterraneum Mare, a theory respecting the overflowing of the Hellespont,
and the inundation of the northern coast of Africa; under Melita, remarks
upon the voyage of St. Paul ; under Memnonium, a theory respecting the
Egyptian Memnon ; under Mycale and Nepos, corrections of the historian ;
under Niger and Nilus, a full account of those streams ; under Orpheus, re
marks upon the several theories of the learned respecting the Orphic re
mains, and an attempt to prove that the ancient bard was of Indian origin ;
under Pandora, remarks upon that old tradition, and an attempt to establish
an analogy between it and the Scriptural account of the origin of evil; under
Pelasgi, remarks upon that singular race, and upon the introduction of Alpha
betic writing into Greece; under Pindarus, remarks upon his lyric produc
tions ; under Plato, remarks upon the life and doctrines of that philosopher;
under Pomptine Paludes, an historical account of the Pontine marshes; un
der Pyramides, an account of those structures, and a theory respecting their
origin; under Pythagoras, remarks upon the life and doctrines of that philoso
Pher; under Roma, a theory respecting the true origin of Rome; under
Sphinz, an account of the excavation of that monument; under Syene, re
marks upon the position of that place; under Tacitus, remarks upon the dia
logue “De claris oratoribus;” under Taurus, a full description of that range
of mountains ; under Tentyra, remarks upon the famous zodiac; under Thebe,
remarks upon the origin, history, and ruins of that famous city, and upon the
state of the arts in ancient Egypt, together with an account of the mummies ;
under Thermopylae, a description of that pass ; under Thule, remarks upon
the probable focation of that island; under Troja, remarks upon the site of
I viii 1
ancient Troy, and the true cause of the Trojan war ; under Varro, an ac
count of the life and writings of that learned Roman ; under Veneti, a theory
respecting their Sclavonic origin; under Zeno, remarks upon the life of that
philosopher, and the doctrines of the Stoic sect. Of these theories, the one
on which most labour has been bestowed, and to which the attention of the
student is particularly invited, is that respecting the true origin of Rome.
The editor regrets that he could not obtain access, while preparing it, to
the history of Rome by the celebrated Niehbubr, as it would in that event
have assumed, no doubt, a more conclusive and satisfactory shape.
In addition to the works mentioned in the preface to the fifth edition, from
which valuable aid has been derived in the preparation of the preceding arti
cles, the editor takes the present opportunity of enumerating ; Ukert's Geogra
phie der Griechen und Römer ; Michaelis Spicilegium Geographie Hebrzorum
Exterie; Schoell, Histoire de la Littérature Grecque Profane ; Histoire Abrégée
de la Littérature Romaine, by the same author ; Mohnike's Geschichte der Lit
teratur der Griechen und Römer ; Tiraboschi, Storia della Letteratura Italiana;
Dunlop’s History of Roman Literature; Oxford Classical Journal ; Museum
Criticum ; and Ritter's Vorhälle Europäischer Völkergeschichten vor Hero
dotus. Of the last of these, however, the editor has made but a sparing use,
as he intends, at some future day, to lay before the public a work on the con
nection between the religious systems of the Eastern and Western nations, of
which the profound investigations of Ritter will be made the basis.
The Editor concludes with the hope that the various theories which the
young student may find in the course of this volume, will, if they produce no
other result, teach him at least how wide a field for speculation still remains
unexplored amid the apparently trite subjects of Classical antiquity ; while
to the critic he would address himself in the language of an ancient writer,
“sequimur probabilia, nec ultra id quam quod verisimile occurrit progredi pos
sumus, et refellere sine pertinacia et refelli sine iracundia parati sumus.”
Col. College, April 25th. 1827.

From the Creation of the World to the Fall of the Roman Empire in the west
and in the east.

fºr rºles ſaid down by Dr. Lempriere, in the note at the commencement of the Chronological Table, for findins
***** Hoº and the Olympiads, may lead to errors of considerable magnitude. ii., ºht to have ºr, 3
*tthere should be added tº the remainder in the former case, one for the current year, and in the latter, one for the
**tent Olympiad, and one for the current year of that olympiad. The following rules may therefore be given
To find the year of Rome.
Sºet the given year before Christfrom 753, (the date of the foundation of Rome,) and add to the reinainder
** fºr the current year, the result will give the year of Rome sought.

To find the Olympiad.
Shºtract the given year from 776, (the era of the conquest of Coroebus,) divide the remainder by 4, and to the quo
tient add one for the current Olympiad, and one for the current year of it.)
B C.# B. C.
created in the 710th year of the Julian
* 4004
The Theban war of the seven heroes against Eteo
cles - 1225
The del 2348 Olympic games celebrated by Hercules 12:2
The tower of Babel built, and the confusion of lan- The rape of Helen by Theseus, and, 15 years after,
guages 2247 by Paris 121s
£:lesial ºbservations are first made at Babylon 2234 Troy taken after a siege of 10 years. Fneas sails
The kingdom of Egypt is supposed to have begun to Italy 1184
under Misraim, the son of Ham, and to have con- Alba Longa built by Ascanius 1152
tinued 1553 years, to the conquest of Cambyses 2138 Migration of the Eolian colonies 1124
The kingdom ºf Sicyon established 2089 The return of the Heraclidae into Peloponnesus, 80
The kingdom of Assyria begins 2059 years after the taking of Troy. Two years after,
The birth of Abraham 1996 they divide the Peloponnesus among º,
The kingdom of Argos established under Inachus 1856 and here, therefore, begins the kingdom of Lace:
Memnon the Egyptian, said to invent letters, 15 daemon under Eurysthenes and Procles 1104
years before the reign of Phoroneus 1822 Saul made king over Israel 1095
The deluge of Ogygºs, by which Attica remained The kingdom of Sicyon ended 1032
waste above 200 years, till the coming of Cecrops 1764. The kingdom of Athens ends in the death of Codrus 1070
Joseph sold into Erypt by his brethren 1723 The migration of the Ionian colonies from Greece,
The chrºnology of the Arundelian Marbles begins and their settlement in Asia Minor 104.4
about this time, fixing here the arrival of Cecrops Dedication of Solomon's temple 1004
in Attica, an epoch which other writers have Samos built 936
placed later by 26 years 1582 Division of the kingdom of Judah and Israel 97s
Moses born 1571 Homer and Hesiod flourished about this time, ac
The kingdom of Athens begun under Cecrops, who cording to the Marbles 907
came from Egypt with a colony of Saites. This Elias the prophet taken up into heaven 896
happened about 780yearsbefore the first Olympiad 1556 Lycurgus, 12 years old, established his laws at Lace
Seamander migrates from Crete, and begins the king- daemon, and, together with Iphitus and Cleosthe
dom of Tro 1546 nes, restores the Olympic games at Flis, about 108
The deluge ºperation in Thessaly 1303 years before the era which is commonly called the
The Panathenaea first celebrated at Athens 1495 first Olympiad 884
Cadmus comes into Greece, and builds the citadel Phidon, king of Argos, is supposed to have invented
of Thebes 1493 scales and measures, and coined silver at Egina.
The first Olympic Games celebrated in Elis by the Carthage built by Dido 869
Idzi Daetyli 1453 Fall of the Assyrian empire by the death of Sardana
The five books of Moses written in the land of Moab, palus, an era placed 80 years earlier by Justin 820
where he dies the following year, aged 110 1452. The kingdom of Macedonia begins, and continues
Minos flourishes in Crete, and iron is found by the 648 years, till the battle of Pydna £14
Dactyli by the accidental burning of the woods of The kingdom of Lydia begins, and continues 249
Ida in Crete 1406 years 797
The Eleusinian Mysteries introduced at Athens by The triremes first invented by the Corinthians 78s
Eumolpus 1356 The monarchical government abolished at Corinth,
The Isthmian games first instituted by Sisyphus, and the Prytanes elected 779
king of Corinth 1326 Coroebus conquers at Olympia, in the 28th Olympiad
The Argonautic expedition. The first Pythiangames from the institution of Iſhitus. This is vulgarly
ºtlebrated by Adrastus, king of Argos 1263 called the first Olympiad, about 23 years before
ideon flourishes in Israel 1245 the foundation of Rome 775
* In the following table, I have confined myself to the more easy and convenient eras of before, (B. C.) and after.
(A.D.) Christ For the sake of those, however, that do not wish the exclusion of the Julian period, it is necessary
tº observe, that, as the first year of the Christian era always falls on the 4714th of the Julián years. the number
equired either before or after Christ, will easily be discovered by the application of the rules of subtraction or add
ºn. The era from the foundation of Rome (A.U. C.) will be fºund with the same facility, by recollecting tº: the
ºf was built 753 years before Christ; and the Olympiads can likewise bºrecurred to by the £onsideratiºhat the
*ext of Coroebus (B.C.776) forms the first Olympiad, and that the Olympic games were celebrated after the
"ºlution of four years. --
- *
B. --
B. C.
The Ephori introduced into the government of La The Persians defeated at Plataea and Mycale on the 47s
cedaemon by Theopompus 760 same day, 22d September 477
Isaiah begins to prophec 757 The 300 Fabii killed at Cremera, July 17th
The decennial archons {egin at Athens, of which Themistocles, aceused of conspiracy, flies to Xerxes 47:
Charops is the first
754. The Persians defeated at Cyprus, and near the Ku 4Tu
Thome builton the 20th of April, according to Varro, 753. The rymedon -

in the year 3961 of the Julian period third Messenian war begins, and continues 10 45.5
The rape of the Sabines 750 years - -

The era of Nabonassar king of Babylon begins 747 Egypt revolts from the Persians under Inarus, assist
The first Messenian war begins, and continues 19 743 The ed by the Athenians -
Romans send to Athens for Solon's laws. About
years, to the taking of Ithome 732 this time flourished Sophocles, Nehemiah the pro
Syracuse built by a Corinthian colony het, Plato the comic poet, Aristarchus the tragie. ..
he kingdom of Israel finished by the taking of Sa
maria by Salmanasar, king of Assyria. fhe first eocrates, Thrasybulus, Pericles, Zaleucus. &c., . +5 :
eclipse of the moon on record March 19, according 721 The first
The sacred war concerning the temple of Delphi -

Athenians defeated at Chieronea by the Boeo

to Ptolemy tians
Candaules, murdered by Gyges, who succeeds to 718 Herodotus reads his history to the council of Athens.
the Lydian throne 707 and receives public honours in the 39th year of his
Tarentum built by the Parthenians 703 age. About this time flourished Empedocles, He
Corcyra built by the Corinthians lanicus, Euripides, Herodicus, Phidias, Arte-
The second Messenian war begins, and continues 14 menes, Charondas, &c. 445.

years, to the taking of Ira, after a siege of 11 years.

About this time flourished the poets Tyrtaeus and A colony sent to Thurium by the Athenians 44-4
Archilochus 685 Comedies prohibited at Athens, a restraint which re
The governmentofAthensintrusted to annual archons 634 mained in force for three years 4sº
Alba destroyed 665 A war between Corinth and Corcyra --

Cypselus usurps the government of Corinth, and keeps Meton begins here his 19 years' cycle of the moon ---

it for 30 years 659 The Peloponnesian war begins, May the 7th, and con
658 tinues about 27 years. About this time flourished
Byzantium built by a colony of Argives or Athenians
Cyrene built by Battus 630 Cratinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes, Meton, Euctemon,
The Scythians invade Asia Minor, of which they Malachi the last of the prophets, Democritus, Geor
keep possession for 23 years 624 ...gias, Thucydides, Hippocrates, &c.
Draco establishes his laws at Athens 623 The history of the Old Testament finishes about this
The canal between the Nile and the Red Seabegun time. A plague at Athens for five years
by king Necho 610 A peace of 50 years made betweenthe Athenians and
Nº. taken and destroyed by Cyaxares and his acedaemonians, which is kept only during six
1es 606 years and ten months, though each continued at
The Phoenicians sail round Africa, by order of Necho. war with the other's allies
About this time flourished Arion, Pittacus, Alcaeus, 604 The scene of the Peloponnesian war changed to Si 415
Sappho, &c. cily. The Agrarian law first moved at Rome
The Scythians are expelled from Asia Minor by Cy Egypt revolts from the Persians, and Amyrtaeus is ap
596 4x4
axares pointed king
The Pythian games first established at Delphi. The Garthaginians enter Sicily, where they destroy
About this time flourished Chilo, Anacharsis, Selinus and Himera, but they are repulsed by Her
mocrates 409
Thales, Epimenides, Solon, the prophet Ezekiel,
AEsop, Stersichorus 591 The battle of Egospotamos. The usurpation of Dio
Jerusalem taken by Nabuchadnezzar, 9th of June, nysius
after a siege of 18 months 587 Athens taken by Lysander, 24th April, the end of the
The Isthmian games restored and celebrated every 582 Peloponnesian war, and the appointment of 30 ty
1st and 3d year of the Olympiads rants over the conquered city. About this time
57.7 flourished Parrhasius, Protagoras, Lysias, Aga
Death of Jeremiah the prophet 563
The Nemean games restored thon, Cebes, Telestes, &c.
The first comedy acted at Athens by Susarion and Cyrus the Younger killed at Cunaxa. The glorious
Dolon 562 retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, and the expulsion of
560 the 30tyrantsfrom Athens by Thrasybulus
Pisistratus first usurped the sovereignty at Athens
Cyrus begins to reign. About this time flourished An Socrates put to death -

aximenes, Bias, Anaximander, Phalaris, and Cleo Agesilaus, of Lacedæmon's, expedition into Asia
bulus 559 against the Persians. The age of Xenophon, Cte
Croesus conquered by Cyrus. About this time flour sias, Zeuxis, Antisthenes, Evagoras, Aristippus of
543 Cyrene, and Archytas
ished Theognis and Pherecydes The Corinthian war begun by the alliance of the
Marseilles built by the Phocaeans. The age ofPytha Athenians, Thebans, Corinthians, and Argives,
goras, Simonides, Thespis, Xenophanes, and Ana
creon 539 against Lacedaemon
Babylon taken by Cyrus 538 The Lacedaemonians, under Pisander, defeated by Co
The return of the Jews by the edict of Cyrus, and 536 non at Cnidus; and, a few days after, the allies are
the rebuilding of the temple defeated at Coronaea, by Agesilaus
The first tragedy acted at Athens on the waggon of The battle of Allia, July 17th, and the taking of Rome
Thespis 535 by the Gauls
* encouraged at Athens, and a publiclibrary Dionysius besieges Rhegium and takes it after 11
uilt 526 months. About this time flourished Plato, Philoxe
Egypt conquered by Cambyses 525 nus, Damon, Pythias, Iphicrates, &c.
Polycrates, of Samos, put to death 522 The Greek cities of Asia tributary to Persia, by the
Darius Hystaspes chosenking of Persia. About this peace of Antalcidas, between the Lacedæmonians
time flourished Confucius, the celebrated Chinese and Persians
hilosopher 521. The war of Cyprus finished by a treaty, after it had
e tyranny of the Pisistratidae abolished at Athens 510 continued two years
The consular government begins at Rome after the The Lacedæmonians defeated in a sea-fight at Nax
expulsion of the Tarquins, and continuesindepend os, September 20th, by Chabrias. About this time
ent 461 years, till the battle of Pharsalia 509 flourished Philistus, Isaeus, Isocrates, Arete, Philo
laus, Diogenes the cynic, &c. 377
Sardis taken by the Athenians and burnt, which be
came afterwards the cause of the invasion of Artaxerxes sends an army under Pharnabazus, with
Greece by the Persians. About this time flourish 20,000 Greeks, commanded by Iphicrates. 374
ed. Heraclitus, Parmenides, Milo the wrestler, The battle of Leuctra, July 8th, where the Lacedae
Aristagoras, &c. 504 monians are defeated by Epaminondas, the gene
The first dictator, Lartius, created at Rome 498 ral of the Thebans sºil
The Roman populace retire to Mount Sacer 493 The Messenians, after a banishment of 300 years, re
The battle of Marathon 490 - turn to Peloponnesus
One of the consuls at Rome elected from the Ple
The battle of Thermopyle, August 7th, and Salamis, beians 367
Sctºber 20th. About this time flourished Eschy. battle of Mantinea gained by Epaminondas a
º, Pindar, charon, Anaxagoras, Zeuxis, Aris. 489 The
tides, &c. year after the death of Pelopidas
B. C. e c.
Agesilacs assists Tachos, king of Egypt. Some of Antiochus Soter defeated at Sardis by Eumenes of
the governors of Lesser Asia revolt from Persia S62 Pergamus rf
The Athenians are defeated at Methone, the first bat The Carthaginian fleet defeated by Duilins -to
tle that Philip of Macedon ever won in Greece 300 Regulus defeated by xantippus. Athens is restored
Dionysius the Younger is expelled from Syracuse by to liberty by Antigonus
Dºn. The second Sacred War begins, on the tem Aratus persuades the people of Sicyon to join the
Ple of Delphi being attacked by the Phoceans 357 Achaean league. About this time flourished clean
Dion put to death, and Syracuse governed seven thes, Homer junior, Manetho, Timaeus, Callina
years º tyrants. . About this time flourished Fu thus, Zoilus, 1 ºuris, Neanthes, Ctesibus, Sosibius,
dorus, Lycurgus, Ibis, Theopompus, Ephorus, Da Hieronymus, Hanno, Laodice, Lysia, Ariobar.
tames. Päilomeles, &c. 354 zanes -
The Phoceans, under Caomarchus, are defeated in The Parthians under Arsaces, and the Bactrians un
Thessaly by Philip 353 der Theodotus, revolt from the Macedonians 250
Fryºtis conquered by Ochus 550 The sea fight of Drepanum 249
The Sacred War is finished by Philip taking all the The citadel of corinth taken by Aratus, 12th of Au
cities of the Phoceans 348 gust 24
Dionysius recovers the tyranny of Syracuse, after 10 Agis, king of Sparta, put to death for attempting to
years' banishment $47 settle an Agriºrian law. About this period flourish
Timoleon recovers Syracuse, and banishes the tyrant 343 ed Antigonus Carystius, Conon of Samos, Fratos
The Carthaginians defeated by Timoleon near Agri thenes. Apolloniàs of Perga, Lacydes, Amilcar,
entum. Abºut this time ſlourished Speusippus. Agesilaus the eptor, &c. 241
rotogenes. Aristotle, Æscbines. Xenocrates, De Plays first acted at Rome, being those of Livius An
mosthenes, Phocion, Mauercus, icetas, Stilpo, De dronicus 240
unades 340 *. passes with an army to Spain, with Annibal
113 son
The battle of Cheronaea, August 2, where Philip de 237
ſeats the Athenians and Thebans 333 The temple of Janus shut at Rome, the first time
since Numa.
Philip of Macedon killed by Pausanias. His son 235
Alexander, on the following year, enters Greece, The Sardinian war begins, and continues three
destroys Thebes, &c. 336 years 2:34
The battle of the Granicus, 23d of May 334 Original manuscripts of Æschylus, Euripides, and
The battle of Issus in October 333 Sophocles, lent by the Athenians to Ptolemy for a
Tyre and Egypt conquered by the Macedonian pledge of 15 talents 233
prince, and Alexandria built 33: The first divorce known at Rome, by sp. carvilius.
The battle of Arbela, October 2d 331 ...Sardinia and Corsica conquered 231
Alexander's expedition against Porus. About this The Roman Ambassadors list appeared at Athens
time flourished Apelles. Callisthenes, Bagoas, Par and Corinth 228
mºnio, Philotas. Memnon, Dinocrates, Calippus, The war between Cleomenes and Aratusbegins, and
Hyperides, Philetus, Lysippus, Menedemus, &c. 327 continues for five vears 227
Alexander dies on the 21st of April. His empire is The colossus of Rhodes thrown down by an earth
divided into four kingdoms. #. Samian war, and quake. The Romans first cross the Po, pursuing
the reign of the Ptolemies in Egypt
º publishes a general liberty to all the 323 flourished the Gauls, who had entered Italy. About this time
Chrysippus, Polystratas, Euphorion, Ar
Sreek cities. The age of Praxiteles, Crates, chimedes, Valerius Messala, C. Naevius, Aristar
Theophrastus, Menander, Demetrius, Dinarchus, chus, Apollonius, Philocorus, Aristo Ceus, Fabius
Polemon, Neoptelemus, Perdiccas, Leosthenes 320 Pictor, the first Roman historian, Phylarchus, Ly
Syracuse and Sicily usurped by Agathocles. Deine siades, Agro, &c. 2.24
trius Phalereus governs Athens for 10 years 517 The battle of Sellasia 223
Eumenes delivered to Antigonus by his arm 315 The Social War between the AEtolians and Achae
Seleucus takes Babylon, and here the beginning ofthe ans, assisted by Philip 220
era of the Seleucidae 312 Saguntum taken by Annibal 219
The conquests of Agathocles in Africa second Punic war begins, and continues 17 years 218
Pº. established at Athens by Demetrius Po 309 The The battle of the lake Thrasymenus, and, next year,
torcetes 307 217
that of Cannae, May 21
The title of kings first assumed by the successors of The Romans begin the auxiliary war against Philip
Alexander. 306 in Epirus, which is continued by intervals for 14
The battle of I where Antigonus is defeated and years 214
killed by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Cas Syracuse taken by Marcellus after a siege of three
sander. About this time flourished Zeno, Pyrrho. ears 212
Philemon, Megasthenes, Crantor, &c. Płºmen defeats Machanidos at Mantinea
Athenstaken by Demetrius Poliorcetes, after a year's Asdrubal is defeated. About this time flourished Plau
---e. 296 tus, Archagathus, Evander, Teleclus, Hermippus,
tº: sun-dial erected at Rome by Papirius Cur Zeno, Sotion, Ennius, Hieronymus of Syracuse,
sor, and the time first divided into hours 293 Tlepolemus, Epicydes 207
Seleucus, about this time, built about 40 cities in Asia, The battle of Zama 202
which he peopled with different nations. The The first Macedonian war begins, and continues near
age of Euclid the mathematician, Arcesilaus, Epi 4 years 200
eurus, Bion. Timocharis, Erasistratus, Aristyllus, The battle of Panius, where Antiochus defeats Sco
Strato. Zenodotus, Arsinoe, Lachares, &c. 291 pas 198
The Athenians revolt from Demetrius 287 The battle of Cynoscephale, where Philip is defeated 137
Pyrrhus expelled from Macedon by Lysimachus 236 The war of Antiochus the Great begins, and conti
The Pharos of Alexandria built. The Septuagint nues three years 192
supposed to be translated about this time 284 Lacedaemon joined to the Achaean league by Phi
Lysimachus defeated and killed by Seleucus. The lopoemen 191
Tarentine war begins, and continues 10 years. The The luxuries of Asia brought to Rome in the spoils of
23i Antiochus 189
Achaean league begins -

Pyrrhus, of Epirus, goes to Italy to assist the Taren The laws of Lycurgus abrogated for a while at Sparta
titles 280 by Philopoemen 138
The Gauls, under Brennus, are cut to pieces near the Antiochus the Great defeated and killed in Media.
temple of Delphi. About this time flourished Qio About this time flourished Aristophanes of Byzan
nysius the as:ronomer, Sostratus. Theocritus, Dio tium, Asclepiades, Tegula, C. Laclius, Aristonymus,
nysius Heracleotes, Philo, Aratus, Lycophron, Per Hegesinus, Diogenes the stoic, Critolaus, Masinis
satus. &c. -
278 sa, the Scipios, the Gracchi, Thoas, &c. 187
Pyrrhus, defeated by Curius, retires to Epirus 274 A war, which continues for one year, between Eu
The first coining of silver at Rome -
269 menes and Prusias, till the death of Annibal 184
Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, who keeps it Philopoemen defeated and killed by Dinocrates 183
12 years Numa's books found in a stone coffin at Rome 179
The first Panic war begins, and continues for 23 years. Perseus sends his ambassadors to Carthage 175
The chronology of the Arundelian Marbles, com Ptolemy's generals defeated by Antiochus in a battle
d. About this time flourished Lycon, Crates, between Pelusium and Mount Cassius, The second
erosus, Hermachns, Helenus, Clinias, Aristoti Macedonian war -
mºs, &c. 254 The battle of Pydna, and the fall of the Macedonian
B. C. B. L.
empire. About this period flourished Attalus the grammatiºn, Cicero, Antiochus, Spurious, Androni
astrºnomer, Mºrodorus. Terence, Crates, Polybi cus, Catullus, Sallust, Timagenes. Cratippus, &c. 60
us, Pacuvin). Hipparchus, Heraclides, Carneades, Cicero banished from Rome, and recalled the next
Aristarchus, &c. 168 wear 38
The first library erected at Rome, with books obtain Cesar passes the Rhine, defeats the Germans and in
ed from the plunder of Macedonia vades Britain 55
Terence's Andria first acted at Rome 167
16t; Crassus is killed by Surena in June 53
Time measured out at Rome by a water machine, in ‘ivil war between Caesar and Pompey 50
vented by Scipio Nasica, 134 years after the intro The battle of Pharsalia about May 13th 48
duction of sun-dials 159 Alexandria taken by Caesar 47
Andriscus, the Pseudophilip, assumes the royalty in The war ºf Africa, Cato kills himself. This year
Macedon 15.2 is called the year of Confusion, because the calen
Demetrius, king of Syria, defeated and killed by dar was corrected by Sosigenes, and the year made
Alexander Balas 150 to consist of 15 months, or 415 days
The third Punic war begins, Prusias, king of Bithy The battle of Munda
... nia, put to death by his son Nicomedes 149 Caesar murdered
The Romans nake war against the Achaeans, which The battle of Mutina. The second triumvirate in Oc
is finished next year by Mummius 143 layius, Antony, and Lepidus, Cicero put to death.
is destoyed by Scipio, and corinth by
The age of Sosigenes, Č. Nepos, Diodorus Siculus,
147 Trogus Pompey, Didymus the scholast, Varro the
Miriathus is defeated by Laelius, in Spain 146 poet, &c.
he war of Nuinantia begins, and continues for eight The battle of Philippi
... years 141 Pacorus, general of Parthia, defeated by Ventidios,
T. Roman army of 30,000, under Mancinus, is de 14 years after the disgrace of Crassus, and on the
feated by 4000 Numantines 138 same day
es oration of learning at Alexandria, and universal Potopey the Younger defeated in Sicily by Octavius
patronage offered to all learned men by Ptolemy Qetavius and Antony pieſ are for war
Physcon. The age of Satyrus, Aristobufus, incis The battle of Actium, ºd'september. The era of the
Accius, Mnaseas, Antipater, Diodorus the peripate Roman emperors properly begins here
tic, Nicander, Ctesibius, Sarpedon, Micipa, &c. 157 Alexandria taken, and Egypt reduced into a Roman
The ſamous embassy of Scipio, Metelius, Mummius, province -

..and Pantetius, into Egypt, Syria, and Greece 136 The title of Augustus given to Octavius
The history of the Apocrypha ends. The servile The Egyptians adopt the Julian year. About this
War in Sicily begins, and continues for three years time ſourished Virgil, Manilius, Dioscoriges, Asi
Numantia taken. Pergamus annexed wo the Rºman º, Pºlio, Marcellas, Agrippa, Strabo, Horace,
empire Macer, Propertius, Livy, Musa, Tibullus, Ovid, Py
Antiochus Sidetes killed by Phraates. Antiochus de lades, Bathyllus, Varius, Tucca, Vitruvius, &c.
, feated by Perpenna The conspiracy of Muraena against Augustus
Demetrius Nicator defeated at Damascus by Alex Augustus visits Greece and Åsia
ander Zebina The Roman ensigns recovered from the Parthians by
The Romans make war against the pirates of the Ba
leares. Carthage is rebuilt by order of the Roman The secular game celebrated at Rome
123 Hºllius defeated by the Germans
C. Gracchus killed -
The Rhaeti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus
I'almatia conquered by Metellus 113 The Pannonians conquered by Tiberius
Cleopatra assumes the government of Egypt. The Some of the German'nations conquered by Drusus
age of Erynnaeus, Athenion, Artemidorus, Clito Augustus corrects the calendar, by ordering the 12 en
machus, Apollonius, Herodicus, L. Caulius, Castor, *ing years to be without intercalation. About this
, Menecrates, Lucilius, &c. 116 time flourished Damascºnus, Hyginus, Flaccus the
The Jugurthine war begins, and continues for five grammarian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and Dio
years - -
111 ºysius the geographer
The ſainous sumptuary law at Rome, which limited Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years
Our Saviour is born four years before the vulgar era.
is the ºxpenses of eating every day
The Teutones and Cimbri begin the war against
in the year 4709 of the Julian period, A.U.C. 749.
Rome, and continue it for eight years and the fourth of the 193d Olympiad
The Teutones defeat 80,000 Romanson the banks of 109 A
the Rhone - - Tiberius returns to Rome -

The Teutones defeated by C. Marius at Aquae Sex 105 Tºyea, corrected, having formerly been every
, tiae - -
ci wear

The Cimbri defeated by Marius and Catulus 102 Ovid Bºca by Tomos
"olabella conquers Lusitania 10. Varus defeated and killed in Germany by Arminius
£yrene leſ, by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans # Augustus di's at Nola, August 19th, and is succeeded
by Tiberius The ". of Thiedius, Asinius Gallus,
The Social warbegins, and continues three years, till -

finished by Sylla -
91 Velleius Paterculus, Fºrmanicus,Cornel,Celsus, &c. 14
The Mithridatic war begins, and continues
ues 25 years 89 Twelve cities in Asia destroyed by an earthquake
The civil wars of Marius and Sylla begin and conti 1?
Gºrmanicus, poisoned by Piso, dies at Antioch 19
nue six years. ce Tiberius goes to Caprea: -
Sylla conquers Athens, and sends its valuable libra 88 sejanus disgraci --

- rics to Rome Our Saviour crucified, Friday, April 8d. This is pput
Young Marius is defeated by Syſia, who is made dic 86 four we's earlier by some tº...i...,
*ator. Tiberius dies at Misen in near Baite, March 16th. and
The death of sylla. About this time flourished Phi *2 rished is succeeded by Caligula. About this period flou
Yalejº Maximus,Columeña, foºls Me
lo, Charmidas, Asclepiades, Apellicon L. Sisenna
Alexander Polyhistor, Plotius Gallus, Dioulinus, Že. la Appion, Philo Judaeus, Artºbanus, and Agrippina sº
no, Hortensius, Archias, Posidonius, Geminus &c St. Paul converted to Christianity
hithynia left by Nicomedes to the Ronans - **w-
78 St. Matthew writes his Gospel se
The Servile war, under Spartacus, begins, and, two 75 The name of Christians first given at Antioch to the 39
§". after, the rebel general is defeated and Riº C ..". *::::
- Pompey and Crassus 33 *"sºlº
Ciaudiusmurdered byy Chaereas, and succeeded by -
Mithridates and Tigranes defeated b
Mithridates conquered b > by Lucullus 41
Pompey in a night battle. * The expedition of claudius into Britain 4...t
Crete is subdued by ºetellus, after a war of tº St. Mark writes his Gospel
a $ºcular games celebrated at Rome
!. of of
thethe Seleucidae
country ends in Syri
by Pompe yria on the con
tº Caractacus carried in chains to Rome 47
Claudius succeeded by Nero 54
T'ºiline's conspiracy detec
dates kills .# tected by Cicero. Mithri 65
- * - L_*. Agrippina put to i. by her son Nero
** Persecution against the christian,
º ... irate in the Pºrsons of J. Caesar, Pom 68 N. : Lucan, ºnfothºr. Jut to death 6+
É. and Crassus. About this time flourished Apol ero visits Greece. The Jº, war begins. The
Shius of Rhodes, Terentius Varro. Tyrannion, age of Persius, Q. Curtius, Pliny the elder, Jose
Aristocents ºf Nysa, Lucretius, Dionysius the hus, Frontinus, Burrhus, Carbulo, Thrasea, Boa
dicea, &c.
A. D. A. D.
St. Peter and St. Paul put to death 67 to death by Pupienus, who soon after is destroyed,
Nero dies, and issueceeded by Galba 68 with Balbus, by the soldiers of the younger Gordian 236
tººlba put tº death. Otho, defeated by Vitellius, kills Sabinianus defeated in Africa 240
himself. Witellius is defeated by Vespasian's army 69 Gordian marches against the Persians 242
Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus 70 He is put to death by Philip, who succeeds, and makes
The Parthians revolt 77 peace with Sapor the next year. About this time
Leath of Vespasian, and succession of Titus. Her- flourished Censorius, and Gregory Thaumaturgus 244
sianeum, and Pompeii destroyed by an eruption of Philip killed, and succeeded by Decius. Herodian
Meant Vesuvius, November 1st 79 flourished 249
Path of Titus, and succession of Domitian. The The seventh persecution against the Christians 250
age of Sul. Italicus, Martial, Apollon, Tyaneus, Decius succeeded by Gallus 251
Valerius Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian, A great pestilence over the empire 252
Lºpus, Agricola, &c. 81 Gallus dies and is succeeded by Emilianus, Valeria
Carºline games instituted by Domitian, and cele- nus, and Gallienus. In the reign of Gallus flour
brated every fourth year 36 ...ished St. Cyprian and Plotinus 254
Serulergames celebrated. The War with Dacia be- The eighth persecution against the Christians 257
- sins and continues 15 years 83 The empire is harassed by 30 tyrants successively 259
Sºceed persecution of the Christians 95 Valerian is taken by Sapor and flead alive 26
iºniſia fatto death by Stephanus, &c. and succeed- Odenatus governs the east for Gallienus 264
*d by Nerva. The age of Juvenal, Tacitus, Sta-
tius, &c.
The Scythians and Goths defeated by Cleodamus
96 and Athenaeus 287
Nerva dies, and is succeeded by Trajan .98 Gallienus killed, and succeeded by Claudius. In this
Piny, Proconsul ºf Bithynia, sends Trajan an ac reign flourished Longinus, Paulus Samosatenus, &c. 268
cºunt cf the Christians 102 Claudius conquers the Goths, and kills 300,000 of
Pºtia reduced tº a Roman province 103 , them. Zenobia takes possession of Egypt 269
Trºjan's expedition against Parthia. About this Aurelian succeeds 270
its flourished Florus, Suetonius, Pliny junior, Phi The ninth persecution against the Christians -
* Bytics, Dion, Frusaeus, Plutarch, &c. 106 Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa 273
Third persecution of the Christians 107 Dacia ceded to the Barbarians by the emperor 274
Trºjas's colume erected at Rome 114 Aurelian killed, and succeeded by Tacitus, who died
ºr jaº dies, and is succeeded by Adrian 117 after a reign of six months, and was succeeded by
fºrth persecution of the christians 118 . Florianus, and, two months after, by Probus
Adrian beilds a wall in Britain 121 Probus makes an expedition into Gauí
ºrian visits Asia and Egypt for seven years 126 He defeats the Persians in the east
He rebuilds Jerusalem, and raises there a temple to Probus is put to death and succeeded by Carus, and
dupiter 130 his sons Carinus and Numerianus
The Jews rebel, and are defeated after a war of five Dioclesian succeeds
years, and all banished 131 The empire attacked by the Barbarians of the north.
dºrian diet, and is succeeded by Antoninus Pius. Dioclesian takes Maximianus as his imperial col
In the reign of Adrian flourished Theon, Phavori league
tº, Phlegon, Trallian, Aristides, Aquila, Salvius Britain recovered, after a tyrant's usurpation of ten
Julian, Polycarp, Arrian, Ptolemy, &c. 138 ears. , Alexandria taken by Dioclesian
"stoniºus defeats the Moors, Germans, and Dacians 145 The tenth persecution against the Christians, which
The worship of Serapis brought to Rome
146 continues ten years

Antoninus dies, and is succeeded by M. Aurelius and Dioclesian and Maximianus abdicate the empire, and
L. Verus, the last of which reigned nine years. In live in retirement, succeeded by Constantius Chlo
the reign of Antoninus flourished Maximus Tyrius, rus and Galerius Maximianus, the two Caesars.
Peasanias. Diophantes, Lucian. Hermogenes, Poly About this period flourished J. Capitolinus, Arno
*trus, Appian, Artemidorus, Justin the martyr, bius,Gregory and Hermogenes, the lawyers, Elius
Apuleius, &c. 161 Spartianus, #. Flavius Vopiscus, Trebel
* war with Parthia, which continues three years 162 lius, Pollio, &c.
A war against the Marcomanni, which continues five Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his son
*ears -
169 At this time there were four emperors, Constantine,
ºther, which continues three years 177 Licinius, Maximianus, and Maxentius
* Aurelius dies, and Commodas succeeds. In the Maxentius defeated and killed by Constantine. §:
* reign flourished Gaten, Athenagoras, Tatian, The emperor Constantine begins to favour the Chris
ºther rus, Montanus, Diogenes Laertius 180 tian religion 319
Tºrºus makes peace with the Germans 181 Licinius defeated and banished by Constantine
- 324
Lermºus put to death by Martia and Laetus. He is The first general Council of Nice, composed of 318
*re-ded for a few months by Pertinax, who is bishops, who sit from June 19 to August 25 325
ºrdered. 133, and four rivals arise, Didins Julia The seat of the empire removed from Rome to Con
H. Pescensins Niger, severus, and Albinus. Un stantinople 323
der Commodus flourished J. Pollux, Theodotion, Constantinople solemnly dedicated by the emperor
st Irenaeus, &c. 192 on the eleventh of May 330
** is defeated by Severus at issus 194 Constantine orders all the heathen temples to be de
**is defeated in Gaud, and killed at Lyons, Fe stroved 331
*ary 19th 198 The death of Constantine, and succession of his three
***** conquers the Parthians 200 sons, Constantinus, Constans, and Constantius. In
**;ersecution against the Christians 202 the reign of Constantine flourished Lactantius,
**frus visits Britain, and two years after builds a Athanasius Arius, and Eusebius 357
wall there aeross from the Frith of Forth 207 Constantine the younger defeated and killed by Con
*nº fies at York. and is succeeded by Caracalla stans at Aquileia 340
* Gºa. In his reign flourished Terinllian. Mi Constans killed in Spain by Magnentius 350
ºf Felix Papinianus, Clemens of Alexandria, Gallus put to death by Constantius 354
_**strates, Plotianus, and Bulas 211 One hundred and fifty cities of Greece and Asia ruin
- Hilled by his brother Caracalla 212 ed by an earthquake 353,
**ſtagiºt discovered. Caracalla murdered by Constantius and Julian quarrel, and prepare for war;
ºrians. Flourished Oppian 217 but the former dies the next year, and leaves the
** Macrinus killed by the soldiers, and succeed latter sole emperor. About this period flourished
*:by Heliozabalus 219 HElius Donatus, Eutropius, Libanius, Ammian,
* severus succeeds Heliogabalus. The Marcellinus, Iamblicus, St. Hilary, &c. 360
ºths then exacted an annual payment not to in Julian dies, and is succeededby Jovian. In Julian's
* * molest the Roman empire. The age of reign flourished Gregory Nazienzen, Themistius,
*is Africants 222 Aurelius Victor, &c. 363
* Aracār of Parthia are conquered by Artaxer Upon the death ofJovian, and the succession of Wa
* ºr of Media, and their empire destroyed 223 lens and Valentinian. the empire is divided, the
**nder defeats the Persians 234 former being emperor of the east and the other of
*arth persecution against the Christians 235 the west 364
ºteierkilled, and succeeded by Maximinus. . At Gratian taken as partner in the western empire by
trime flourished Dion Cassius, Origen and Am Valentinian ;
**** 235 Firmus, tyrant of Africa, defeated - - - -

*** Gordians succeed Maximinus, and are put *... the second succeeds Valentinian the First 375
A , D. A. tr.
The Goths permitted to settle in Thrace, on being Paris made the capital of the French dominions 51:
expelled by the Huns 376 Constantinople besieged by Vitalianus, whose fleetis
Theodosius the Great succeeds Walens in the eastern burned with a brazen speculum by Proclus 514
empire. The Lombards first leave Scandinavia The computing of time by the Christian era, introduc
and defeat the Vandals 379 ed first #
Dionysius 516
Gratian defeated and killed by Andrigathius 383 Justin the first, a peasant of Dalmatia, makes himself
The tyrant Maximus defeated and put to death by emperor sit
Theodosius 388 Justinian the First, nephew of Justin, succeeds. Un
Eugenius usurps the western empire, and is two years der his glorious reign flourished Belisarius, Jor.
after defeated by Theodosius 392 nandes, Paul the Silentiary, Simplicus, Dionysius,
Theodosius dies, and is succeeded by his sons, Arca Procopius, Proclus, Earses, &c. 527
dius in the east, and Honorius in the west. In the Justinian publishes his celebrated code of laws, and
reign of Theodosius flourished Ausonius, Eunapius, four years after his digest 529
Pappus, Theon, Prudentius, St. Austin, St. Jeroine, Conquest of Africa by Belisarius, and that of Rome,
St. Ambrose, &c. 395 two years after 584
Gildo, defeated by his own brother, kills himself 393 Italy is invaded by the Franks 533
Stilicho defeats :00, 00 of the Goths at Fesulae 405 The Roman consulship suppressed by Justinian 54:
The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi, permitted to settle in A great plague which rose in Africa, and desolated
Spain and France by Honorius 406 Asia and ºf: 543
Théodosius the Younger succeeds Arcadius in the The beginning of the Turkish empire in Asia 5.45
east, having Isdegerdes, king of Persia, as his Rome taken and pillaged by Totila 547
guardian appointed by his father 408 The munufacture of silk introduced from India into
Rome plundered by Alaric, king of the Visigoths, Au Europe by monks 551
gust 24th 410 Defeat and death of Totila, the Gothic king of Italy 553
The Vandals begin their kingdom in Spain 412 A dreadful plague over Africa, Asia, and Europe,
The kingdom of the Burgundians is begun in Alsace 413 which continues 50 years
The Visigoths found a kingdom at Thoulouse 415 Justin the Second, son of Vagilantia, the sister of
The Alani defeated and extirpated by the Goths 417 Justinian, succeeds 555
The kingdom of the French begins on the lower Part of Italy conquered by the Lombards from Pan
Rhine - 420 nonia, who form a kingdom there 563
The death of Honorius, and succession of Valentinian Tiberius the Second, an officer of the imperial guards,
the Third. Under Honorius flourished Sulpicius is adopted, and, soon after, succeeds 78
Severus, Macrobius, Anianus, Panodorus, Stobaeus, Latin ceases to be the language of Italy about this
Servius the commentator, Hypatia, Pelagius, Sy time 531
nesius, Cyrill, Orosius, Socrates, &c. 423 Maurice, the Cappadocian, son-in-law of Tiberius,
Theodosius establishes public schools at Constantino succeeds 53
ple, and attempts the restoration of learning 425 Gregory the First, surnamed the Great, fills St. Pe
The Romans take leave of Britain and never return 26 ter's chair at Rome. The few men of learning
Pannonia recovered from the Huns by the Romans. who flourished the latter end of this century were
The Vandals pass into Africa 427 Gildas, Agathias, Gregory of Tours, the father of
The French defeated by Etius 423 French history, Evagrius, and St. Augustin the
The Theodosian code published 435 monk 590
Genseric the Vandal takes Carthage, and begins the Augustin the Monk, with 40 others, comes to preach
kingdom of the Wandals in Africa 489 Christianity in England 527
The Britons abandoned by the Romans, make their About this time the Saxon Heptarchy began in Eng
eelebrated complaint to AEtius against the Picts and land 600
Scots, and three years after the Saxons settle in Phocas, a simple centurion, is elected emperor, after
Britain, upon the invitation of Vortigern 446 the revolt of the soldiers, and the inurder of Mau
Attila, king of the Huns, ravages Europe 447 rice and of his children to
Theodosius the Second dies, and is succeeded by Mar The power of the Popes begins to be established by
cianus. About this time flourished Zozimus, Nesto the concessions of Phocas
rius, Theodoret, Sozomen, Olympiodorus, &c. 450 Heraclius, an officer in Africa, succeeds, after the
The city of Venice first º: to be known 452 murder of the usurper Phocas 610.
Death of Valentinian the Third, who is succeeded b The conquests of Choſroes, king of Persia, in Syria,
Maximus (or two months, by Avitus for ten, and, af. Egypt, Asia Minor, and, afterwards, his siege of
ter an interregnum of ten months, by Majorianus 454 onne tºli
Rome taken by Genseric in July. The kingdom of The Persians take Jerusalem with the slaughter of
Kent first established -
90,000 men, and the next year they over-run Africa 614
The Suevi defeated by Theodoric on the Ebro j Mahonmet in the 53d year, flies from Mecca to Me
Marcianus dies, and is succeeded by Leo, surnamed dina, on Friday, July 16, which forms the first year
the Thracian. Vortimer defeated by Hengist at of the Hegira, the era of the Mahometans 6
Crayford, in Kent Constantinople is besieged by the Persians and Arabs 626
Severus succeeds in the western empire Death of Mahomet 63:
The paschal cycle of 532 years invented by Victorius Jerusalem taken by the Saracens, and three years af
of Aquitain ter, Alexandria, and its famous library destroyed 637
Anthemius succeeds in the western empire, after an Constantine the Third, son of Heraclius, in partner
interregnum of two years ship with Heracleonas, his brother by the same fa
Olybrius succeeds Anthemius, and is succeeded, the ther, assumes the imperial purple. Constantine
next year, by Glycerius, and Glycerius by Nepos reigns 103 days, and after his death, his son. Con
Nepos is succeeded by Augustulus. Leo junior, son stantine's son Constans is declared emperor, though
of Ariadne, though an infant, succeeds his grandfa Heracleonas, with his mother Martina, wished to
ther Leo in the eastern empire, and some months continue in possession of the supreme power
after, is succeeded by his father Zeno 474 Cyprus taken by the Saracens
The western empire is destroyed by Odoacer, king of The Saracens take Rhodes, and destroy the Colossus
the Heruli, who assumes the title of king of Italy. Constantine the Fourth, surnamed Pogonatus, suc
About that time flourished Futyches, Prosper, Vic ceeds, on the murder of his father in Sicily
torius, Sidonius, Apollinaris 476 The Saracens ravage Sicily
Constantinople partly destroyed by an earthquake, Constantinople besieged by the Saracens, whose fleet
which lasted 40 days at intervals 480 is destroyed by the Greek fire
The battle of Soissons and victory of Clovis over Sia Justinian }. Second succeeds his father Constantine.
#. the Roman general 485 In his exile of 10 years, the purple was usurped by
After the death of Zeno in the east, Ariadne married Leontius and Absinnerus Tiberins. His restoration
Anastasius, surnamed the Silentiary, who ascends happened 704. The only men of learning in this
the vacant throne 491century were Secundus, Isidorus, theophylºcº. º
Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, revolts about this
time, and conquers Italy from the Heruli. About
Geo. %.Callinicus, and the venerable Bede
Pepin engrosses the power of the whole French mo
Gs 3. :Sã,
this time flourished Boethius, and Symmachus 493 narchy
Christianity embraced in France by the baptism of Africa finally conquered by the Saracens 7t
Clovis 496 Bardanes, surnamed Philipicus, succeeds at Constan
The Burgundian laws published by king Gondebaud 501 ... stinople, on the murder of Justinian -:
Alaric defeated by Clovis at the battle of Worcillé Spain is conquered by the Saracens. Accession of
near Poictiers 567 Artemius, or Anastasius the Second to the throne -


A. D. A. n.
**astasius abdicates, and is succeeeded by Theodosius empress, unable to reign alone under the title of
the Tbird, who, two years after, yields to the supe Protectress of her young children, had married 963
rior influence ºf Leo the Third, the first of the Isau
Italy conquered by otho, and united to the German
_ rian dynasty 715 ...empire 964
second, but unsuccessful siege of Constantinople by Nicephorus. At the instigation of Theophana, is mur.
the Sarazens 717 dered by John Zinisces, who assumes the purple 969
Tax called Peterpence begun by Ina, king of Wes- . Basil the Second, and Constantine the Ninth, the two
*ex, to support a college at Rome 727 sons of Romanus by Theophano, succeed on the
Saracers defeated by Charles Martel between Tours death of Zimisces 975
*nd Poietiers in October 732 The third or Cayetian race of kings in France be.
Canstantise the Fifth, surnamed Capronymus, suc gins July 3d 98.7
eeeds his father Leo 741 Arithmetical figures brought into Europe from Ara
Pºiº pestilence for three years over Europe and 746
bia by the Saracens
The empire of Germany first made elective by Otho

The cºmputation of years from the birth of Christ III...The learned men of this century were Eudes
first used in historical writings 743 de Cluni, Azophi, Luitprand, Alſarabius, Rhaze,
Learning encouraged by the race of Abbas caliph of Geber, Abbo, Aimion, Gerbert 99e
the Saracens 749. A general massacre of the Danes in England, Nov. 1002
The Merovingian race of kings end in France 750 13th
Bagdad built, and made the capital of the Caliphs of All old churches, about this time, rebuilt in a new
the house of Abbas - 762 manner of Architecture 1005
A violent frost for 150 days from October to February 768 Flanders inundated in consequence of a violent storm ioli
Monasteries dissolved in the east by Constantine 770 Constantine becomes sole emperor on the death of his
Pavia taken by Charlemagne, which ends the king brother 1025
dom of the Lombards, after a duration of 296 years 774 Romanus the Third, surnamed Argyrus, a Patrician,
Leo the Fourth, son of Constantine, succeeds, and succeeds, by marrying Zoe, the daughter of the
five years after, is succeeded by his wife Irene, and late º 1022
his son Constantine the Sixth 775 Zoe, after prostituting herself to a Paphlagonian mo
frene murders her son and reigns alone. The only ney lender, causes her husband Romanus to be poi
men of learning in this century were Johannes Da soned, and afterwards marries her favourite, who
seascenus, Fredegaire, Alcuinus, Paulus Diaconus, ascends the throne under the name of Michael the
George the monk 797 Fourth 1034
Charlemagne is crowned emperor of Rome and of the The kingdoms of Castile and Aragon begin 1035
western empire. About this time the Popes sepa Zoe adopts for her son Michael th. Fifth, the trade
rate themselves from the princes of Constantinople 800 of whose father (careening vessels) had procured
Rºbert ascends the throne of England, but the total him the surname of Calaphates 1041
reduction of the Saxon heptarchy is not effected till Zoe and her sister Theodora, are made sole empresses
26 years after 801 by the populace, but after two months, Zoe, though
Nicephorus the First, great treasurer of the empire, 60 years old, takes for her third husband, Constan
succeeds 802 tine the Tenth, who succeeds 1042
*tauracias, son of Nicephorus, and Michael the first, The Turks invade the Roman empire 1030
surnamed Rhangabe the husband of Procopio, sis After the death of Constantine, Theodora recovers the
ter of Stauracius, assume the purple 811 sovereignty, and, 19 months after, adopts, as her
Leo the Fifth, the Armenian, though but an officer of successor, Michael the Sixth, surnamed Stratioticus 1054
the Palace, ascends the throne of Constantinople 813 tº: Commenus the First, chosen emperor by the sol1057
Learning encouraged among the Saracens by Alma
tnon, who made observations on the sun, &c. 816 Isaac abdicates, and when his brother refuses to suc
Michael the Second. Thracian, surnamed the Stam ceed him, he appoints his friend Constantine the
merer, succeeds, after the murder of Leo. 321 Eleventh, surnamed Ducas 1059
The Saracens of Spaintake Crete which they call Jerusalem conquered by the Turks from the Saracens 1063
Candia 623 The crown *}.
is transferred from the head
The Almagest of Ptolemy translated into Arabic by of Harold by the battle of Hastings, October the
order of Almarnon 8 14th, to William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy 1066
Theophilus succeeds his father Michael 829 On the Death of Ducas, his wife Eudocia, instead of
Origin of the Russian monarchy 839 protecting his three sons, Michael, Andronicus, and
Michael the Third succeeds his father Theophilus Constantine, usurps the :...'ſ. and marries
with his mother Theodora 842 Romanus the Third, surnamed Diogenes 1067
The Normans get possession of some cities in France 853 Romanus being taken prisoner by the Turks, the three
Michael is murdered, and succeeded by Basil the {. princes ascend the throne, under the name of
First, the Macedonian 967 ichael Parapinaces the Seventh, Andronicus the
Clocks first brought to Constantinople from Venice 372 First, and Constantine the Twelfth 107t
Basil is succeeded by his son Leo the Sixth, the phi The general Nicephorus Botaniates the Third, as
losºpher. In this century flourished Messué, the sumes the purple 1078
Arabian physician, Eginhard, Rabanus, Albumasar, Doomsday book begun to be compiled from a general
Godescaichus. Hincmarus, Odo, Photius, John Sco survey of the estates of England, and finished in
tus, Anastasius the librarian, Alfraganus, Albategni, six years 1030
Reginon, John Asser g36 Alexius Cºmmenus the First, nephew of saac the
Paris besieged by the Normans, and bravely defend First, ascends the throne. His reign is rendered
ed by Bishop à. 837 illustrious by the pen of his daughter, the princess
Death of Alfred, king of England, after a reign of Anna Commena. The Normans, under Robert of
30 years 900 Apulia, invade the eastern empire 108:
Alexander, brother of Leo, succeeds with his nephew Asia Minor finally conquered by the Turks -

Constantine the Seventh, surnamed Porphyrogeni Accession of William the Second to the English
tgs 911 throne 1087
establish themselves in France under The first crusade 1096
912 Jerusalem taken by the crusaders 15th July. The
Rºmanus the First, surnamed Lecapenus, general of only learned men of this century were Avicenna,
the fleet. s the throne, with his three sons, Chris Guy d'Arezzo, Glaber, Hermanus, Franco, Peter
*:::: Stephen, and Constantine the Eighth
Fie * *stablished in France . -
Damiani, Michael Celularius, Geo. Cedrenus, Be
renger, Pseilus Marianus. Scotus, Arzachel, Wil
**tenempire divided by usurpation into seven king liam of Spires, Suidas, Peter the Hermit. Sigebert 1099
sºme 936 Henry the }. succeeds to the throne of England 1100
ºples seized by the eastern emperors 942 Learning revived at Cambridge 1110
sons of Romanus conspire against their father, John, or calojohannes, son of Alexius, succeeds at
Constantinople 1118
and the tumults this occasioned produced the resto
ration of Porphyrogenitus 945 Order of Knights Templars instituted 1118
*manus the Second, son of Constantine the Se Accession of Stephen to the English crown 1135.
§: by Helena, the daughter of Lecapenus, suc Manual, son of John, succeeds at Constantinople łłł
ed 959 The second crusade
Bºnus§. by his wife Theophano, is succeed The canon law composed by Gratian, after 24 years' 115t
** Nicephorus Phoeas the second, whom the labour
A. D. .u.
The party names of G uelfs and Gibbelines begins in Halensis, William of Paris, Peter de Vignes, M.”
ltaly 1154 thew Paris, Grosseteste, Albertus,Thomas Aquinas,
Henry the Second succeeds in England 1164 Bonaventura, John Joinville, Roger Bacon, Cima
The Teutonic order begins - 1 164 bue, Durandes, Henry of Ghent, Raymond Lulli,
The conquest of Egypt by the Turks 1169 Jacob Voragine, Albertet, Duns Scotus. Thebit lº.
The famous council of Clarendon in England, Janua A regular succession of English parliaments from this
ry 25th. Conquest of Ireland by Henry II. 1172 time !--
Dispensin of justice by circuits first established in The Turkish empire begins in Bithynia 1
Alexius the Second succeeds his father Manuel
The mariner's compass invented or improved by Fla
V 10 tºº
English laws digested by Glanville 1131 The Swiss Cantons begin 1.37
From the disorders of the government, on account of Edward the Second succeeds to the English crown 137
the minority of Alexius, Andronicus, the grandson Translation of the holy see to Avignon, which aliena.
of the great Alexius is named guardian, but he tion continues tº years, till the return of Gregory
murders Alexius, and ascends the throne 1133 the Fleventh 13tº
Andronicus is cruelly put to death, and Isaac Ange Andronicus adopts, as his colleagues, Mannel and his
lus, a descendant of the great Alexius by the fe grandson, the younger Andronicus. Manuel dying,
male line, succeeds 1165 Andronicus revolts against his grandfather, who
The third crusade, and siege of Acre 1138 abdicates 13-0
Richard the First succeeds his father Henry in Eng Fºdward the Third succeeds in England 12:7
land 1139 First comet observed, whose course is described with
Saladin defeated by Richard of England in the bat exactness, in June 1337
tle of Ascalon 1.192 About this time flourished Leo Pilatus, a Greek pro
Alexius Angelus, brother of Isaac, revolts, and usurps fessor at Florence, Barlaam, Petrarch, Boccace,
the sovereignty, by putting out the eyes of the en and Manual Chrysolaras, where may be fixed the
beror 11.95 era of the revival of Greek literature in Italy 133)
J.A. succeeds tothe English throne. The learned men Andronicus is succeeded by his son John Palaeologus
of this century were, fººter Abelard, Anna Comme in the ninth year of his age. John Cantacuzene,
na, St. Bernard, Averroes, William of Malmesbu who had been left guardian of the young prince,
ry, Peter Lombard, Otho Trisingensis, Maimonides, assumes the purple. First passage of the Turks in
Humenus, Wernerus, Gratian, Jeoffry of Mon to Europe 1341
mouth, Tzetzes, Eustathius, John of Salisbury, Si The knights and burgesses of Parliament first sit in
meon of Durham, Henry of Huntingdon, Peter Co the same house - - 134:
mestor, Peter of Blois, Hanulph Glanville, Roger The battle of Crecy, August 25 1345
Howeden, Campanus, William of Newburgh 1199 Seditions of Rienzi at Rome, and his elevation to the
Constantinople is besieged and taken by the Latins, tribuneship 1317
and Isaae is taken from his dungeon and replaced Qrder of the Garter in England established April23d 13+.
on the throne with his son Alexius. This year is The Turks first enter Europe 1352
remarkable for the fourth crusade 1203 Catacuzene abdicates the purple 1355
The father and son are murdered by Alexius Mour. The battle of Poictiers, September 19th 1335
zoufle, and Coustantinople is again besieged and Law pleadings altered from French into English asa
taken by the French and Venetians, who elect favour from Edward III. to his people, in his 50th 135.
Baldwin, count of Flanders, emperor of the east. year
In the mean time, Theodore Lascaris makes him. Rise of Timour, or Tamerlane, to the throne of Sa
self emperor of Nice; Alexius, grandson of the marcand, and his extensive conquests till his death,
tyrant Andronicus, becomes emperor of Trebizond; after a reign of 35 years 1370
and Michael, an .#." child of the Angeli, Accession of Richard the Second to the English
founds an empire in Epirus 1204 throne 1377
The emperor Baldwin is defeated by the Bulgarians, Manuel succeeds his father John Palaeologus 159:
and, next year, is succeeded by his brother Henry 1205 Ağcession of Henry the Fourth in England. The
Reign and conquests of the great Zingis Khan, first learned men of this century were Peter Apono, Fla
emperor of the Moguls and Tartars, till the time of yo, Dante, Arnoldus Viſla, Nicholas Lyra, Wil
his death 1227 1206 liam Qccan, Nicephorus Gregoras, Leontius Pila
Aristotle's works imported from Constantinople are tºs, Matthew of Westminster, Wickliff, Froissart, 1399
condemned by the council of Paris 1209 Nicholas, Flamel, Chaucer
Magna Charta granted to the English barons by King Hºly the Fourth is succeeded by hisson Henry the
John 1215
Henry the Third succeeds his father John on the Eng Battle of Agincourt, October 25th 1415
lish throne 1216 The Island of Maderia discovered by the Portuguese 14."
Peter of Courtenay, the husband of Yolanda, sister of Henry the Sixth succeeds to the throne of England.
the two last emperors. Baldwin and Henry, is made Constantinople is besieged by Amurath the se 14:2
emperor by the Latins l
cond, the Turkish emperor
Robert, son of Peter Courtenay, succeeds 122 John Palæologus the second succeeds his father
Theodore Lascaris is succeeded on the throne of Manuel 1424
Nice by his son-in-law, John Ducas Wataces Cosmo de Medici recalled from banishment, and rise
John of Brienne, and Baldwin the Second, son of Pe of that family at Florence 1434
ter, succeeded on the throne of Constantinople 1223 The famous pragmatic sanction settled in France 1439
The inquisition, which had begun 1204, is now trust Printing discovered at Mentz, and improved gradual1440
ed to the Dominicans 1233 ly in 22 years -

Baldwin alone 1237 Colstantine, one of the sons of Manuel, ascends the
Origin of the Ottomans 1240 throne after his brother John 1445
The fifth crusade Mahomet the Second, emperor of the Turks, be
Astronomical tables composed by Alphonso the Ele jeſſes and takes Constantinople on the 29th ofMay.
venth of Castille 1253 Fall ºf the eastern empire. 'The captivity of the
Ducas Wataces is succeeded on the throne of Nice by Greeks, and the extinction of the imperial families
his son Theodore Lascaris the Second 1255 ºf the Comneni, and Palæologi. About this time,
Lascaris succeeded by his son John Lascaris, a minor 1259 the House of York in England began to aspire to
Michael Palaeologus, son of the sister of the queen of the crown, and, by their ambitious views to deluge
Theodore Lascaris, ascends the throne, after the the whole kingdom in blood. The learned men of
the 15th century were Chaucer, Leonard Aretin,
murder of the young prince's guardian 1260
Constantinople is recovered from the Latins by the John Huss, Jerome of Prague, Poggio, Flavius
Greek emperors of Nice 1261
Blondus, Theodore Gaza, Frank Phiêlphus, Geo.
Edward the first succeeds on the English throne 1272 Trapezuntius, Gemistus Pletho, Laurentius Valla,
The famous Mortmain act passes in England 1279 Ulugh Beigh, John Guttemburg, John Faustus, Pe.
Eight thousand French murdered during the Sicilian tºr Schoeffer, Wesselus, peurºachius, Aeneas sy!
vespers, 30th of March 12:3: Yi* Bessarion, Thomas a Kempis, Argyropulas,
Wales couquered by F.dward and annexed to England 1283 Regiomontanus, Platina, Agricº, Pontº'Fic.
Michael Paleologus dies, and his son Andronicus, who n", Lascaris, Tiphernas, Annins of viterbº, Mern
had already reigned nine years conjointly with his 14. Savonarola, Picus, Politian, Hermolaus, Grocyn,
father, ascends the throne. The learned men of Mantuanus, John Colet, Renchlin, Ly nacre, Alex
this century are, Gervase, Dice!o, Saxo, Walter of *** * Alexandro, Demetrius Chalcanºes, 11:3
Coventry, Accursius, Antony of Padua, Alexander
&c. &c. &c.


ABA or Abe, (a city of Phocis in Greece, called Mazeres by Flor. 3, c. 21. and Ariam
famous for an oracle of Apollo more ancient nes by Plut. in Crass.
than thatat Delphi, and also for a rich temple ABAs, for Anus, a mountain of Armenia
plundered and burnt by the Persians. The Major ; according to D'Anville the modern
city is saidtohave been founded by the Aban .4bi-dag, but maintained by Mannert to be the
tes and named after their leader Abas. Paus. modern Ararat. It gives rise to the southern
16. c.3—Steph. de Urb.—Strab. 9..] branch of the Euphrates. Mann. Geo. Vol. 5,
[Asacesumi, a town of Sicily near Messa p. 196-vid. Arsanias.]—A river of Armenia
La; its runs are supposed to be in the neigh | Major, where Pompey routed the Albani.
bourhood of the modern Tripi.] Plut. in Pomp.–A son of Metamira, or Mela
Asilus, [according to the ancients, an is minia, changed into a lizard for laughing at
land in the German ocean, on whose shores |Ceres. Ovid. Met. 5. fab. 7.—The 11th king
amber was collected in great abundance, be of Argos, son of Belus, some say of Lynceus
ing driven thither by the waves in the spring.i. Hypermnestra, was famous for his genius
It is supposed by Mannert to have been the and valour. He was father to Proetus and
southern extremity of Sweden, mistaken by Acrisius, by Ocalea. He reigned 23 years,
the ancients for an island on account of their B. C. 1384. Paus. 2, c. 16, 1. 10, c. 35.-
ignorance of the country to the north. Man Hygin. 170. &c.—Apollod. 2, c. 2. Orid,
arri. Anc. Geogr. Vol. 4. p. 304.] Met. 12, v. 306.—A soothsayer, to whom
AbAMTEs, [a people of Thracian origin the Spartans erected a statue in the temple
whesettled in Phocis and founded Abae. Ac of Apollo, for his services to Lysander. Paus.
carding to some ancient authors they after 10, c. 9. A sophist who wrote two trea
wards emigrated to Eubaea. Herod. 1, c. tises, one on history,the other on rhetoric: the
146.-Hom. Il. 2,542.] time in which he lived is unknown.
AEANTIAs, and Abantiades, a patronymic ABāsa, an island in the Red Sea, near AF
given to the deseendants of Abas king of Ar thiopia. Paus. 6, c. 26.
gos, such as Acrisius, Danae, Perseus, Atalan AbAsitis, a part of Mysia in Asia. Strab.
ta, &e.—Orid. AbAsséNA, or Abassinia. Wid. Abyssinia.
ARANTipas made himself master of Sicy Ab Aster, one of Pluto's horses.
24, after he had murdered Clinias, the father Abitos, an island in the lake near Mem
ºf Aratus. He was himself soon after assas phis in Egypt, abounding with flax and papy
inated, B.C. 251. Plut. in .4rat. | rus. Osiris was buried there. Lucan. 10.
Asaxtis, or Abantias, an ancient name of v, 323.
the islandof Euboea, received from the Aban Abn ALoNiMus, one of the descendants of
tes, who settled in it from Phocis.-Also a the kings of Sidon, so poor, that to maintain
*untry of Epirus. Paus. 5, c. 22. himself he worked in a garden. When Alex
Anaas AREA, one of the Naiades, mother ander took Sidon, he made him king in the
ºf Esopus and Pedasus by Bucolion, Laome room of Stuato, the deposed monarch, and
dad's eldest son. Hom. Ii.6., v. 23. enlarged his possessions on account of the great
Asians, a Scythian, son of Senthes, in the disinterestedness of his conduct. Justin. 11, c.
:* of Croesus, or the Trojan war, who re 1.—Curt. 4, c. 1.-Diod. 17.
ºted a flying arrow from Apollo, with which ABDERA, a town of Hispania Baetica, built
* tave oracles, and transported himself by the Carthaginians. Strab. 3.-A maritime
*herever he pleased. He is said to have re city of Thrace, built by Hercules, in memory
ºned to the Hyperborean countries from of Abderus, one of his favourites. The Teians
Athens without eating, and to have made the beautified it. Some suppose that Abdera, the
Trºjan Palladium with the bones of Pelops. sister of Diomedes, built it. The air was so
* suppose that he wrote treatises in unwholesome, and the inhabitants of such a
*reek; and it is reported that there is a sluggish disposition, that stupidity was com
manuscript of his epistles to Phalaris monly called Abderitica mens. It gave birth,
*the herary of Augsburg. But there were however, to Democritus, Protagoras, Anax
Pºtably two persons of that name. Herodot. archus and Hecataeus. Mela, 2, c. 2.-Cic.
*5-36.-Strab. 7–Paus. 3, c. 13. ad.Attic. 4, ep. 16.-Herodot. 1, c. 136. Mart.
***rs, an Arabian prince, who perfidi 10, ep. 25.
* deserted Crassus in his expedition Abderia a town of Spain. Apollod. 2, c. 5.
* Parthia. Appian. in Parth—He is Ahnfrcs, a man of Opus in Locris, ar
mour-bearer to Hercules, torn to pieces by |Dionys Hal. 1, c. 10—Justin.13. c.1—pin. º
5, c. 5.-Slrab. 5. d
the mares of Diomedes, which the hero had
intrusted to his care when going to war against Anorras a river of Mesopotamia. Strab. "
the Bistones. Hercules built a city which 16. vid. Chaboras. º
in honour of his friend he called Abdera. ABRADATEs, a king of Susa, who when :
.Apollod. 2, c. 5. –Philostrat. 2, c. 25. his wife Panthea had been taken prisoner by
ABERTAE, a people of Greece, probably the Cyrus, and humanely treated, surrendered
inhabitants of Abia.-Plin. 4, c. 6. himself and his troops to the conqueror. He “
AbelLA, a town of Campania, whose in was killed in the first battle which he under
habitants were called Abellani. Its nuts, call took in the cause of Cyrus, and his wife stab
ed avellanae, were famous. [It is now Avel bed herself on his corpse. Cyrus raised a
ra.] Virg. En. 7, v. 740. monument on their tomb. Xenoph. Cyrop.5,
Abelux, a noble of Saguntum, who favour 6, &c.
ed the party of the Romans against Carthage, 'Annenrius, was made governor of Ta
JLiv. 22, c. 22. rentum by Annibal. He betrayed his trust
An ENDA, a town of Caria, whose inhabit to the enemy to gain the favours of a beauti
ants were the first who raised temples to the ful woman, whose brother was in the Roman
, city of Rome. Liv. 54, c. 6. army. Polyten. 8.
Ahia, formerly Ire, a maritime town of AbrocóMAs, son of Darius, was in the
Messenia, one of the seven cities promised to army of Xerxes, when he invaded Greece.
Achilles by Agamemnon. It is called after He was killed at Thermopylae. Herodot. 7,
Abia, daughter of Hercules, and nurse of c. 224.—Plaut. in Cleom.
Hyllus. Paus.4, c. 30.—Strab.8.—Hom. Il. ABRoni Etus, a name given to Parrhasius
9, v. 292. the painter, on account of the sumptuous
Abil, a nation between Scythia and Thrace. manner of his living. vid. Parrhasius.
They lived upon milk, were fond of celibacy, ABRoN, an Athenian, who wrote some trea
and enemies to war. Hom. Il. 13, v. 6. Ac tises on the religious festivals and sacrifices of
..cording to Curt. 7, c. 6. they surrendered to the Greeks. Only the titles of his works are
Alexander, after they had been independent preserved. Suidas.--A grammarian of
since the reign of Cyrus. Rhodes, who taught rhetoric at Rome.—An
Abila, or Aby LA, a mountain of Africa, in other who wrote a treatise on Theocritus.-
that part which is nearest to the opposite A Spartan, son of Lycurgus the orator. Plut.
mountain called Calpe, on the coast of Spain, in 10. Orat.—A native of Argos, famous for
only eighteen miles distant. These two moun his debauchery.
tains are called the columns of Hercules, and Abnoxycus, an Athenian very serviceable
were said formerly to have been united, till to Themistocles in his embassy to Sparta.
the hero separated them, and made a com Thucyd. 1, c.91.-Herodot. 8, c. 21.
munication between the Mediterranean and Abronius, Silo, a Latin poet in the Au
Atlantic seas. Strab. 3.-Mela, 1, c. 5, 1.2, gustan age. He wrote some fables. Sener.
c.6.-Plin. 3. AhRotA, the wife of Nisus the youngest of
Abisi REs, an Indian prince, who offered the sons of Ægeus. As a monument to her
to surrender to Alexander. Curt. 8, c. 12. chastity, Nisus, after her death, ordered the
Abisi Ris, a country beyond the Hydaspes garments which she wore to become the mo
in India. Arrian. dels of fashion in Megara. Plut. Quest. Graec.
ABNobA, [mountains of Germany, among ABRotóNUM, the mother of Themistocles.
which are the sources of the Danube. Plut. *n Them.—A town of Africa, near the
Now, the Black Mountains. Tacit. Germ. 1.] Syrtes. Plin. 5, c. 4.—A harlot of Thrace.
Abobrica, a town of Lusitania. Plin. 4, c. Plut. in Aral.
20.—Another in Spain. ABRUs, a city of the Sapaei. Paus. 7, S. 10.
Andechitus, a Boeotian general, killed with ABRY Polis, an ally of Rome, driven from
a thousand men, in a battle at Chaeronea his possessions by Perseus, the last king oſ
against the AEtolians. Plut. in Arat. Macedonia. Liv. 42, c. 13 and 41.
AbolāN1, a people of Latium, near Alba. Ahsius, a giant, son of Tartarus and Ter
Plin. 5, c. 5. ra. Hygin. Praef. fab.
Anonitichos, [a town of Paphlagonia, Absinthii, a people on the coasts of Pon
south-east from the promontory Carambis, tus, where there is also a mountain of the
called lonopolis after the time of Alexander. same name. Herodot. 6, c. 34.
Now Ainehboli. Arrian in Peripl. [Absy Rtines or Apsyrtides, islands in
AborigiNEs, the original inhabitants of the Adriatic, on the coast of Illyricum, men
Italy; or, according to others, a nation con tioned by Strabo, Pliny, Mela, and Ptolemy.
ducted by Saturn into Latium, where they They were so called from Absyrtus, Medea's
faught the use of letters to Evander, the king brother, who was said to have been killey
of the country. Their posterity was called there by his sister. They are separated by a
Latini, from Latinus, one of their kings.- channel, and are now called Cherso and Ose
They assisted AEneas against Turnus. Rome to. Strab. 7.]
was built in their country. The word signifies Absyrtus, a son of AEetes king of Colchis
without origin, or whose origin is not known, and Hypsea. His sister Medea, as she fled away
and is generally applied to the original inha. with Jason,tore his body to pieces, and streswek,
bitants of any country.
Lir. 1, c. 1, &c.— This limbs in her father's way, to stop his Pun-

suit. Some say that she murdered him in Col from the second Academy founded by Arcesi.
chis, [others in one of the Absyrtides, while laus, who made some few alterations in the
others again lay the scene at Tomos, on the Platonic philosopby, and from the third which
western shores of the Euxine. It has been was established by Carneades. Cic. de div. 1,
maintained on the contrary that he was not c. 3.-Diog. 3.--Elian. V. H. 3, c. 35.
murdered, but that he arrived safe in Illyri AcADEMUs, an Athenian, who discovered
tum.] Lucan. 3, r. 190.-Strab. 7.-Hygin. to Castor and Pollux where Theseus had con
fab.23.--Apollod. 1, c. 9.-Flace. 8, v.261.- cealed their sister Helen, for which they am
Ovid. Trist. 3. el. 9.-Cic. de Nat. D. 3, c. ply rewarded him. Plut. in Thes.
19.-Plin. 3. c. 21 and 26. AcALANDRus, or Acalyndrus, a river fall
Abu lites, governor of Susa, betrayed his ing into the Bay of Tarentum. [Now, the Sa
trust to Alexander, and was rewarded with a landrella.] Plin. 3, c. 11.
Province. Curt. 5, c. 2.-Diod. 17. AcAMAs, son of Theseus and Phaedra, went
{Abus, a river of Britain, now the Hum with Diomedes to demand Helen from the
Ber.] Trojans after her elopement from Menelaus.
Abinos, Uan inland town of Thebais in In his embassy he had a son, called Munitus
Tipper Egypt, famous for the palace of Mem by Laodice, the daughter of Priam. He was
non and the magnificent temple of Osiris. concerned in the Trojan war, and afterwards
Now, a heap of ruins, as its modern name of built the town of Acamantum in Phrygia, and
-Aſadfuné expresses.—Plut. de Isid. et Osir. on his return to Greece called a tribe after
—A city of Asia, founded by the Milesians, his own name at Athens. Paus. 10, c. 26.-Q.
situate on the Hellespont, and lying opposite Calab. 12.-Hygin. 108.
to Sestos. Some make the straight only half AcAMPsis, a river of Colchis. [It sepa
a mile, others, two miles wide. Strabo reck rates Armenia from Colchis. The Greeks
ons 3750 paces from the port of Abydos to called it Acampsis from its impetuous course,
that of Sestos. It is famous for the bridge of which forbade all approaches to the shore.
boats which Xerxes made there across the This name was applied to it at its mouth, its
Hellespont, and for the loves of Leander and true name in the interior was Boas. Arruan.
Hero. Its situation was formerly very impor Perip.]
tant, as it commanded the communication be AcANTHA, a nymph loved by Apollo, and
tween the Euxine Sea and the Archipelago. changed into the flower Acanthus.
It was attacked by Philip of Macedon, and the AcANThus, [a town near mount Athos,
inhabitants devoted themselves to death with ſounded by a colony of Andrians. Here Xer
their families, rather than fall into the hands xes is said to have made his canal of seven
of the enemy. Liv. 31, c. 18.-Luean. 2, v. stadia, in order to convey his ships into the
674.—Justin. 2, c. 13.-Musaeus, in Her. & Sinus Singiticus, without doubling the pro
Leand—Flace. 1. v. 285.] montory of Athos. Thucyd. 4, 84.—JMela,
ABY A. Wid. Abila. 2, c. 2.-Another in Egypt, near Memphis.
ABYssinia, a large kingdom of Africa, in now Bisalta, or according to D'Anville, Da
Upper Æthiopia, where the Nile takes its rise. shur. Plin. 5, c. 28.]
Theinhabitants were said to be of Arabian ori AcARIA, a fountain of Corinth, where Io
gin, and were little known to the ancients. las cut off the head of Eurystheus. Strab. 8.
AcAcALLIS, a nymph, mother of Philan AcARNANIA, a country of Epirus, at the
der and Phylacis by Apollo. These children nerth of the Ionian sea, divided from AEtolia
were exposed to the wild beasts in Crete; but by the Achelous. The inhabitants reckoned
a goat gave them her milk, and preserved only six months in the year; they were lux
their life. Paus. 10, c. 16.-A daughter of urious, and addicted to pleasure, so that x21
Minos, mother of Cydon, by Mercury, and of guzzo: Axagravior, porcellus Acarnas became
Amphithemis by Apollo. Paus. 8, c. 53.— proverbial. Their horses were famous. It
.dpollon. 4, v. 1493. received its name from Acarnas. Plin. 2, c.
Acaciºsium, a town of Arcadia, built by 90.--Mela, 2, c. 3.-Strab. 7 and 9.-Paus.
Acacus son of Lycaon. Mercury, surnamed 8, c. 24.—Lucian. in Dial. Meretr.
Acacesius, because brought up by Acacus as AcARNAs and Amphotěrus, sons of Alcmaeon
his foster-father, was worshipped there. Paus. and Callirhoe. Alcmaeon being murdered by
8, c. 3, 36, &c. the brothers of Alphesiboer, his former wife.
Acacius, a rhetorician in the age of the em Callirhoe obtained from Jupiter, that her chil
peror Julian. dren, who were still in the cradle, might, by
Acadèmia, a place near Athens, surround a supernatural power, suddenly grow up to
ed with high trees, and adorned with spacious punish their father's murderers. This was
covered walks. [It derived its name from one granted. Vid. Alcmaeon.—Paus. 8, c. 24.—
Academus, a citizen of Athens, to whom it Ovid. Met. 9. fab 10. -

originally belonged, and who appropriated it AcARNAs and Acarnan, a stony mountain
according to some, to gymnastic sports and of Attica. Senec. in Hippol. v. 20.
exercises.] Here Plato opened his school of AcAstus, son of Pelias king of Thessaly,
Philosophy, and from this, every place sacred by Anaxibia, married Astydamia or Hyppo.
to learning has ever since been called Acade lyte, who ſell in love with Peleus, son of ƺ
*ia. To exclude from it profaneness and dis cus, when in banishment at her husbanº
*pation, it was even forbidden to laugh there. court. Peleus, rejecting the addresses of Hi
"was galled Academia vetus, to distinguishit! polyte, was accused before AcastTºofattempº

upon her virtue, and soon after, at a chase, ex Acco, a general of the Senones in Gaul.
posed to wild beasts. Vulcan, by order of Ju Caes. bell. Gall. 6, c. 4. and 44.
piter, delivered Peleus, who returned to Thes Acr, [more properly Aco, a seaport town
saly, and put to death Acastus and his wife. of Phoenicia, afterwards called Ptolemais.
rid. Peleus and Astydamia.-Orid. Met. 8, from the Ptolemies, kings of Egypt. It is
v. 306. Her. Ep. 13, v. 25—Apollod. 1, c. 9, now called by the Arabs, Akka, and by the
&c.—The second archon at Athens. Europeans, Acre.]—A place of Arcadia, near
AcAthANTus, a bay in the Red Sea. Strab. Megalopolis, where Orestes was cured from
16. the persecution of the furies, who had a tem
AccA Laurentia, the wife of Faustulus, ple there. Paus. 8, v. 34.
shepherd of king Numitor's flocks, who AceRātus, a soothsayer, who remained
brought up Romulus and Remus, who had alone at Delphi when the approach of Xerx
been exposed on the banks of the Tiber— es frightened away the inhabitants. Herodo'
From her wantonness, she was called Lupa, 8, c. 37.
whence the fable that Romulus was suckled by AceabAs, a priest of Hercules at Tyre,
a she-wolf Dionys. Hal. 1, c. 18–Liv. 1, c. who married Dido. Vid. Sichaeus.-Justin.
4.—Aul. Gell. 6, c. 7.-The Romans yearly 18, c. 4.
celebrated certain festivals, rid. Laurentalia, AcERRAE, [a town of Italy, west of Cre
in honour of another of the same name, which mona and north of Placentia, now La Girola
arose from this circumstance : the keeper of or Gherra.]—another in Campania, [now
the temple of Hercules, one day playing at Acerra] near the river Clanis. It still sub
dice, made the god one of the number, on sists, and the frequent inundations from the
condition that if Hercules was defeated, he river which terrified its ancient inhabitants,
should make him a present, but if he con are now prevented by the large drains dug
quered, he should be entertained with an ele there. Virg. G.2, v. 225.-Liv. 8, c. 17.
gant feast, and share his bed with a beautiful AcEsia, part of the island of Lemnos,
female. Hercules was victorious, and accord which received this name from Philoctetes,
ingly Acca was conducted to thebed of Her. whose wound was cured there. Pºitosir.
cules, who in reality came to see her, and told [Acesin Es, a large and rapid river of In
her in the morning to go into the streets, and dia, falling into the Indus. It is commonly
salute with a kiss the first man she met. This supposed to be the modern Rapei, but Ma
was Tarrutius, an old unmarried man, who, jor Rennell makes it to be the Jersetzb. Ar
not displeased with Acca's liberty, loved her rian. 5, c. 22. Theophrast. 4, c. 12.-Plin.
and made her the heiress of all his posses 37, c. 12.]
sions. These, at her death, she gave to the AcEsſus, a surname of Apollo, in Elis and
Rounan people, whence the honours paid to her Attica, as a god of medicine. Paus. 6, e. 24.
memory. Plut. Quaest. Rom. & in Romul.— AcEsta, a town of Sicily, called after king
A companion of Camilla. Virg. AEn. 11, v. Acestes, and known also by the name of Se
gesta. It was built by Æneas, who left here
AccIA or Atia, daughter of Julia and M. part of his followers as he was going to Italy.
Atius Balbus, was the mother of Augustus, Pirg, JEn. 5, v. 746, &c. -

and died about 40 years B. C. Diod.—Suet. AcEstes, son of Crinisus and Egesta, was
in Aug. 4.—Variola, an illustrious female, king of the country near Drepanuun in Sicily.
whose cause was elegantly pleaded by Pliny. He assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and
Plin. 6. ep. 33. kindly entertained £neas during his voyage,
L. Accius, a Roman tragic poet, whose and helped him to bury his father on mount
roughness of style Quinctilian has imputed to Eryx. In commemoration of this, AEneas
the unpolished age in which he lived. He built a city there, called Acesta, from Aces
translated some of the tragedies of Sophocles, tes. Wirg. JEn. 5, v. 746.
but of his numerous pieces only some of the AcEstonóRus, a Greek historian, who
names are known; and among these, his Nup mentions the review which Xerxes made of
tia, Mercator, Neoptolemus, Phoenice, Me his forces before the battle of Salamis. Pluſ.
dea, Atreus, &c. The great marks of honour wn Themist.
which he received at Rome, may be collected AchAnytos, a lofty mountain in Rhodes,
from this circumstance, that a man was se where Jupiter had a temple.
verely reprimanded by a magistrate for men AchAI, [the descendants of Achaeus one of
tioning his name without reverence. Some the sons of Xuthus. Achaeus, having com s
few of his verses are preserved in Cicero and mitted an accidental homicide, fled into La
other writers. He died about 180 years B.C. conia, where he died, and where his posteri
Horat. 2, ep. 1. v. 56.--Orid. Am. 1, el. 15, ty remained under the name of Achaei until
v. 19.-Quinctil. 10,C. & in Br. they were expelled by the Heraclidae. Up
de Orat. 3, c. 16.-A famous orator of Pisau on this, they laid claim to the quarter occu
rum in Cicero's age.—Labeo, a foolish poet pied by the Ionians or descendants of Ion the
mentioned Pers. 1, v. 50,-Tullius, a prince other son of Xuthus, dispossessed them of
of the Volsci, very inimical to the Romans. their cities, and called the country, from
Coriolanus,when banished by his countrymen, their own name, Achaia.] The names of
fled to him, and led his armies against Rome. these cities are Pellene, AEgira, Egae, Bura, ’
Liv. 3, c. 37.-Plut. in Coriol. Tritea, Aºgium, Rhypes, Olenos, Helice,

Patrae, Dyme, and Phara. The inhabit ed governor of all the king's provinces be
ants of these three last began a famous con yond Taurus. He aspired to sovereign pow
federacy, 284 years B.C. which continued er, which he disputed for 8 years with Antio
formidable upwards of 130 years, under the chus, and was at last betrayed by a Cretan.
name of the .4chaean league, and was most il His limbs were cut off, and his body sewed
lustrious whilst supported by the splendid vir in the skin of an ass, was exposed on a gibbet.
tues and abilities of Aratus and Philopoemen. Polyb. 8.
Their arms were directed against the AEto AchAIA, a country of Peloponnesus at the
lians for three years, with the assistance of north of Elis on the bay of Corinth. It was
Philip of Macedon, and they grew powerful originally called Ægialus (shore) from its
by the accession of neighbouring states, and situation. The Ionians called it lonia, when
freed their country from foreign slavery, till they settled there; and it received the name
at last they were attacked by the Romans, of Achaia from the Achaei, who dispossessed
and, after one year's hostilities, the Achaean the Ionians. vid. Achaei.-A small part of
leaguewas totally destroyed, B.C. 147. [The Phthiotis was also called Achaia, of which
Peloponnesus was reduced to a Roman pro Alos was the capital.
vince, under the name of the province of Achaicum BELLUM. vid. Achaei.
Achaia. It was so called, because at the tak AchARENses, a people of Sicily near Sy
ing of Corinth, the Achaeans were the most racuse. Cic. in Ver. 3.
powerful of the Grecian communities.] The AchARNAE, a village of Attica. Thucyd.
name of.ichaei is generally applied to all the 2, c. 19.
Greeks indiscriminately, by the poets. vid. AchATEs, a friend of Æneas, whose fide
Achaia. Herodot. 1, c. 145, 1.8. c.36.-Stat. lity was so exemplary, that Fidus.Achates be
Theb. 2, v. 164.—Polyb.—Liv. 1. 27, 32, &c. came a proverb. Virg...En. 1, v. 316.-A
—Plut. in Philop.–Plin.4, c. 5.-Ovid. Met. river of Sicily.
4, v. 605.-Paus. 7, c. 1, &c.—Also a people Achélóides, a patronymic given to the Si
of Asia on the borders of the Euxine. Orid rens as daughters of Achelous. Ovid. Met.
ep. er Pont. 4, el. 10, v. 27. 5, fab. 15.
AchA.MENEs, a king of Persia, among the AchelóUs, the son of Oceanus or Sol, by
progenitors of Cyrus the Great; whose de Terra or Tethys, god of the river of the same
scendants were called Achaemenides, and name in Epirus. As one of the numerous
formed a separate tribe in Persia, of which suitors of Dejanira, daughter of QEneus, he en
the kings were members. Cambyses, son of tered the list against Hercules, and being infe
Cyrus, on his death-bed, charged his nobles, rior, changed himself into a serpent, and after
and particularly the Achaemenides, not to wards into an ox. Hercule broke off one of
suffer the Medesto recovertheir former pow his horns, and Achelous being defeated, retired
er, and abolish the empire of Persia. Hero in disgrace into his bed of waters. The broken
dof. 1, c. 125, 1.3, c. 65, 1.7, c. 11.-Horat. horn was taken up by the nymphs, and filled
2. od. 12, v. 21.-A Persian, made governor with fruits and flowers; andafter it hadforsome
of Egypt by Xerxes, B.C. 484. time adorned the hand of the conqueror, it
Achiest EN1A, part of Persia, called after was presented to the goddess of Plenty. Some
Achaemenes. Hence Achaemenius. Horat. say that he was changed into a river after the
victory of Hercules. The river is in Epirus,
Epod. 13. v. 12.
AcBAEMEx1des, a native of Ithaca, son of and rises in mount Pindus, and afterdividing
Adramastus, and one of the companions of Acarnania from AEtolia, falls into the Ionian
Ulysses, abandoned on the coast of Sicily, sea. The sand and mud which it carries down,
where Æneas, on his voyage to Italy, ſound have formed some islandsat its mouth. [The
him. Pirg. -En. 3., v. 624. Ovid. ib. 417. Achelous is now called Aspro Polamo, or the
Achaeorum statio, a place on the coast White river. The fable respecting the con
of the Thracian Chersonesus, where Polyx. test of Hercules with the river god, alludes
eaa was sacrificed to the shade of Achilles, evidently to the draining of the neighbour
and where Hecuba punished Polymnestor, ing land, and one branch of the river. The
islands at its mouth are the Echinades.
who had murdered her son Polydorus.
Achaeus, a king of Lydia, hung by his sub Near them are the Oxege, now Curolari.)
fects for his extortion. Ovid. in ib.—A son of Herodot. 2, c. 10.—Strab. 10.-Ovid. Me!.
Xuthus of Thessaly. He fled, after the ac 8, fab. 5, 1.9, fab. 1. Amor. 3, el 6, v. 35.
cidental murder of a man, to Laconia ; —Apollod. 1, c. 3 and 7; 1, 2, c. 7. Hygin.
where the inhabitants were called from pray. fab. A river of Arcadia, falling into
him. Achaei. Strab. 8.-Paus. 7. c. 1. vid. the Alpheus. Another flowing from mount
-ºchei.-A tragic poet of Eretria, who Sipylus. Paus 8, c. 38.
wrote 43 tragedies, of which some of the AchéRon, a river of Thesprotia, in Epirus,
titles are preserved, such as Adrastus, Li [now the Dehchi, falling into the bay of Am
nun, Cycnus, Eumenides, Philoctetes, Piri bracia. Homer called it, from the dead ap
pearance of its waters, one of the rivers of
thous, Theseus, QEdipus, &c.; of these on
ly one obtained the prize. He lived some hell, and the ſable has been adopted by all suc
time after Sophocles. Another of Syra ceeding poets, who make the god ofthe stream
euse, author of ten tragedies.—A river to be the son of Ceres without a father, and
which falls into the Euxine..Arrian in Peripl. say that he concealed himself in hell for fear
—A relation of Antiochus the Great, appoint of the Titans, and was changed into a bitter
--- -----------E-

stream, over which the souls of the dead are privately sent him to the court of Lycomedes.
at first conveyed. It receives, say they, the where he was disguised in a female dress, and,
souls of the dead, because a deadly languor by his familiarity with the king's daughters.
seizes them at the hour of dissolution Some made Deidamia mother of Neoptolemus. As
make him son of Titan, and suppose that he Troy could not be taken without the aid of
was plunged into hell by Jupiter, for supply Achilles, Ulysses went to the court of Lyco
ing the Titans with water. The word Ache medes, in the habit of a merchant, and expos
rom is often taken for hell itself. Horat. 1, ed jewels and arms to sale. Achilles, choosing
od. 3, v. 36.-Virg. G. 2, v. 292. JEn. 2 v. the arms, discovered his sex, and went to war.
295, &c.—Strab. 7.-Lucan. 3, v. 16–Sil 2. Vulcan, at the entreaties of Thetis, made him
Silv. 6, v. 80.—Liv. 8, c. 24.—Also ariver a strong suit of armour, which was proof
in the country of the Bruttii, in Italy, [now against all weapons. He was deprived by
the Savuto..] Justin. 12, c. 2. Agamemnon of his favourite mistress, Briseis,
AcHERon TIA, a town of Apulia on a moun who had fallen to his lot at the division of the
tain, thence called Nidus by Horat. 3, od. 4, booty of Lyrnessus. For this affront he re
v. 14 [now Aceremza.] fused to appear in the field till the death of
Acherúsia, a lake of Egypt near Mem his friend Patroclus recalled him to action,
phis, over which, as Diodorus, lib. 1, mentions, and to revenge. vid. Patroclus. He slew
the bodies of the dead were conveyed, and re Hector, the bulwark of Troy, tied the corpse
ceived sentence according to the actions of by the heels of his chariot, and dragged it
their life. The boat was called Baris, and three times round the walls of Troy. After
the ferryman Charon. Hence arose the fable thus appeasing the shade of his friend, he
of Charon and the Styx, &c. afterwards im yielded to the tears and entreaties of Priam,
ported into Greece by Orpheus, and adopted and permitted the aged father to ransom and
in the religion of the country.-There was a carry away Hector's body. In the 10th year
lake of the same name in Epirus. of the war, Achilles was charmed with Po
AcHERūsias, a peninsula of Bithynia, lyxena; and as he solicited her hand in the
where Hercules, as is reported, dragged Ce temple of Minerva, it is said that Paris aim
berus out of hell. Xenoph. Anab. 6. ed an arrow at his vulnerable heel, of which
Achillas, a general of Ptolemy who mur wound he died. His body was buried at Si
dered Pompey the Great. Plut. in Pomp — gaeum and divine honours were paid to him,
Lucan. 8, v. 538. and temples raised to his memory. It is said,
[Achill:A, an island near the mouth of the that after the taking of Troy,the ghostofAchil
Borysthenes, or more properly the western les appeared to the Greeks, and demanded of
part of the Dronus Achillis insulated by a them Polyxena, who accordingly was sacri
small arm of the sea. Strabo 7. vid. Dro ficed on his tomb by his son Neoptolemus,
mus Achillis and Leuce.] Some say that this sacrifice was voluntary,
[AchilléUM,a town on theCimmerian Bos and that Polyxena was so grieved at his death,
porus, where anciently was a temple of Achil that she killed herself on his tomb. The
les. It lay near the modern Buschuk. JMan I hessalians yearly sacrificed a black and a
nert. Anc. Geogr. Vol. 4. p. 326.] white bull on his tomb. It is reported that
Achillèus or Aauil EUs, a Roman ge. he married Helen after the siege of Troy;
neral in Egypt, in the reign of Dioclesian, who but others maintain, that this marriage hap
rebelled, and for five years maintained the impened after his death, in the island of Leuce,
perial dignity at Alexandria. Dioclesian at where many of the ancient heroes lived, as
last marched against him; and because he in a separate elysium. vid. Leuce. When
had supported a long siege, the emperor or Achilles was young, his mother asked him
dered him to be devoured by lions. whether he preferred a long life, spent in ob
Achillºis, a poem of Statius, in which scurity and retirement, or a few years of mi
he describes the education and memorable ac litary fame and glory 2 and to his honour he
tions of Achilles. This composition is imper made choice of the latter. Some ages after
ſect. The poet's immature death deprived the Trojan war, Alexander, going to the con
the world of a valuable history of the life quest of Persia, offered sacrifices on the tomb
and exploits of this famous hero. Vid. Sta of Achilles, and admired the hero who had
found a Homer to publish his ſame to posteri
Achill Es, the son of Peleus and Thetis, to. Xenoph. de venat.—Plut. in Alex.-De
was the bravest of all the Greeks in the Tro. facie in Orbe Lun. De music. De amic. mult.
jan war. During his infancy, Thetis plung Quast. Graec.—Paus. 3, c. 18, &c.—Diod. 17.
ed him in the Styx, and made every part of —Stat. Achil.-Ovid. Met. 12, fab. 3, &c.
his body invulnerable, except the heel by Trist. 3, el. 5, v. 37, &c.—Virg. AEn. 1, v.
which she held him. His education was in 472, 488, l. 2, v. 275, l. 6, v. 58, &c.—Apol
trusted to the centaur Chiron, who taught lod. 3, c. 13.—Hygin, fab. 96 and 110.—
him the art of war, and made him master of Strab. 14.—Plin. 35, c. 15.—Mar. Tyr. Orat.
music, and by feeding him with the marrow 27.—Horat. 8, 1, od. I. 2, od. 4. and 16, 1.4-
of wild beasts, rendered him vigorous and ac od. 6, 2, ep.2, v.42.-Hom. Il. & 0d.-Die
tive. He was taught eloquence by Phoenix, tys. Cret. 1, 2, 3, &c.—Dares Phryg.—Jur.
whom he ever after loved and respected. 7, v. 210.-Apollon. Argon. 4, v. 869.-
Thetis, to prevent him from going to the Tro There were other persons of the same name.
ian war, where she knew he was to herish, The most known were—a man who received

June when she fled from Jupiter's courtship whose son was killed by Domitian, because
—the preceptor of Chiron the centaur—ason he fought with wild beasts. The true cause
of Jupiter and Lamia, declared by Pan to be of this murder was, that young Glabrio was
fairer than Venus—a man who instituted the stronger, than the emperor, who therefore
ostracism at Athens.—Tatius, a native of envied him.—Juv. 4, v. 94.
Alexandria, in the age of the emperor Clau Acilla, a town of Africa, near Adrume
dius, originally apagan, but converted to chris tuin (some read Acolla). Caes. Afr. c. 33.
tianity, and made a bishop. He wrote a mix Acis, a shepherd of Sicily, son of Faunus
ed history of great men, a treatise on the and the nymph Simethus. Galataea passion
sphere, tactics, a romance on the loves of Cli ately loved him ; upon which his rival, Po
tophonand Leucippe, &c. Some manuscripts lyphemus, though jealousy, crushed him to
of his works are preserved in the Vatican, death with a piece of a broken rock. The
and Palatinate libraries. [The best edition of gods changed Acis into a steam which rises
his works, is that by Boden, Lips. 1776. 8vo.] from mount AEtna. Ovid. Met. 13, fab. 8.
Achiwi, [a name given by the Roman po AcMon, a native of Lyrnessus, who accom
ets to the people of Greece, or Achaia. Ho panied Æneas into Italy. His father's name
mer uses the term to express all the enemies was Clytus. Virg. AEn. 10, v. 128.
of the Trojans.] AcMoniDEs, one of the Cyclops. Ovid.
Achlan Eps, a Corinthian general, killed Fast. 4, v. 288.
by Aristomenes. Paus. 4, c. 19. Accetes, the pilot of the ship whose crew
AcichöRITs, a general with Brennus in ſound Bacchus asleep, and carried him away.
the expedition which the Gauls undertook As they ridiculed thegod, they were changed
against Paeonia. Paus. 10, c. 10. into sea-monsters. But Acoetes was preserv
Acipalia, a surname of Venus, from a ed. Ovid. JMet. 3, fab. 8, &c.
fountain ofthe same name in Boeotia, sacred to Acontrºs, one of Lycaon's 50 sons. .Apol
her. The Graces bathed in the fountain.— lod. 3, c. 8.
Pirg. AEn. 1, v. 720—Ovid. Fast. 4, v.468. Aconteus, a famous hunter, changed into
Acidas, a river of Peloponnesus, former a stone by the head of Medusa, at the nuptials
ly called Jardanus. Paus. 5, c. 5. of Perseus and Andromeda. Ovid. JMet. 5.
Acilia, a plebian family at Rome, which v. 201. A person killed in the wars of
traced its pedigree up to the Trojans.—The AEneas and Turnus, in Italy. Virg. JEn. 11,
mother of Lucan. v. 615.
AcILIA LEx was enacted, A. U. C. 556, by Acontius, a youth of Cea, who, when he
Acilius the tribune, for the plantation of five went to Delos to see the sacrifices of Diana,
colonies in Italy. Liv. 32, c. 29.-Another fell in love with Cydippe, a beautiful virgin,
called also Calpurnia, [A. U.C. 683, that in and being unable to obtain her, on account of
trials for extortion, sentence should be passed the obscurity of his origin, [wrote on an ap
after the cause was once pleaded, and that ple, which he presented to her, the following
there should not be a second hearing. Cic. words, “l swear by Diana, Acontius shall
proam in Perr. 17. 1. Ascon in Cue.] be my husband.” Cydippe read the words,
M. Aci. It's BALBUs, was consul with and feeling herself compelled by the oath she
Portius Cato, A. U. C. 640. It is said, that had inadvertently made, married Acontius—
during his consulship, milk and blood fell from Aristanet. ep. 10.—Ovid. Her ep. 20.]
heaven. Plin. 2, c. 26.-Glabrio, a tribune Acostobüí.us, a place of Cappadocia, un
of the people, who with a legion quelled the der Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons. Apol
insurgent slaves in Etruria. Being consul lon. Arg. 2.
with P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, A. U. C. 563, Acúſtis, a king of Egypt, who assisted Eva
he conquered Antiochus at Thermopylae, goras king of Cyprus against Persia. Diod.
for which he obtained a triumph, and three 15.
days were appointed for a public thanksgiv AcRA, a town of Italy, Euboea, Cy
ing. He stood for the censorship against Ca prus, -Acarnania, Sicily,–-Africa,
to, but desisted on account of the improper —Sarmatia, &c.
measures used by his competitor. Justin. Acradix A, the citadel of Syracuse, taken
31, c. 6.-Liv. 30, c. 40, 1.31, c. 50, l. 35, c. by Marcellus the Roman consul. Plut. in
10, &c.—The son of the preceding, erected a JMarcel.—Cic. in Verr. 4. -

temple to Piety, which his father had vowed AchAºA, a daughter of the river Asterion,
to this goddess when fighting against Antio —A surname of Diana, from a temple built
chus. He raised a golden statue to his father, to her by Melampus, on a mountain near Ar
the first that appeared in Italy. The temple gos. A surname of Juno. Paus. 2, c. 17.
of piety was built on the spot where once a Acraeph NIA, a town in Boeotia; whence
woman had fed with her milk her aged father, Apollo is called Acraephnius. Herodot. 8, c.
whom the senate had imprisoned, and exclud 135.
ed from all aliment. Val. Mar. 2, c. 5.- AcRag ALLinze, a dishonest nation living
The enactor of a law against bribery.—A pre anciently near Athens. JEsch. contra Ctesiph.
tor in the time that Verres was accused by Acri GAs. Wid. Agragas. -

Cicero.—A :nan accused of extortion, and AcRitus, a freed man of Nero, sent into
twice defended by Cicero. He was proconsul Asia to plunder the temples of the gods. Tac.
of Sicily, and lieutenant to Caesar in the civil .An. 15, c. 45, l. 16, c. 23. -

wars. Caes. Bell. Civ. 3, c. 15.-A consul, | Acnias, one of Hippodamia's suitors. Pau".
| _ _ __

6, c. 21. He built Acriae, a town of Laco |8.—Paus.2, c. 4.—Plut. in Arat.—Stat. Theb.

nia. Id. 3, c. 21. 7, v. 106.]
Acridorhāgi, an AEthopian nation, who Acron, a king of the Caeninenses, killed by
fed upon locusts, and lived not beyond their Romulus in single combat, after the rape of
40th year. At the approach of old age, swarms the Sabines. His spoils were dedicated to
of winged lice attacked them, and gnawed Jupiter Feretrius. Plut. in Romul A
their belly and breast, till the patient by rub physician of Agrigeutum, B.C. 439, educated
bing himself drew blood,which increased their at Athens with Empedocles. He wrote phy
number, and ended in his death. Diod. 3.- sical treatises in the Doric dialect, and cured
Plin. 11, c. 29.-Strab. 16. the Athenians of a plague, by lighting fire
Achion, a Pythagorean philosopher of Lo near the houses of the infected. Plin. 29, c.
cris. Cic. de fin. 5, c. 29. 1.—Plut. in Isid. One of the friends of
AcRisionEus, a patronymic applied to the AEneas, killed by Mezentius. Virg. JEn. 10,
Argives, from Acrisius, one of their ancient v. 719.
kings, or from Acrisione, a town of Argolis, AcRopitos, one of Alexander's officers,
called after a daughter of Acrisius of the same who obtained part of Media, aſter the king's
name. Virg. JEn. 7, v. 410. death. Justin. 13, c. 4.
Achision1An Es, a patronymic of Perseus, AcRopolis, the citidel of Athens, built on
from his grandfather Acrisius. Ovid. Met. 5, a rock, and accessible only on one side. [Here
v. 70. stood the Parthenon, or temple of Minerva.]
AcR1sius, son of Abas, king of Argos, by Paus. in Attic.
Ocalea, daughter of Mantineus. He was born Acrotitus, son of Cleomenes, king of
at the same birth as Proetus, with whom it is Sparta, died before his father, leaving a son
said that he quarrelled even in his mother's called Areus. Paus. 1, c. 13, 1.3, c. 6.-
womb. After many dissensions Proetus was A son of Areus, who was greatly loved by
driven from Argos. Acrisius had Danae by Chelidonis, wife of Cleonymus. This amour
Eurydice daughter of Lacedaemon; and being displeased her husband who called Pyrrhus
told by an oracle, that his daughter's son the Epirot, to avenge his wrongs. When
would put him to death, he confined Danae Sparta was besieged by Pyrrhus, Acrotatus
in a brazen tower, to prevent her becoming was seen bravely fighting in the middle of the
a mother. She however became pregnant, enelny, and commended by the multitude, who
by Jupiter changed into agolden shower; and congratulated Chelidonis on being mistress to
though Acrisius ordered her, and her infant such a warlike lover. Plut. in Pyrrh.
called Perseus, to be exposed on the sea, yet Acrothoos. vid. Acroathon.
they were saved; and Perseus soon after be Acte, (ax+b) [denotes properly a peninsula
came so famous for his actions, that Acrisius, or promontory on which the waves break. It
anxious to see so renowned a grandson, went was a name given to the sea-coast about
to Larissa. Here Perseus, wishing to show mount Athos, in which were six towns men
his skill in throwing a quoit, killed an old tioned by Thucydides—Acte was likewise the
man who proved to be his grandfather, whom ancient name of Attica, which was so called
he knew not, and thus the oracle was unhap from its being washed on two sides by the sea.
pily fulfilled. Acrisius reigned about 31 years. Thucyd. 4, c. 109–Strabo. 9..]
Hygin. fab. 63.—Ovid. Met. 4, fab. 16.-Ho Act A, a place near mount Athos, on the
rat. 3, od. 16.-Apollod. 2, c. 2, &c.—Paus. Ægean Sea. Thucyd. 4, c. 109.
2, c. 16, &c.—Wid. Danaë, Perseus, Poly Actaea, one of the Nereides. Hesiod. Th.
dectes. 250,—Homer. Il. 18, v. 41.--A surname of
AcRitas, a promontory of Messenia, in Pe Ceres.—A daughter of Danaus. Apollod.
loponnesus. Plin. 4, c. 5–Mela. 2, c. 3. 2, c. 1.
AcRoßthon or Achothoos, a town on the Act AEoN, a famous huntsman, son of Aris
top of mount Athos, whose inhabitants lived taeus and Autonoe daughter of Cadmus,
to an uncomon old age. Mela, 2, c. 2– whence he is called Autoneius heros. He saw
Plin. 8. c. 10. Diana and her attendants bathing near Gar
AcRoceraunium, a promotory of Epirus, gaphia, for which he was changed into a stag,
with mountains called Acroceraunia, which and devoured by his own dogs. Paus. 9, c.
project between the Ionian and Adriatic seas. 2.—Ovid. Met. 3, fab.3.—A beautiful youth
The word comes from ang&r, high, and “gav son of Melissus of Corinth, whom Archias, one
y&r, a thunderbolt, because, on account oftheir of the Heraclidae, endeavoured to debauch
great height, they were often struck with and carry away. He was killed in the strug
thunder. Lucret. 6, v.420.-Plin. 4, c. 1.- gle which in consequence of this happened
Virg...En. 3, v. 506.—Strab. 6.-Horal. 1, od. between his father and ravisher. Melissus
3, v. 20. complained of the insult, and drowned him
AcRo-corinthus, [a high hill overhanging self; and soon after, the country being visit
the city of Corinth, on which was erceted a ed by a pestilence, Archias was expelled.
citadel, called also by the same name. This Plut. in Amat.
situation was so important a one, as to be sty Actaeus, a powerful person who made him.
led by Philip the ſetters of Greece. The for self master of a part of Greece, which he
tress was surprised by Antigonus, but recov called Attica. His daughter Agraulos mar
ered in a brilliant manner by Aratus. Strab. ried Cecrops, whom the Athenians called

their first king, though Actaeus reigned be held the reins, and the other the whip; whence
fore him. Paus. 1, c. o and 14.
- The they are represented with two heads, four
word is of the same signification as Atticus feet and one body. Hercules conquered
an inhabitant of Attica. them. Pindar.
Acte, a mistress of Nero, descended from Actoris, a maid of Ulysses. Homer. Od.
Attalus. Sueton. in Ner. 28.-One of the 23.
Horæ. Hugin. ſab. 183. M. Acron its NAso, a Roman historian,
Actia, the mother of Augustus. As she Sueton. in Jul. 9.
slept in the temple of Apollo, she dreamt that C. Aculeo, a Roman lawyer celebrated as
a dragon had lain with her. Nine months much for the extent of his understanding, as
after, she brought forth, having previeusly for his knowledge of law. He was uncle to
dreamt that her bowels were scattered all Cicero. Cic. in Orat. 1, c. 43.
over the world. Suet. in .4vg.94. Games Acúphis, an annbassador from India to A
sacred to Apollo in commemoration of the lexander. Plut. in Alez.
victory of Augustus over M. Antony at Ac Acus II, Aus and DAMAGET Us, two bro
tium. Some maintain that they were cele thers of Rhodes, conquerors at the Olympic
brated every third year; but the opinion of games. The Greeks strewed ſlowers upon
Strabo is deemed more correct, according to Diagoras their father, and called him happy
whom they only returned every fifth year.] in having such worthy sons. Paus. 6, c. 7.
Plut. in.inton.—Strab. 7,-Pirg. .ºn. 3, v. An historian of Argos, often quoted by
280, l. 8, v.675. A sister of Julius Caesar. Josephus. He wrote on genealogies in a style
Plut. in Cic. simple and destitute of all ornament. Cuc. de
Actis, son of Sol, went from Greece into Orat. 2, c. 28.—Suidas.-An Athenian who
Egypt, where he taught astrology, and found taught rhetoric at Rome under Galba.
ed Heliopolis. Diod. 5. M. Acuticus, an ancient comic writer.
Actisises, a king of Æthiopia, who con whose plays were known under the name of
quered Egypt, and expelled king Amasis. He Leones, Gemini, Anus, Boeotia, &c.
was famous for his equity, and his severe pu ADA, a sister of queen Artemisia, who
nishment of robbers, whose noses he cut off, married Hidrieus. After her husband's death,
and whom he banished to a desert place. she succeeded to the throne of Caria; but
where they were in want of all aliment, and being expelled by her younger brother she
lived only upon crows. Diod. 1. retired to Alindae, which she delivered to Alex
Actium, now .1zio, a town and promonto ander, after adopting him as her son. Curl.
ry of Epirus, famous ſor the naval victory 2, c. 8.-Strab. 14.
which Augustus obtained over Antony and ADAD, a deity among the Assyrians, sup
Cleopatra, the 2d of September, B. G. 31, in posed to be the sun.
honour of which the conqueror built on the ADAEus, a native of Mitylene, who wrote a
site of his camp the town of Nicopolis, and Greek treatise on statuaries. Athen. 13.
instituted games. rid. Actia—Plut. in Anton. ADAMANTAEA, Jupiter's nurse in Crete,
–Sueton. in .1 ug.—A promontory of Cor who suspended him in his cradle to a tree,
cyra. Cic. ad -1tt. 7, ep. 2. that he might be ſound neither in the earth,
Actius, a surname of Apollo, from Acti the sea, nor in heaven. To drown the infant's
, where he had a temple. Virg. JEn. 8, cries, she had drums beat, and cymbals
704.—A poet. rid. Accius.—A prince sounded, around the tree. Hygin. fab.
of the Wolsci. vid. Accius, 139.
Accus or ATTUs NAvius, an augur who ADAMAs, a Trojan prince, killed by Me
cut a whetstone in two with a razor, before rion. Homer. Il. 13, v. 560. A youth who
Tarquin and the Roman people, to convince raised a rebellion on being emasculated by Co
them of his skill as an augur. Flor. 1, c. 5. tys king of Thrace. Arist. Pol. 5, c. 10.
—Lir. 1, c. 36.-rid. Labeo. ADAMAstus, a native of Ithaca, father of
AcroR, a companion of Hercules in his ex Achaemenides. Virg. .32n, 3, v. 614.
pedition against the Amazons.—The father Apaspii, a people at the foot of mount
of Mendetius by Ægina, whence Patroclus is Caucasus. Justin. 12, c. 5.
callel Actorides. Ovid. Trist. 1, el. 3.-A Add Eph A G 1a, a goddess of the Siciliaus.
man called also Aruncus. Virg. JEn. 12, v. JElian 1, V. II. c. 27. - -

53-One of the friends of AEneas. Id. 9, [Appua, now Adda, a river of Cisalpine
7. 500. A son of Neptune by Agameda. Gaul. It rises among the Rhaetian Alps,tra
Higin. ſab. 14. A son of Leion and Dio verses the Lacus Larius, and falls into the Po
mede. Apollod. 1, c. 9. The ſather of Eu to the west of Cremona. Plin. 2, c. 103.]
Pytus, and brother of Augeas. Apollod. 2, c. Adelphius, a friend of M. Autonius,
7.—A son of Acastus one of the Argonauts. whom he accompanied in his expedition into
Hygin. fab. 14. The father of Astyoche. Parthia, of which he wrote the history.
Horner. It 2.—Paus. 9, c. 37.-A king of Strab. 11.
Lemnos. Hygin. 102. ADEMox, raised a sedition in Mauritania:
Acronines, a patronymic given to Patro to avenge his master Ptolemy, whom Caligu
ins, grandson of Actor. Orid. Met. 13, fab. |la had put to death. Sueton. in Calig. 35.
2-Also to Erithus, son of Actor. Id. Met. ADEs, or Hades, the god of hell amoug
º, fab. 3. Two brothers so fond of each the Greeks, the same as the Pluto of the La
*her, that in driving a chariot, one generally tims. The word is derived from x & 14 tº, ""

videre] because hell is deprived of light. It lasted two days, the first of which was spent
is often used for hell itself by the ancient in howlings and lamentations, the second in
poets. joyful clamours, as if Adonis was returned
Ang ANDESTRius, a prince of the Catti, to life. In some towns of Greece and Egypt
who sent to Rome for poison to destroy they lasted eight days; the one half of which
Arminius, and was answered by the senate, was spent in lamentations, and the other in
that the Romans fought their enemies openly, rejoicings. . [Only women were admitted.]
and never used perfidious measures. Tacit. The time ofthe celebration was supposedto be
.4n. 2, c. 88. very unlucky. The fleet of Nicias sailed from
ADHERBAL, son of Micipsa, and grandson Athens to Sicily on that day, whence many
of Masinissa, was besieged at Cirta, and put unfortunate omens were drawn. Plut. in JWi
to death by Jugurtha, after vainly imploring ciń.—Ammian. 22, c. 9.
the aid of Rome, B. C. 112. Sallust. in Jug. Apônis, son of Cinyras, by his daughter
ADHERBAs, the husband of Dido. Wid. Myrrha, (rid. Myrrha) was the favourite of
Sichaeus. Venus. He was fond of hunting, and was
ADIANTE, a daughter of Danaus. Apollod. often cautioned by his mistress not to hunt
2, c. 11. wild beasts for fear of being killed in the at
ADIATöRix, a governor of Galatia, who to tempt. This advice he slighted, and at last
gain Antony's favour, slaughtered, in one received a mortal wound from a wild boar
might, all the inhabitants of the Roman colony which he had wounded, and Venus, after
of Heraclea, in Pontus. He was taken at shedding many tears at his death, changed
Actium, led in triumph by Augustus, and him into a flower called anemony. Proserpine
strangled in prison. Strab. 12. is said to have restored him to life, on condi
AdimANtus, a commander of the Athe tion that he should spend six months with
nian fleet, taken by the Spartans. All the her, and the rest of the year with Venus.
men of the fleet were put to death, except This implies the alternate return of summer
Adimantus, because he had opposed the de and winter. Adonis is often taken for Osiris,
signs of his countrymen, who intended to mu because the festivals of both were often begun
tilate all the Spartans. Xenoph. Hist. Graec. with mournful lamentations, and finished with
Pausanias says, 4, c. 17, 1.10, c. 9, that the a revival of joy, as if they were returning to
Spartans had bribed him.—A brother of life again. Adonis had temples raised to his
Plato. Laert, 3.−A Corinthian general, memory, and is said by some to have been be
who reproached Themistocles with his exile. loved by Apollo and Bacchus. Apollod. 3,
A king struck with thunder, for saying c. 14.—Propert. 2, el. 13, v. 53.-Virg. Eel.
that Jupiter deserved no sacrifices. Ovid. Ibis. 40, v. 18.—Bion. in Adon.—Hygin. 58, 164,
3.29. 248, &c.—Ovid. Met. 10, fab. 10.—Mutatus
ADMETA, daughter of Eurystheus, was de Her.—Paus. 2, c. 20, 1.2, c. 41.—Ari
priestess of Juno's temple at Argos. She ex ver of Phoenicia, which falls into the Medi
pressed a wish to possess the girdle of the terranean below Byblus.
queen of the Amazons, and Hercules obtain ADRAMYttrum, an Athenian colony onthe
ed it for her. Apollod. 2, c. 23.—one of the sea-coast of Mysia, now Adramitti. Strab.
Oceanides. Hesiod. Theog. v. 349. 13.-Thucyd. 5, c. 1.
ADMET Us, son of Pheres and Clymene, ADRANA, a river in Germany. [Now, the
king of Pherae in Thessaly, married Theone Eder.] Tacit. Ann. 1, c. 56.
daughter of Thestor, and after her death, Adminum, a town of Sicily, near AEtna,
Alceste daughter of Pelias. Apollo, when with a river of the same name. The chief
banished from heaven, is said to have tended deity of the place was called Adranus, and
his flocks for nine years, and to have obtained his temple was guarded by 1000 dogs. Plut.
from the Parcae, that Admetus should never in Timol.
die, if another person laid down his life for AdRAstiA, one of the Oceanides who nurs
him; a proof of unbounded affection, which ed Jupiter. Hygin. fab. 182.
his wife Alceste cheerfully exhibited by de ADRAstra, a fountain of Sicyon. Paus. '
voting herself voluntarily to death. Adme 2, c. 15. A mountain. Plut. in Lucul. '
tus was one of the Argonauts, and was at the —A country near Troy, called after Adras
hunt of the Calydonian boar. Pelias promis tus, who built there a temple to Nemesis. §
ed his daughter in marriage only to him who Here Apollo had an oracle. Strab. 13–"
could bring him a chariot drawn by a lion A daughter of Jupiter and Necessity. She
and a wild boar; and Admetus effected this is called by some Nemesis, and is the punish-º
by the aid of Apollo, and obtained Alceste's er of injustice. The Egyptians placed herº
hand. Some say that Hercules brought above the moon, whence she looked down
him back Alceste from hell. Senec. in Medea. upon the actions of men. Strab. 13.—A*
-Hygin. fab. 50, 51, &243.-Ovid. de Art. daughter of Melisseus, to whom some attri-"
.4m. 3–4pollod. 1, c. 8 & 9, &c.—Tºbul. 2, bute the nursing of Jupiter. She is the same"
el. 3.-Paus. 5, c. 17.—A king of the Mo as Adresta. Apol. 1, c. 1. &
lossi, to whom Themistocles fled for protec AdRAsti, CAMP1, a plain near the Gra-º.
tion. C. Them.8.—An officer of Al nicus, where Alexander first defeated Darius.'s
exander killed at the siege of Tyre. Diod. 17. Justin. 11, c. 6. i
ADönia, festivals in honour of Adonis, first AdRastus, son of Talaus and Lysimache,"
telebrated at Byblos in Phoenicia. They was king of Argos. Polynices being banished"
10 *

from Thebes by his brother Eteocles, fled to not be suspected. His peace with the Par
Argos, where he married Argia, daughter of thians proceeded from a wish of punishing the
Adrastus. The king assisted his son-in-law, other enemies of Rome, more than from the
and marched against Thebes with an army effects of fear. The travels of Adrian were
headed by seven of his most famous generals. not for the display of imperial pride, but to
All perished in the war except Adrastus, see whether justice was distributed impartial
who, with a few men saved from slaughter, ly; and public favour was courted by a cou
fled to Athens, and implored the aid of The descending behaviour, and the meaner fami
seus against the Thebans, who opposed the liarity of bathing with the common people.
burying of the Argives slain in battle. The It is said that he wished to enrol Christ among
seus went to his assistance, and was victorious. the gods of Rome; but his apparent lenity
Adrastus, after a long reign, died through towards the Christians was disproved, by the
grief, occasioned by the death of his son Hºgi erection of a statue to Jupiter on the spot
aleus. A temple was raised to his memory at where Jesus rose from the dead, and one to
Sicyon, where a solemn festival was annual Venus on mount Calvary. The weight of
ly celebrated. Homer. Il. 5.-Pirg, VEn. 6, diseases became intolerable. Adrian attempt
v.480–-ipollod. 1, c.9, l. 3, c. 7.-Stat. Theb. ed to destroy himself; and when prevented,
4 and 5–Hygin. fab 68,69, and 70.-Paus. he exclaimed, that the lives of others were
1, c.39, 1.8, c. 35, i. 10, c. 90.—Herodot. 5, in his hands, but not his own. He wrote an
c. 67, &c.—A peripatetic philosopher, dis account of his life, and published it under the
ciple to Aristotle. It is supposed that a copy name of one of his domestics. He died of a
of his treatise on harmonics is preserved in dysentery at Baiae, July 10, A. D. 138, in the
the Vatican. A Phrygian prince, who hav 62d year of his age, after a reign of 21 years.
ing inadvertently killed his brother, fled to Dio.—An officer of Lucullus. Plut. in Luc.
Croesus, where he was humanely received, —A rhetorician of Tyre in the age of M.
and intrusted with the care of his son Atys. Antoninus, who wrote seven books of meta
In hunting a wild boar, Adrastus slew the morphoses, besides other treatises now lost.
young prince, and in his despair killed himself ADRIM KTUM, a town of Aſrica, on the
on his grave. Herodot. 1, c. 35, &c.—A Mediterranean, built by the Phoenicians.
Lydian, who assisted the Greeks against the [Now, according to some. Mahometta.] Sal
Persians. Paus. 7, c. 5. hust. in Jug.
A soothsayer in -

the Trojan war, son of Merops. Homer. Il. Adu Atica, a town of Belgic Gaul, now
2 and 6. The father of Eurydice, who Tongres, on the Maese.
married Ilus the Trojan. Apollod. 2, c. 12. ADULA, a mountain among the Rhaetian
A king of Sicyon, who reigned 4 years Alps, near which the Rhine takes its rise, now
B.C. 1215.-Ason of Hercules. Hygin. 242. St. Gothard.
ADú1AN unt, or ADRIAticum MARE, a ADülis, [a town of Ethiopia. Now, Er
sea lying between Illyricum and Italy, now cocca, on the coast of Abex.]
called the gulf of Venice, first made known Ady RMachid E, a maritime people of Af
to the Greeks by the discoveries of the Pho. rica, near Egypt. Herodot. 4, c. 168.
catans. Herodot. 1.-Horat. 1, od. 33, l. 3, od. [AEA, the city of king Æeetes, said to have
3 and 9.-Catull. 4, 6. been situate on the river Phasis in Colchis.
ADR1ANopolis, a town of Thrace on the The most probable opinion is, that it existed
Hebrus. Another in Bºtolia, Pisidia, only in the imaginations of the poets. Man
and Bithynia. nert. Anc. Geogr. Vol. 4, p. 397.]—A town
Apalixus, or Hadrianus, the 15th empe of Thessaly. Of Africa.-A fountain
ror of Rome. He is represented as an active, of Macedonia near Amydon.
learned, warlike and austere general. He AEAcéA, games at Ægina, in honour of
came to Britain, where he had a wall between AFacus. -

the modern towns of Carlisle and Newcastle AEAcidAs, a king of Epirus, son of Neop
[68 English or 74 Roman miles long,) to pro tolemus, and brother to Olympias. He was
tect the Britons from the incursions of the expelled by his subjects for his continual wars
Caledonians. [He sent also a Roman colony with Macedonia. He left a son, Pyrrhus,
to Jerusalem, calling the city. Elia Capitoli only two years old, whom Chaucus, king of
na, aſter the name of his family, and erected Illyricum educated. Paus. 1, c. 11.
a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus on the site of AEacines, a patronymic of the descend
the ancient temple, which caused a revolt of ants of Æacus, such as Achilles, Peleus, Te
the Jews.] His memory was so retentive, lamon, Pyrrhus, &c. Virg. .42n. 1, v. 103,
that he remembered every incident of his life, &c
and knewall the soldiers of his army by name. AEicus, son of Jupiter by Ægina daughter
He was the first emperor who wore a long of Asopus, was king of the island of OEnopia,
beard, and this he did to hide the warts on which he called by his mother's name. A
his face. Adrian went always bareheaded, pestilence having destroyed all his subjects,
and in long marches generally travelled on he entreated Jupiter to re-people his king
foot. In the beginning of his reign, he follow dom; and according to his desire, all the ants
ed the virtues of his adopted father and pre which were in an old oak were changed into
decessor Trajan; he remitted all arrears due men, and called by AEcus myrmidons, from
to his treasury for 16 years, and publicly aveun;, an ant—Eacus married Endeis, by
burnt the account books, that his word might whom he had Telamon and Peleus. He af.

terwards had Phocus by Psamathe, one of marched to Rome, whence he was driven
the Nereids. e was a man of such integ back by the inclemency of the weather;
sity that the ancients have made him one of which caused so much joy in Rome, that the
the Judges oſhell, with Minos and Rhadaman Romans raised a temple to the god of mirth.
thus. Horat. 2, od. 16, 1.4, od. 8-Paus. 1. This deity was worshipped at Sparta. Plut.
c. 44, l. 2, c. 29.-Ovid. Met. 7, fab. 25, 1. 13, in Lyc. Agid. & Cleom.—Pausanias also men
v. 25.-Propert. 4, el. 12—Plut. de consol. tions a 343r 7 ºxa.ºrg)'.
ad Apoll.—Apollod. 3, c. 12.-1) iod. 4. AF. DiLEs, [Roman magistrates, of three
ACEA, the name of an island, the fabled re kinds, JEdiles Plebeii, Curules, and Cereales.
sidence of Circe. [Its situation is doubtful. The JEdiles Plebeii, were first created A. U.
Most locate it high upon the western coast of C. 260, in the Comitia Curiata, at the same
Italy. According to Mannert, however, it time with the tribunes of the commons, to be
lay off the western coast of Sicily.—Mannert. as it were their assistants, and to determine
.1nc. Geogr. Vol. 4. p. 19.) certain minor causes which the tribunes com
AEANTEUM, a city of Toas, where Ajax mitted to them. They were afterwards cre
was buried. Plin. 5, c. 30.-An island ated, as the other inferior magistrates, at the
near the Thracian Chersonesus. Id. 4, c. 12. Comitia Tributa. The .42diles Curules were
AEANTIDEs, a tyrant of I.ampsacus, inti created from the patricians, wore the toga
mate with Darius. Iłe married a daughter practerta, had the right of images, and used the
of Hippias, tyrant of Athens. Thuryd, 6, c. sella curulis, whence their name. They were
59.—One of the 7 poets, called Pleiades. first created A. U. C. 387, to perform certain
AEAs, a river of Epirus falling into the Ionipublic games. The office of the AEdiles ge.
an sea. In the fable of ſo, Ovid describes it nerally, was to take care of the buildings,
as falling into the Peneus, and meeting other streets, markets, weights, measures, &c.—
rivers at Tempe. This some have supposed The JEdiles Cereales, were two in number,
to be a geographical mistake of the poet. added by Julius Caesar, to inspect the public
Lucan. 6, v. 361.-Orid. JMct. 1, v. 580. stores of corn and other provisions.—Dionys,
AEAtus, son of Philip, and brother of Po 6, c. 90.—Liv. 6, c. 42–7. c. 1.-Sueton. Jul.
lyclea, was descended from Hercules. An c. 41.-Cie. de Jegg. 3, c. 3.)
oracle having said that whoever of the two AEDIPsus, a town in Euboea, now Dipso,
touched the land after crossing the Achelous abounding in hot-baths.
should obtain the kingdom, Polyclea pretend VA1. AED1tuus, a Roman poet before the
ed to be lame, and prevailed upon her brother age of Cicero, successful in amorous poetry
to carry her across on his shoulders. When and epigrams.
they came near the opposite side, Polyclea AEpon, daughter of Pandarus, married Ze
leaped ashore from her brother's back, ex thus brother to Amphion, by whom she had
claiming that the kingdom was her own. a son called Itylus." She was so jealous of
AEatus joined her in her exclamation, and af. her sister Niobe, because she had more child
terwards married her, and reigned conjointly ren than herself, that she resolved to murder
with her. Their son Thessalus gave his the elder, who was educated with Itylus. She
name to Thessaly. Polyten. 8. by mistake killed her ownson, and was chang
AEchMAcoſtas, a son of Hercules, hy Phyl ed into a goldfinch as she attempted to kill
lone, daughter of Alcimedone. When the fa herself. Homer. Od. 19, v. 518.
ther heard that his daughter had had a child, AEDUI, or Hedui, a powerful nation of Cel
he exposed her and the infant in the woods to tic Gaul, known for their valour in the wars
wild beasts, where Hercules, conducted by of Caesar. When their country was invaded
the noise of a magpie which imitated the cries by this celebrated general, they were at the
of a child, ſound and delivered them. Paus. head of a faction in opposition to the Sequani
8, c. 12. and their partisans, and they had established
A·ch Mrs, succeeded his father Polymnes their superiority in frequent battles. To sup
tor on the throne of Arcadia, in the reign of port their cause, however the Sequani obtain
Theopompus of Sparta. Paus, 8, c. 5. ed the assistance of Ariovistus king of Ger
AEDEpsum, a town of Euboea. Plin. 4, c. many, and soon defeated their opponents.
12–Strab. 10.
The arrival of Caesar changed the face of af.
AEDEssa, or F.Jessa, a town near Pella. fairs, the AEdui were restored to the sove
Caranus king of Macedonia took it by follow reignty of the country, and the artful Roman,
ing goats that sought shelter from the rain, by employing one ſaction against the other,
and called it, from that circumstance Æge. was enabled to conquer them all, though the
from at:, capra. It was the burying-place of the insurrection of Ambiorix, and that more pow
Macedonian kings; and an oracle had said, erfully supported by Vercingetorix, shook
that as long as the kings were buried there. for a while the dominion of Rome in Gaul,
so long would their kingdom subsist. Alex and checked the career of the conqueror.
ander was buried in a different place; and on Cars. in Bell. G.
that account, some authors have said that #2.ÉtA, or AEetes, king of Colchis, son of
the kingdom became extinct. Justin. 7, c. Sol, and Perseis daughter of Oceanus, was
father of Medea, Absyrtus, and Chalciope,
A pictſ LA Ridiculi, a temple raised to the by Ida, one of the Oceanides. He kill
god of Mirth, from the following circum ed Phryxus son of Athamas, who had fled to
stance: after the battle of Cannae, Hannibal his court on a golden ram. This murder he


earninitted to obtain the fleece of the golden gave him his daughter Æthra in marriage.
rara. The Arzonauts came against Colchts, He left her pregnant, and told her, that if she
and recovered the golden fleece by means of had a son, to send him to Athens as soon as
Medea, though it was guarded by bulls that he could lift astone under which he had con
breathed fire, and by a venomous dragon. cealed his sword. By this sword he was to
Their expedition has been celebrated by ºil be known to AEgeus, who did not wish to make
the ancient poets. (rid. Jason. Medea, & any public discovery of a son, for fear of his
Přerºrus.) Apoſiod, 1, c. 9–Orid. Met. 7, nephews the Pallantides, who expected his
fab. 1. &c.—Paus. 2. c. 3.-Justin. 42, c. 2– crown. AEthra became mother of Theseus,
FIarr. & Orpheus an Argon. whom she accordingly sent to Athens with
AEET14s, a patronymic given to Medea, as his father's sword. At that time AEgeus liv
laris:hter of Æeetes. Orad. Met. 7, v. 9. el with Medea, the divorced wife of Jason.
AfgA, an island of the AEgean sea betwee When Theseus came to Athens, Medea at
Tenedos and Chios. tempted to poison him ; but he escaped, and
[AEG +, a town of AEolis, south of Cuma. upon showing Ægeus the sword he wore, dis
and east of Phocaea.] covered himself to be his son. When The
AEG e, a city of Macedonia, the same as •eus returned from Crete after the death of
*Caessa.—Plin. 4, c. 10.-A town of Euboea, the Minotaur, he forgot, agreeable to the en
whence Neptune is called AEgaeus. Strab. 9. gagement made with his father, to hoist up
AEG'+, a town and sea port of Cilicia. white sails as a signal of his success; and
Alzzºan. 3. v. 227. *Egeus, at the sight of black sails, concluding
AEGAEox, one of Lycaon’s 50 sons. Apol that his son was dead, threw himself from a
fad. 3, c. 8. The son of Coelus, or of Pon high rock into the sea ; which from him, as
tas and Terra, the same as Briareus. (vid. some suppose, has been called the AEgean.
Briareus.) It is supposed that he was a no 4.geus reigned 48 years, and died B. C. 1235.
torious pirate chiefly residing at Æga, whence He is supposed to have first introduced into
His name; and that the fable about his 100 Greece the worship of Venus Urania, to ren
hands arises from his having 100 men to man der the goddess propitious to his wishes in
age his cars in his piratical excursions. Virg having a son. (rid. Theseus, Munotaurus
.3En. 10, v. 565.-Hesiod Th. 149.-Home, & Medea.) Apoll, d. 1, c. 8, 9, 1.3, c. 15.—
II. 10, v. 404.—Ovid Met. 2, v. 10. Paus. 1, c. 5. 22, 38, l. 4, c. 2.— Plut. in
AEGAEUM M ARE (now Archipelago), part of s.—Hugin. ſab. 37, 48, 79, and 173.
the Mediterranean, dividing Greece from Asia AEGIALE, one of Phaeton’s sisters changed
Minor. It is full of islands, some of which into poplars, and their tears into amber.
are called Cyclades, others Sporades, &c. They are called Heliades. A daughter of
The word AEgaeum is derived by some from Adrastus, by Amphitea daughter of Promax.
AEgae, a town of Euboea; or from the num She married Diomedes, in whose absence,
ber of islands which it contains, that appear during the Trojan war, she prostituted her
above the sea, as a17 ºr, goats; or from the self to her servants, and chiefly to Cometes,
promontory AEga, or from Egea, a queen of whom the king had left master of his house.
the Amazons; or from AEgeus, who is sup At his return, Diomedes being told of his
posed to have drowned himself there. Plin. wife's wantonness, went to settle in Daunia.
4, c. 11.—Strab. 7. [rid. Archipelagus.] . Some say that Venus implanted those vicious
AEGALEos, or AEgaleum, a mountain of and lustful propensities in AEgiale, to revenge
Attica opposite Salamis, on which Xerxes sat nerself on Diomedes, who had wounded her
during the engagement of his fleet with the in the Trojan war. Orid, in Ib. v. 350.-
Grecian ships in the adjacent sea. Herodot. Homer. Il. 5, v. 412.-Apollod. 1, c.9.—Stat.
8, c. 90.-Thucyd. 2, c. 19. 3, Silv. 5, v. 48.
AEGRTEs, three islands lying northwest of AEGIALEA, an island near Peloponnesus, in
Cape Lilybaeum, on the western coast of Si the Cretan sea. Another in the Ionian sea,
cily. [Near these islands the Roman fleet near the Echinades. Plan. 4, c. 12.-Hero
under E. Catulus, obtained a decisive victory dot. 4, c. 107 The ancient name of Pelo
over that of the Carthaginians, commanded ponnesus. Strab. 12. Mela, 2, c. 7.
by Hanno, which put an end to the first Pu AEGIAI.Eus, son of Adrastus by Amphitea
nic war..] Liv. 21, c. 10.41.49 and 22, c. 54. or Demoanassa, was one of the Epigoni, i. e.
56.--Mela, 2, c. 7. one of the sons of those generals who were
AEGELEox, a town of Macedonia taken by killed in the first Theban war. They went
king Attalus. Liv. 31, c. 46. against the Thebans, who had refused to give
A.G.ERIA. Wid. Egeria. burial to their fathers, and were victorious.
AEGEsta, the daughter of Hippotes, and They all returned home safe, except AEgia
mother of AEgestus called Acestes. P'urg. leus, who was killed. That expedition is
"...ºn. 1, v. 554.—An ancient town of Sicily called the war of the Epigoni. Paus. 1, c.
near mount Eryx, destroyed by Agathocles. 43, 44. l. 2, c. 20, 1.9, c. 5.-Apollod. 1, c. 9,
It was sometimes called Segesta and Acesta. 1. 3, c. 7. The same as Absyrtus brother
Diod 10. to Medea. Justin. 42, c. 3.-Cic. de JNat. D.
AEGEcs, king of Athens, son of Pandion, 3.—Diod. 4.
being desirous of having children, went to con AEGIRLus, son of Phoroneus, was intrust
ed withtothe
sult the oracle, and in his return, stopped at going kingdomPeloponnesus
Egypt. of Achnia by wº
the court of Pittheus king of Troezene, who 13

Agialea from him.—A man who founded ACG is, the shield of Jupiter, aro tº .
the kingdom of Sicyon 2091 before the Chris awyðr, a she-goat. This was the goat Amal
tian era, and reigned 52 years. thasa, with whose skin he covered his
AEGIALUs, a name given to part of Pelo shield. The goat was placed among the
ponnesus. vid. Achaia. , Paus. 5, c. 1, 1. constellations. Jupiter gave this shield to
7, c. 1. An inconsiderable town of Pontus. Pallas, who placed upon it Medusa's head,
—A city of Asia Minor. A city of Ga. which turned into stones all those who
latia. A city of Pontus. Another in fixed their eyes upon it. Virg. Jºn. 8, v.
AFthiopia. 352 and 435.
AEGILIA, an island between Crete and Pe. AEG isthus, king of Argos, was son of
loponnesus.——A place in Euboea. Herodot. Thyestes by his daughter Pelopea. Thyes.
6, c. 101. tes being at variance with his brother Atre
[AEGIMüRus, a small island in the gulf of us, was told by the oracle, that his wrong: º
Carthage. There were two rocks near this could be revenged only by a son born of him.
island, called ara. JEgimuri, which were so self and his daughter. To avoid such an in
named, because the Romans and Carthagi cest, Pelopea had been consecrated to the
nians concluded a treaty on them. The mo service of Minerva by her father, who some
dern Zowamoore or Zimbra is the AEgimurus time after met her in a wood, and ravished
of the ancients. Plin. 5, c. 7.-Virg. AEn. her, without knowing who she was. Pelope,
1. 109.] kept the sword of her ravisher, and finding
AEGINA, daughter of Asopus, had AEacus it to be her father's, exposed the child she
by Jupiter changed into a flame of fire. She had brought forth. The child was preserved,
afterwards married Actor, son of Myrmidon. and when grown uppresented with the sword
by whom she had some children, who con of his mother's ravisher. Pelopea soon after
spired against their father. Some say that this melancholy adventure, had married her
she was changed by Jupiter into the island uncle Atreus, who received into his house her
which bears her name. Plin. 4, c. 12.—Strab. natural son. As Thyestes had debauched the
8.—Mela, 2, c. 7.—Apollod. 1, c. 9, l. 3, first wife of Atreus, Atreus sent &gisthus to
c. 12.-Paus. 2, c. 5 and 29. An is put him to death; but Thyestes knowing the
land formerly called OEnopia and Oenone, assassin's sword, discovered he was his own
in a part of the AEgean sea, called Sa son, and, fully to revenge his wrongs, sent
ronicus Sinus, about 26 miles in circum him back to murder Atreus. After this mur
ference. (The soil of this island was at first der, Thyestes ascended the throne, and ban
very stony and barrea, but through the exer ished Agamemnon and Menelaus, the sons, or
tions of its inhabitants, who were called Myr as others say, the grandsons of Atreus.
midons (emmets) from their industry, it be These children fled to Polyphidus of Sicyon;
came very fruitful.—It is now called Engia.] but as he dreaded the power of their perse
They were once a very powerful nation by cators, he remitted the protection of them to
sea, but they cowardly gave themselves up to QEneus, king of Ætolia. By their marriage
Darius when he demanded submission from all
the Greeks. The Athenians under Pericles
with the daughters of Tyndarus, king ºf
Sparta, they were empowered to recºve:
made war against them : and aſter taking 70 the kingdom of Argos, to which Agamemnon
of their ships in a naval battle, they expelled succeeded, while Menelaus reigned in his fa.
them from AEgina. The fugitives settled in Pe ther-in-law's place. Aºgisthus had been re
loponnesus, and after the ruin of Atheus by conciled to the sons of Atreus; and when
Lysander, they returned to their country, but they went to the Trojan war, he was left
never after rose to their former power or guardiºn of Agamemnon'skingdoms,and of his
consequence. Herodot. 5, 6 and 7.-Paus. Wife Clytemnestra. AEgisthusfelliniove with
2, c. 29, l. c. 8, 44.—Strab. 8.-JElian. V. Clytemnestra, and lived with her. On Aga
H. 12, c. 10.
memnon's return, these 2 adulterers murje.
ÆgiNETA Paulus, a physician born in “d him, and, by a publicmarriage, strength.
Fgina. He flourished in the 3d, or, accord ened themselves on the throne of Argo.
ing to others, the 7th century, and first deserv Orestes, Agamemnon's son, would have
ed to be called man-midwife. He wrote De
Re Medica, in seven books.
shared his father's fate, had not his sister
Electra privately sent him to his uncle strº.
AEG in Etes, a king of Arcadia, in whose phius, king of Phocis, where he contracted
age Lycurgus instituted his famous laws, the most intimate friendship with his cousin
Paws. 1, c. 5.
Pylades. Some time after, Orestes came tº
AEGiochus, a surname of Jupiter, from his Mycene, the resistence of AEgisthus, and re.
being brought up by the goat Amalthaea, and solved to punish the murderers of his father,
using her skin, on his shield, in the war of the in conjunction with Electra, who lived in dis
Titans. Diod. 5.
guise in the tyrant's family. to accomplish
4-giran, a name of Pan, because he had this more effectually, Electra publicly de
goat's feet. clared that her brother Orestes was jeal :
[AEGina, a town of Achaia, between Agi. "Pºº which £gisthus and Clytemnestra went
um and Sicyon. Paus. 7, c. 26.] to return thanksse
temple of Apollo,Orestes, tº
HEGIRorssa, a town of Ætolia. Herodot. ſº the
the death.
for his who had
7, c. 149.
cretly concealed himselfin the temple, attack

ed them, and put them both to death, after a and that of a goat below. Mela, 1, c. 4 and
reign of seven years. They were buried 8.
without the city walls. (vid. Agamemnon, AEGYPsus, a town of the Getae, near the
Thyestes, Orestes, Clytemnestra, Pylades, and Danube [Near this place according to
Electra.) Ovid. de Rem. .4m. 161. Trist. D'Anville, Darius Hystaspes constructed his
2, v.396.—Hygin. ſab. 87 and 88.-JElian. bridge over the Danube, in his expeditions
W. H. 12, c.42.—Paus.2, c. 16, &c.—Sophocl. against the Scythians.] Ovid. ex: Pont. 1. ep.
in Electra.--Eschyl. & Senec. in Agam— 8, 1.4, ep. 7.
Homer. Od. 3. and 11.- Lactant. in Theb. 1. AEGYPTIUM MARE, that part of the Medi
v. 634. Pompey used to call J. Caesar AE terranean sea which is on the coast of Egypt.
gisthus, en account of his adultery with his AEgyptus, son of Belus, and brother to
wife Mutia, whem he repudiated after she Danaus, gave his 50 sons in marriage to the
had borne him three children. Suet. in Caes. 50 daughters of his brother. Danaus who
50. had established himself at Argos, and was
AEGruni, [a town of Achaia, where the jealous of his brother, who, by following him
States of Achaia held their general council. from Egypt into Greece, seemed envious of

c. 7.
Vostitza. Pausan. 7, c. 24.—Liv. 28, of his prosperity, obliged all his daughters to
murder their husbands the first night of their
AEGLE, the youngest daughter of Æscula nuptials. This was executed ; but Hyperm
pius and Lampetie. A nymph, daughter nestra alone spared her husband Lynceus.
of Sol and Neara. Pirg. Ec. 6, v. 20. A Even Ægyptus was killed by his niece Po.
nymph, daughter of Panepeus, beloved by lyxena. vid. Danaus, Danaides, Lynceus.-
Theseus after he had left Ariadne. Plut. in AEgyptus was king, after his father, of a part
Thes—One of the Hesperides. One of of Africa, which from him has been called
the Graces. AEgyptus. Hygin. fab. 168, 170–Apollod.
AEGLEs, a Samian wrestler, born dumb. 2, c. 1–Ovid. Heroid. 14.—Paus. 7, c.21.—
Seeing some unlawful measures pursued in a An extensive country of Africa, bound
contest, he broke the string which held his ed on the east by the Red Sea, and on the
tongue, through the desire of speaking, and west by Libya. Its name is derived from
ever after spoke with ease. Val. Mar. 1, c. 3. AEgyptus brether to Danaus. Its extent,
AEGLETEs, a surname of Apollo. according to modern calculation, [is 700
£glöge, a nurse of Nero. Sueton. in Mer. miles from north to south, and it measures
about 30') miles on the shore of the Me
AEGoBölus, a surname of Bacchus at Pot diterranean;] but at the distance of 50
nia, in Boeotia. leagues from the sea, it diminishes so much as
AEGocłaos, or Capricornus, an animal in scarce to measure 7 or 3 leagues between the
to which Pan transformed himself when fly mountains on the east and west. It is divided
ing before Typhon in the war with the giants. into Lower,whichlies near the Mediterranean,
Jupiter made him a constellation. Lucret. 1, and Upper, which is towards the south. Up
v. 613. per Egypt was famous for the town of
Ægow, a shepherd. Virg. Ecl.—Theocrit. Thebes, but Lower Egypt was the most peo
A promontory of Lemnos.--A pled, and contained the Delta, a num
name of the AEgean Sea. Flacc. 1, v. 628. ber of large islands, which, from their
–A boxer of Zacynthus ; who dragged a form, have been called after the fourth letter
large bull by the heel from a mountain into of the Greek alphabet. This country has
the city. Theocrit. Idyll. 4. been the mother of arts and sciences. The
£Gos Poti Mos, i. e. the goat's river, [a greatest part of Lower Egypt has been form
stream in the Thracian Chersonese, with a ed by the mud and sand carried down by the
town called Ægos at its mouth.) Here the Nile. Te Egyptians reckoned themselves
Athenian fleet, consisting of 180 ships, was the most ancient nation in the universe, (rid.
defeated by Lysander, on the 13th Dec. B. C. Psammetichus,) but some authors make them
405, in the last year of the Peloponnesian war. of AEthiopian origin. They are remarkable
.Mela, 2, c. 2.-Plin. 2, c. 58.-Paus. 3, c. 8 for their superstition ; they paid as much
atd 11. honour to the cat, the crocodile, the bull, and
£cosic E, an Asiatic nation under Attalus even to onions, as to Isis. Rain never or sel
with whom he made conquests in Asia, and to dom falls in this country; the fertility of the
whom he gave a settlement near the Helles soil originates in the yearly inundations of the
pout. Polytº. 5. Nile, which rises [to the height of about 20
£gus and Roscu.Lus, two brothers cubits on an average, and exhibits a large
amongst the Allobroges, who deserted from plain of waters, in which are scattered here
Cesar to Pompey. Caes, bell. civ. 3, c. 59. and there the towns and villages, as the Cy
£cºsa, the middle island of the AEgates clades in the Egean sea. The air is not
rear Sicily. - wholesome, but the population is great and
£cy, a town near Sparta, destroyed be the cattle very prolific. It is said that Egypt
eause its inhabitants were suspected by the once contained20,000 cities, the most remark
Spartans of favouring the Arcadians. Paus. able of which were Thebes, Memphis, Alex
º, r. 2. andria, Pelusium, Coptos, Arsinoe, &c. It
£cy Prix Es, a nation in the middle of Af was governed by kings who have immortalized
tita, whose body is human above the waist, themselves by the pyramids they have raised
A.L. A.L.

and the canals they have opened The priests as Roman citizens, [but should remain in the
traced the existence of the country for many state of the Dedititii.]
thousand years, and fondly imagined that the AELIA PETINA, of the family of Tubero"
gods were the first sovereigns, and that mo married Claudius Caesar, by whom she had
narchy had lasted 11,340 years according to a son. The emperor divorced her, to marry
Herodotus. According to the calculation of Messalina. Sueton. in Claud. 26.
Constantine Manasses, the kingdom of E. ypt AELIANU's CLAUDUs, a Roman sophist of
lasted 1663 years from its beginning under Praeneste, i, the reign of Adrian. He first
Misraim the son of Ham, 2188 B. C. to the taught rhetoric at Rome ; but being disgust
conquest of Cambyses, 525 B.C. Egypt re ed with his profession, he became author and
volted afterwards from the Persian power B. published treatises on animals in 17 books, on
C. 414, and Amyrtaeus then became king. Af. various history in 14 books, &c. in Greek, a
ter him succeeded Psammetichus, whose reign language which he preferred to Latin. In
began 400 B.C. Nephereus 394; Acoris, his writings he shows himself very fond of the
389 : Psammuthis, 376, Nepherites 4 months, marvellous, and relates many stories which
and Nectanebis, 375: Tachos, or Teos, 363 are often devoid of elegance and purity of
Nectanebus, 361.—It was conquered by Q tyle; though Philostratus has commended
chus, 350 B. C.; and after the conquest of his language as superior to what could be ex
Persia by Alexander, Ptolemy refounded the pected from a person who was neither born
kingdom, and began to reign 323 B. C. nor educated in Greece. AElian died in the
Philadelphus, 284; Euergetes, 246 : Phi 60th year of his age, A. D. 140. The best
lopater, 221 : Epiphanes, 204: Philometer, editions of his works collected together are
180 and 169, conjointly with Euergetes II. or that of Conrad Gesner, folio, printed Tiguri,
Physcon, for 6 years ; Euergetes ll. 145 : 1556, though now seldom to be met with, that
Lathurus Soter, and his mother Cleopatra, of Kuenius, 2 vol. 8vo. Lips. 1780, (and that
116: Alexander of Cyprus, and Cleopatra, of Lehnert, 2 vol. 8vo. Lips. 1794.] Some
106 : Lathurus Soter restored, 88: Cleopatra attribute the treatise on the tactics of the
ll. 6 months, with Alexander the second 19 Greeks to another Æliam.
days, 81: Ptolemy, surnamed Alexander III. AELIUs and ÆLIA, a family in Rome, so
80: Dionysius, surnamed Auletes, 65 : Diony poor that 16 lived in a small house, and were
sius II. with Cleopatra III. 51: Cleopatra III. maintained by the produce of a little field.
with young Ptolemy, 46, and in 30 B.C. it Their poverty continued till Paulus conquer
was reduced by Augustus into a Roman pro ed Perseus king of Macedonia, and gave his
vince. The history of Egypt, therefore, can son-in-law AEl. Tubero five pounds of gold
be divided into three epochas; the first be. from the booty. Val. Mar. 4, c. 4.
gimming with the ſoundation of the empire, to AELius ADR1ANUs, an African, grandfather
the conquest of Cambyses; the second ends to the emperor Adrian —Gallus, a Roman
at the death of Alexander; and the third knight, the first who invaded Arabia Felix.
comprehends the reign of the Ptolemies, and He was very intimate with Strabo the geogra
ends at the death of Cleopatra, in the age of pher, and sailed on the Nile with him to take
Augustus.-Justan. 1.--Hirtius in .11er. 24. a view of the country. Plin. 6, c. 28.
—Macrob. in somn. Scip. 1, c. 19 & 21.—He. Publius, one of the first questors chosen from
rodian. 4, c. 9.—Strab. 17. Herodot 2, 3, & tºe plebeians at Rome. Liv. 4, c. 54 Q.
7.—Theocrit. Id. 17, v. 79.—Polyb. 15.- K. Paetus, son of Sextus or Publius. As he
Diod. 1.-Plin. 5, c 1, 1. 14, c. 7.— Marcell. 22. sat in the senate-house, a wood-pecker perch
c. 40–Justin. 1–C; Nep. in Paus. 3, in. ed on his head; upon which a soothsayer ex
Iphic. in Datam. 3–Curt. 4, c. 1.-Juv. 15, claimed, that if he preserved the bird, his
v. 175.-Paus. 1, c. 14.—Plut. de Facie in house would flourish and Rome decay; and
Orb. Lun. de Isid. & Osir. in Ptol, in .ºllear. if he killed it, the contrary must happen.
—-Mela, 1, c. 9 – 1pollod. 2, c. 1 & 5. A Hearing this, AElius, in the presence of the
minister of Mausolus of Caria. Polyten. 6. senate, bit off the head of the bird. All the
—The ancient name of the Nile. Homer. Od. youths of the family were killed at Cannae,
14, v. 258.--Paus. 9, c. 40. and the Roman arms were soon attended
AEG Ys. P'id. AEgy. with success. Val. Mar. 5, c. 6. Satur
ACG Ysthus. P'id. Aegisthus. ninus, a satyrist, thrown down from the Tar
Allia, the wife of Sylla. Plut. in Syll. peian rock for writing verses against Tibe
The name of some towns built or repaired rius. Sejānus, vid, Sejanus.—Sextus
by the emperor Adrian. Catus, censor, with M. Cethegus. He separat
AELIA lex, enacted by Ælius Tubero the ed the senators from the people in the public
tribune, A. U. C. 559, to send two colonies spectacles. During his consulship, the am
into the country of the Brutii. Liv. 34, c. bassadors of the Ætolians found him feasting
53. Another A. U. C. 563, ordaining, that in earthen dishes, and offered him silver ves
in public affairs, the augurs should observe sels, which he refused, satisfied with the
the appearance of the sky, and the magis earthen cups, &c. which, for his virtues, he
trates be empowered to postpone the business. had received from his father-in-law, L. Pau
——Another called Ælia Sexta, by JElius lus, after the conquest of Macedonia. He
Seartus, A. U. C. 756, which enacted, that all is greatly commended by Cicero for his
slaves who bore any marks of punishment learning, and called cordatus homo by
received from their masters, should not rank Ennius for his knowledge of law. Plan.

33, c. 11.-Cie. de Orat. 1.-Spartiánus, ed from Mamercus, son of Pythagoras, who

wrote the lives of the emperors Adrian, An ſor his humanity was called Alauxor, blundus.
toninus Pius, and M. Aurelius. He flourished —A vestal who rekindled the fire of Vesta,
A. D. 240. Tubero, grandson of L. Pau which was extinguished, by putting her veil
hus, was austere in his morals, and a formi over it, Pal. Mar. 1, c. 1.-Dionys. Hal. 2.
dable enemy to the Gracchi. Hisgrandson was -The wife of Africanus the elder, famous
accused before Caesar, and ably defended by for her behaviour to her husband, when sus
Cicero. Cie. ep. ad Brut. Verus Caesar, pected of infidelity. Val. Mar. 6, c. 7.--—
the name of L. C. Commodus Verus, after Lepida, daughter of Lepidus, married I).ru
Adrian had adopted him. He was made sus the younger, whom she disgraced by her
praetor and consul by the emperor, who wantonness. She killed herself when accused
was soon convinced of his incapacity in the of adultery with a slave. Tacit. 6, c. 40.
discharge of public duty. He killed himself A part of Italy called also Flaminia. Martiaſ.
by drinking an antidote; and Antoninus, sur 6, ep. 85. A public road leading from Pla
named Pius, was adopted in his place. AE centia to Ariminum ; called after the consul
lius was father to Autoninus Verus, whom Emylius, who is supposed to have made it.
Pius adopted.—A physician mentioned by JMartial. 3, ep. 4.
Galen.—L. Gallus, a lawyer, who wrote AEMy LIANUs, a name of Africanus the
12 books concerning the signification of all younger, son of P. A. mylius. In him the fa
law words. milies of the Scipios and Æmylii were united.
AEL Lo, one of the Harpies (from ixova z axxo, Many of that family bore the same Lame.
alienurn tollens, or awaz, tempestas.) Fiac. 4, Juv. 8, v.2. -

v. 450.—Hesiod. Th. 267.-Ovid. Met. 13, v. AEM Y1.11, a noble family in Rome, descend.
710.-One of Actaeon's dogs.--Ovid. Met. 3, ed from AEmylius the son of Ascanius.-P'u-
y-220. tarch says, that they are descended from Ma
£LÜRus, (a cat.) a deity worshipped by mercus, the son of Pythagoras, surnamed Æ
the Egyptians: and, after death, embalmed, mylius from the sweetness of his voice, in
and buried in the city of Bubastis. Herodot. .Num. & Emyl.—The family was distinguish
2, c. 66, &c. —Diod. 1.-Cic. de Mat. D. 1. ed in the various branches of the Lepidi, Ma
–4. Gell. 20, c. 7.-Plut. in Pr. merci, Mamercini, Barbulae, Paulº, and Scauri.
AEMATHIow, & AEMATH1A. vid. Ema AEMYLius, a beautiful youth of Sybaris.
thuon. whose wife met with the same fate as Procris.
AEMIL1A lex, was enacted by the dictator rid. Procris. Censorinus, a cruel tyrant of
AEmilius, A. U. C 309. It ordained that the Sicily, who liberally rewarded those who in
censorship, which was before quinquennial, vented new ways of torturing. Paterculus
should be limited to one year and a half. Liv. gave him a brazen horse for this purpose, and
9, c. 33. Another in the second consulship the tyrant made the first experiment upon
of AEmilius Mamercus, A. U. C. 391. It gave the donor, Plut. de Fort. Romn. Lepidus,
power to the eldest praetor to drive a mail in a youth who had a statue in the capitol, for
the capitol on the ides of September. Law. saving the life of a citizen in a battle. Pºl.
7, e. 3. The driving of a nail was a super Mar. 4, c. 1.-A triumvir with Octavius.
stitious ceremony, by which the Romans vid. Lepidus. Macer, a poet of Verona in
supposed that a pestilence could be stopped, the Augustan age. He wrote some poems
or an impending calamity averted. upon serpents, birds, and, as some suppose, ou
AEMILIANUs, (C. Julius) a native of Mauri bees. rid. Macer Marcus Scaurºs, a
tania, proclaimed emperor after the death Roman who flourished about 100 years B. C.
of Decius. He marched against Gallus and and wrote three books concerning his own
Valerian, but was informed they had been life. Cic. in Brut. A poet in the age of
murdered by their own troops. He soon af. Tiberius, who wrote a tragedy called Atheus.
ter shared their fate.—One of the thirty and destroyed himself—Sura, another wri
tyrants who rebelled in the reign of Gallienus. ter on the Roman year. Mamercus, three
£MILIUs. vid. AEmylius. times dictator, conquered the Fidenates, and
AEMs Estus. tyrant of Enna, was deposed took their city. He limited to one year and
by Dionysius the elder. Diod. 14. a half the censorship, which before his time
AExtox. rid. Hacmon. was exercised during five years. Lir. 4, c.
Exonia, a country of Greece, which 17, 19, &c.—Papiniãnus, son of Hostilius
received its name from AEmon, or AEmus, Papinianus, was in favour with the emperor
and was afterwards called Thessaly. Achilles Severus, and was made governor to his sons
is called Æmonius, as being born there. Geta and Caracalla. Geta was killed by his
Orid. Trist. 3, el. 11, l. 4, el. 1.-Horat. 1. brother, and Papinianus for upbraiding him
od. 37. It was also called Pyrrha, from Pyr. was murdered by his soldiers. From his
rha, Deucalion's wife, who reigned there.— school the Romans have had many able law
The word has been indiscriminately applied yers, who were called Papinianists. Pap
to all Greece by some writers. . Plin. 4, c. 7. pus, a censor, who banished from the senate,
Extoxin Es. A priest of Apollo, in Italy, P. Corn. Ruſſinus, who had been twice con
killed by Æneas. Virg. Jºn. 10, v. 537. sul, because he had at his table ten pounds of
silver plate, A. U.C. 478. Lir. 14.— Por
EMUs, an actor in Domitian's reign. Juv. cina,
5, 7, 197.
an elegant orator. Cic in Brut.

Rectus, a severe governor of Egypt, under

Exylla, anoble family in Rome, descend. 17

Tiberius. Dio. Regillus, conquered the posterity to reign over the Trojans. This
general of Antiochus at sea, and obtained a passage Dionys. Hal. explained, by saying
naval triumph. Liv. 37, c. 31. Scaurus, that Homer meant the Trojans who had gone
a noble, but poor citizen of lèome. His fa over to Italy with Æneas, and not the actual
ther, to maintain himself, was a coal-mer. inhabitants of Troy. According to Virgil and
chant. He was a dile, and afterwards praetor, other Latin authors, who, to make their court
and fought against Jugurtha His son \lar to the Roman emperors,traced their origin up
cus was son-in-law to Sylla, and in his aedile to AEneas, and described his arrival in Italy
ship he built a very magnificent theatre. as indubitable, he with his fleet first came to
Plin. 36, c. 15.-A bridge at Rome, called the Thracian Chersonesus, where Polymnes
also Sublicius. Juv. 6, v. 32. tor,one of his allies, reigned. After visiting De
AENARIA, an island in the bay of Puteoli, los,thestrophades,andCrete,where he expect
abounding with cypress trees. It received its ed to find the empire promised him by the ora
name from HEneas, who is supposed to have cle, as in the place where hisprogenitors were
landed there on his way to Latium. It is born, he landed at Drepanum, the Court
called Pithecusa by the Greeks, and now Is of king Acestes, in Sicily, where he buried his
chia, and was famous once for its mineral father. From Sicily he sailed for Italy, but
waters. Liv. 8, c. 22.—Plin. 3, c. 6, l. 31, was driven on the coast of Africa, and kind
c. 2–Stat. 3. Sylt. 5, v. 104. ly, received by Dido, queen of Carthage, to
AFN ARIUM, a grove near Olenos in Achaia whom, on his first interview, he gave one of
sacred to Jupiter, [where the Achaeans held the garments of the beautiful Helen. Dido
their public assemblies.] being enumoured of him, wished to marry
AEN EA or ÆNE1A, a town of Macedonia, 15 him; but he left Carthage by order of the
miles from Thessalonica, founded by Æneas. gods. In his voyage he was driven to Sicily,
Lir. 40, c. 4, 1.44, c. 10. and from thence he passed to Cumae, where
AEN EADEs, a town of Chersonesus, built by the Sybil conducted him to hell, that he might
AEneas. Cassander destroyed it, and carried hear from his father the fates which attended
the inhabitants to Thessalonica, lately built. him and all his posterity. After a voyage of
Dionys. Hal. 1. seven years, and the loss of 13 ships, he came
A.NEAD+, a name given to the friends and to the Tyber. Latinus, the king of the coun
companions of AEneas, by Virg. JEn. 1, v. try, received him with hospitality, and pro
161. mised him his daughter Lavinia, who had
AENEAs, a Trojan prince, son of Anchises been before betrothed to king Turnus by her
and the goddess Venus. The opinions of au mother Amata. To prevent this marriage,
thors concerning his character are different. Turnus made war against Æneas; and after
His infancy was intrusted to the care of a many battles, the war was decided by a com
nymph, and at the age of 5 he was recalled to bat between the two rivals, in which Turnus
Troy. He afterwards improved himself in was killed. ACneas married Lavinia, in
ThessalyunderChiron,a venerablesage,whose whose honour he built the town of Lavinium,
house was frequented by theyoung princes and and succeeded his father-in-law. After a
heroes of the age. Soon after his return home short reign, AFneas was killed in a battle
he married Creusa, Priam's daughter, by against the Etrurians. Some say that he
whom he had a son called Ascanius. I)ur was drowned in the Numicus, and his body
ing the Trojan war, he behaved with great weighed down by his armour; upon which
valour, in defence of his country, and came the Latins, not finding their king, supposed
to an engagment with Diomedes and Achilles. that he had been taken up to heaven, and
Yet Strabo, Dictys of Crete, Dionysius of therefore offered him sacrifices as to a god.
Halicarnassus, and Dares of Phrygia, accuse Dionys. Hal. fixes the arrival of Æneas in
him of betraying his country to the Greeks, Italy in the 54th olymp. Some authors sup
with Antenor, and of preserving his life and }ose that Æneas, after the siege of Troy, fell
fortune by this treacherous measure. He to the share of Neoptolemus, together with
lived at variance with Priam, because he re Andromache, and that he was carried to
ceived not sufficient marks of distinction from Thessaly, whence he escaped to Italy. Others
the king and his family, as Homer, Il. 3, say, that after he had come to Italy, he re
says. This might have provoked him to seek turned to Troy, leaving Ascanius king of
revenge by perfidy. Authors of credit re Latium. [The story of the loves of Dido
port, that when Troy was in flames, he car. and AEneas is a mere poetical embellishment,
ried away, upon his shoulders, his father An and introduced by a glaring anachronism.
chises, and the statues of his household gods, rid. Dido...] Homer. Il. 13 and 20. Hymn. in
leading in his hand his son Ascanius, and leav P'ener.—Apollod. 3. c. 12.—Diod. 3.-Paus.
ing his wife to follow behind. Some say that 2, c. 33, l. 3, c. 22, 1.10, c. 25.-Plut. In Ro
he retired to Mount Ida, where he built a mul. & Corol. Quast. Rom.–Pal. Mar. 1,
fleet of 20 ships, and set sail in quest of a c. 8.—Flor. 1, c. 9-Justin. 20, c. 1, 1.31, c.
settlement. Strabo and others maintain that 8, 1.43, c. 1 —Dictys. Cret. 5–Dares Phry.
AEneas never left his country, but rebuilt 6.—Duonys. Hal. I, c. 11.-Strab. 13.-Lur,
Troy, where he reigned, and his posterity aſ. 1, c. 1.-P’urg. .42n.—Aur. Victor.—./Elian.
ter him. Even Homer, who lived 400 years W. H. 8, c. 22.—A son of Æneas and Lavi
after the Trojan war, says, Il. 20, v. 30, nia, called Sylvius, because his mother retir
&c. that the gods destined AEneas and his ed with him into the woods after his father's

death. He succeeded Ascanius in Latium, are enumerated; and in the eighth book, E
though opposed by Iulus the son of his pre neas is assisted by Evander, and receives from
decessor. Pirg...En. 6, v. 770. Liv. 1, c. 3. Venus a shield wrought by Vulcan, on which
—An ambassador sent by the Lacedaemo are represented the ſuture glory and triumphs
nians to Athens, to treat of peace, in the 8th of the Roman nation. The reader is pleased.
year of the Peloponnesian war. An an
in the ninth book, with the account of battles
cient author who wrote on tactics, besides between the rival armies, and the immortal
other treatises, which, according to Ælian, friendship of Nisus and Euryalus, Jupiter.
were epitounised by Cineas the friend of Pyr in the tenth, attempts a reconciliation between
rhus—A native of Gaza, who, from a plato Venus and Juno, who patronised the opposite
nic philosopher became a christian, A. D. parties; the fight is renewed, Pallas killed,
435, andwrote a dialogue called Theophrastus, and Turnus saved from the avenging hand of
on the immortality of the soul, and the resur AFneas, by the interposition of Juno. The
rection. eleventh book gives an account of the funeral
£x K1A, or Æx IA, a place near Rome, after. of Pallas, and of the meditated reconciliation
wards called Janiculum. A city of Troas. between Æneas and Latinus, which the sud
Strab. 17.-A city of Macedonia. Dionys. den appearance of the enemy defeats. Ca
Hal. 1. milla is slain, and the combatants separated
Æs EIDEs, a patronymic given to Asca by the night. In the last book, Juno prevents
nius, as son of Æneas. Virg. JEn. 9, v 653. the single combat agreed upon by Turnus and
AEsé1s, a poem of Virgil, which has for AEneas. The Trojans are defeated in the
its subject the settlement of Æneas in Italy. absence of their king; but on the return of
The great merit of this poem is well known. AEneas, the battle assumes a different turn, a
The author has imitated Homer, and, as some single combat is ſought by the rival leaders,
say, Homer is superior to him only because and the poem is concluded by the death of
he is more ancient, and is an original. Virgil king Turnus. Plin. 7, c. 30, &c.
died before he had corrected it, and at his AENEsidi. Mus, a brave general of Argos.
death desired it might be burnt. This was Liv. 32, c. 25. A Cretan philosopher, who
happily disobe, ed, and Augustus saved from wrote 8 books on the doctrine of his master
the flames, a poem which proved his family Pyrrho. Diog. in Pyr.
to be descended from the kings of Troy. AENEsius, a surname of Jupiter, from
The AEneid had engaged the attention of the mount AEmum.
poet for 11 years, and in the first six books it AEN Etus, a victor at Olympia, who, in the
seems that it was Virgil's design to imitate ..oment of victory, died through excess of
Homer's Odyssey, and in the last the Iliad. joy Paus. 3, c. 18.
The action of the poem comprehends eight AFNIA. vid. ABN FIA.
years, one of which only, the last, is really AENobAR Bus,or Ahenobarbus, the surname
taken up by the action, as the seven first are of Domitius. When Castor and Pollux ac
merely episodes, such as Juno's attempts to quainted him with a victory, he discredited
destroy the Trojans, the loves of Æneas and them ; upon which they touched his chin and
Dido, the relation of the fall of Troy, &c. In beard, which instantly became of a brazen co
the first book of the AEmeid, the hero is intro lour, whence the surname given to himself
duced, in the seventh year of his expedition, and his descendants.
sailing in the Mediterranean, and ship AENos, now Eno, an independent city of
wrecked on the African coast, where he is Thrace, at the eastern mouth of the Hebrus,
received by Dido. In the second, AEneas, at confounded with Æneia, of which Æneas was
the desire of the Phoenician queen, relates the the founder. Mela, 2, c. 2.
fall of Troy, and his flight through the gene [AENUs, a river of Germany, separating
ral conflagration to mount Ida. In the third. Vindelicia from Noricum, now the Inn. It
the hero continues his narration, by a minute rises in the Rhaetian Alps, and falls into thc
arount of his voyage through the Cyclades, Danube. On its banks was the JEni Pons
the places where he landed, and the dreadful of Antonine, which Mannert locates near
storm, with the description of which the poem the modern village of Langen Pfunzen.
opened. Dido, in the fourth book, makes Mainert Anc. Geogr. Vol. 3. p. 627.]
public her partiality to Æneas,which is slight AFö LIA, a name given to Arne. Sappho is
ed by the sailing of the Trojans from Car called JEolia puella, and lyric poetry.420lium
thase, and the book closes with the suicide of carmen, because of Alcaeus and Sappho, na
the disappointed queen. In the fifth book, tives of Lesbos, Horat. 4, od. 3, v. 12, and
Eneas sails to Sicily, where he celebrates od. 9, v. 12.
he anniversary of his father's death, and AEolia, or AEolis, [a country of Asia Minor,
thence pursues his voyage to Italy. In the so called from the AEolians who settled there.
sixth he visits the Elysian fields, and learns It extended, in the interior, from the Hermus
from his father the fate which attends him to the Caicus, and along the coast, from Cu
and his descendants the Romans. In the se mae to Pitane, It contained originally 12 ci
weath book, the hero reaches the destined land ties, but Smyrna, one of the number, was af
ºf Latium, and concludes a treaty with the terwards taken by the Ionians, it sent forth
king of the country, which is soon broken by colonies along the whole northern coast, and
* inteference of Juno, who stimulates Tur also to the island of Lesbos. Cumae was the
taº to war. The auxiliaries of the enemy |principal city. The AFolians received their

name from AEolus, the son of Hellen.] They was killed by a serpent in hunting. Paus. 8,
migrated from Greece about 1124 B.C. 80 c. 4 and 5.
yearsbefore the migration of the lonian tribes. AEaul or Æau1coli, a people of Latium,
IHerodol. 1, c. 26, &c.—Strab. 1, 2 and 6.— near Tybur; they were great enemies to
Plin. 5, c. 30.--Mela, 1, c. 2 and 18 Thes Rome in its infant state, and were conquered
saly has been anciently called Æolia. Boeo with much difficulty. Flor. 1, c. 11–Lir. 1,
tus, son of Neptune, having settled there, c. 32, l.2, c. 30, 1.3, c. 2, &c. — Plin. 3, c. 4.
called his followers Boeotians, and their coun Virg...En. 7, v 1.46, 9, v. 684—Ovid. Fast.
try Boeotia. 3, v. 93.—Dionys. Hal. 2, c. 19.
AFollAF, and Æolid Es, seven islands be AEau IM ELIUM, a place in Rome where the
tween Sicily and Italy; called Lipara, Hiera, house of Melius stood, who aspired to sove
Strongyle, Didyme, Ericusa, Phoenicusa, and reign power : for which crime his habitation
Euonymos. They were the retreat of the was levelled to the ground. Liv. 4, c. 16.
winds; and Virg. .ºn. 1, v. 56, calls them AE RóPE, the wiſe of Atreus.
AEolia, and the kingdom of AEolus the god oſ AEROPUs, a person appointed regent to
storms and winds. They sometimes bear the Orestes, the infant son of Archelaus king of
name of ſulcania and Hephæstiades, and are Viacedonia.
known now among the moderns under the ge. W sicus, a river of Troy near lda.-H
neral appellation of Lipari islands. Lucan. son of Priam, by Alexirhoe : or, according to
5, v. 609.-Justin. 4, c. 1. others, by Arisba. He became enamoured of
AEolid Es, a patronymic of Ulysses, from Hesperia, whom he pursued into the woods,
AColus : because Anticlea, his mother, was the nymyh threw herself into the sea, and
}regnant by Sisyphus, the son of Æolus, wher. was changed into a bird. AEsacus followed her
she married Laertes. It is also given to Atha example, and was changed into a cormorant
mas and Misenus, as sons of AEolus. Ovid. by Tethys. Ovid...Met. 11, fab. 11.
-Met. 4, v. 511, l. 13, v. 31.—Virg. .ºn. 6, v. AEsch in Es, an Athenian orator, who flour
164 and 529. 1shed about 342 B.C. and distinguished him
AXOLUs, the king of storms and winds, was selſ by his rivalship with Demosthenes. His
the son of Hippotas. He reigned over AEolia; father's name was Atrometus, and he boasted
and because he was the inventor of sails, and of his descent from a noble family, though
a great astronomer, the poets have called Demosthenes reproached him as being the
him the god of the wind. It is said that he son of a courtezan. The first open signs of
confined in a bag, and gave Ulysses all the enmity between the rival orators appeared at
winds that could blow against his vessel the court of Philip, where they were sent as
when he returned to Ithaca. The compan: ambassadors; but the character of Æschines
ions of Ulysses untied the bag, and gave the was tarnished by the acceptance of a bribe
winds their liberty. AEolus was indebted to from the Macedonian prince, whose tyranny
Juno for his royal dignity,according to Virgil. had hitherto been the general subject of his
The name seems to be derived from a 10xer, ta declamation. When the Athenians wished to
rus, because the winds over which he pre reward the patriotic labours of Demosthenes
sided are ever varying.—There were two with a golden crown, AEschines impeached
others, a king of Etruria, father to Maca Ctesiphon, who proposed it; and to their sub
reus and Canace, aud a son of Hellen, often sequent dispute we are indebted for the two
confounded with the god of the winds. This celebrated orations de corona. AEschines was
last married Enaretta, by whom he had seven defeated by his rival's superior eloquence, and
sons and five daughters. .4pollod. 1, c. 7.- banished to Rhodes; but as he retired from
Homºr. Od. 10, v. 1.-Met. 11, v. 478, l. 14, Athens, Demosthenes ran after him, and no
v. 224.—.4pollon 4, .4rgon.—Flacc. 1, v. 556, bly forced him to accept a present of silver.
—Diod. 4 and 5.-Pirg, .ºn. 1, v. 56, &c. In his banishment, the orator repeated to the
ACORA, a festival in Athens, in honour of Rhodians, what he had delivered against De
Erigone. mosthenes; and after receiving much ap:
AEpúLo, a general of the Istrians, who plause, he was desired to read the answer of
drank to excess, after he had stormed the his antagonist. It was received with greater
camp of A. Manlius, the Roman general. marks of approbation; but, exclaimed Æs
Being attacked by a soldier, he fled to a neigh chines, how much more would your admira
bouring town, which the Romans took, and tion have been raised had you heard Demos. ,
killed himself for ſcar of being takes. Flor. thenes himself speak it ! AF'schines died in the
2, c. 10. 75th year of his age, at Rhodes, or, as some
AE pytus, king of Mycenae, son of Chres suppose, at Samos. He wrote three orations,
phontes and Merope, was educated in Arca and nine epistles, which, from their number,
dia with Cypselus, his mother's father. To received the names, the first of the graces,and
recover his kingdom, he killed Polyphontes, the last of the muses. The orations alone are
who had married his mother against her will, extant. [They are generally printed with
and usurped the crown. Apollod. 2, c. 6.— those of Dennosthenes. Among the best
Paus. 4, c. 8.- A son of Hippothous, who editions are, that of Foulkes and Friend,
forcibly entered the temple of Neptune, near Oxon. 1695.8vo.—and that of stock, Dub.
Mantinea, and was struck blind by the sudden lin. 1774, 2 vols. 8vo.—An edition howeveroſ
eruption of salt water from the altar. He the entire works of Æschines and Demos
20 -

thenes is now publishing in London, which the 69th year of his age, 456 B.C. It is said
Promises to equal all others that have pre that he wrote an account of the battle of Mara
ceded it...] Cºc. de Orat. 1, c. 24, l. 2, c. 53. thon in elegiac verses. [The best edition of his
in Bruf- c. 17.-Plut. in Demos!h.—Diog. 2 works is that of Butler, Cantab. 1809.
and 3–PIzzi. 7, c. 30.- A philosopher. 4to, and 8vols. In 8vo.—Many of his tragedies
disciple of Socrates, who wrote several dia wave also been separately edited with great
logues some of which bore the following titles **ility, especially by Blomfield, Cantab. 1812,
Aspasia. Phaedon. Alcibiades, Draco, Ery, a. &c.]-Horat. Art. oet. 278–Quintu. 10, c.
Pºlyaenus. Teiauges, &c. The dialogue en ! -Plan 10, c. 3.-P. al. Mar 9, c. 12.—
titled Axiochus, and ascribed to Plato, is sup he lzth perpetual archon of Athene. A.
posed to be his com, osition. The best edi uative of Cnidus, teacher of rhetoric to Ci
tions are, that of Leovard, 1718, with the notes cero. Cuc. in Brut.
of Horraº us. in 8vo. and that of Fischer, 8vo. £scu LAPius, sou of Apollo, by Coronis,
Lips 1736 or, as some say, by Larissa, daughter of Phle
AEscº Bilox, a Mitylenean poet, intimate glas, was god of Inedicine. After his union
with Aristotle. He accompanied Alexander with Corouis, Apollo set a crow to watch her,
in his Asiatic expedition. An iambic poet and was soon informed that she admitted the
of Sarnos, -i then. Aphysician commended ºaresses of Ischys of Æmonia. The god, in
by Galen A treatise of his on husbandry has a fit of anger, destroyed Coronis with lightning,
been quoted by Pliny. ul saved the infant from her womb,and gave
AEschylus. an excellent soldier and poet him to be educated to Chiron. who taught him
of Athens, son of Euphorion, and brother to the art of medicine. Some authors say, that
Cynaegirus. He was in the Athenian army at Coronts left her father to avoid the discovery
the battles of Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea. of her pregnancy, and that she exposed her
But the most solid fame he has obtained, is child near Epidaurus. A goat of the flocks
the offspring less of his valour in the field of of Aresthanas gave him her milk, and the
battle than of his writings. Of ninety trage dog who kept the flock stood by him to shel
dies, however, the fruit of his ingenious la er him from injury. He was found by the
bours, 40 of which were rewarded with the master of the flock, who went in search of
public prize, only seven have come safe to us: tus stray goat, and saw his head surrounded
Prometheus rinetus, Septem duees apud with resplendent rays of light. A sculapius
Thebar, Persa. Agamemnon, Choēphorae was physician to the Argonauts, and consi
Eumenides. Supplice's Hºschylus is the first dered so skilled in the medicinal power of
who introduced two actors on the stage, and plants, that he was called the inventor as well
clothed them with dresses suitable to their as the god of medicine. He restored many
character. He likewise removed murder from to life, of which Pluto complained to Jupiter.
the stage. It is said, that when he composed, who struck AEsculapius with thunder, but
his countenance betrayed the greatest fero Apollo, angry at the death of his son, killed
city; and according to one of his scholiasts, the Cyclops who made the thunderbolts.
when his Eumenides were represented, many Æsculapius received divine honeurs after
children died through fear, and several preg leath, chiefly at Epidaurus, Pergamus,
nant women actually miscarried in the house, Athens, Smyrna, &c. Goats, bulls, lambs,
at the sight of the horrible masks that were and pigs, were sacrificed on his altars, and
introduced. The imagination of the poet was the cock and the serpent were sacred to him.
strong and comprehensive, but disorderly and Rome, A. U. C. 462, was delivered of a
wild; fruitful in prodigies, but disdaining plague and built a temple to the god of me
probabilities. His style is obscure, and the ºucine, who, as was supposed, had come there
labours of an excellent modern critic have in the form of a serpent, and hid himself
pronounced him the most difficult of all the among the reeds in an island of the Tyber.
Greek classics. A few expressions of im .Esculapius was represented with a large
pious tendency in one of his plays, nearly beard, holding in his hand a staff, round which
proved fatal to Eschylus; he was condemn was wreathed a serpent ; his other hand was
ed to death ; but his brother Amyntas, it is supported on the head of a serpent. Ser
reported, reversed the sentence, by uncover pents are more particularly sacred to him,
ing an arm, of which the hand had been cut not only as the ancient physicians used them
off at the battie of Salamis in the service of in their prescriptions, but because they were
his country, and the poet was pardoned. the symbols of prudence and foresight, so me
Aºschylus has been accused of drinking to ex. cessary in the medical profession. He mar
cess, and of never composing except when in red Epione, by whom he had two sons, fa
a state of intoxication. In his old age he re. mous for their skill in medicine, lachaon and
tired to the court of Hiero in Sicily Being Podalirus ; and four daughters, of whom Hy
informed that he was to die by the fall of a glea, goddess of health, is the most celebrated.
house, he became dissatisfied with the fickle Some have supposed that he lived a short
ness of his contrymen, and withdrew frou time after the Trojan war. Hesiod makes
the city into the fields, where he sat down. no mention of him. Homer. Il 4, v. 193.
An eagle with a tortoise in her bill, flew over Hymn. in JEscul,—JApollod. 3, c. 10,–4pol
his bald head, and supposing it to be a stone. ion. 4, Argon–Hygin. ſab. 49.-Ovid. "Tet
dropped her prey upon it to break the shell. 2, fab. 3.--Paus. 2, c. 11 and 27, 1. 7, c. 23.
and Eschylus instantly died of the blow, in &c.—Diod. 4.—Pindar. 21
Pyth. 3.-Lucia":

IDial. de Saltat.— Pal. Maar. 1, c. 8–Cuc. de between Etruria and Corsica. Plin. 3, c. 6,
l. 6, c. 30.
JYat. D. 3, c. 22, says there were three of this
name; the 1st, a son of Apollo, worshipped AEthiopia, an extensive country of Afri
in Arcadia; [the 2d, the brother of the second ca, [divided by the ancients into Superior and
Mercury, the 3d, a man who first introduced Inferior. The former lay to the south of
tooth-drawing and the use of cat artics.] Egypt and answers to modern Abyssinia, the
AEs ERN1A, a city of the Samnites, in Italy,
latter corresponds with the southern regions
[now Isernia.] Lw. 27, c. 12. of Africa, known to the ancients only in name.
AEsis, a river of Italy, which separates Homer has styled the AEthiopians the most
Umbria from Picenum. [Now the Iesi..] just of men and the favourites of the gods,
AEsox, son of Cretheus, was born at the who feasted among them for 12 days each
same birth as Pelias. He succeeded his ſa year.) Diod. 4, says, that the . Althiopians
ther in the kingdom of lolchos, but was soon were the first who worshipped the gods,
exiled by his brother. He maried Alcimeda, for which, as some suppose, their country
by whom he had Jason, whose education he had never been invaded by a foreign enemy.
intrusted to Chiron, being afraid of Pelias. Lucan. 3, v. 253, 1.9, v. 651.--Jur. 2, v. 23.
When Jason was grown up, he demanded his — Pirg, ecl. 6, v. 68.—Plin. 6, c. 29. Paus.
father's kingdom from his uncle, who gave 1, c. 33.-Homer. Od. 1, v. 22. Il. 1, v.
him evasive answers, and persuaded him to 423.
go in quest of the golden fleece. vid. Jason. AETHRA, daughter of Pittheus king of Troe
At his return, Jason found his father very in zene, had Theseus by Ægeus. vid. -Egeus.
firm; and Medea, rid. Medea, at his request, She was carried away by Castor and Pollux,
drew the blood from AEson's veins, and re when they recovered their sister Helen,
filled them with the juice of certain herbs whom Theseus had stolen, and intrusted to
which she had gathered, and immediately º: her care, vid. Helen. She went to Troy
old man recovered the vigour and bloom of with Helen. Homer. Il. 3, v. 144.—Paus. 2,
youth. Some say that Æson killed himself c. 31, l. 5, c. 19.—Hygin. fab. 37 and 79.-
by drinking bull's blood to avoid the persecu Plut. in Thes.—Ovid. Her. 10, v. 131.
tion of Pelias. Diod. 4.—Apollod. 1, c. 9.- AEThūsa, a daughter of Neptune by Am
Orid. Met. 7, v. 285.-Hygin. ſab. 12.-A phitrite, or Alcyone, mother by Apollo of
river of Thessaly, with a town of the same Eleuthere and two sons. Paus. 9, c. 20.
name. AET1on, or Eetion, the father of Andro
AEsonin Es, a patronymic of Jason, as being mache, Hector's wife. He was killed at
descended from AEson. Thebes, with his seven sons, by the Greeks.
AEsopus, a Phrygian philosopher, who, A famous painter. He drew a painting
though originally a slave, procured his liberty of Alexander going to celebrate his nuptials
by the sallies of his genius He travelled with Roxane. This piece was much valued.
over the greatest part of Greece and Egypt, and was exposed to public view at the Olym
but chiefly resided at the court of Croesus, pic games, where it gained so much applause
king of Lydia, by whom he was sent to con that the president of the games gave the
sult the oracle of Delphi. In this commission painter his daughter in marriage. Cic. Br.
AEsop behaved with great severity, and sati 18.
rically compared the Delphians to floating Ætna, a mountain of Sicily, now called
sticks, which appear large at a distance, but Gibello, famous for its volcano, which, for
are nothing when brought near. The Del about 3000 years, has thrown out fire at in
phians, offended with his sarcastic remarks, tervals. It is 2 miles in perpendicular height,
accused him of having secreted one of the sa and measures 180 miles round at the base,
cred vessels of Apollo's temple, and threw with an ascent of 30 miles. Its crater forms
him down from a rock, 561 B. C. Maximus a circle about 2 miles in circumference, and
Planudes has written his life in Greek ; but its top is covered with snow and smoke at the
no credit is to be given to the biographer, who same time, whilst the sides of the mountain,
falsely asserts that the mythologist was short from the great fertility of the soil, exhibit a
and deformed. Æsop dedicated his fables to rich scene of cultivated fields and blooming
his patron Craesus : but what appears now vineyards Pindar is the first who mentions
under his name, is no doubt a compilation of an eruption of Ætna; and the silence of
all the fables and apologues of wits before and Homer on the subject is considered as a proof
after the age of Æsop, conjointly with his that the fires of the mountain were unknown
own. [The best editions of his fables are, that in his age. Hesiod. Theog. v. 860.-Pºrg.
of Klotzius, Lips. 1776. 8vo. and that of Ernes .#2n. 3. v. 570.-Ovid. Met. 5, fab. 6, 1.15, v.
ti. Lips 1731. 12mo.] Plut. in Solon.— 340.-Ital. 14, v. 59.
Phaed. 1, fab. 2, l. 2, ſab 9.-Claudius, an AETó1.1A, a country. It received its name
actor on the Roman stage, very intimate with from AEtolus. The inhabitants were little
Cicero. He amassed an immense fortune. known in Greece, till after the ruin of Athens
His son, to be more expensive, melted pre and Sparta they assumed a consequence in
cious stones to drink at his entertainments. the country, and afterwards made themselves
Horat. 2, Sat. 3, v. 239.-Val. Mar. 8, c. 10, conspicuous as the allies of Rome and as its
1.9, c. 1.-Plin. 9, c. 35, l. 10, c. 51. enemies, till they were conquered by Fulvius.
AETHALIA, or Ilva, now Elba, an island Liv. 26, c. 24, &c.—Flor. --
2, c. 9.-Strab. 8.

and 10.--Mela, 2, c. 3.-Plin. 4, c. 2.-Paus. Africum MARE, is that part of the Medi
10, c. f6.—Plut. in Flam. terranean which is on the coast of Africa.
AETölus, son of Endymion of Elis and AGAMEDEs and Trophonius, two archi
Iphianassa, married Pronoe, by whom he had tects who made the entrance of the temple
Pleuron and Calydon. Having accidentally of Delphi, for which they demanded of the
killed Apis, son of Phoroneus, he left his coun god, whatever gift was most advantageous
try, and came to settle in that part of Greece for a man to receive. Three days after they
which has been called, from him, AEtolia. were found dead in their bed. Plut de cons.
.ipollod. 1, c. 7 and 9.—Paus. 5, c. 1. ad-Apol.—Cic. Tusc 1, 47.—/*aus. 9, c. 11
AEx, a rocky island between Tenedos and and 37, gives a different account.
Chios. Plin. 4, c. 11. AGAM EMNoN, king of Mycenae and Argos,
AFER, an inhabitant of Africa.-An in was brother to Menelaus, and son of Plisthe
former under Tiberius and his successors. nes, the son of Atreus. Homer calls them
He became also known as an orator and as sons of Atreus, which is false upon the autho
the preceptor of Quintilian, and was made rity of Heriod, Apollodorus. &c. wid Plis
consul by Domitian. He died A. D. 59. thenes. When Atreus was dead, his brother
Luc. AFRAxius, a Latin comic poet in the Thyestes seized the kingdom of Argos, and
age of Terence, often compared to Menan removed Agamemnon and Menelaus, who
der, whose style he imitated. Quint. 10, c. fled to Polyphidus king of Sicyon, and hence
1.—Sueton. Wer. 11.—Horat. 2, ep. 1, v. 57. to OEneus, king of Ætolia, where they were
—Cic. de fin. 1, c. 3–4. Gell. 13, c. 8. educated. Agamemnon married Clytemnes
A general of Pompey, conquered by Caesar tra, and Menelaus Helen both daughters of
in Spain. Sueton. in Cars. 34.—Plut. in Tyndarus king of Sparta, who assisted them
Pomp —Q. a man who wrote a severe sa to recover their father's kingdom. After the
tire against Nero, for which he was put to banishment of the usurper to Cythera, Aga
death in the Pisonian conspiracy. Tacit. memnon established himself at Mycenae,
Potitus, a plebeian, who said before Ca whilst Menelaus succeeded his father in-law
ligula, that he would willingly die if the em at Sparta. When Helen was stolen by Paris,
peror could recover from the distemper he Agamemnon was elected commander in chief
laboured under. Caligula recovered, and of the Grecian forces going against Troy;
Afranius was put to death that he might not and he showed his zeal in the cause by fur
forefeit his word. Dio. nishing 100 ships, and lending 60 more to the
AFRica, called Libya by the Greeks, one people of Arcadia. The fleet was detained
of the three parts of the ancient world, and at Aulis, where Agamemnon sacrificed his
the greatest peninsula of the universe, bound daughter to appease Diana. vid. Iphigenia.
ed on the east by Arabia and the Red Sea, on During the Trojan war, Agamemnon behav
the north by the Mediterranean, south and ed with much valour; but his quarrel with
west by the ocean. [In its greatest length it Achilles, whose mistress he took by force, was
extends 4300 miles, and in its greatest breadth disastrous to the Greeks. rid. Brisels. Aſ
it is 3500 miles. Very little of this division of ter the ruin of Troy, Cassandra fell to his
the globe was known to the ancients, except share, and foretold him that his wife would
the parts adjacent to the coast of the Medi. put him to death. He gave no credit to this,
terranean, and along the banks of the Nile. and returned to Argos with Cassandra. Cly
The interior they thought uninhabitable from temnestra, with her adulterer Ægisthus, (rid.
the excessive heat, or peopled it with fabulous .Egisthus,) prepared to murder him ; and as
nonsters, of which Africa was proverbially he came from the bath, to embarrass him, she
the nurse.]—There is a part of Africa, gave him a tunic whose sleeves were sewed
called Propria, which [corresponds with the together, and while he attempted to put it on,
modern Tunis.} she brought him to the ground with a stroke
AFRucasus, a blind poet, commended by of a hatchet, and Ægisthus seconded her
Ennius. A christian writer, who flourish blows.-His death was revenged by his son
ed A. D. 222. In his chronicle, which was Orestes, vid. Clytemnestra, Menelaus, and
universally esteemed, he reckoned 5500 years Orestes. Homer, Il. 1, 2, &c. Od. 4, &c.
from the creation of the world to the age of —Ovid. de Rem. .1m. v. 777. –Met. 12, v 30.
Julius Caesar. Nothing remains of this work, —Hygin. fab. 88 and 97.-Strab. 8-Thucyd.
but what Eusebius has preserved. In a let 1, c. 9.--Elian. W. H. 4, c. 26.- Dictys Cret.
ter to Origen, Africanus proved, that the 1, 2, &c.—Dares Phryg.—Sophocl. in Elect.—
history of Susanna is suppositious; and in an Euripid in Orest.—Senec. in .4g.—Paus. 2,
other to Aristides, still extant, he endeavours c. 6, 1.9, c. 40, &c.—Virg. AEn. 6, v. 838–
to reconcile the seeming contradictions that .Mela, 2, c. 3.
appear in the genealogies of Christ in St. Mat AGANIPPE, a celebrated ſountain of Boeotia,
thew and Luke. He is supposed to be the at the foot of mount Helicon. It flows into
same who wrote nine books, in which he the Permessus, and is sacred to the muses,
treats of physic, agriculture, &c.—A law who, from it, were called Aganippedes
7er, disciple to Papinian, and intimate with [Ovid. (Fast. 5, 7.) makes Hippocrene and
the emperor Alexander. The surname of Aganippe the same; but Solinus and others
* Scipios, from the conquest of Africa. vid. distinguish them, and ascribe their being uni
Sºpio. ted to poetic license.]—Paus. 9, c. 29.-Pro
28 -
AG AG º:

pert. 2, el. 3.-Ovid. Met. 5, v. 312–Plin. ther, in his old age, married Arsinoe, the sis
4, c. 7. er of Lysander. After his husband's death,
AGA PENor, the son of Ancieus, and grand Arsinoe, fearful ſor her children, attempted to
son of Lycurgus, who after the ruin of Troy, murder Agathocles. Some say that she fell in
was carried by a storm to Cyprus, where love with him, and killed him becau-e he
he built Paphoe. Paus. 8, c. 5. —Homer. Il. slighted her. When Agathocles was dead,
AGAREN1, a people of Arabia. Trojan 263 B.C. Lysandra fled to Seleucus. Strab.
destroyed their city, called Agarum. Strab 13.-Plut. in Pyrrh.. and D. metr.-- Paus. 1,
16. c. 9 and 10.-A Grecian historian of Babylon.
AGA Rista, daughter of Clisthenes, was who wrote an account of Cyzicus. Cic de
courted by all the princes of Greece. She wr 1. c. 24.
married Megacles. .42lian V. H 12, c. 24 Ag At Hon, vid. Agatho.
—Herodot. 6, c. 12 , &c.——A daughter of Agathy Rs1, an effeminate nation of Scy
Hippocrates, who married Xantippus She thia, who had their wives in common. [They
dreamed that she had brought forth a lion, pretended to be descended from Agathyrsis,
and some time after became mother of Peri the son of Hercules the Libyan.] Herodot.
cles.—ſ’lut. in Pericl.—Herodot. 6, c. 131. , c. 10.-P’urg, ºn 4, v. 146
AGAsicles. king of Sparta, was son of AG Ave, daughter of Cadmus and Hermione,
Archidamus, and one of the Proclidae. He married Echion, by whom she had Pentheus,
used to say that a king ought to govern his who was torn to pieces by the Bacchanals.
subjects as a father governs his children. rud Pentheus. She is said to have killed her
Paus, 3, c. 7 –Plut in Apoph. husband in celebrating the orgies of Bacchus.
A Gisus, a harbour on the coast of Apulia. She received divine honours after death, be
[supposed to be the same with Porto Greco.] cause she had contributed to the education of
Plin. 3, c. 11. Bacchus Theocrit. 26.- Ovid. Met. 3, v.
Agitha, a town of France, now Agde in 7:5 –Lucan. 1, v. 574.—Stat. Theb. 11, W.
Languedoc. Mela, 2, c. 5. 3.18.-Apollod. 3, c. 4.
Ag AthARchides, a Samian philosopher A GDEstis, I a mountain of Phrygia,
and historian, who wrote a treatise on stones, nº ar the city of Pessinus. It had a double
and a history of Persia and Phoenice, besides summit, one of which was called Agdis
an account of the Red Sea, of Europe, and tis, and hence the name Ag listis applied
Asia. Some toake him a native of tº nidus, to Cybele. Mannert. Anc Geogr. Vol. 6.
and add that he flourished about 177 B. C. part 3, p. 63.)
Joseph cont...lp. AG Elastus, a surname of Crassus, the
Aq Vrhias, a Greek historian of Æolia. grandfather of the rich Crassus. He only
A poet and historian in the age of Justinian, laug ed once in his life, and this, it is said, was
of whose reign he published the history in five º, on seeing an ass eat thistles. Cuc. de fin.
books Several of his epigrams are found in 5.—Plan 7, c. 19 —The word is also applied
the Anthologia. His history is a sequel of to Pluto, from the sullen and melancholy ap
that of º:
of Paris, fol. 1660.
The best edition is that pearance of his count, nance.
AGElaus, a son of Hercules and Omphale,
AGAtho, [an Athenian tragic and comic tº om whom Croesus was descended.—.4 pol
poet, the disciple of Prodicus and Socrates. loſt 2, c. 7.-A servant of Priam, who
There is now nothing extant of his produc , reserved Paris when exposed on mount Ida.
tions except a few quotations preserved by 1d. 3, c. 12.
Aristotle, Athenaeus, AElian, and others. J AGEN dicum, now Sens, a town of Gaul.
AGAthoclf. A a beautiful courtezan of th capital of the Senones. (Call d Agedicum
Egypt. One of the Ptolemies destroyed his y Ptolemy, and by others Agradicum.] Cars.
wife Eurydice to marry her She, with her hell. Gall 6, c. 44.
brother, long governed the kingdom, and at AGENor, king of Phoenicia, was son of
tempted to murder the king's son. Plut. in Neptun and Libya, and brother to Belus.
Cleon.—Justin. 30, c. 1. He married Telephassa, by whom he had
Agatºr ocles, a tyrant of Sicily, son Cadmus, Phoenix, Cilix, and Europa. Hy
of a potter, who, by eutering in the Si gin. fab. 6.-Ital. 1, v. 15, 1.17, v. 58–4pol
cilian army, arrived to the greatest hon lod. 2, c. l. l. 3, c. 1.
ours, and made himself master of Syra. A GEs ANDER, [a sculptor of Rhodes, one of
cuse. He reduced all Sicily under his pow the three who jointly executed the famous
er, but being defeated at Himera by the 3 roup of Laocoon. He flourished about the
Carthaginians, he carried the war into Africa, 88th Olympiad.—His name stands first upon
where, for four years, he extended his con he pliu h of the group.]
quests over his enemy. He afterwards pass AGE-1As, platonic philosopher who taught
ed into Italy, and made himself master of the immortality of the soul. One of the Pto
Crotona He died is his 72d year, B.C. 289, lemies forbade him "o continue his lectures.
after a reign of 28 years of inungled prosper because his doctrine was so prevalent that
ity and adversity. Plut. in Apopth—Justin. many of his auditors committed suicide.
22 and 23–Polyb. 15 —Diod. 18, &c.—A AGEsilaus, king of Sparta, of the ſamily
son of Lysimachus, taken prisoner by the of the Agidae, was son of Doryssus, and fa
Getae. He was ransomed, and married Ly ther of Archelaus. During his reign, Lycur
sandra daughter of Ptolemy Lagus. His fa gus instituted his famous laws. Herodot. 7,

c. 204.—Paus. 3, c. 2. A son of Archida

Another son of Archidamus, who signalized
nus of the family of the Proclidae, made king himself in the war which the Spartans waged
in preference to his nephew Leotychides. He against Epidaurus. He obtained a victory at
made war against Artaxerxes Mnemon king Mantinea, and was successful in the Pelo
of Persia with success; but in the midst of ponnesian war. He reigned 27 years Thu
his conquests in Asia, he was recalled home cyd. 3 and 4.—Paut. 3, c. 8 and 10.
to oppose the Athenians and Boeotians, who Another, son of Archidamus, king of Sparta,
desolated his country; and his return was so who endeavoured to deliver Greece from the
expeditious that he passed in thirty days over empire of Macedonia, with the assistance of
that tract of country which had taken up a the Persians. He was conquered in the at
whole year of Xerxes' expedition He defeat tempt and slain by Antipater, Alexander's
ed his enemies at Coronea ; [but the Spar general, and 5,300 Lacedaemonians perished
tans were in turn defeated at Leuctra and with him. Curt. 6, c. 1.-Diod. 17.—Justin.
Mantinea by the Thebans under Epaminon 2, c. 1, &c. Another, son of Eudamidas,
das.] Though deformed, small of stature, killed in a battle against the Mantineans.
and lame, he was brave, and greatness of soul Paus. 8, c. 10.——A poet of Argos, who ac
compensated for all the imperſections of na companied Alexander into Asia, and said that
ture. He was as fond of sobriety as of mili Bacchus and the sons of Leda, would give
tary discipline; and when he went, in his way to his hero, when a god. Curt. 8, c 5.
80th year, to assist Tachus king of Egypt, AG1.AIA, one of the graces, called some
the servants of the monarch could hardly tie times Pasiphae. Her sisters were Euphros
persuaded that the Lacedæmonian general yne and Thalia, and they were all daughters
was eating with his soldiers on the ground, of Jupiter and Eurynome. Paus. 9, c.
bareheaded, and without any covering to re 35
pose upon. Agesilaus died on his return from AGLAoNicE, daughter of Hegemon, was
Egypt, after a reign ſº 41 years, and in the acquainted with astronomy and eclipses,
84th year of his age, and his remains were whence she boasted of her power to draw the
embalmed and brought to Lacedaemon. Jus moon from heaven. Plut. de Orac. defect.
fin. 6, c. 1.-Plut. and C. Nep. in pit.—Paus. Aglaophow, an excellent Greek painter,
3, c. 9.—X Orat. pro Ages. A bro Plin. 32, c. 8.
ther of Themistoeles, who was sent as a spy AG LAURos, or A GRAU Los, daughter of
into the Persian camp, where he stabbed Mar Erechtheus the oldest king of Athens, was
donius instead of Xerxes. Plut. in Parall. changed into a stone by Mercury. Some
Agesipolis, 1st, king of Lacedæmon, son make her daughter of Cecrops. rid. Herse.
ºf Pausanias, obtained a great victory over —Ovid Met. 2, fab. 12.
the Mantineans. He reigned 14 years, and AG1.AUs, the poorest man of Arcadia, pro
was succeeded by his brother Cleombrotus, nounced by the oracle more happy than Gy
B. C.380. Paus. 3, c. 5.1. 8, c.8. Xenoph.3. ges king of Lydia. Plin. 7, c. 46.-Val. Mar.
Hist. Graec.—2d, son of Cleombrotus, king 7, c. 1. -

of Sparta, was succeeded by Cleomenes 2d, AgNo., one of the nymphs who nursed Ju
B.C. 370. Paus. 1, c. 13, 1.3, c. 5. piter. She gave her name to a ſountain on
AGEsistairA, the mother of king Agis. mount Lycaeus. When the priest of Jupiter,
Plut. in Agid. after a prayer, stirred the waters of this foun
AccraxtMEs, a cruel king of the Ganga tain with a bough, a thick vapour arose, which
rides. His father was a hair-dresser, of whom was soon dissolved into a plentiful shower.—
the queen became enamoured, and whom she Paus. 8, c 31, &c.
made governer to her children, to gratify her AgNodice, an Athenian virgin, who dis
Passion. He killed them, to raise Aggrammes, guised her sex to learn medicine. She was
his son by the queen, to the throne. Curt. 9, taught by Hierophilus the art of midwifery,
c. 2. and when employed, always discovered her
Asidae, the descendants of Eurysthenes, sex to her patients. This brought her into
who shared the throne of Sparta with the so much practice, that the males of her pro
Proclide; the name is derived from Agis, son fession, who were now out of employment,
ºf Eurysthenes. The family became extinct accused her before the Areopagus of cor
in the person of Cleomenes son of Leonidas. ruption. She confessed her sex to the judges,
Jurg...En 8. v. 682. - and a law was immediately made to empow
Acis, king of Sparta, succeeded his father, er all freeborn women to learn midwifery.
Prysthenes, and after a reign of one year, Hygin. fab. 174.
was succeeded by his son Echestratus, B. C. AgNoN, son of Nicias, was present at the
1058. Paus. 3, c. 2. Another king of Spar taking of Samos by Pericles. In the Pelopon
a who waged bloody wars against Athens, nesian war he went against Potidaea, but aban
and restored liberty to many Greek cities doned his expedition through disease. He
He attempted to restore the laws of Lycur built Amphipolis, whose inhabitants rebelled
:as at Sparta, but in vain ; the perfidy of to Brasidas, who they regarded as their
friends, who pretended to second his views. founder, forgetful of Agnon. Thucyd. 2, 3,
taught him in o difficulties, and he was at last &c.
AgNoNipps, a rhetorician of Athens, who
*eged from a temple, where he had taken
**, to a prison, where he was strangled by accused Phocion of betraying the Piræus to
ºrder ºf the Ephori. Plut. in Agid. Nicanor, when the people recollected what
:) 25

— - ".

services Phocion had rendered them, they brink of destruction, and cost the two bro
raised him statues, and put to death his ac thers, the Gracchi, their lives. Their efforts
cuser. Plut. and Nep. in Phocion. were of little avail, as the laws they laboured
AgóNXL1A and AgoN1A, festivals in Rome, to introduce were gradually abolished after
celebrated three times a year, in honour of their death.]
Janus, or Agonius. They were instituted by AGRAULIA, a festival at Athens in honour
Numa, and on the festive days the chief priest of Agraulos. The Cyprians also observed
used to offer a ram. Ovid. Fast. 1, v. 347.- these festivals, by offering human victims.
Varro de L. L. 6. A GRAU Los, a daughter of Cecrops.-A
Agón Es CAP1toi.INI, games celebrated surname of Minerva.
every fifth year upon the Capitoline hill, [in AgriñNEs, a river of Thrace. Herodot.
stituted by Domitian.} Prizes were proposed 4, c. 9. (now, the Ergene.) Id. 5, c. 16.
for agility and strength, as well as for poeti AG RicoLA, the father-in-law of the hista
cal and literary compositions. The poet Sta rian Tacitus, who wrote his life. He was
tius publicly recited there his Thebaid, which eminent for his public and private virtues.
was not received with much applause. He was governor of Britain, and first disco
Agonius, a Roman deity, who presided ered it to be an island. Domitian envied
over the actions of men. vid. Agonalia. his virtues; he recalled him from the pro
Agon Acnitus, a sculptor of Pharos, who vince he had governed with equity and mode.
made a statue of Venus for the people of ration, and ordered him to enter Rome in the
Athens, B. C. 150. night, that no triumph might be granted to
AGoRANoM1, ten magistrates at Athens, him. Agricola obeyed, and without betray
who watched over the city and port, and in ing any resentment, he retired to a peaceful
spected whatever was exposed to sale. solitude, and the enjoyment of the society of
Agorànis, a river falling into the Ganges. a few friends. He died in his 56th year, A.
.4rrian. de Ind. [According to Rennell, the D. 93. [He is supposed to have been poison.
Gagra, but, in the opinion of Mannert, more ed by the tyrant..] Tacit. in Agric.
properly the Gaurrah.] AGRIGENtum, now Girgenti, a town of
Agon EUs, a surname of Mercury among Sicily, 18 stadia from the sea. It was found
the Athenians, from his presiding over the ed by a Rhodian colony [from Gela.] The
markets. Paws. 1, c. 15. inhabitants were famous for their hospitality,
AGRA, a place of Boeotia where the Ilissus and for their luxurious manner of living. In
rises. Diana was called Agraea, because she its flourishing situation, Agrigentum contain.
hunted there. ed 200,000 inhabitants, who submitted with
A GRAGAs or Ack AGAs, a river, town, and reluctance to the superior power of Syracuse.
mountain of Sicily: called also Agrigentum. The government was monarchical, but after
The town was built by the people of Gela, wards a democracy was established. The
who were a Rhodian colony. Virg. JEn, 3. famous Phalaris usurped the sovereignty,
v. 703. –Diod. 11. - which was also for some time in the hands of
Agn ARIA LEx was enacted to distribute the Carthaginians. Agrigentum can now
among the Roman people all the lands which boast of more venerable remains of antiquity
they had gained by conquest ſand for limiting than any other town in Sicily. Polyb. 9
the quantity of ground possessed by each per Strab. 6.—Diod. 13.—Wirg. JEn. 3, v. 707.
son, to a certain number of acres. It was —Sul. It. 14, v. 211. -

first proposed A. U. C. 268, by the consul Sp. AgnióN1A, annual festivals in honour ol
Cassius Vicellinus, and rejected by the Senate. Bacchus, celebrated generally in the night.
This produced dissentious between the senate They were instituted, as some suppose, be:
and the people, and Cassius, upon seeing the cause the god was attended with wild beasts.
ill success of the new regulations he proposed, M. Agaippa VIPsAnius, a celebrated Ro:
offered to distribute among the people, the man, who obtained a victory over S. Pompey,
money which was produced from the corn of and favoured the cause of Augustus at the
Sicily, after it had been brought and sold in battles of Actium and Philippi, where he be
Rome. This act of liberality the people re haved with great valour. He advised his
fused, and tranquillity was soon after re-esta. imperial friend to re-establish the republican
blished in the state. [vid. Cassius.] It was government at Rome, but he was over-ruled
proposed a second time A. U. C. 377, by the by Mecanas. In his expeditions in Gaul and
tribune Licinius Stilo; but with no better suc Germany he obtained several victories, but
cess; and so great were the tumults which refused the honours of a triumph, and turned
followed, that one of the tribunes of the peo his liberality towards the embellishing."
ple was killed, and many of the senators fin Rome, and the raising of magnificent build.
*d for their opposition. Mutius Scaevola, A. ings, one of which, the Pantheon, still exists.
U. C. 620, persuaded the tribune Tiberius [When Augustus was dangerously ill, in the
Gracchus to propose it a third time; and year before Christ 23, he committed his ring
though Octavius his colleague in the tribune. to Agrippa, which being considered as a P",
ship, opposed it, yet Tiberius made it pass ſerence of him for his successor, offe ed
into a law, after much altercation, and com Marcellus, and rendered it necessary on the
missioners were authorized to make a divi recovery of Augustus to remove Agrippº
sion of the lands. (The prosecution of this from court by an honourable exile to the rich
matter, however, brought the republic to the government of Syria. Upon the death 9

Marcellus he was recalled to Rome, where tribunes of the people. A. U. C. 261. He

he was married to Julin, the daughter of the died poor, but universally regretted; his fune.
Emperor and Marcellus's widow. After this ral was at the expense of the public, from
he performed important services to the em whom also his daughters received dowries.
pire in Gemany, Spain, and the countries of Liv. 2, c. 32. Flor. 1, c. 23.−A mathe
the East. Upon his return, he was attacked matician in the reign of Domitian; he was a na
with a fever in Campania, which soon termi tive of Bithynia.
nated in his death, A.U.C. 742, B.C. 12, in the AGRIPPINA, a wife of Tiberius. The em
51st year of his age.] His body was placed in peror repudiated her to marry Julia. Sueton.
the tomb which Augustus had prepared for in Tib. 7. A daughter of M. Agrippa, and
himself. He had been married three times, grand-daughter to Augustus. She married
to Caecilia Attica, daughter of Atticus, to Germanicus, whom she accompanied into Sy.
Marcella, daughter of Octavia, and to Julia, ria; and when Piso poisoned him, she carried
by whom he had five children, Caius and his ashes to Italy, and accused his murderer,
Lucius Caesares, Posthumus Agrippa, Agrip who stabbed himself. She fell under the dis
pina, and Julia. Hisson, C. Caesar Agrippa, pleasure of Tiberius, who exiled her to an is
was adopted by Augustus, and made consul, land, where she died, A. D. 26, for want of
by the flattery of the Roman people, at the bread. She left nine children, and was uni
age of 14 or 15. This promising youth went versally distinguished for intrepidity and con
to Armenia, on an expedition against the jugal affection. Taeit. 1, .4nn. c. 2, &c.—
Persians, where he received a fatal blow from Sueton, in Tib. 52. Julia, daughter of Ger
the treacherous hand of Lollius, the governor manicus and Agrippina, married Domitius
of one of the neighbouring cities. He lan AEnobarbus, by whom she had Nero. After
guished for a little time, and died in Lycia. her husband's death she married her uncle
His younger brother, L. Caesar Agrippa, was the emperor Claudius, whom she destroyed
likewise adopted by his grandfather Augus to make Nero succeed to the throne. After
tus; but he was soon after banished to Cam many cruelties and much licentiousness, she
pania, for using seditious language against his was assassinated by order of her son, and as
benefactor. In the 7th year of his exile he she expired, she exclaimed, “strike the belly
would have been recalled, had not Livia and which could give birth to such a mouster.”
Tiberius, jealous of the partality of Augus She died A. D. 59. [She was a female of
tus for him, ordered him to be assassinated in most abandoned character, her crimes were
his 36th year. He has been called ferocious of the darkest hue, and her memory is de
and savage; and he gave himself the name of serving of universal detestation.] She leſt
Neptune, because he was found of fishing. memoirs which assisted Tacitus in the con
[One of his servants assumed his name after position of his anuals. The town which she
his death, and raised commotions.] Virg. built, where she was born on the borders of
JEn. 8, v. 682.-Horat. 1, od.6. Sylvius, a the Rhine, and called .4grippina Colonia, is
son of Tiberinus Sylvius, king of Latium. the modern Cologne. Tacit. Ann. 5, c. 75, l.
He reigned 33 years, and was succeeded by 12, c. 7, 22, &c.
his son Romulus Sylvius. Dionys. Hal. 1, c. AGRIUs, son of Parthaon, drove his bro
2. Herodes, son of Aristobulus, grandson ther OEmeus from the throne. He was after
of the Great Herod. . [He was brought up wards expelled by Diomedes, the grandson
at Rome with Drusus the son of Tiberius, but of OEneus, upon which he killed himself. Hy
having reduced himself to penury by his pro gin, fab. 175 and 242.-Apotlod. 1, c. 7.-Ho
fusion, he, upon the death of Drusus, retired mer. Il. 14, v. 117.
to Judaea. Here he attached himself to Caius Aq RöLAs, surrounded the citadel of Athens
Caesar, but having offended Tiberius by some with walls, except that part which aſter
expressions, he was thrown into prison and wards was repaired by Cimon. Paus. 1, c. 23.
loaded with chains.] When Caligula ascend Ad Ron, a king of Illyria, who, after con
ed the throne, his favourite was released, pre quering the Ætolians, drank to such excess
sented with a chain of gold as heavy as that that he died instantly, B.C. 231. Polyb. 2, c.
which had lately confined him, and made 4.
king of Judaea. He was a popular character AGRotºr A, an anniversary sacrifice of goats
with the Jews : and it is said that while they offered to Diana at Athens. It was institut
were flattering him with the appellation of ed by Callimachus the Polemarch, who vow
God, an angel of God struck him with the ed to sacrifice to the goddess so many goats
lousy disease, of which he died, A. D. 43. as there night be enemies killed in a battle
His son, of the same name, was the last king which he was going to fight against the troops
ºf the Jews, deprived of his kingdom by of Darius, who had invaded Attica. The
Claudius, in exchange for other provinces. quantity of the slain was so great, that a suffi
He was with Titus at the celebrated siege of cient number of goats could not procured ;
Jerusalem, and died A. D.94. It was before therefore they were limited to 500 every
him that St. Paul pleaded. Juv. 6, v. 156.— year, till they equalled the number of Per
Tºrit. 2. Hist. c. 31. Menenius, a Roman sians slain in battle. A temple of Ægira
general, who obtained a triumph over the Sa in Peloponnesus erected to the goddess under
bºnes, appeased the populace of Rome by the thisAgyirus,
name. Paus. 7, c. 26.
from ayuuz, a street, a surname of
* known fable of the belly aud limbs, and
favºred the erection of the new office of Apollo, becanse sacrifices were offered to

him in the public streets of Athens. Horat. 4. Jupiter, and the power of tempests from *
od. 6. Neptune, destroyed his ship in a storm. Ajax :
Agyll.A, a town of Etruria, founded by a swam to a rock, and said that he was safe in
colony of Pelasgians, and governed by Vlezen spite of all the gods. Such impiety offended
tius when Æneas came to Italy. It was af Neptune, who struck the rock with his tri
terwards called Caere, by the Lydians, who dent, and Ajax tumbled into the sea with
took possession of it. [It is now Cer Peter. part of the rock and was drowned. His body
Virg. JEn. 7, v. 652, l. 8, v. 479. was afterwards found by the Greeks, and
Agy Rius, a tyrant of Sicily, assisted by black sheep offered on his tomb. According
Dionysius against the Carthaginians. Diod. to Virgil's account, Minerva seized him in a
14. whirlwind, and dashed him against a rock,
Agy RiuM, a town of Sicily, where Diodo where he expired, consumed by thunder.
rus the historian was born. The inhabitants Pirg. AEn. 1, v.43, &c.—Homer. Il 2, 13,
were called Agyrinenses. [It is now, San Fi &c. Od. 4.—Hygin. fab. 116 and 273–
lippo d'Argirone..] Diod. 14.—Cic. in Verr.2. Philostr. Ico. 2, c. 13.—Senec. in Agam.–
c. 65 Horat. epod. 10, v. 13.—Paus. 10, c. 26 and
AGYRIUs, an Athenian general who suc 31.-The two Ajaces were, as some suppose,
ceeded Thrasybulus., Diod. 14. placed after death in the island of Leuce, a
AHALA, the surname of the Servilii at separate place reserved only for the bravest
Rome. heroes of antiquity.
AH ENobARbus, vid. AEmobarbus. AidoNEUs, a surname of Pluto.——A king
AJAx, son of Telamon by Periboea or Eri of the Molossi, who imprisoned Theseus, be
boea daughter of Alcathous, was next to cause he and Pirithous attempted to ravish
Achilles the bravest of all the Greeks in the his daughter Proserpine, near the Acheron:
Trojan war. He engaged Hector, with whom whence arose the well-known fable of the
at parting he exchanged arms. After the descent of Theseus and Pirithous into hell.
death of Achilles, Ajax and Ulysses disputed Plut. in Thes. A river near Troy. Paui.
their claim to the arms of the dead hero. 10, c. 12. -

When they were given to the latter, Ajax Army lus, son of Ascanius, was, according
was so enraged, that he hecame bereaved of to some, the progenitor of the noble family of
his understanding, and slaughtered a whole the AEmilii in Rome.
flock of sheep, supposing them to be the sons Aius Locutius, a deity to whom the Ro:
of Atreus and the Greeks who had given mans erected an altar, from the following
the preference to Ulysses, and stabbed himself circumstance: one of the common people,
with his sword. The blood which ran to the called Ceditius, informed the tribunes, that
ground from the wound, was changed into the as he passed one night through one of the
flower hyacinth. Some say that he was kill streets of the city, a voice more than human,
ed by Paris in battle, others, that he was near Vesta's temple, told him that Rome
murdered by Ulysses. His body was buried would soon be attacked by the Gauls. His
on the promontory of Sigaeum, and his tomb information was neglected, but his veracity
was visited and honoured by Alexander. was proved by the event; and Camillus, aſ
Hercules, according to some authors, prayed ter the conquest of the Gauls, built a temple
to the gods that his friend Telamon, who was to that supernatural voice which had given
childless, might have a son, with a skin as Rome warning of the approaching calamity,
impenetrable as the skin of the Nemaean lion, under the name of Aius Locutius. -

which he then wore. His prayers were heard. ALARANdA, at, or orum, [an inland town ol
Jupiter, under the form of an eagle, promised Caria, south of the river Maeander. Pococke,
to grant the petition, and when Ajax was and after him Chandler, have located it near
born, Hercules wrapped him up in the lion's the small village of Karpuseli. Its inhabitants
skin, which rendered his body invulnerable, were called Alabandi, Alabandii, and Ala
except that part which was left uncovered by bandenses.] The name is derived from
a hole in the skin, through which Hercules Alabandus, a deity worshipped there. Cit.
hung his quiver. This vulnerable part was de Nat. D. 3, c. 15.—Herodot. 7, c. 195
in his breast, or, as some say, behind his neck. Strab. 14. - -

Q. Calab. 1 and 4.—Apollod. 3, c. 10 and 13. ALAbAstrum, a town of [Thebais in]

—Philostr. an Heroic. c. 12.—Pindar. Isthm. Egypt. Plin. 36, c. 7. - -

6.—Homer. Il. 1, &c. Od. 11.-Dictys. Cret. ALEsa, a city on a mountain of Sicily,
6.—Dares. Phry, 9.-Orid. Met. 13.—Horat. [near the river Alaesus. Now Caronia.] -

2. Sat. 3, v. 197.-Hygin.fab. 107 and 242.— ALEA, a surname of Minerva in Pelopon

Paus. 1, c. 35, l. 5, c. 19. The son of nesus. Her festivals are also called Ale".
Oileus king of Locris, was surnamed Locrian, Paus. 8, c. 4, 7. -

in contradistinction to the son of Telamon. ALA:1, a number of islands in the Persia"

He went with 40 ships to the Trojan war, as gulf, abounding in tortoises. Pº
being one of Helen's suitors. The night that rap.-
Troy was taken, he offered violence to Cas 'Alala, the goddess of war, sister to Mars.
sandra, who fled into Minerva's temple; and Plut. de glor...Athen.
for this offence, as he returned home, the ENAE, a city of Boeotia, [south:
goddess, who had obtained the thunders of east of Cheronaea..] where some suppose that
- 28 -

Minerva was born. Plut. Quaest. Gr.-Stat. Mela, 3, c. 5.

Theb. 7, v. 330. Albanum, as being near Albania. Plin. 6, c.
ALALIA, [or ALALIs, a town of Syria, 13.
placed by Ptolemy in Palmyrene, near the Albănus, a mountain with a lake in Italy,
Euphrates, and by D'Anville, north-west of 16 miles from Rome, near Alba. It was on
Resaſa.] this mountain that the Latinae ſeria were ce
ALAMAMEs, a statuary of Athens, disciple lebrated with great solemnity. Horat. 2, ep.
of Phidias. 1. W. 27. A river of Albania, thought by
ALAMANNI. rid. ALEMANNI. D'Anville to be the Samura.]
Alisi, a people of Sarmatia, near the ALBIA TERENTIA, the mother of Otho.
Palus Moeotis. [They penetrated into Eu Suet.
rope, advanced from the Danube- to the ALbici, a people qf Galliae Provincia.
Rhine, traversed Gaul, and settled at the foot [Their history is unknown. Caesar describes
of the Pyrenees. The Goths in Spain and them as little inferior to the Romans in bra
the Franks in Gaul dispersed them and they very..] Caes. Bell. Civ. 1, c. 34.
became gradually confounded with their con ALBIGAUNUM, a town of Liguria. [Now,
querors.] .Albenga.] Mela, 2, c. 4.
ALAmicus, a famous king of the Goths, ALbini, two Roman orators of great me
who plundered Rome in the reign of Hono rit, mentioned by Cicero in Brut. This name
rius. He was greatly respected for his mili is common to many tribunes of the people.
tary valour, and during his reign he kept the Liv. 2, c.33, 1.6, c. 30.-Salut. de Jug. Bell.
Roman empire in continual alarms. He died ALBINovăNUs CElsus. vid. Celsus.——
after a reign of 13 years, A. D. 410. Pedo, a poet contemporary with Ovid. He
ALARöDII, a nation near Pontus. Hero wrote elegies, epigrams, and heroic poetry in
det. 3, c. 94. a style so elegant that he merited the epithet
ALAston, one of Pluto's horses when he of divine. Ovid. ex: Pont. 4, ep. 10.—Quin
carried away Proserpine. Claud. de Rapt til. 10, c. 5.
Pros. 1, v.286. ALBINTEMELIUM, a town of Liguria.
ALAUDE, soldiers of one of Caesar's legions [Now Vintimiglia.] Tacit. 2, Hisl. c. 13.
in Gaul.. Sueton. in Jul. 24. Albinus, was born at Adrumetum in A
AlizoN, [a river of Albania, rising in frica, and made governor of Britain, by Com
Mount Caucasus, and flowing into the Cy modus. After the murder of Pertinax, he
rus. Now the Alozon or Alason. Plin. 6, was elected emperor by the soldiers in Bri
10–Strab. 11.] tain. Severus had also been invested with
ALBA SYLvius, son of Latinus Sylvius, the imperial dignity by his own army; and
succeeded his father in the kingdom of La these two rivals, with about 150,000 men
tium, and reigned 36 years. Ovid. Met. 14. each, came into Gaul to decide the fate of the
v. 612.-Longa, a city of Latium, built by empire. Severus was conqueror, and he or
Ascanius, B.C. 1152, on the spot where AE dered the head of Albinus to be cut off, and
neas found, according to the prophecy of He his body to be thrown into the Rhone, A. D.
lenus, (Pirg. -En. 3. v. 390, &c.) and of the 198. Albinus, according to the exaggerated
god ofthe river, (...ºn. 8, v.43), a white sow account of a certain writer called Codrus, was
with 30 young ones. It was called longa be famous for his voracious appetite, and some
cause itextended along the hill Albanus. The times eat for breakfast no less than 500 figs,
descendants of Æneas reigned there in the 100 peaches, 20 pound of dry raisins, 10 me
following order: 1. Ascanius, son of Æneas, lons, and 400 oysters.--—A pretorian sent to
with little intermission, 6 years. 2. Sylvius Sylla, as ambassador from the senate during
Posthumus, 29 years. 3 AEneas Sylvius, 31. the civil wars. He was put to death by Syl
years. 4. Latinus, 5 years. 5. Alba, 36years la's soldiers. Plut. in Syll. —A Roman
6. Atys or Capetus, 26 years. 7. Capys, 28 plebeian who received the vestals into his cha
years. 8. Capetus, 13 years. 9. Tiberinus. riot in preference to his family, when they
8 years. 10. Agrippa, 33 years. 11. Remu fled from Rome, which the Gauls had sacked.
lus, 19 years. 12. Aventinus, 38 years. 13. Wal. Mar, 1, c. 1.-Liv. 5, c. 40.-Flor. 1,
Procas, 13 years. 14. Numitor and Amulius. c. 13–A. Posthumus, consul with Lucul
Alba, which had long been the powerful rival lus, A. U. C. 603, wrote an history of Rome
of Rome, was destroyed by the Romans 665 in Greek. -

B. C. and the inhabitants were carried to Albion, son of Neptune by Amphitrite,

Rome. Lir.—Flor—Justin. &c.——A city came into Britain, where he established a
of the Marsi in Italy. Pompeia, a city of kingdom, and first introduced astrology and
Liguria. Plin. 3, c. 5. the art of building ships. He was killed at
ALBAxi and ALBENs Es, names applied to the mouth of the Rhone, with stones thrown
the inhabitants of the two cities of Aiba. Cic. by Jupiter, because he opposed the passage
ad Her. 2, c. 23. of Hercules, Mela, 2, c. 5.--The greatest
Albis 1A, a country of Asia, between the island of Europe, now called Great Britain.
Caspian sea and Iberia. [Now Schurwan and It is called after Albion, who is said to have
East Georgia. The country in former days reigned there; or from its chalky white (al
was, and still continues to be, extremely fer. bus) rocks, which appear at a great distance.
tle and pleasant..] Dionys. Hal. 1, c. 15.- Plin. 4, c. 16.-Tacit. in .4gric. [Some ety
Justin. 42, c. 3.-Strab. 11–Plin. 8, c. 40– mologists have recourse to the Hebrew, and

some to the Phoenician tongue, alben in the vouring to save himself by flight. Pittacus
former signifying white, and alp or alpin it, tenerously granted him both life and liberty.
the latter denoting high, and high mountain. je was afterwards however sent into exile.]
the land appearing so as you approach it from Quintil 10, c. 1.-Herodot. 5, c. 95.—Hor. 4,
the continent.] The ancients compared it d. 9.—Cic. 4. Tusc. c. 33. A poet of
figure to a long buckler, or to the iron of . Athens, said by Suidas to be the inven
hatchet. or of tragedy.—A writer of epigrams.
Albis, a river of Germany falling into th -—A comic poet.——A son of Androgeus,
German ocean, and now called the Elbe who went with Hercules into Thrace, and
[The only Roman who passed this river with was made king of past of the country. Apol.
an army was L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, \ lod 2, c. 5. A son of Perseus, father of
U. C. 744, and though he made no farther Amphitryon and Anaxo. From him Her
progress, the passage of the Albis was deem cules has been called Alcides. Apol. 2, c. 4.
ed worthy of a triumph.] Lucan. 2, v. 52. —Paus 8, c. 14.
• Albul.A. the ancient name of the rive ALCAMENEs, one of the Agidae, king of Spar.
Tiber. Virg. JEn. 8, v. 332,-Lw. 1, c. 3. ta, known by his apophthegms. He succeed.
ALBüNEA, a wood near Tibur and the ri ed his father Teleclus, and reigued 37 years.
ver Anio, sacred to the muses. It received The Helots rebelled in his reign. Paus. 3,
its name from a Sibyl, called also Albunea, “. 2, 1.4, c. 4 and 5. A statuary, who liv
worshipped as a goddess at Tibur, whose ed 448 B.C. and was distinguished for hissta
temple still remains. Near Albunea there tues of Venus and Vulcan. Paus. 5, c. 10.
was a small lake of the same name, whose The commander of a Spartan fleet, put
waters were of a sulphureous smell, and pos to death by the Athenians. Thucyd. 4, c. 5,8.c.
sessed some medicinal properties. This lake ALCANDER, a Lacedaemonian youth, who
fell by a small stream called Albula, into the accidentally put out one of the eyes of Ly
river Anio, with which it soon lost itself in curgus, and was generously forgiven by th
the Tiber. Horat. 1. Od. 7, v. 12.—Wirg. sage. Plut. in Lyc.—Paus. 3, c. 18.
JEn. 7, v. 83. AlcAthor, a name of Megara in Atti
Alburnus, a lofty mountain of Lucania, because rebuilt by Alcathous son of Pelo
[on the shores of the Sinus Paestanus or Gulf Ovid. JMet. 8, v 8.
of Salerno, near which was a harbour of the ALCAthóUs, a son of Pelops, who being
same name. The Silarus here discharges it suspected of murdering his brother Chrysip
self into the sea.] pus, came to Megara, where he killed a lion
Albus PAgus, a place near Sidon, where which had destroyed the king's son. He suc
Antony waited for the arrival of Cleopatra. ceeded to the kingdom of Megara, and, in
—[A port of Arabia, on the Sinus Arabi commemoration of hisservices, festivals, called
cus, supposed by Mannert to be the same Alcathoia, were instituted at Megara. Paur.
with the modern harbour of Iambo. It was l, c. 41, &c. A Trojan who married Hip
called in Greek Aswan Kawn.| podamia, daughter of Anchises. He was
Albütius, a prince ofCeltiberia, to whom killed in the Trojan war, by Idomeneus. Ho
Scipio restored his wife. Arrian.—A sor mer. Il. 12, v. 93.
did man, father to Canidia. He beat his ser Alcr. a town of Spain, which surrender
vants before they were guilty of any offence, er to Gracchus, now Alcazar, [south-east of
least, said he, I should have no time to punish Toletum.] Liv. 40, c. 47.
them when they offend. Horal. 2. Sat. 2. AlcENort, an Argive, who along with
A rhetorician in the age of Seneca. Chromius, survived in the battle between 300
An ancient satirist. Cic. in Brut. Titus. of his countrymen and 300 Lacedaemonians.
an epicurean philosopher, born at Rome; so [vid Othryades. Herodot. 1, c. 82.
fond of Greece and Grecian anners, that AlcEstE, or AlcEstis, daughter of Pe
he wished not to pass for a Roman He wa lias and Anaxibia, married Admetus. [When
made governor of Sardinia; but he grew of. Medea prevailed upon the daughters of Pe
fensive to the senate and was banished. It is lias to cut their father in pieces in expecta
supposed that he died at Athens. tion of seeing him restored to youth, Alcestis
Alcheus, a celebrated lyric poet, of Mity alone concurred not in the fatal deed. Acas
lene in Lesbos, about 600 years before the tus, however, having pursued them all, Al
christian aera. He fled from a battle, and hir cestis fled to her cousin Admetus at Pherse,
enemies hung up, in the temple of Minerva, Admetus refusing to deliver her up, was at
ſat Sigeum, the armour which he left in the tacked by Acastus with a numerous army,
field, as a monument of his disgrace. He and being taken prisoner, was redeemed
is the inventor of alcaic verses. He was con from death, by the generous offer of Al
temporarywith the famous Sapphoto whom he cestis, whom he had made his wife, and who
paid his addresses. Of all his works nothing was sacrificed in his stead to appease the
but a few fragments remain, found in Athe shades of her father.] Some say that Alcestis,
macus. [The principal subjects of his muse with an unusual display of conjugal affection,
seem to have been the praise of liberty and laid down her life for her husband, when she
hatred of tyrants. Against the latter he was had been told by an oracle, that he could ne
always very active, particularly against Pitta ver recover from a disease except some one
cus; but, his courage forsaking him in the day of his friends died in his stead. According to
of battle, he was made prisoner while endea |some authors, Hercules brought her back

from hell. She had many suitors while she AlcidAMEA, was mother of Bunus by
lived with her father. vid. Admetus. Juv. Mercury.
6, v. 651.--4poliod. I, c. 9–Paus. 5, c. 17. AlcidamidAs, a general of the Messe
—Hygin. ſab. 251.—Eurip. in Alcest. nians, who retired to Rhegium, after the tak
Alcºtas, a king of the Violossi, descend. ng of Ithome by the Spartans, B. C. 723,
ed from Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles. Paus. Strab. 6.
1, c. 11. A general of Alexander's army AlcIDAMUs, an Athenian rhetorician, who
brother to Perdiccas. –The eighth king of wrote an eulogy on death, &c. Cic. 1. Tusc.
Macedonia, who reigned 29 years. An c. 48.-Plut. de Orat.
historian, who wrote an account of every AlcidAs, a Lacedaemonian, sent with 23
thing that had been dedicated in the temple galleys against Corcy a, in the Peloponnesian
of Delphi Athen. A son of Arybas, king war. Thucyd. 3, c. 16, &c.
of Epirus Paus. I, c. 11. Alcides, a name of Hercules, from his
Alch IMÁchus, a celebrated painter. Plin. strength, a xxn, or from his grandfather Alcae
35, c. 11. us. A surname of Minerva in Macedonia.
AlcIBuin Es, an Athenian general, [the Liv. 42, c. 51. [For Alcudem in the passage
son of Clinias, the nephew of Pericles, and of Livy here quoted, we should no doubt
lineally descended from Ajax :] famous for his read, according to the conjectural emenda
enterprising spirit, versatile genius, and natu tion ofTurnebus (Advers.30,57.).Alcidemum,
ral foibles. He was disciple to Socrates, “the people's strength.”]
whose lessons and example checked for a Alcidic E, the mother of Tyro, by Sal
while his vicious propensities. In the Pelo moneus. Apollod. 1, c. 9.
ponnesian war he encouraged the Athenians Alcimāchus, an eminent painter. Plin.
to make an expedition against Syracuse. He 35, c. 11. -

was chosen general in that war, and in his ALCIMEDE, the mother of Jason, by Æson.
absence, his enemies accused him of impiety, Flaco. 1, v. 296.
and confiscated his goods. Upon this he fled, Alcimédon, a plain of Arcadia, with a
stirred up the Spartans to make war against cave, the residence of Alcimedon, whose
Athens, and when this did not suceeed, he daughter Phillo was ravished by Hercules.
retired to Tissaphernes, the Persian general. Paus. 8, c. 12.-An excellent carver.
Being recalle by the Athenians, he oblige Virg. Ecl. 3.
the Lacedaemonians to sue for peace, made AlciméNEs, a tragic poet of Megara.-
several conquests in Asia, and was received A comic writer of Athens.—A man killed
in triumph at Athens. His popularity was of by his brother Bellerophon. Apollod. 2, c. 3.
short duration. ULysander, the Spartan com Alcimus, an historian of Sicily, who wrote
mander, having defeated the Athenian fleet, an account of Italy.
and slain Antiochus, to whom Alcibiades had Alcinous, son of Nausithous, was king of
left it in charge, when departing for Caria in the Phaeacians, and is praised for his love of
order to raise money, the latter was again ex agriculture. He married his niece Arete,
posed to the resentment of the people, and by whom he had several sons and a daughter
fled to Pharnabazus whom he almost induc. Nausicaa. He kindly entertained Ulysses,
ed to make war upon Lacedaemon.] This was who had been shipwrecked on his coast
told to Lysander, the Spartan general, who and heard the recital of his adventures;
prevailed upon Pharnabazus to murder Alci whence arose the proverb of the stories of
biades. Two servants were sent for that Alcinous, to denote improbability. [The gar
purpose, and they set en fire the cottage dens of Alcinous are beautifully described by
where he was, and killed him with darts as Homer, and have afforded also a favourite
he attempted to make his escape. He died theme to succeeding poets. The island of
in the 46th year of his age, 404 B.C. after the Phaeacians is called by Homer, Scheria.
life of perpetual difficulties. If the ficklenes Its more ancient name was Drepane. After
of his countrymen had known how to retair the days of Homer, it was called Corcyra.
among them the talents of a man who distin Now, Corfu.] Homer. Od. 7.-Orph. in ar
guished himself, and was admired wherever gon.—Vurg. G. 2, v. 87.—Stat. 1. Syl. 3, v.
he went, they might have risen to greater 81.-Jur. 5, v. 15I.-Ovid. .4m. 1, el. 10, v.
splendour, and to the sovereignty of Greece. 56.-Plato de Rep. 10.-4pollod. I, c. 9. A
His character has been cleared from the as philosopher in the second century, who wrote
Persions of malevolence, by the writings of a book De doctrina Platonis, the best edition
Thucydides, Timaeus, and Theopompus; and of which is the 8vo. printed Oacon. 1667.
he is known to us as a hero, who to the prin Alciph Row, a philosopher of Magnesia,
tiples of the debauchee, added the intelli. in the age of Alexander. There are some
gence and sagacity of the statesman, and the epistles in Greek, that bear his name, and
cool intrepidity of the general. Plut. & C. contain a very perfect picture of the customs
-ºp. in Alcib.-Thucyd. 5.6 and 7.—Xenoph. and manners of the Greeks. They are by
Hut. Grac. 1, &c.—Diod. 12. some supposed to be the production of a wri
Alcipantas, a celebrated wrestler. Stat. ter of the 4th century. [The best edition is
Theb. 10, v. 500. A philosopher and ora that of Wagner. Lips. 1798. 2 vols. in 8vo.]
ºr, who wrote a treatise on death. He was Alcippe, a daughter of the god Mars, by
Pºpil to Gorgias, and flourished B. C. 423. Agraulos. Apollod. 3, c. 14. The wife of
Quintil. 3, c.i. !! Metion, and mother to Eupalamus. Id. 3,
AL AL --

c. 16.-The daughter of QEnomaus, and AlcMENA, [was daughter of Electryon,

wiſe of Evenus, by whom she had Marpessa. king of Mycenae, and Anaxo whom Plutarch
Alcithoe, a Theban woman who ridiculed calls Lysidice, and Diodorus Siculus Eury - *|
the orgies of Bacchus. She was changed in mede. She was engaged in marriage to her *
to a bat, and the spindle and yarn with which cousin Amphytrion, son of Alcaeus, when an
she worked, into a vine and ivy. Ovid. Met. unexpected event caused the nuptials to be de
4, fab. i. ferred. Electryon had undertaken an expedi- ºr
AlcMAEoN, was son of the prophet Amphi tion against the Teleboans or subjects of Ta
araus and Eriphyle. His father going to the phius, in order to avenge the death of his sons,
Theban war, where, according to an oracle, whom the sons of Taphius had slain in a
he was to perish, charged him to revenge his coinbat. Returning victorious he was met by
death upon Eriphyle, who had betrayed him. Amphytrion, and killed by an accidental blow.
rid. Eriphyle. As soon as he heard of his This deed, though involuntary, lost Amphy
father’s death, he murdered his mother, for trion the kingdom, which he would other
which crime the furies persecuted him till wise have enjoyed in right of his wife. Sthe
[the river-god] Phlegeus purified him and nelus, the brother of Alcmena, availing him
gave him his daughter Alphesiboea in mar self of the public odium against Amphytrion,
riage. Aicnaeon gave her the fatal col drove him from Argolis, and seized upon the
lar which his mother had received to betray vacant throne, the possession of which de
his father, and afterwards abandoned her, volved at his death, upon his son Eurystheus.
and married Callirhoe, the daughter of Ache Amphytrion fled to Thebes, where he was
lous, to whom he promised the necklace he purified by Creon; but when he expected that
had given to Alphesiboea. When he at Alcmena, who had accompanied him thither,
tempted to recover it, Alphesiboea’s brothers would have given him her hand, she declined
murdered him on account of the treatment he on the ground that she was not satisfied with
had shown their sister, and left his body a the punishment inflicted by her father on the
prey to dogs and wild beasts. Alcmaeon's Teleboans, and intended to give her hand to
children by Callirhoe revenged their father's him who should make war upon them. Am
death by killing his murderers. vid. Alphesi phytrion, in consequence of this, made an al
baca, Amphiarus. Paus. 5, c. 17, 1 6, c. 18, liance with Creon and other neighbouring
1.8, c. 24.—Plut. de Evil — Apollod. 3, c. 7. princes, and ravaged the isles of the Teleboans.
—Hygin. fab. 73 and 245.-Stat. Theb. 2 and During this expedition, Alcmena gave birth
4.—Ovid. Fast. 2, v.44. Met. 9, fab. 10.-A to Hercules. Whetherit was that Amphytrion
son of AEgyptus, the husband of Hippomedu. had been actually married to Alcmena pre
sa. Apollod. A philosopher, disciple to vious to his going on this expedition, or whe
Pythagoras, born in Crotona. He wrote on ther he returned privately to Thebes during
physic, and he was the first who dissected an its continuance, still the report was spread
imals to examine into the structure of the hu abroad that Jupiter was the father of Her
man frame. Cic. de JNat. D. 6, c. 27. —A cules, and that to deceive Alcmena, he had
son of the poet AEschylus, the 13th archon of assumed the form of her husband. Accord
Athens. A son of Syllus, driven from Mes ing to the ancient poets, Juno retarded the
senia with the rest of Nestor's family by the birth of Hercules until the mother of Eurys
| Heraclidae. He came to Athens, and from theus was delivered of a son, unto whom, by
him the Alcmaeonidae are descended. Paus. reason of a rash oath of Jupiter, Hercules was
1, c. 18. made subject. The above account varies in
ALCMAEoNipie, a noble family of Athens, many particulars from that which Plautus has
descended from Alcmaeon. They undertook made the basis of one of his comedies, but it
for 300 talents to rebuild the temple of Del rests upon higher authority, and has the merit
phi, which had been burnt, and they finished of being purer in its details.) Ovid. Met. 8,
the work in a more splendid manner than was ſab. 5, &c. says that Juno was assisted by Lu
required, in consequence of which they gain cina to put off the bringing forth of Alcmena,
ed popularity, and by their influence the Py and that Lucina, in the form of an old woman,
thia prevailed upon the Lacedaemonians to sat before the door of Amphytrion with her
deliver their country from the tyranny of the legs and arms crossed. This posture was the
Pisistratidae. Hirodot. 5 and 6.—Thucyd. 6, cause of infinite torment to Alcmena, till her
c. 59.-Plut. in Solon. servant, Galanthis, supposing the old woman
ALCMAN, [a lyric poet, born in Lydia, but to be a witch, and to be the cause of the pains
carried away at an early age and sold into of her mistress, told her that she had been
slavery at Lacedaemon. The Spartans, per delivered. [Lucina arose upon this informa
ceiving his poetical talent, manumitted him, tion and retired, and Alcmena immediately
and sought to claim him as their countryman. brought forth. Some accounts make her on
He wrote in the Doric dialect. Of the many this occasion the mother of twins, of Her
poems attributed to him by the ancients, no cules by Jupiter, and Iphicles by Amphy
thing remains but a few fragments occurring trion. Hyginus however mentions only Her
in Athenaeus and other ancient writers. He cules.] After Amphitryon's death, Alcmena
was remarkable for his voracious appetite. married Rhadamanthus, and retired to Oca
The question respecting his birth-place is ably lea in Boeotia. This marriage, according to
discussed by Perizonius, JEluan. W. H. 12, c. some authors, was celebrated in the island of
50. in notis.} Leuce. The people of Megara said that she

died in her way from Argos to Thebes, and ple, built by Alens, son of Aphidas at Tegara
that she was buried in the temple of Jupiter in Arcadia. The statue of the goddess,[toge
Olympius. Paus. 1, c. 41, l. 5, c. 18, 1.9, c. ther with the tusks of the Calydonian boar,
16.-Pºuf. in Thes. & Romul.—Homer. Od. was carried by Augustus to Rome. Paus. 8,
11, fl. 19.-Pindar. Pyth. 9.-Lucian. Dial. c. 4 and 46–A town of Arcadia, built by
Deor—Diod. 4.—Hygin. fab. 29.-Apollod. Aleus. [It had three famous temples, that
2, c. 4, 7, 1.3, c. 1.-Plaut. in Amphit.—He ofthe Ephesian Diana, of Minerva Álea, and
rodot. 2, c. 43 and 45.-vid. Amphitryon, of Bacchus. The feast of Bacchus, called
Hercules, Eurystheus. Skiria, was celebrated here every third year,
Alcox, a famous archer, who one day at which time, according to Pausanias, the wo
saw his son attacked by a serpent, and aim men were scourged, in obedience to a com
ed at him so dexterously with an arrow
that he killed the beast without hurting his
º of the oracle at
Delphi. Paus. 8, c.
son.—A surgeon under Claudius, who gain ALEcto, one of the furies, is represented
ed much money by his profession, in curing with flaming torches and scourges, her head
hernias and fractures. A son of Mars. covered with serpents, and breathing ven
A son of Amycus. These two last were at geance, war, and pestilence. The name is
the chase of the Calydonian boar. Hygin. derived from 2, non, and anya, desino, because
fab. 173. she incessantly pursues the wicked.] vid.
Alcyone or HALcyöNE, daughter of AEo. Eumenides. Virg. .42n. 7, v. 324, &c. l. 10,
lus, married Ceyx, who was drowned as he v. 41.
was going to Claros to consult the oracle. ALEcton, succeeded his father Anaxago
The gods apprised Alcyone, in a dream, of ras in the kingdom of Argos, and was father
her husband’s fate; and when she found, on to Iphis and Capaneus. Paus. 2, c. 18.-
the morrow, his body washed on the sea .Apollod. 3, c. 6.
shore, she threw herself into the sea, and was ALEctryon, a youth whom Mars station
with her husband changed into birds of the ed at the door of Venus's apartment, to
same name, who keep the waters calm and watch against the approach of the sun. He
serene, while they build and sit on their nests fell asleep, and Apollo came and discovered
on the surface of the sea, for the space of 7, the lovers, who were exposed by Vulcan be
11, or 14 days. [The Halycon or kingfisher fore all the gods. Mars was so incensed, that
builds its nest on the rocks. The ancients be he changed Alectryon into a cock, which still
lieved that it made its nest in such a way that mindful of his neglect, early announces the
it floated on the water, with the parent bird approach of the sun. Lucian. an Alect.
and itsyoung contained in it. AElian. de Ant [ALEIU's CAMPUs, a tract in Cilicia Cam
mal. 9, c. 17.) Virg. G. 1, v. 399.-Apollod. pestris, to the east of the river Sarus, between
I, c. 7,-Ovid. Met. 11, ſab. 10.-Hygin. fab. Adana and the sea. The poets fabled that
65.-One of the Pleiades, daughter of At Bellerophon wandered and perished here,
las. She had Arethusa by Neptune, and E after having been thrown from the horse Pe.
leuthera by Apollo. She, with her sisters, gasus. The name comes from axacaat, erro.
was changed into a constellation. vid. Plei Homer. Il. 6, v.201. Dionys. Perieg. 872.--
ades. Paus. 2, c. 30, l. 3, c. 18. Apollod. Ovid. in Ibid. 259.3
3, c. 10.-Hyginºſab. 157.-The daughter [ALEMANNI, or ALAMANNI, a name as
of Evenus, ca away by Apollo after her sumed by a confederacy of German tribes si
marriage. Her husband pursued the ravish tuate between the Neckar and the Upper
er with bows and arrows, but was not able Rhine, who united to resist the encroachments
to recover her. Upon this, her parents call of Roman power. According to Mannert,
ed her Alcyone, and compared her ſate to that the shattered remains of the army of Ario
of the wife of Ceyx. Homer. Il. 9, v. 558. vistus retired after the defeat and death
AlcyºxEUs, a youth of exemplary virtue, of their leader to the mountainous country
son to Antigonus. Plut. in Pyrrh.-Diog. of the Upper Rhine. Their descendants, in
4.—A giant, brother to Porphyrion. He after days, in order to oppose a barrier to the
was killed by Hercules. His daughters, continued advance of the Roman arms, unit
mourning his death, threw themselves into ed in a common league with the German
the sea. and were changed into alcyons, by tribes which had originally settled on the left
Amphitrite. Claudian. de Rap. Pros.- bank of the Rhine, but had been driven across
-ºpºiod. 1, c. 6. by their more powerful opponents. The
Alcyonia, a pool of [Corinthia in Greece, members of this union styled themselves A
whose depth the emperor Nero attempted lemanni or all-men, i. e. men of all tribes, to
juvain to find. Paus. 2, c. 37. denote at once their various lineage and
[Alcrostrº MARE, a name given to an their common bravery. They first appeared
arm of the Sinus Corinthiacus, or Gulf of in a hostile attitude on the banks of the Mein,
Lepanto, which stretched between the wes. but were defeated by Caracalla, who was
tern coast of Euboea, the northern coast of hence honoured with the surname of Aleman
Megaris, and the north-western extremity of nicus. In the succeeding reigns, we find
Cºrinthia, as far as the promontory of Ol them at one time ravaging the Roman terri
mia.) -
tories, at another, defeated and driven back
Alptibis. rid. Dubis. to their native forests. At last, after their
Allºa, asurname of Minerva, from her tem overthrow by Clovisking of the Salian Franks,

they ceased to exist as one nation, and were said with tears in his eyes, that his son must
dispersed over Gaul, Switzerland, and north seek another kingdom, as that of Macedonia
ern Italy.] would not be sufficiently large for the display
[ALEs, rid. Hales.] of his greatness. Olympias, during her preg
[ALESA, ALoÉs A, or HALESA, a very nancy, declared that she was with child by a
ancient city of Sicily built by Archonides, B. dragon; and the day that Alexander was
C. 403. It stood near the modern city of Ca born, two eagles perched for some time on
ronia, on the river Alaesus, or Fiume di Caro the house of Philip, as if foretelling that his
nia. The inhabitants were exempted by the son would become master of Europe and Asia.
Romans from taxes. Diod. Sic. 14, c. 16.] He was pupil to Aristotle during five years,
[ALEsia or ALEx1A, now Alise, a famous and he received his learned preceptor's in
and strongly fortified city of the Mandubii. structions with becoming deference and plea
in Gallia Celtica. It was so ancient a city sure, and ever respected his abilities. When
that Diodorus Siculus ascribes the building of Philip went to war, Alexander, in his 16th
it to Hercules in his war against Geryon. It year, was left governor of Macedonia, where
was situate on a high hill, supposed to be he quelled a dangerous sedition, and soon aſ
..Mont Awarois, near the sources of the Sequa ter followed his father to the field, and saved
na or Seine, and washed on two sides by the his life in a battle. He was highly offended
small rivers Lutosa and Osera, now Oze and when Philip divorced Olympias to marry
Ozerain. It was taken and destroyed by Cleopatra, and retired from court to his mo
Caesar, after a famous siege, but was rebuilt, ther Olympias, but was recalled; and when
and became a place of considerable conse Philip was assassinated, he punished his mur.
quence under the Roman Emperors. It was derers; and, by his prudence and moderation
laid in ruins in the 9th century. Flor. 3, c. gained the affection of his subjects. He con
10.-Cars. B. G. 7, c. 69.] quered Thrace and Illyricum, and destroyed
ALETHEs, the first of the Heraclidae, who Thebes; and after he had been chosen chief
was king of Corinth. He was son of Hip commander of all the forces of Greece, he
potas. Paus. 2, c. 4. declared war against the Persians, who, un
ALEtides, (from axacaau, erro,) certain sa der Darius and Xerxes, had laid waste and
crifices at Athens, in remembrance of Eri plundered the noblest of the Grecian cities.
gone, who wandered with a dog after her ſa With 32,000 foot and 5000 horse, he invaded
ther Icarus. Asia, and after the defeat of Darius at the Gra
ALEUADAE, a royal family of Larissa in nicus he conquered all the provinces of Asia
Thessaly, descended from Aleuas king of that Minor. He obtained two other celebrated
country. They betrayed their country to victories over Darius at Issus and Albela,
Xerxes. The name is often applied to the took Tyre after an obstinate siege of seven
Thessalians without distinction. Diod. 16.- months, and the slaughter of 2000 of the in
Herodot. 7, c. 6, 172.-Paus. 3, c. 8, 1.7, c. habitants in cool blood, and made himself
10.-JElian. Anim. 8, c. 11. master of Egypt, Media, Syria, and Persia.
ALEx, a river in the country of the Brut From Egypt he visited the temple of Jupiter
tii. Dionys. Perieg. [Now, the Alese.] Ammon, and bribed the priest who saluted
ALEXAMENUs, an tolian, who killed him as the son of their god, and enjoined his
Nabis, tyrant of Lacedæmon, and was soon army to pay him divine honours. He built
after murdered by the people. Liv. 35, c. a town which he called Alexandria, on the
34. western side of the Nile, near the coast of
ALEXANDER 1st, son of Amyntas, was the the Mediterranean, an eligible situation,
tenth king of Macedonia. He killed the Per which his penetrating eye marked as best en
sian ambassadors for their immodest beha titled to become the future capital of his im
viour to the women of his father's court, and mense dominions, and to extend the com
was the first who raised the reputation of the merce of his subjects from the Mediterranean
Macedonians. He reigned 43 years, and to the Ganges. His conquests were spread
died 451 B.C. Justin. 7, c. 3.-Herodot. 5,7, over India, where he ſought with Porus, a
8 and 9. powerful king of the country; and after he
ALEXANDER 2d, son of Amyntas 2d, king had invaded Scythia, and visited the Indian
of Macedonia, was treacherously murdered, ocean, he retired to Babylon, loaded with the
B. C. 370, by his younger brother Ptolemy, spoils of the east. His entering the city was
who held the kingdom for four years, and foretold by the magicians as fatal, and their
made way ſor Perdiccas and Philip. Justin. prediction was fulfiled. He died at Babylon
7, c. 5, says, Eurydice, the wiſe of Amyntas, the 21st of April, in the 32d year of his age,"
was the cause of his murder. after a reign of 12 years and 8 months of
ALExANDER 3d, surnamed the Great, was brilliant and continued success, 323 B. C. º
son of Philip and Olympias. -Ile was born His death was so premature that some have
B. C. 356, that night on which the famous attributed it to the effects of poison, and ex
temple of Diana at Ephesus was burnt by cess of drinking. Antipater has been accus
Erostratus. This event, according to the ed of causing the fatal poison to be given him
magicians, was an early prognostic of his ſu at a feast; and perhaps the resentment of the
ture greatness, as well as the taming of Bu Macedonians, whose services he seemed to
cephalus, a horse whom none of the king's forget by intrusting the guard of his body.”
courtiers could manage; upon which Philip * the Persians, was the cause of his death. He

was so universally regretted, that Babylon claimed, in all the pride of regal dignity.
was filled with tears and lamentations; and Give me kings for competitors, and I will en
the Medes and Macedonians declared that ter, the lists at Olympia. All his family
no one was able or worthy to succeed him. and infant children were put to death by Cas
Many conspiracies were formed against him sander. The first deliberation that was made
by the officers of his army, but they were all after his decease, among his generals, was to
seasonably suppressed. His tender treat appoint his brother Philip Aridaeus successor,
ment of the wife and mother of king Darius, until Roxane, who was then pregnant by him,
who were taken prisoners, has been greatly brought into the world a legitimate heir.
praised; and the latter, who had survived Perdiccas wished to be supreme regent, as
the death of her son, killed herself when she
Aridaeus wanted capacity; and, more'strong
heard that Alexander was dead. His great ly to establish himself, he married Cleopatra,
intrepidity more than once endangered his Alexander's sister, and made alliance with
life: he always fought as if sure of victory, Eumenes. . As he endeavoured to deprive
and the terror of his name was often more Ptolemy of Egypt, he was defeated in a bat
powerfully effectual than his arms. He tle by Seleucus and Antigonus, on the banks
was always forward in every engagement, of the river Nile, and assassinated by his own
and bore the labours of the field as well as cavalry. Perdiccas was the first of Alexan
the meanest of his soldiers. During his der's generals who took up arms against his
conquests in Asia, he founded many cities, fellow-soldiers, and he was the first who fell
which he called Alexander, after his own a sacrifice to his rashness and cruelty. To
name. When he had conquered Darius he defend himself against him, Ptolemy made a
ordered himself to be worshipped as a god; treaty of alliance with some generals, among
und Callisthenes, who refused to do it, was whom was Antipater, who had strengthened
shamefully put to death. He murdered, at himself by giving his daughter Phila, an am
a banquet, his friend Clitus, who had once bitious and aspiring woman, in marriage to
saved his life in a battle, because he enlarged Craterus, another of the generals of A
upon the virtues and exploits of Philip, and lexander. After many dissentions and
preferred them to those of his son. His vic bloody wars among themselves, the gene
tories and success increased his pride ; herals of Alexander laid the foundation of se
dressed himself in the Persian manner, and veral great empires in the three quarters of
gave himself up to pleasure and dissipation. He the globe. Ptolemy seized Egypt, where he
set on fire the city of Persepolis, in a fit of firmly established himself, and where his suc
madness and intoxication, encouraged by the cessors were called Ptolemies, in honour of
courtezan Thais. Yet among all his extra the founder of their empire, which subsisted
vagancies, he was fond of candour and of truth: till the time of Augustus. Seleucus and his
and when one of his officers read to him, as posterity reigned in Babylon and Syria. An
he sailed on the Hydaspes, an history which tigonus at first established himself in Asia
he had composed of the wars with Porus, Minor, and Antipater in Macedonia. The
and in which he had too liberally panegyrised descendants of Antipater were conquered by
him, Alexander snatched the book from his the successors of Antigonus, who reigned in
hand, and threw it into the river, “saying, Macedonia till it was reduced by the Romans
what need is there of such flattery? are not in the time of king Perseus. Lysimachus
the exploits of Alexander sufficiently merito made himself master of Thrace; and Leona
rious in themselves, without colourings of tus, who had taken possession of Phrygia, me.
falsehood?” He in like manner rejected a sta ditated for a while to drive Antipater from
tuary, who offered to cut mount Athos like Macedonia. Eumenes established himself in
him, and represent him as holding a town in Cappadocia, but was soon overpowered by the
one hand, and pouring a river from the other. combinations of his rival Antigonus, and put
He forbade any statuary to make his statue to death. During his life-time, Eumenes ap
except Lysippus, and any painter to draw peared so formidable to the successors of A
his picture except Apelles. On his death lexander, that none of them dared to assume
bed he gave his ring to Perdiccas, and it was the title of king. Curt..?rrian. & Plut. have
supposed that by this singular present, he written an account of Alexander's life. Diod.
wished to make him his successor. Some 17 and 18.-Paus. 1, 7, 8, 9.-Justin. 11 and
time before his death, his officers asked him 12.-Val. Mar. Strab. 1, &c.—A son of A
whom he appointed to succeed him on the lexander the Great, by Roxane, put to death,
throne * and he answered, the worthiest with his mother, by Cassander. Justin. 15,
among you; but I am afraid added he, my c. 2.-A son of Cassander, king of Mace
bestfriends will perform my funeral obsequies donia, who reigned two years conjointly with
with bloody hands. Alexander, with all his his brother Antipater, and was prevented by
pride, was humane and liberal, easy and fa. Lysimachus from revenging his mother Thes
miliar with his friends, a great patron of salonica, whom his brother had murdered.
ièarning, as may be collected from his as Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, put him to
risting Aristotle with a purse of money to death. Justin. 16, c. 1 —Paus. 9, c. 7.
ºtect the completion of his natural history. A king of Epirus, brother to Olympias, and
He was brave often to rashness; he frequent successor to Arybas. He made war in Italy
ºxiamented that his father conquered every against the Romans, and observed that he
thing, and left him nothing to do; and ex fought with men, while his nephew, Alexan

der the Great, was fighting with an army of gorean philosophy, B. C. 88. A poet of
women (meaning the Persians.) . Justin. 17, Ephesus, who wrote a poem on astronomy
c.3.—Diod. 16.--Liv. 8, c. 17 and 27.-Slrab. and geography.—A Thessalian, who, as he
6.—A son of Pyrrhus, was king of Epirus. was going to engage in a naval battle, gave
He conquered Macedonia, from which he to his soldiers a great number of missile
was expelled by Demetrius. He recovered it weapons, and ordered them to dart them
bythe assistance ofthe Acarnanians, Justin. 26, continually upon the enemy, to render their
c. 3.-Plut. in Pyrrh. [A king of Syria numbers useless. Polygºn. 6, c. 27. A
surnamed Balas; he reigned after Antiochus son of Polysperchon, killed in Asia by the Dy
Epiphanes, whose natural son he was sup maeans. Diod. 18 and 19.—A poet of Pleu
posed to be by some. He was driven from ron, son of Satyrus and Stratoclea, who said
the throne by Demetrius, the lawful heir, and that Theseus had a daughter called Iphige
Ptolemy Philometor. Another surnamed nia, by Helen. Paus. 2, c. 22.-A Spar
Zebenna. By the assistance of Ptolemy Phys tan, killed with two hundred of his soldiers
con he conquered Nicanor, but was after by the Argives, when he endeavoured to pre
wards killed by Antiochus Grypus, son of the vent their passing through the country by
latter.]—Ptolemy, was one of the Ptoleme Tegea. Diod. 15. A cruel tyrant of Pe
an kings in Egypt. His mother Cleopatra, raº, in Thessaly, who made war against the
raised him to the throne, in perference to his Macedonians, and took Pelopidas prisoner
brother Ptolemy Lathurus, and reigned con He was murdered, B. C. 357, by his wife
jointly with him. Cleopatra, however, ex called Thebe, whose room he carefully guard
pelled him, and soon after recalled him; and ed by a Thracian sentinel, and searched
Alexander, to prevent being expelled a se every night, fearful of some dagger that might
cond time, put her to death, and for this unna be concealed to take away his life. Cic. de
tural action was himself murdered by one of Inv. 2, c. 49. de Off. 2, c. 9.-Val. Mar.
his subjects. Joseph. 13. Ant. Jud. c. 20, &c. 9, c. 13.—Plut. & C. Nºp. in Pelop.–Paus.
—Justin. 39, c. 3 and 4.—Paus. 1, c. 9. 6, c. 5.—Diod. 15 and 16.—Ovid. in Ib. v.
Ptolemy 2d, king of Egypt, was son of the 321. Severus, a Roman emperor. vid.
preceding. He was educated in the island of Severus.
Cos, and falling into the hands of Mithridates, ALEXANDRA, the name of some queens of
escaped to Sylla, who restored him to his Judaea, mentioned by Joseph.-A nurse of
kingdom. He was murdered by his subjects Nero. Suet. in Ner. 50.-A name of Cas -
19 days after his restoration. Appian. 1. sandra, because she assisted mankind by her
Bell. Cur. Ptolmey3d, was king of Egypt prophecies. Lycophr.
after his brother Alexander the last mention ALEXANDRI ARAE, the boundaries, accord
ed. After a peaceful reign, he was banished ing to some, of Alexander's victories near the
by his subjects, and died at Tyre, B.C. 65, Tanais. Plin. 6, c. 16. [This is all a mere fa
leaving his kingdom to the Roman people. ble of the ancients, who made Alexander to
vid. Aºgyptus & Ptolemaeus. Cic. pro Rull. have crossed the Tanais and approached what
A youth, ordered by Alexander the they considered the limits of the world in that
Great to scale the rock Aornus, with 30 quarter. Mannert.Anc. Geogr. vol.4, p. 159
other youths. He was killed in the attempt. and 256. For the real Alexandri arae, rid.
Curt. 8, c. 11. A governor of Æolia, who Hyphasis.]
assembled a multitude on pretence of show. ALExAndria, the name of several cities
ing them an uncommon spectacle, and con which were founded by Alexander, during
fined them till they had each bought their li his conquests in Asia; the most famous are—
berty with a sum of money. Polyten. 6, c. A great and extensive city, built B. C. 332, by
10. –A name given to Paris, son of Priam. Alexander. [It was situate about 12 miles
rid. Paris. Jannaeus, a king of Judaea, west of the Canopic mouth of the Nile, be
son of Hyrcanus, and brother of Aristobulus, tween the lake Mareotis and the beautiful
who reigned as a tyrant, and died through ex harbour formed by the isle of Pharos. It was
cess of drinking, B.C. 79, after massacreing the intention of its founder to make Alexan
800 of his subjects for the entertainment of dria at once the seat of empire and the first
his concubines. A Paphlagonian who gain commercial city of the world. The latter ºf
ed divine honours by his magical tricks and these plans completely succeeded ; and for a
impositions, and likewise procured the friend period of 1800 years, from the time of the
ship of Marcus Aurelius. He died 70 years Ptolemies to the discovery of the Cape of
old.——A native of Caria, in the 3d century. Good Hope, the capital of Egypt commanded
who wrote a commentary on the writings of the principal. trade of the east. The goods
Aristotle, part of which is still extant. being brought up the Red Sea to Berenice,
Trallianus, a physician and philosopher of the were thence transported across to the Nile,
4th century, some of whose works in Greek conveyed down that river and through a ca
are still extant. A peripatetic philosopher, nal to the city. From the port of Alexandria
said to have been preceptor to Nero. An the commodities of India and the east were
historian, called also Polyhistor, who wrote diffused over the western world..] Alexan
five books on the Roman republic, in which dria was distinguished for its schools, not on
he said that the Jews had received their law, ly of theology and philosophy, but of physic,
not from God, but from a woman he called where once to have studied was a sufficient
Moso. He also wrote treatises on the Pytha recommendation to distant countries. The

astronomical school, founded by Philadelphus, sion of a cobler, to offices of trust at Rome,

maintained its superior reputation for 10 and at last became consul. [He flourish.
centuries till the time of the Saracens. [It ed about A., U.C. 754. According to some
was to its splendid library, however, which he was originally a barber.] Horat. 1, sat.
had been formed and continually enlarged 3, v. 13).
under the munificent patronage of the Ptole ALGIDuM, a town of Latium near Tuscu
mies, that this great city owed its more en lum, about 12 miles from Rome. There is a
during fame. This celebrated collection, con mountain in the neighbourhood, called anci
sisting of 700,000 volumes, 200,000 of which ently Algidus, now [Rocca del Papa.-The
had been brought from Pergamus by Antony modern name of the town is Aglio.] Horat.
and Cleopatra, is said to have been destroyed l, od. 21.
by the Saracens at the command of the Ca [ALIACMon, vid. Haliacmon.
liph Omar, A. D. 642, and to have furnished |ALIARtus, vid. Haliartus.]
fuel during 6 months to the 4000 baths of Alicis, a town of Laconia. A tribe of
Alexandria. The narrative, however, rests Athens. Strab.
on the sole authority of the historian Abul ALIENus Cæcina, a questor in Baetica,
pharagius, and its authenticity has been great appointed, for his services, commander of a
ly suspected. The modern name of the city legion in Germany, by Galba. The emperor
is Scanderia, though the use of its ancient one disgraced him for his bad conduct, for which
is more common among Europeans. It con he raised commotions in the empire. Tacit.
tains 10 or 15,000 inhabitants. The popula 1, Hist. c. 52.
tion in the days of its ancient greatness was ALiFAE, ALIFA, or All pHA, [a town of
about 600,000. Curt. Strabo. Plin. Ano Samnium, north-west of the Vulturnus, fa
ther in Arachosia, now Scanderie of Arrok mous for the large-sized drinking cups made
hage, or Waihend.—Another in Aria, now there. It is now Alift.]—Horat. 2, Sat. 8, v.
Corra. Another in Gedrosia, now Hormoz 39.-Lin. 8, c. 25.
or Hous. Another below the Paropami ALILA:1, a people of Arabia Felix.
sus, near the modern Bamian, not Candahar, ALIMENtus, C. an historian in the second
as is generally supposed. Another on the Punic war, who wrote in Greek an account
bay of Issus, now Scanderoon.—Alexan of Annibal, besides a treatise on military af
dria Oxiana, now Termed, upon the Ozus or fairs. Liv. 21 and 30.
Gihon. Alexandria Troas, in Mysia, now ALINDE, a town of Caria, [south-east of
Eski-Stamboul.—Alexandria Ultima, on Stratonicea, near Mogla. ] Arrian.
the laxartes or Sihon, on the site of the more ALIPHERLA, a town of Arcadia, situate on
ancient Cyreschata. It is supposed to be in a hill. Polyb. 4, c. 77.
the vicinity of Cogend.] Allianothius, ason of Neptune. Hearing
ALEXANDRINA Aata, baths in Rome, built that his father had been defeated by Minerva,
by the emperor Alexander Severus. in his dispute about giving a name to Athens,
ALEXA work, a son of Machaon, who built he went to the citadel, and endeavoured to
in Syeionia a temple to his grandfather AEs cut down the olive which had sprung from
culapius. Paus. 2, c. 11. the ground, and given the victory to Miner
ALExAs, of Laodicea, was recommended va; but in the attempt he missed his aim,
to M. Antony by Timagenes. He was the and cut his own legs so severely that he in
cause that Antony repudiated Octavia to stantly expired.
marry Cleopatra. Augustus punished him ALLIA, [a river of Italy, running down, ac
severely after the defeat of Antony. Plut. in cording to Livy, from the mountains of Crus.
..?nton. tuminum, at the 11th mile stone, and flow
ALExrcicts, a surname given to Apollo by ing into the Tiber. It is now the Aia. On
the Athenians, because he delivered them from its banks the Romans were defeated by the
the plague during the Peloponnesian war. Gauls under Brennus, July 17th, B. C. 387.
ALExix.cs, a disciple of Eubulides the Mi 40,000 Romans were either killed or put to
lesian, famous for the acuteness of his genius flight. Hence in the Roman Calendar, “Alli
and judgment, and for his fondness for con ensis dies” was marked as a most unlucky day.
tention and argument. He died of a wound Lir. 5, c. 37.—Flor. 1, c. 13.−Plut. in Cam.]
he had received from a sharp-pointed reed, ALLöbadges, [a people of Gallia, between
as be swam in the river Alpheus. Diog. in the Isara or Isere, and the Rhodanus or
Euclid. Rhome, in the country answering to Dau
ALEx1ox, a physician intimate with Cice phiné, Piedmont, and Saroy. Their chief
ro. Cie. ad Att. 3, ep. 16. city was Vienna, now Vienne, on the left bank
ALExupprs, a physician of Alexander. of the Rhodanus, 13 miles below Lugdunum
Piut. in Aler. or Lyons. They were finally reduced be
ALExis, a comic poet, 336 B.C. of Thuri neath the Roman power by Fabius Maximus,
um, who wrote 45 comedies, of which some who hence was honoured with the surname of
few fragments remain.--A statuary, disci Allobrox. Cicero praises their ambassadors
pie to Polyeletes, 87 Olym.Plin. 34, c. 8. for refusing to join in Catiline's conspiracy.—
ALFATE as A, vid. Nuceria. Horace, however, speaks of their fickleness
P. A.Féxus VARus, a native of Cremona, as a nation. Strab. 4.—Cic. Cat. 3.-Horat.
*, by the force of his genius and his appli Epod. 16.—Sallust. Cat. 41.)
ºatian, raised himself from his original profes Alloraig Es, [a people in the north of

Spain, according to Strabo. They have been ALPEs, [a chain of mountains, separating
supposed to be the same with the Altrigonae Italia from Gallia, Helvetia, and Germania.
of Ptolemy, and the Autrigones of Pliny. They extend from the Sinus Flanaticus or
Strab. 2. et Comment. Casauboni in locum.] Gulf of Carnero, at 'the top of the Gulf of
Allutius, or Albutius, a prince of the Venice, and the sources of the river Colapis
Celtiberi, to whom Scipio restored the beau or Kulpe, to Vada Sabatia or Sarona on the
tiful princess he had taken in battle. -
Gulf of Genoa. The whole extent, which is
ALMo, a small river near Rome, falling in a crescent form, Livy makes only 250
into the Tiber. [Now, the Dachia, a corrup miles, Pliny 700 miles. The true amount is
tion of Aqua d'Acio. At the Junction of this nearly 600 British miles. The name is said
stream with the Tiber, the priests of Cybele, to he derived from the ancient Scythian or
every year, on the 25th March, washed the Scandinavian term Alp, signifying a moun
statue and sacred things of the Goddess. vid. tain. They have been divided by both an
Lara.-Ovid. Fast.4, v.337.-Lucan.1,v.600.] cient and modern geographers into various
ALöA, festivals at Athens in honour of portions, of which the principal are, 1. Alpes
Bacchus and Ceres, by whose beneficence the Maritimac, Mont Viso: arising from the gulf
husbandmen received the recompense of their of Genoa and reaching inland to the sources
labours. The oblations were the fruits of the of the Varus or War. 2. Alpes Cottiae, Mont
earth. Ceres has been called, from this, Genevre, where Annibal is believed to have
Aloas and Alois. crossed into Italy. rid. Cottius. 3. Alpes
ALöEus, a giant, son of Titan and Terra. Graiae, Little St. Bernard, so called by the
He married Iphimedia, by whom Neptune ancients from Hercules being supposed to
had the twins, Othus and Ephialtus. Aloeus have passed this way from Spain into Italy.
educated them as his own, and from that 4. Alpes Penninae, Great St. Bernard, deriv
circumstance they have been called Aloides. ing their name from the Celtic Penn, a sum
They made war against the gods, and were mit, not as Livy and other ancient writers,
killed by Apollo and Diana. They grew up together with some moderns, pretend, from
nine inches every month, and were only nine Annibal having crossed into Italy by this path.
years old when they undertook the war. and who therefore make the orthography
Paus. 9, c. 29.—Virg. JEn. 6, v. 582.-Ho Paning from Paenus. 5. Alpes Summae, St.
mer. Il. 5, Od. 11. Gothard.—There are also the Alpes Lepon
Alóid Es and ALóidAE, the sons of Aloeus. tiae, Rhaeticæ, Juliae or Carnicae, &c. Among
vid. Aloeus. the Pennine Alps is Mont Blanc, 14,676 feet
ALöPE, daughter of Cercyon, king of Eleu high. The principal passes over the Alps at
sis, had a child by Neptune, whom she ex the present day are, that over the Great St.
posed in the woods, covered with a piece of Bernard, that over Mont Simplon, and that
her gown. The child was preserved, and over Mont St. Gothard. The manner in
carried to Alope's father, who, upon knowing which Annibal is said to have effected his pas
the gown, ordered his daughter to be put to sage over the Alps is now generally regarded
death. Neptune, who could notsave his mis as a fiction. Augustus first subdued the
tress, changed her into a fountain. The child wild and barbarous inhabitants of these re
called Hippothoon was preserved by some gions. Strab. 2 and 5.—Liv. 21, c.35 & 3.S.–
shepherds, and placed by Theseus upon his Polyb, 3, c. 47.]
grandfather's throne. Pans. 1, c. 5 and 39.— Alph Ela, a surname of Diana in Elis. It
Hygin. fab. 187. A town of Thessaly. was given her when the river Alpheus en
Plin. 4, c. 7.-Homer. Il. 2, v. 682. [An deavoured to ravish her without success.-
other in Attica. Another in Pontus. A surname of the nymph Arethusa, because
Another among the Locri.] loved by the Alpheus. Ovid. Met. 5, v.
Alopièce, an island in the Palus Maeo 487.
tis [near the mouth of the Tanais. Now Isle ALPHENUs, rid. Alfenus.
de Renards. Strab. 11.]——Another in the Alph Esiboea, daughter of the river Phle
Cimmerian Bosphorus. Plin. 4, c. 12.- geus, married Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus.
Another in the AEgean sea, opposite Smyrna. who had fled to her father's court after the
Id. 5, c. 31. murder of his mother. [vid. Alcmaeon.]
ALopkces, a small village of Attica, where She received as a bridal present, the famous
was the tomb of Anchimolius, whom the necklace which Polynices had given to Eri
Spartans had sent to deliver Athens from the phyle, to induce her to betray her husband
tyranny of the Pisistratidae. Socrates and Amphiaraus. Alcmaeon, being persecuted
Aristides were born there. JEschin. contra by the manes of his mother, left his wife by
Timarch.-Herodot. 5, c. 64. order of the oracle, and retired near the
Alos, [a town of Argolis——Another in Achelous, whose daughter Callirhoe had two
Phthiotis in Thessaly, upon the river Am sons by him, and begged of him, as a present.
phrysus.] Strab. 8.—Plin. 4, c. 7. the necklace which was then in the hands of
ALötla, festivals in Arcadia, in comme Alphesiboea. He endeavoured to obtain it,
moration of a victory gained over Lacedaemon and was killed by Temeneus and Axion, Al
by the Arcadians; [in which they took a phesiboea’s brothers, who thus revenged their
large number of prisoners (ºxaerºv;).] sister, who had been abandoned. Hygin.
ALPENUs, a city of the Locri, at the north |fab. 244.—Propert. 1, el. 15, v. 15.—Paus,
of Thermopylae. Herodot. 7, c. 176, &c. | B. c. 24.

Alphéus, now Alpheo, a famous river of temple of Jupiter Atabyrius.] After the
Peloponnesus, which rises in Arcadia, and at death of all his other sons, Catreus went af
ter passing through Elis, falls into the sea. ter his son Althaemenes; when he landed in
The god of this river fell in love with the Rhodes, the inhabitants attacked him, sup
nymph Arethusa, and pursued her till she posing him to be an enemy, and he was kill
was into a fountain by Diana. The ed by the hand of his own son. When Al
fountain Arethusa is in Ortygia, a small island
thatmenes knew that he had killed his father,
near Syracuse; and the ancients affirm, that he entreated the gods to remove him, and the
the river Alpheus passes under the sea from earth immediately opened, and swallowed
Peloponnesus, and without mingling itself him up, Apollod. 3, c. 2. (According to Dio
with the salt waters, rises again in Ortygia,dorus Siculus, he shunned the society of men
and joins the stream of Arethusa. If any after the fatal deed, and died eventually of
thing is thrown into the Alpheus in Elis, ac grief. Diod. 5, c. 59.]
cording to their uraditions, it will re-appear, ALtinum, a flourishing city of Italy, south
after some time, swimming on the waters of west of Aquileia, famous for its wool. Mar
Arethusa near Sicily. (It was a prevalent tial. 14, ep. 25.-Plin. 3, c. 18.
opinion among the ancients that rivers passed Altis, a sacred grove round Jupiter's tem
under ground for a considerable distance fromple at Olympia. Paus. 5, c. 10 & 15.
one place to another.] Hercules made use of ALUNTIUM, a town of Sicily. [Now Alon
the Alpheus to clean the stables of Augeas tio.] Plin. 5, c. 8 –Cic, in Verr. 4.
Strab. 6.—Wirg.-En. 3, v. 694.—Ovid. Met. ALY Attes, [a king of Lydia, father of
5, fab. 10.--Lucan. 3, v. 176.-Stat. Theb. 1 Croesus, succeeded Sardyattes. He drove
and 4.-Mela, 2, c. 7.-Paus. 5, c. 7, 1.6, c. the Cimmerians from Asia, and made war
21.-Marcellin. 25.-Plin. 2, c. 103. against Cyaxares king of the Medes, the
ALPHius Avirus, a writer in the age of grandson of Dejoces. He died after a reign
Severus, who gave an account of illustrious of 37 years, and after having brought to a
men, and an history of the Carthaginian war. close a war against the Milesians. An im
ALPixus, (CoENELIUs) a contemptible mense barrow or mound was raised upon his
poet, whom Horace ridicules for the awkward grave, composed of stones and earth. This
manner in which he introduces the death of is still visible within about five miles of Sardis
Memnon in a tragedy, and the pitiful style or Sart. An eclipse of the sun terminated a
with which he describes the Rhine in an epic battle between this monarch and Cyaxares.
poem he had attempted on the wars in Ger —Herod. 1, c. 16, 17, 103.]
many. Horat. 1, Sat.10, v. 36.-Julius, ALYBA, a country near Mysia. Homer. 11.
one of the chiefs of the Helvetii. Tacit. Hist. 2.
1, c. 68. ALycAEus, son of Sciron, was killed by
ALP1s, a river falling into the Danube. Theseus. A place in Megara received its
[Mannert supposes this to have been the same name from him. Plut. in Thes.
with the Enus or Inn. It is mentioned by ALYssus, a fountain of Arcadia, whose wa
Herodotus, 4, c. 29.) ters could cure the bite of a mad-dog. Paus.
ALsitºr, (a maritime town of Etruria, 8, c. 19.
south-east from Caere, now Palo. Sul. 8, v. AlyxothéE, or ALEx IrHOE, daughter of
475.] Dymus, was mother of Æsacus by Priam.
ALsus, a river of Achaia in Peloponnesus, Ovid...Met. 11, v. 763.
ſlowing from mount Sipylus. Paus. 7, c. 27. ALyz1A, a town of Acarnania on the wes
ALTHAEA, daughter of Thestius and Eu tern mouth of the Achelous, opposite to the
rythemis, married OEneus, king of Calydon, Echinades. Cic. ad Fam. 16, ep. 2.
by whom she had many children, among AMADocus, a king of Thrace, defeated by
whom was Meleager. When Althaea brought his antagonist Seuthes. Aristot. 5. Polit. 10.
forth Meleager, the Parcae placed a log of AMAGE, a queen of Sarmatia, remarkable
for her justice and fortitude. Polyten. 9, c.
wood in the fire, and said, that as long as it 56. r

was preserved, so long would the life of the

child just born be prolonged. The mother AMALTHAEA, daughter of Melissus king of
saved the wood from the flames, and kept it Crete, fed Jupiter with goat's milk. Hence
very carefully; but when Meleager killed some authors have called her a goat, and
his two uncles, Althaea's brothers, Althaea, to have maintained that Jupiter, to reward her
revenge their death, threw the log into the kindnesses, placed her in heaven as a con
fire, and as soon as it was burnt, Meleager stellation, and gave one of her horns to the
expired. She was afterwards so sorry for nymphs who had taken care of his infant
the death which she had caused, that she kill years. This horn was called the horn of
ed herself, unable to survive her son. vid. plenty, and had the power to give the nymphs
Meleager—Ovid. Met. 8, ſab. 4.—Homer. whatever they desired. Diod. 3, 4, and 5.-
It 9–Paus. 8, c. 45, 1.10, c. 31.—Apollod. Orid. Fast. 5, v. 113.—Strab. 10–Hygin.
1, c. 8. fab. 139.—Paus. 7, c. 26.--A Sibyl of Cu
Alth/EMEs Es, a son of Catreus king of mae, called also Hierophile and Demophile.
Crete. Hearing that he was to be his father's She is supposed to be the same who brought
rurderer, he fled to Rhodes, where he made nine books of prophecies to Tarquin king of
* *ttlement to avoid becoming a parricide, Rome, &c. Varro.--Tibul. 2, el. 5, V. ‘’’.
and Luilt, on Mount Atabyrus, the famous [rid. Sibyllae.]

AMALTHEumſ, a public place which Atti vid. Amestris.]—A city of Paphlagonia,

cus had opened in his country-house, called on the Euxine sea, [now Amastro.] Catull.
Amalthea in Epirus, and provided with every AMAsthus, one of the auxiliaries of Per
thing which could furnish entertainment and ses, against Æetes king of Colchis, killed by
convey instruction. Cic. ad Attic. 1, ep Argus, son of Phryxus. Flacc. 6, v. 544.
13. AMATA, the wife of king Latinus. She
AMANUs, [a continuation of the chain of had betrothed her daughter Lavinia to Tur
Mount Taurus, running from north-east to nus, before the arrival of Æneas in Italy.
south-west. It is situate at the eastern ex She zealously favoured the interest of Turnus;
tremity of the Mediterranean, near the Gulf and when her daughter was given in mar
of Issus, and separates Cilicia from Syria. riage to Æneas, she hung herself to avoid the
The defile or pass in these mountains was sight of her son-in-law. Virg. AEn. 7, &c.
called Portus Amanicus, or Pylae Syriae. AMáthus, (gen. untis) a city on the south
The modern name of the chain is, according ern side of the island of Cyprus, particularly
to Mannert, Almadag; but, according to D’ dedicated to Venus. The island is sometimes
Anville. Al-Lucan. Strab. 14–Xen. Anab. called Amathusia, a name not unfrequently
1, c. 4.] applied to the goddess of the place. [Ama
CN. SAL. AMANDUs, a rebel general under thus was afterwards called Limmesol, but is
Dioclesian, who assumed imperial honours, now utterly destoyed. Its site however is
and was at last conquered by Dioclesian's still called Limmesol.Antica.] Virg. .ºn. 10,
colleague. v. 51.-Ptol. 5, c. 14.
AMANTEs or AMANTIN1, a people of Il AMAxia, (vid. Hamaxia.]
lyricum descended from the Abantes of Pho [AMAxitus, a borough of Troas, where
cis Callimach. Apollo had a temple, and where some sup
AMAnus, [or OMinus, the deity of the an pose Chryses to have officiated.]
cient Persians, which they believed to be the AMAzéNEs or MAzENEs, a prince of the
sun, or the perpetual fire adored by them as island Ooracta, who sailed for sometime with
an image or emblem of the sun.] the Macedonians and Nearchus in Alexan
AMânăcus, an attendant of Cinyras, der's expedition into the east. Arrian. in
changed into marjoram. Indic.
• AMARD1, a nation near the Caspian sea. AMAzóNES or AMAzoN IDEs, a nation of
Mela, 1, c. 3. famous women who lived near the river Ther
AMARYllis, the name of a country wo modon in Cappadocia. All their life was em
man in Virgil's eclogues. Some commenta ployed in wars and manly exercises. They
tors have supposed, that the poet spoke of never had any commerce with the other sex:
Rome under this fictitious appellation. but, only for the sake of propagation, they
AMARYNceus, a king of the Epeans, bu visited the inhabitants of the neighbouring
ried at Bupra ium. Strab. 8.-Paus. 8, c. 1. country for a few days, and the male children
AMARYNThus, a village of Euboea whence which they brought forth were given to the
Diana is called Amarysia, and her festivals in fathers: according to Justin, they were
that town Amarynthia. Paus. 1, c. 31. strangled as soon as born, and Diodorus says
AMAs, a mountain of Laconia, [near Gy that they maimed them and distorted their
thium. Paus. 3. limbs. The females were carefully educated
AMAs ENUs, a small river of Latium fall with their mothers, in the labours of war;
ing into the Tyrrhene sea, [now, la Toppia.] their right breast was burnt off, that they
P'urg. Jºn. 7, v. 685. might hurl a javelin with more force, and
AMAsia or AM asEA, a city of Pontus, make a better use of the bow; from that cir
where Vlithridates the Great, and Strabo the cumstance, their name is derived (a non,
geographer, were born. [It was situate on **{or, mamma). They founded an extensive
the Iris. Its modern name is Amasieh.] Strab. empire in Asia Minor, along the shores of the
12.-Plan. 6, c. 3. Euxine, and near the Thermodon. They
AMAsis, a man who, from a common sol were defeated in a battle near the Thermo
dier, became king of Egypt. He died before don by the Greeks, [who after their victory.
the invasion of his country by Canbyses king endeavoured to carry them away in ships to
of Persia. He made a law, that every one of their own country; but the Amazons when at
his subjects should yearly give an account to sea, rose upon and overpowered the crews.
the public magistrates, of the manner in Being ignorant of navigation, they were dri
which he supported himself. He refused to ven by the winds and waves to the shores of
the Palus Maeotis. From their intercourse
continue in alliance with Polycrates the ty
rant of Samos, on account of his uncommon with the Scythians in this quarter, sprang the
prosperity. When Cambyses came into Sarmatae.] Themyscyra was the most capi
Egypt, he ordered the body of Amasis to be tal of their towns. Smyrna, Magnesia, Thya
dug up, and to be insulted and burnt; an ac tira, and Ephesus, according to some authors,
tion which was very offensive to the religious were built by them. Diodorus I. 3, mentions
notions of the Egyptians. Herodot. 1, 2, 3. a nation of Amazons in Africa, more ancient
AMAsthis, the wife of Dionysius, tyrant of than those of Asia. Some authors, among
[Heraclea in Pontus,) was sister to Darius, whom is Strabo, deny the existence of the Am
whom Alexander conquered. Strab. azons, and of a republic supported and go
Also, the wife of Xerxes, king of Persia. verned by women, who banished or extirpa

ted all their males; but others particularly were called eacra ambarvalia, because the
support it; and the latter says, that Pen victim was carried around the fields, (arva
thesilca, one of their queens, came to the ambwebat.) A crowd of country people fol
Trojan war, on the side of Priam, and that lowed, adorned with garlands of oak leaves,
she was killed by Achilles, and from that and singing the praises of the goddess, to
tine the glory and character of the Ama whom they offered libations of honey diluted
zous gradually decayed, and was totally for. with wine, and milk. Virg. Georg. 1, v.
gotten. The Amazons of Africa flourished 345. Macrob. 3, c. 5.]
long before the Trojan war, and many of their AMBEN's, a mountain of European Sar
actions have been attributed to those of Asia. matia. Flacc. 6, v. 85.
It is said, that after they had almost subdued AM biñN UM, a town of Belgium, [ancient
all Asia, they invaded Attica, and were con ly Samarobriva,] now .Amiens. Its inhabit
quered by Theseus. Their most famous ac auts conspired against J. Caesar. Caes. 2,
tions were, their expedition against Priam, bell. G. c. 4.
and afterwards the assistance they gave him AM blatinus Vicus, a village of Ger
during the Trojan war ; and their invasion many, where the emperor Caligula was born,
of Attica, to punish Theseus, who had carried [Between Confluentes and Baudobriga, sup
away Antiope, one of their queens. They posed by some to be now Capelle on the
were also conquered by Bellerophon and Rhine; according to others Konigstuhl. [Sue
Hercules. Among their queens, Hippolyte, ton. in Gal. 8.
Antiope, Lampeto, Marpesia, &c. are fa AM bigAtus, a king of the Celtae, in the
Inous. Curtius says, that Thalestris, one of time of Tarquinius Priscus. Seeing the great
their queens, came to Alexander whilst he population of his country, he sent his two ne
was pursuing his conquests in Asia, for the phews, Sigovesus and Bellovesus, with two
sake of raising children from a man of such colonies, in quest of new settlements; the
military reputation; and that after she had former towards the Hercynian woods, and
remained 13 days with him, she retired into the other towards Italy. Liv. 5, c. 34, &c.
her country. The Amazons were such ex AM biorix, a king of [one half of the Ebu
pert archers, that, to denote the goodness of a rones in Gaul, Cativolcus being king of the
bow or quiver, it was usual to call it Ama. other half. He was an inveterate foe to the
zonian. [The history of the Amazons may Romans, and after being defeated, narrowly
have had some slight foundation in truth; as, escaped the pursuit of Caesar's men. Cars.
for example, the women of some one tribe of B. G. 6, c. 43.] -

barbarians may have lost their husbands in AMBLADA, a town of Pisidia. Strab.
battle. and remained for a short time in a AMBRAcia, [the royal city of Pyrrhus and
state of widowhood, but a community of wo his race, in Epirus, on the river Arethon.
men never could have been of long continu This river has communicated the name of
ance. While the geographical knowledge of L'Arta to a city a little above the site of the
the Greeks was in its infancy, we find these ancient Ambracia. The ſounding of Nico
female warriors located by them in the heart polis caused the decline of Ambracia. vid.
of Asia Minor; they are afterwards removed Nicopolis. Mela, 2, c. 3.-Plin. 4, c. 1.-
to the shores of Pontus, and we finally lose Strab. 10.]
sight of them amid the wilds of Scythia. This AMB RAcius SINUs, a bay of the Ionian
frequent change of location is no weak argu sea, near Ambracia, about 300 stadia deep,
ment towards proving that the Amazonian narrow at the entrance, but within near 100
nationnever existed.} Virg...En. 5, v.311.- stadia in breadth, and now called the gulph
Jormand. de Reb. Get. c. 7.-Philostr. Icon, of [L’Arta..] Polyb.4, c. 63.-Mela, 2, c. 3.-
2, c. 5.-Justin. 2, c. 4.—Curt. 6, c.5.—Plin. Flor. 4, c. 11.-Strab. 10.
6, c. 7.1. 14, c. 8, 1.36, c. 5.-Herodot. 4, c. AMBRöNEs, [a people of Gaul. They in
110–Strab. 11.-Diod. 2–Dionys. Hal. 4. vaded the Roman territories along with the
—Paur. 7, c. 2.-Plut. in Thes-Apollod. 3, Cimbri and Teutones, and were defeated
c. 3 and 5-Hygin. fab. 14 and 163. with great slaughter by Marius. Plut. in
Amazoxia, a celebrated mistress of the .Marwo.]
emperor Commodus. The country of the AM brosia, festivals observed in honour of
Amazons, near the Caspian sea. Bacchus, [in almost all the countries of
Awazosſum, a place in Atica, where Greece.] They were the same as the Bru
Theseus obtained a victory over the Ama malia of the Romans. [The food on which
Łºz. the gods were supposed to ſeed. The word
An azoxics, a surname of Apollo at Lace signifies immortal, being compounded of a
diemon. non, and 3,0ter, mortºlis. Their drink was
Amaaaat, a people of Gallia Celtica, re nectar. The term Ambrosia, according to
lated to the Ædui, [supposed to have dwelt Wedelius, is sometimes used to denote honey,
on the Arar, a little north of its junction with sometimes wine, sometimes perfumes, and
the Rho-ianis.) Caes. bell. G. 1, c. 11. particularly ambergris; sometimes the me
[Awaaavalia, sacred rites in honour of thod and ingredients for embalming and pre
Ceras, previous to the commencement of serving dead bodies; and sometimes for a state
raping. The fratres Ambarvales, who were of Ambrosius,
immortality.]bishop of Milan, obliged
. -
twelve in number, offered up on this occasion emperor Theodosius to make penance for the
sacrifees for the fertility of the ground, which
F 41

murder of the people of Thessalonica, and commonly denominated Diar-Bekir, from the
distinguished himself by his writings, espe: name of its district. Ammian. 19.]
cially against the Arians. His 3 books de of Amilcar, a Carthaginian general of great
..ficiis are still extant, besides 8 hymns on the eloquence and cunning, surnamed Rhodanus.
creation. His style is not inelegant, but his When the Carthaginians were afraid of Alex
diction is sententious, his opinions eccentric, ander, Amilcar went to his camp, gained his
though his subject is diversified by copious confidence, and secretly transmitted an ac
ness of thought. He died A. D. 397. The count of all his schemes to Carthage. Tro
best edition of his works is that of the Bene gus. 21, c. 6. A Carthaginian, whom the
dictines, 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1686. Syracusians called to their assistance against
AM bayssus, a city of Phocis, [betwe. the tyrant Agathocles, who besieged their
two chains of mountains, west of Lebadea, city. [He was chosen umpire by the con
and north-west of Anticyra, which receives tending parties, and brought about a peace.
its name from a hero of the same name. Paus. Agathocles, afterwards, injuring the allies of
10, c. 35. Carthage in Sicily, and Amilcar not interpos
AMBUBAJAR, Syrian women of immoral ing, the latter was summoned to Carthage to
lives, who, in the dissolute period of Rome, at trial, but died in Sicily before he could obey
tended ſestivals and assemblies as minstrels. the summons.] Diod. 20.-Justin. 22, c. 2
The name is derived by some from Syrian and 3.−A Carthaginian, surnamed Barcas,
words, which signify a flute. Horat. 1, Sat. father to the celebrated Annibal. He was
2.—Suet. in Ner. 27. general in Sicily during the first Punic war;
AMBUL11, a surname of Castor and Pollux, and after a peace had been made with the
in Sparta. [They were so named, it is said, Romans, he quelled [an insurrection of the
from 2 a.Conn, delay, because it was thought Lybians and Gallic mercenaries,) who had
that they could delay the approach of death.] hesieged Carthage, and taken many towns of
AMELEs, a river of hell, whose waters no Africa, and rendered themselves so formida
vessel could contain. Plut. 10, de Rep. ble to the Carthaginians that the latter beg
AMENANUs, a river of Sicily, near mount ged and obtained assistance from Rome. Af
MEtna, now [Judicello..] Strab. 5. ter this, he passed into Spain, with his son
AMENIDEs, a secretary of Darius the last Annibal, who was but nine years of age, and
king of Persia. Alexander set him over the laid the foundation of the town of Barcelona.
Ariaspa, Euergetae. Curt. 7, c. 3. He was killed in a battle against the Vettones,
AMERIA, [now .1melia, a town of Umbria, B.C. 237. He had formed the plan of an in
south-west of Spoletum. Roscius was a native vasion of Italy, by crossing the Alps, which
of this place. The whole of its territory was his son afterwards carried into execution.
assigned by Augustus to his veteran soldiers.] His great enmity to the Romans was the
AMEstaštus, a town of Sicily, near the cause of the second Punic war. He used to
Halesus. The Romans besieged it for seven say of his three sons, that he kept three lions
months, and it yielded at last after a third to devour the Roman power. C. Nep. in Pit.
siege, and the inhabitants were sold as slaves. Liv. 21, c. 1–Polyb. 2–ſ-Appian. 8, c. 5.j
[It is called Myttistratus by Polybius, and A Carthaginian general, who assisted
Mystraton by Diodorus Siculus. It is now the Insubres against Rome, and was taken
Jſistretta, in the Val. de Demona.]—Polyb. by Cu. Cornelius. Lir. 32, c. 30, l. 33, c. 8.
3. c. 24. —A son of Hanno, defeated in Sicily by
AMEstris, queen of Persia, was wife to Gelon, the same day that Xerxes was defeat
Xerxes. [Having discovered an intrigue be ed at Salamis by Themistocles. . [Herodotus
tween her husband and Artaynta, and imput says, that he disappeared after the battle and
ing all the blame solely to the mother of was never again seen; and adds a report
the latter, she requested her from the of the Carthaginians, that he threw himself
king at a royal festival; and, when she had into the flames of a sacrifice consisting of the
her in her power, cut off her breasts, nose, entire bodies of numerous victims, when he
ears, lips, and tongue, and sent her home in perceived the day to be lost. Polyaenus, how.
this shocking condition. She also on another ever, relates that Gelon destroyed him by a
occasion sacrificed 14 Persian children of no stratagem, while in the act of offering a sacri
ble birth, “to propitiate,” says Herodotus, fice. Herodot. 7, c. 166, &c. Polyaen. 1. .
“ the deity who is said to dwell beneath the 27, 2.]
earth.” Herod. 9, c. 110, 111 & 112, 7, c. AMilos, or AMILUs, a river of Maurita
114.]—A daughter of Oxyartes, wife to Ly nia, where the elephants go to wash them
simachus. Diod. 20. selves [at the new moon.] Plin. 8, c. 1.-
AMidA, [n city of Mesopotamia, taken A town of Arcadia. Paus. in Arcadic.
and destroyed by Sapor king of Persia. It AMIMöNE, or AMYMönk, a daughter of .
was re-peopled by the inhabitants of Nisibis, Danaus, changed into a fountain which is near ..."
after Iovian's treaty with the Persians, and by Argos, and ſlows into the lake Lerna. Ovid.
a new colony which was sent to it. It was .Met. 2, v.240.
ealled also Constantia, ſrom the emperor Con AMINEA, or AMMINEA, a part of Campa- -

stantius. Its ancient walls, constructed with nia, where the inhabitants were great bus.
black stones, have caused it to be termed by bandmen. Its wine was highly esteemed. . ; :
the Turks, Kara-Amid, although it is more |[The more correct opinion appears to be, º

that the Amminaean wine was so called be set, and boiling hot at midnight. Browne, an
cause made from a grape transplanted into English traveller, discovered in 1792 the site
Italy from Aminaeum, a place in Thessaly. of the temple of Ammon, in a fertile spot call
Macrobius, however, asserts that the Faler ed the Oasis of Siwah, situated in the midst
nian wine was more anciently called Aminae of deserts, five degrees nearly west of Cairo.
an.] Pºrg. G. 2, v. 97. In 1798, Horneman discovered the Fons So
AMINIAs, a famous pirate, whom Antigo lis. In 1816 Belzoni visited the spot, and
nus employed against Apollodorus, tyrant of found the fountain situated in the midst of a
Cassandria. Polyaen. 4, 6, c. 18. beautiful grove of palms. He visited the
[AMiséNus sixus, a gulf of the Euxine, fountain at noon, evening, midnight, and morn
east of the mouth of the Halys, on the coast ing. He had unfortunately no thermometer
of tº-
so called from the town of Ami with him, but judging from his feelings at
these several periods, it might be, 100" at
AMrsias, a comic poet, whom Aristopha midnight, 80° in the morning early, and at
mes ridiculed for his insipid verses. noon about 40°. The truth appears to be
[Artista, now the Ems, a river of Ger that no change takes place in the tempera
many, falling into the German ocean.] ture of the water, but in that of the surround
[AMisus, a city of Pontus, on the coast of ing atmosphere; for the well is deeply
the Euxine, north-west from the mouth of shaded, and about 60 feet deep. The ac
the Iris. It was founded by a colony of Mi count of Herodotus, who was never on the
lesians, was the largest city in Pontus next to spot, is evidently incorrect. He must have
Sinope, and was made by Pharnaces the me misunderstood his informer.]
tropolis of his kingdom. It is now called AMMöN11, a nation of Africa, who derived
Samsoun.] their origin from the Egyptians and Æthio
AMITERNUM, a town of the Sabines where pians. Their language was a mixture of that
Sallust was born. [Some remains of it are of the two people from whom they were des
discernible at the present day near St. Vitto cended. Herodot. 2, 3 and 4.
rino.] Plin. 3, c. 5.—Luc. 28, c. 45. AMMöNius, a christian philosopher, who
AMMIRNus. vid. Marcellinus. opened a school of platonic philosophy at A
AMMox, and HAMMow, a name of Jupiter, lexandria, 232 A. D. and had among his pu
worshipped in Libya. He appeared under the pils Origen and Plotinus. His treatise II*p,
form of a ram to Hercules, or, according to Ouolov, was published in 4to, by Valckenaer,
others, to Bacchus, who, with his army, suf L. Bat. 1739, A writer who gave an ac
fered the greatest extremities for want of count of sacrifices, as also a treatise on the
water, in the deserts of Africa, and showed harlots of Athens. Athen. 13.
him a fountain. Upon this Bacchus erected [AMMöchostus, a promontory of Cyprus,
a temple to his father, under the name of Ju whence by corruption comes the modern
piter Ammon, i, e. sandy, with the horns of name Famagosta, or more properly Angosle :
a ram. The ram, according to some, was now the principal place in the island.]
made a constellation. The temple of Jupiter AMNisus, a port of Crete, [south-east
Ammon was in the deserts of Libya, (12 days' from Cnossus, with a small river of the same
journey from Memphis...] It had a famous name, near which Lucina had a temple.
oracle, which, according to ancient tradition, The nymphs of the place were called Amai
was established about 18 centuries before the siades. Callum.
time of Augustus, by two doves, which flew AMoMEtus, a Greek historian. Plin. 6,
away fron. Thebais in Egypt, and came, one c. 17.
to Dodona, and the other to Libya, where the AMoR, the son of Venus, was the god of
people were soon informed of their divine love. rid. Cupido.
mission. The oracle of Hammon was con AMoR gos, one of the islands called Cycla
sulted by Hercules, Perseus, and others; but des. [Its modern name is .4mago. To this
when it pronounced Alexander to be the son island criminals were sometimes banished,
of Jupiter, such flattery destroyed the longes Strab. 10.
tablished reputation of this once famous ora AMPELus, a promontory of Samos.
tle, and we learn that in the age of Plu [Another of Macedonia, near the mouth of
tarch it was scarce known. [Though the tem the Axius-A town of Liguria.] A fa
ple was surrounded by a sandy desert, yet its vourite of Bacchus, son of a satyr and a
immediate vicinity abounded with trees bear nymph, made a constellation after death.
ing plenty of fruit, and was ornamented with Ovid. Fast. 3, v.407.
fountains.]—Herodot. in Melpom.—Curt.4, c. AMPELÜsia, a promontory of Africa, in
7–Plin.6, c. 29.-Strab. 1, il and 17.-Plut. Mauritania, [now Cape Spartel..] Mela, 1, c,
rurorae. edi desierint, & in Isid.—Curt. 6, 5 and 6.
c. 10.1. 10, c. 5.—Herodot. 1, c. 6, l.2, c. 32 AMPHIARäus, son of Oicleus, or, accord
and 55, l. 4. e. 44.—Paus. 3, c. 18, 1. 4. c. 23. ing to others, of Apollo, by Hypermnestra,
-Hygin. tab. 133. Poet. astr. 2, c. 20.— was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, and
Jutin. I. c. 9, 1. 11, c. 11. [Here was the accompanied the Argonautsintheir expedition
famous Fons Solis, which, according to Hero He was famous for his knowledge of futuri
dotus, was warn at dawn, cool as the day ad ty, and thence he is called by some son of A
*anced, excessively cold at noon, diminishing pollo.
AdrastusHe married
king Eriphyle,
of Argos, by whomthe sistertwo
he had ºf
in cºldness as the day declined, warm at sun

sons, Alcmaeon and Amphilochus. When A and people of Greece, who represented their
drastus, at the request of Polynices, declared respective nations in a general assembly.]
war against Thebes, Amphiaraus secreted This august assembly consisted of 12 persons
himself, not to accompany his brother-in-law originally, sent [by the Ionians, Dorians, Per
in an expedition in which he knew he was to baºbians, Boeotians, Magnesians, Achaeans,
perish. But Eriphyle, who knew where he Phthians, Melians, Dolopians, AEnianians,
had concealed himself, was prevailed upon Delphians, and Phocians.] Other cities in
to betray him by Adrastus, who gave her, as process of time sent also some of their citi.
a reward for her perfidy, a famous golden zens to the council of the Amphictyons, and
necklace set with diamonds. Amphiara's io the age of Antoninus Pius, they were in
being thus discovered, went to the war, but creased to the number of 30. They general
previously charged his son Alcmaeon to put ly met twice every year at Delphi, and some
to death his mother Eriphyle, as soon as he times sat at Thermopylae. [This council
was informed that he was killed. The The was principally instituted, to unite together
ban war was fatal to the Argives, and Am the various Grecian communities in a com
phiaraus was swallowed up in his chariot mon bond of amity, and make them
by the earth as he fled from Periclymenes. mutually vigilant for the tranquillity and
[The earth, it is said, was split asunder by a happiness of their common country. They
thunderbolt, and this was ascribed to the kind were also the protectors of the Delphic
interposition of Jupiter, who thus saved Am oracle, the guardians of its treasures,
phiaraus from the dishonour of being killed and adjudged all differences arising between
by his pursuer.] The news of his death was the Delphians and those who came to consult
brought to Alcmaeon, who immediately exe the oracle.] When the Phocians plundered
cuted his father's command, and murdered the temple of Delphi, the Amphictyons de
Eriphyle. Amphiaraus received divine hon clared war against them, and this war was
ours after death, and had a celebrated temple supported by all the states of Greece, and
and oracle at Oropos in Attica. His statue lasted 10 years. The Phocians with their al
was made of white marble, and near his tem lies, the Lacedaemonians, were deprived of
ple was a fountain, whose waters were ever the privilege of sitting in the council of the
held sacred. They only who had consulted Amphictyons, and the Macedonians were
his oracle, or had been delivered from a dis admitted in their place, for their services in
ease, were permitted to bathe in it, after support of the war. About 60 years after,
which they threw pieces of gold and silver when Brennus, with the Gauls, invaded
into the stream. Those who consulted the Greece, the Phocians behaved with such
oracle of Amphiaraus, first purified them courage, that they were reinstated in all their
selves, and abstained from food for 24 hours, former privileges. Before they proceeded to
and three days from wine, after which they business, the Amphictyons sacrificed an ox
sacrificed a ram to the prophet, and spread to the god of Delphi, and cut his flesh into
the skin upon the ground, upon which they small pieces, intimating that union and una
slept in expectation of receiving in a dream nimity prevailed in the several cities which
the answer of the oracle. Plutarch, de orat. they represented. Their decisions were held
defect. mentions, that the oracle of Amphia sacred and inviolable, and even arms were
raus was once consulted in the time of Xerxes, taken up to enforce them. Paus. in Phocit.
by one of the servants of Mardonius, for his & Achaic.—Strab. 8.—Suidas.-Hesych
master, who was then with an army in JEschin.
Greece; and that the servant, when asleep, AMphicleA, a town of Phocis, where Bac
saw, in a dream, [a minister of the god ap chus had a temple.
proach him, who commanded him to be gone, AMPHIDROMIA, a festival observed by pri
and upon his refusal threw a large stone at vate families at Athens, the fifth day after
his head, so that he believed himself killed the birth of every child. It was customary
by the blow.] This oracle was verified in to run round the fire with the child in their
the death of Mardonius, who was actually arms : whence the name of the festival.
killed by the blow of a stone he received on AMphic ENIA, a town [situate in the
the head. Cic. de Div. 1, c. 40.—Philost. in southern part of Elis, comprehended by the
tit. Apollon. 2, c. 11–Homer. Od. 15, v.243, * in Messenia.] Stat. 4. Theb. v.
&c.—Hygin. fab. 70, 73,128 and 150.—Diod. 178.
4.—Ovid. 9, fab. 10.—Paus. 1, c. 34, l. 2, c. AMPHILöchus, a son of Amphiaraus and
37, 1.9, c. 8 and 19.—JEschyl. Sept. ante Theb Eriphyle. After the Trojan war, he left Ar
—Apollod. 1, c. 8 and 9, 1.3, c. 6, &c.—Strab.8 gos, his native country, [retired to Acarnania,
AMphicañTEs, an historian, who wrote and built here Argos Amphilochium. [Strab.
the lives of illustrious men. Diog. 7.—Paus. 2, c. 18. An Athenian philoso
AMphictyon, son of Deucalion and Pyr pher who wrote upon argiculture. Parro.
rha, reigned at Athens after Cranaus, and de R. R. 1.
first attempted to give the interpretation of AMPHYLútus, a soothsayer of Acarnania.
dreams, and to draw omens. Some say, that who, [addressing Pisistratus in a fit of appa
a deluge happened in his age, [which destroy rently divine inspiration, encouraged him] to
ed the greater part of the inhabitants of seize the sovereign power of Athens. Herodot.
Greece.] Justin. 2, c. 6. 1, c. 62.
AM rareryones, [the deputies of the cities AMPH1xoMUs and ANAPItts, two brothers,

who, when Catana and the neighbouring ci country, and built a city, which they called
ties were in flames, by an eruption from Amphipolis, i.e. a town surrounded on all
mount £tna, saved their parents upon their sides, because the Strymon flowed all around
shoulders. The fire, as it is said, spared it. [D'Anville says, that it signifies a town
them while it consumed others by their side; belonging to two countries, viz. Macedonia
and Pluto, to reward their uncommon piety. and Thrace. It was also called Ennea Ho
placed them after death in the island of doi, or the nine ways; because Phyllis, who
Leuce, and they received divine honours in had been deserted by Demophoon, made nine
Sicily. Pal. Mar. 5, c. 4.—Strab. 6.-Ital. tournies here to watch for his return. It had
14, v. 197.-Seneca. de Benef. also other names, such as Myrica, Eion, the
Amphiox, was a son of Jupiter, by An town of Mars, &c. It is now called Iambo
tiope daughter of Nycteus, who had married ii.] It was the cause of many wars between
Lycus, and had been repudiated by him when the Athenians and Spartans. Thucyd. 4, c.
he married Dirce. Amphion was born at 102, &c.—Herodot. 5, c. 1-6, l. 7, c. 114.—
the same birth as Zethus, on mount Citheron Diod. 11, 12, &c.—C. Nep. in Cim.
where Antiope had fled to avoid the resent. A MPH upy Ros, a surname of Diana, be
ment of Dirce; and the two children were ause she carries a torch in both her hands.
exposed in the woods, but preserved by a Sophocles in Trach.
shepherd. rºd. Antiope. When Amphion AMPhis, a Greek comic poet of Athens,
grew up, he cultivated poetry, and made an son of Amphicrates, contemporary with Pla
uncommon progress in music. [Mercury was to. Besides his comedies, he wrote other
his instructor in this art, and gave him the pieces, which are now lost. Suidas.-Diog.
lyre, by the sound of which he is said to have AMPH is BAENA, a two-headed serpent in
made the stones move, and to have thus built the deserts of Libya, whose bite was veno
with them the walls ef Thehes. He was the
mous and deadly. Lucan. 9, v 719.
first who raised an altar to this god..] Zethus
AMphiss A, or Issa, a daughter of Ma
and Amphion united to avenge the wrongs careus, beloved by Apollo. She gave her
which their mother had suffered from the name to [the chief city of the Locri Ozolae,
cruelties of Dirce. They besieged and too now Salona, whence also the Sinus Crissaeus
Thebes, put Lycus to death, and tied his wife is now called the gulf of Salona.] Lir. 37, c.
to the tail of a wild bull, who dragged her 5.—Ovid. Met 15, v. 703.-Lucan. 3, v. 172.
through precipices till she expired. The Amphistin Es, a man so naturally desti
fable of Amphion's moving stones and raising tute of intellects, that he seldom remember
the walls of Thebes at the sound of his lyre, ed that he ever had a father. He wished to
has been explained by supposing that he per learn arithmetic, butnever could comprehend
suaded, by his eloquence, a wild and uncivi. beyond the number 5. Aristot. probl. 4.
lized people to unite together and build a town Amphith Eätrum, [an edifice of an ellip
to protect themselves against the attacks of tical form, used for exhibiting combats of
their enemies. Homer. Od. 11.-Apollod, gladiators, wild beasts, and other spectacles.
3, c. 5 and 10.-Paus. 6, c. 6, 1.6, c. 20, 1. The word is derived from a woº and Bºatzov,
9, c. 5 and 17. –Propert. 3, el. 15.—Ovid. de from the spectators being so ranged as to see
.irt. .1m. 3, v. 32.3.−Horat. 3, od. 11 Art. equally well from every side. The first du
Poet. v. 394.—Stat. Theb. 1, v. 10. [Ac rable amphitheatre of stone, was built by
cording to another and probably more cor Statilius Taurus, at the desire of Augustus.
rect account, Amphion having seized the The largest one was begun by Vespasian and
crown of Thebes from Laius the father of completed by Titus, now called Colisaeum,
GEdipus, called the city Thebes in honour from the Colossus or large statue of Nero
of his aunt by the mother’s side. Homer says which Vespasian transported to the square
that in order to strengthen his usurped pow in front of it. It is said to have contained
er, he fortified Thebes with a wall. Homer 87,000 spectators, to have been 5 years in
however says nothing of his skill in music, building, and to have cost a sum equal to 10
or of his building the walls by means of his millions of crowns. 12,000 Jews were em
lyre. Pausanias and Pliny make him to have ployed upon it, who were made slaves at the
acquired his musical reputation from his al conquest of Jerusalem. Its magnificent ruins
liance with the family of Tantalus, whose still remain.—There are amphitheatres still
daughter Niobe, he married, and they both standing, in various degrees of perfection, at
*ay that he learned music in Lydia, and several other places besides Rome. At Pola
bringing it thence into Greece was called the in Istria, at Nºismes, at Arles, Bourdeaur,
inventor of the Lydian mode.] A famous and particularly at Verona.-The place
painter and statuary, son of Ancestor of Gnos where the gladiators fought was called Are
mus. Plin. 36, c. 10. na, because it was covered with sand or saw
AmiraipóLEs, magistrates appointed at dust to prevent the gladiators from sliding,
Syracuse, by Timoleon, after the expulsion of and to absorb the blood.]
Dionysius the younger. The office existed AMPHITRITE, daughter of Oceanus and
for above 300 years. Diod. 16. Tethys, married Neptune, though she had
Arphipolis, a town on the Strymon, be made a vow of perpetual celibacy. . She had
tween Macedonia and Thrace. An Athenian by him Triton, one of the sea deities. She
enlany under Agnon, son of Nicias, drove the had a statue at Corinth in the temple of Nep
*trientinhabitants, called Edomians, from the tune. She is often taken for the sea itself.

Parro de L. L. 4.—Hesiod. Theog. 930.- in combat with Pollux. His tomb was cov
.Apollod. 3.—Cladian. de Rapt. Pros. 1, v. ered, according to some, with a laurel, and
104.—Ovid. Met. I, v. 14-One of the hence they maintain that the harbour was al
Nereides. so called Daphnes Portus. Arrian, however,
Amphitryon, a Theban prince, son of speaks of a harbour of the insane Daphne,
Alcaeus and Hipponome. vid. Alcmena. near this, which no doubt has given rise to
AM PhotéRus, was appointed commander the mistake.]
of a fleet in the Hellespont by Alexande . AMYCLA, a daughter of Niobe, who, with
Curt. 8, c. 1. her sister Meliboea, was spared by Diana,
AMPHRYsus, a river of Thessaly, near when her mother boasted herself greater than
which Apollo, when banished from heaven, Diana. Paus. 2, c. 22. Homer says that
fed the flocks of king Admetus. From this all the daughters perished. Il. 24. vid. Ni
circumstance the god has been called .4m obe. The nurse of Alcibiades.
phryssius, and his priestess Amphryssia. AMYcLAE, [a town of Haly, said to have
Ovid. Met. 1, v. 580.-Lucan. 6. v. 367.- been peopled from Amyclac in Laconia. Its
Wirg. G. 3, v. 2...En. 6, v. 398.-A river situation has not been clearly ascertained,
of Phrygia whose waters rendered women though it is supposed to have been between
liable to barrenness. Plin. 32, c. 2. Terracina and Caieta.] The inhabitants were
AMPIA LABIENA LEx was enacted by T. strict followers of the precepts of Pythagoras,
Ampius and A. Labienus, tribunes of the and therefore abstained from flesh. [They
people, A. U. C. 663. It gave Pompey the were compelled to abandon their dwellings,
Great the privilege of appearing in triumphal from the number of serpents which infested
robes and with a golden crown at the Cir them, which they thought impious to de
censian games, and with the praetexta and a stroy, though in their own defence.} Plin.8,
golden crown [in the theatre, which mark of c. 29 Once a false report prevailed in Amy.
distinction he used only once. Well. Palerc.2, claº, that the enemies were coming to storm
c. 40.] it; upon which the inhabitants made a law,
AMsANctus, a lake in the country of the [which prohibited any person from reporting
Hirpini, at the east of Capua, whose waters the approach of an enemy,) and when the
are so sulphureous that they infect and de enemy really arrived, no one mentioneditor
stroy whatever animals come near the place. took up arms in his own defence, and the town
It was through this place that Virgil made was easily taken. From this circumstance
the fury Alecto descend into hell, after her the epithet of tacita has been given to Amy.
visit to the upper regions. [It is now called siae. [According to others it was so called
Muſita.] Virg. .ºn. 7, v. 565.-Cie. de Div. from the prevalence of the Pythagorean sys
1, c. 36. tem there, which recommended silence.) Wing.
AMULius, king of Alba, was son of Procas. ./En. 10, v. 564.—Sil. 8, v. 329. [A city of
and youngest brother to Numitor. The Laconia, south-west of Sparta, and near it.}
crown belonged to Numitor by right of birth; built by Amyclas. Castor and Pollux were
but Amulius dispossessed him of it, and even born there. The country was famous for
put to death his son Lausus, and consecrated dogs. Apollo, called Amyclacus, had a rich
his daughter Rhea Sylvia to the service of and magnificent temple there, surrounded
Vesta, to prevent her ever becoming a mo. with delightful groves. Paus. 3. c. 18–
ther. Yet, in spite of all these precautions, Stat. Theb. 4, v. 223.-Strab. 8.- Virg. G.3,
Rhea became pregnant by the god Mars, and v. 345.-Orid. de Art. Am. 2, v. 5.
brought forth twins, Romulus and Remu . AMY clas, son of Lacedaemon and Sparta,
Amulius, who was informed of this, ordere, built the city of Amyclac. His sister Eury.
the mother to be buried alive for violating the dice married Acrisius king of Argos, by whom
laws of Vesta, which enjoined perpetual chas. she had Danáe. Paus. 3, c.1, l. 7, c. 18.-
tity, and the two children to be thrown into The master of a ship in which Caesar em
the river. They were providentially saved barked in disguise. When Amyclas wished
by some shepherds, or, as others say, by a to put back to avoid a violent storm, Cæsar
she-wolf; and when they had attained the unveiling his head, discovered himself, and
years of manhood, they put to death the usur dding the pilot pursue his voyage, exclaim
per Amulius, and restored the crown to the d Caesarem rehis, Casarisque fortunam.
grandfather. Orid Fast. 3, v. 67.-Liv. 1. Lucan. 5, v. 520.
c 3 and 4.—Plut. in Romul.—Flor 1, c. 1. – AMY cus, son of Neptune, by Melia, or Bi
Dionys. Hul.—A celebrated painter. Plin thynis according to others, was king of the
85, c. 10. Bebryces. He was famous for his skill in the
[AMrsigAs, a river of Africa, forming the management of the cestus. and he challenged
boundary between Mauretania Caesariensis all strangers to a trial of strength. When
and Numidia, and falling into the sea, to the the Argonauts in their expedition stopped on
east of Igilgilis or Jigel. On a branch of it stood
his coasts, he treated them with great kind.
Cirta the capital of Numidia. The modern ness, and Pollux accepted his challenge, and
name is Wad-il-Kibir, i.e., the Great River.] killed him when he attempted to overcome
Amyc1 Pontus, [a harbour on the Thra him by fraud. Apollon. 2...Argon.—Theocrit.
clan Bosphorus, north of Nicopolis and south Id. 22.—Apollon. 1, c. 9.
of the temple of Jupiter Urius. Here Amy AMynon, a city of Paeonia in Macedonia,
cus, an ancient king of the Bebryces was slain [upon the Axius,) which sent auxiliaries to

Priam during the Trojan war. Homer. il.

quitted. Curt. 4, c. 15, I. 6, c. 9, 1.8, c. 12.
A Greek writer who composed several
AMYMöwe, daughter of Danaus and Furo works quoted by Athenaeus 10 and 12.
pa, married Enceladus, son of AEgyptus, AMyntiANUs, an historian in the age of
whom she murdered the first night of Antoninus, who wrote a treatise in commenda
her nuptials. She wounded a stayr with an tion of Philip, Olympias, and Alexander.
arrow which she had aimed at a stag. The AMYRicus CAMPUs, a plain of Thessaly.
satyr pursued her. and even attempted to oſ Polyb. 3.
fºr her violence, but Neptune delivered her. AMystis, a river of India falling into the
It was said, that she was the only one of the Ganges. [Mannert makes this river to be
50 sisters who was not condemned to fill a the same with the Patterea, near the modern
leaky tub with water in hell, because she hººd city of Hurdwar. Mannert. Anc. Geogr.
been continually employed, by order of her vol. 5. p. 93.] Arruan. in Indic.
father, in supplying the city of Argos with AMYTHAoN, a son of Cretheus king of Iol
water in a great drought. Neptune saw hºr chos, by Tyro. He married Idomene, by
in this employment, and was enamoured of whom he had Bias and Melampus. After
her. He carried her away, and in the place his father's death, he established himself in
Elis, with his brother Neleus, and re-esta
where she stood, he raised a fountain, by
striking a rock. The fountain has been call
blished or regulated the Olympic games.—
ed Amymone. She had Nauplius by Nep Melampus is called .4mythaonius, from his
father Amythaon. Virg. G. 3, v. 550.—Diod.
tune. Propert. 2, el. 26, v.46. —Apollod. 2.
—Strab. 8-Paus. 2, c. 37.-Orid. Amor 1, 4.—Apollod. 1.-Homer. Od. 11.
v.515–Hugin. fab. 169—A ſountain and AMytis, a daughter of Astyages, whom
rivulet of Peloponnesus, flowing through Ar Cyrus imarried. Ctesias. A daughter of
golis into the lake of Lerna. Ovid. Met. 2, Xerxes, who married Megabyzus, and dis
v. 240. graced herself by her debaucheries.
AMYNTAs 1st, was king of Macedonia af ANicEs or ANActes, a name given to
ter his father Alcetas. His son Alexander Castor and Pollux among the Athenians.
murdered the ambassadors of Megabyzus, Their festivals were called Anaceia. Plut.
for their wanton and insolent behaviour to the in Thes. Cic. N. D. 3, c. 21.
ladies of his father's court. Bubares. a Per ANACHARsis, [a Scythian philosopher,
sian general, was sent with an army to re was the son of a Scythian chief by a native
venge the death of the ambassadors; but in of Greece, and flourished about 600 years B.
stead of making war, he married the king's C. He was entrusted with an embassy to
daughter, and defended his possessions. Jus Athens, in the first year of the 47th Olympiad,
tin. 7, c. 3.-Herodot. 5, 7 and 8. The 592 B. C. He soºn became intimate with
second of that name was son of Menelaus, Solon and the principal citizens at Athens,
and king of Macedonia, after his murder of and was the first stranger upon whom the
Pausanias. He was expelled by the Illyrians Athenians conferred the right of citizenship.
and restored by the Thessalians. H. made After the death of Solon he left Athens, and
war against the Illyrians and Olynthians, travelled into other countries. On his return
[with the assistance of the Lacedaemonians,] to Scythia, he was slain with an arrow level
and lived to a great age. His wife Eury. led at him by the king's own hand, while
dice conspired against his life ; but her performing sacred rites to Cybele, in fulfil
snares were seasonably discovered by one of ment of a vow. It was his intention to have
his daughters by a former wife. He had introduced among his countrymen the civili
Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip, Alexan zation and worship of Greece, but his death
der the Great's father by his first wife; and unhappily frustrated this design. He was
by the other he had Archelaus Aridaeus, and distinguished for his wisdom, his temperance,
Menelaus. He reigned 24 years; and soon at his ingenious sayings, and for the manly ener
ter his death, his son Philip murdered ill his gy of his language. Two epistles bearing
brothers, and ascended the throne. Jus his name have come down to us, but they are
lin. 7, c. 4 and 6.—Diod. 14, &c. C. Nep. & generally considered as spurious He is said
Piuſ, in Pelopid. There is another king to have added the second fluke to the anchor,
ºf Macedonia of the same name, but of his and to have invented the potter’s wheel.]
life few particulars are recorded in history. The name of Anacharsis is become very ſa
-A man who succeeded Dejotarus, in the miliar to modern ears, by that elegant, valu
kingdom of Gallogracia. After his death it able, and truly classical work of Barthelemi,
became a Roman province under Augustus. called the travels of Anacharsis. Herodot.
Strab. 12. —One of Alexander's officers. 4, c. 46,47 and 48.—Plut. in Conviv.–Cic.
-Another officer who deserted to Darius, Tusc. 5, c. 32.—Strab. 7.
*nd was killed as he attempted to seize ANAcium, a mountain in Attica, with a
Egypt. Curt. 3, c.9.—A son of Antiochus, temple sacred to the Anaces. Polyaen. 1, c. 21.
who withdrew himself from Macedonia be ANAcrºon, a famous lyric poet of Teos,
ause he hated Alexander.——An officer in in Ionia, highly favoured by Polycrates, and
Alexander's cavalry. He had two hrothers, Hipparchus son of Pisistratus. He was of a
alled Simias and Polemon. He was accus lascivious and intemperate disposition, much
* ºf conspiracy against the king, on account given to drinking. His odes are still extant,
ºf his great intimacy with Philotas, and ac and the uncommon sweetness and elegance

of his poetry have been the admiration of Igle between the nothern and southern tº
every age and country. He lived to his 85th branches of the Euphrates, on which occa
year, and after every excess of pleasure and sion her statue of massy gold was carried off
debauchery, choked himself with a grape and broken to pieces.] Strab. 11.-Diana --
stone and expired. Plato says that he was was also worshipped under this name by the
descended from an illustrious family, and that Lydians. Plin. 33, c. 4.
Codrus, the last king of Athens, was one of ANāph E. [one of the Sporades, north-east
his progenitors. His statue was placed in the of Thera. It was said to have been made to
citadel of Athens, representing him as an rise by thunder from the bottom of the sea,
old drunken man, singing, with every mark in order to receive the Argonauts during a
of dissipation and intemperance. Anac.eon storm, on their return from Colchis. The
flourished 532 B.C. (Very few of the compo meaning of the fable evidently is, that the is:
sitions which usually go under his name are to laud was of volcanic origin. A temple was
be ascribed to Anacreon. The fragments col erected here to Apollo AEgletes or dazzling,
lected by Ursinus, with a few others, seem to in commemoration of the event.—The island
be his most genuine productions. The best is now called Nanphio.]
editions of Anacreon are, that of Maittaire, ANAPHLY stus, a small village of Attica
4to. London 1725, of which only one hundred near the sea, called after an ancient hero of
copies were printed, and the very correct the same name, who was son of Troezen. [Now
one of Barnes, 12mo. Cantab. 1721, to which Elimos.]
may be added that of Brunck, 12mo, Argen ANApus, a river of Fpirus. Thucyd. 2, c.
tor, 1786, [and that of Fischer, Lips. 1790. 82. Of Sicily, near Syracuse, Id. 6, c.96.
8vo. This last deserves in fact to be ranked ANAs, a river of Spain, [now, the Gun.
before all the others.] Paus. 1, c. 2, 25 — diana, from the Arabic, Wadi-Ana, i. e. the
Strab. 14.—AElian. P. H. 9, c. 4.—Horat. river Ana.]
epod. 14, v. 20.—Plin. 7, c. 7.—Herodot. 3, c. ANAURUs, a river of Thessaly, near the
121. foot of mount Pelion, where Jason lost one of
ANActoria and ANActorium, a town of his sandals. Callim. in Dian. A river of
Troas near Ida. Colwth.
Epirus, [north of Leucadia, at the entrance
of the Sinus Ambracius. It is now called ANAx, a son of Coelus and Terra, father
Ponizza.] It was founded by a Corinthian to Asterius, from whom Miletus has been call
colony, and was the cause of many quarrels ed Anactoria. Paus. 1, c. 36, 1.7, c. 2.
between the Corcyreans and Coriuthians.- ANAxAGóRAs, succeeded his father Me
Augustus carried the inhabitants to the city gapenthes on the throne of Argos.-A Cla.
of Nicopolis, after the battle of Actium. zomenian philosopher, son of Hegesibulus,
Strab. 10.-Thºcyd. 1, c. 55. –Plin. 4, c. 1, 1. disciple to Anaximenes, and preceptor to
5, c. 29.-An ancient name of Miletus. [Euripides and Pericles, to whom some add
ANADYoMENE, a valuable painting of Ve Socrates and Themistocles, but the latter
mus, represented as rising from the sea, by was born several years before the philoso
Apelles. Augustus bought it, and placed it pher.] He disregarded wealth and honours,
in the temple of J. Caesar. The lower part to indulge his fondness for meditation and
of it was a little defaced and there were philosophy. He applied himself to astrono
found no painters in Rome able to repair it. my, was acquainted with eclipses, and pre
Plin. 35, c. 10. dicted that one day a stone would fall from
ANAGNIA, now.Anagni, the capital of the the sun, which it is said really fell into the
Hernici in Latium. [It is 36 miles east of river AEgos. Anaxagoras travelled into E:
Rome.] Virg...En. 7, v.634.—Strab.5.—Ital, gypt for improvement, and used to say that
8, v. 392. he preferred a grain of wisdom to heaps of
ANAGogiA, a festival celebrated by the gold. Pericles was in the number of his pu:
people of Eryx in Sicily. in honour of Venus. pils, and often consulted him in matters of
.#Clian. V. H. 1, c. 15. H. .4.4, c. 2. state; and once dissuaded him for starving
ANAitis, a goddess of Armenia. The himself to death. [Several doctrines are ar
virgins who were consecrated to her service, cribed to Anaxagoras which might seem to
esteemed themselves more dignified by pub indicate no inconsiderable knowledge of na
lic prostitution. The festivals of the deity ture : such as, that the wind is produced by
were called Sacarum Festa: and when they the rarefaction of the air ; that the rainbow
were celebrated, both sexes assisted at the is the effect of the reflection of the solar rays
ceremony, and inebriated themselves to such from a thick cloud, placed oposite to it like
a degree that the whole was concluded by a a mirror; that the moon is an opaque body,
scene of the greatest lasciviousness and in enlightened by the sun, and inhabited, &c.
temperan, e. They were first instituted by With these, however, strange and absurb nº
Cyrus, when he marched against the Sacae, tions are found intermingled, for which evi"
and covered tables with the most exquisite dently we are indebted, not to the philoso:
dainties, that he might detain the enemy by pher, but to the writers who profess to state
the novelty and sweetness of food to which his opinions. There must have been either
they were unaccustomed, and thus easily de gross misconception or wilful misrepresenta"
stroy them. [The Romans under Antony tion on their part. They make him maintain
plundered the temple of this goddess in Aci that the sun was a flat circular mass of hot
lisene, a district of Armenia Major, in the an iron, scmewhat larger than the Peloponnesus:

and that the stars were formed from stones in a stone morter with iron hammers. He
whirled from the earth by violent circumvo bore this with much resignation, and exclaim
lution of its surrounding ether.] He wasac ed, “Pound the body of Anaxarchus, for thou
cused oſimpiety, and condemned to die; but dost not pound his soul.” Upon this, Nico
he ridiculed the sentence, and said it had longcreon threatened to cut out histongue, and A
been pronounced upon him by nature. Be naxarchus bit it off with his teeth, and spit it
ing asked whether his body should be carried out into the tyrant's face. Ovid. in Ib. v.
into his own country, he answered, no, as the 571.-Plut. in Symp. 7.—Diog. in Pita.-
rºad that led to the other side of the grave Cic. in Tusc. 2, c. 22.
was as long from one place as the other. His ANAxARETE, a girl of Salamis, who so ar
scholar Pericles pleaded eloquently and suc |rogantly despised the addresses of Iphis, a
cessfully for him, and the sentence of death youth of ignoble birth that the lover hung
was exchanged for banishment. In prison, |. at her door. She saw this sad spec
the philosopher is said to have attempted to |tacle without emotion or pity, and was chang
*quare the circle, or determine exactly the led into a stone. Ovid. Met. 14, v. 743.
proportion of its diameter to the circumfer ANAxisNob, a musician, whom M. Antony
ence. When the people of Lampsacus asked greatly honoured, and presented with the tri
him before his death, whether he wished any bute of four cities. Strab. 14.
thing to be done in commemoration of him: ANAxibia, a sister of Agamemnon, mo
Yes, says he, let the boys be allowed to play ther of seven sons and two daughters by Nes
on the anniversary of my death. This was |tor. Paus, 2, c. 29.-A daughter of Bias,
carefully observed, and that time dedicated brother to the physician Melampus. She
to relaxation, was called Anaxagoreitt. He married Pelias, king of lolchos, by whom she
died at Lampsacus in his seventy-second had Acastus, and four daughters, Pisidice,
year,428 B. C. His writings were not much Pelopea, Hippothoe, and Alceste. Apollud.
esteemed by his pupil Socrates. Diog. in l, c. 9.
Kita-Plut. in Nicia & Pericl.—Cic...Acad. ANAxidimus, succeeded his ſather Zeuxi
Q. 4, c. 23.−Tuse. 1, c. 43. [Enfield's damus ot, the throne of Sparta. Paus. 3, c.
Hist. Phil Pol. 1, p. 161.]—A statuary of 17, 1.4, c. 15.
£gina. Paus. 5, c. 23.—An orator, dis ANAxillas, and ANAxillºus, a Messenian,
tiple to Socrates. Diog.—A son of Echea tyrant of Rhegium. He took Zancle, and’
max, who, with his brothers Codrus and was so mild and popular during his reign,
Diodorus, destroyed Hegesias, tyrant of E that when he died, 476 B.C. he left his in
phesus. |fant sons to the care of one of his servants,
ANAxANDER, of the family of the He and the citizens chose rather to obey a slave
raclidae, was son of Eurycrates, and king of than revolt from their benevolent sovereign's
Sparta. The second Messenian war began children. Justin. 3, c. 2.-Paus. 4, c. 23, 1.
in his reign, in which Aristomenes so egregi 5, c. 26.-Thucyd.6, c. 5.—Herodot. 6, c. 23,
ºusly signalized himself—Plut. in Apoph l. 7, c. 167.-Hal. A comic writer, a
Paus. 3, c. 3, 1.4 c. 15 and 16. bout the 100 olympiad.
Awaxampaipes, son of Leon, and father ANAxilipps, wrote some treatises con
to Cleomenes 1st, and Leonidas, was king of cerning philosophers, and mentioned that
Sparta. By the order of the Ephori, he di Plato's mother became pregnant by a phan
Yorked his wife, of whom he was extremely tom of the god Apollo, from which circum
*d, on account of her barrenness; and he stance her son was called the prince of wis
was the first Lacedaemonian who had two dom. Diog, in Plut.
Wives. Herodot. 1,5 and 7.-Plut. in Apoph. ANAxiMANDER, a Milesian philosopher,
1-Paul.3 c. 3,&c.—A son of Theopom the companion and disciple of Thales. [Ma
Pº. Herodot. 8, c. 131.-A comic poet thematics and astronomy were greatly indebt
ºf Rhodes in the age of Philip and Alexander. ed to him. He framed a connected series of
He was the first poet who introduced love geometrical truths, and wrote a summary of
*ventures upon the stage. He was of such his doctrine. He was the ſirst who upder
**ionatedisposition that he tore to pieces took to delineate the surface of the earth,
*" his compositions which met with no suc and mark the divisions of land and water
* He composed 65 plays, of which ten upon an artificial globe. The invention of the
ºbtained the prize. Some fragments of his sun-dial is also ascribed to him. This, how
Pºetry remain in Athenaeus. He was starv ever, is probably incorrect. He believed that.
* leath by order of the Athenians, for the stars are globular collections of air and
*izingtheirgovernment. Aristot. 3, Rhet. fire, borne about in their respective spheres,
AsaxAachts, a philosopher of Abdera, and animated by portions of the Divinity;
* ºf the followers of Democritus, and the that the earth is a globe in the midst of the
* ºf Alexander, when the monarch universe and stationary; that the sun is 28
**nwounded in a battle, the philosopher times larger than the earth. He died at the
º tº the place, adding, that is human age of 64, B. C. 547.] _Cic. Acad. Quast. 4,
*Andnot the blood of god. The free c. 37.— 2iog. in Vit.—Plin-2, c.79. [Enfield
*of Anaxarchus offended N icocreon, ty Hist. Phil. Vol. 1, p. 155.] He had a son
'**'Cyprus, at Alexander's table, and the who bore his name. Strab. 1. ----

ſtºl, in revenge, seized the philosopher aſ ANAximéNEs, a philosopher, son of Prº

fr the death of Alexander, and punded him sistratus,and disciple of Anaximander, whºm
G 40

he succeeded in his school. He said that the Samus, Alithersus, and one daughter called
air was the cause of every created being, and Parthenope. (Orpheus Argon.)—He was once
a self-existent divinity, [that all minds are told by one of his servants, whom he pressed
air; that fire, water and earth proceed from with hard labour in his vineyard, that he ne
it by rarefaction or condensation ; that the ver would taste of the produce of his vines.
sun and moon are fiery bodies, whose form is He had already the cup in his hand, and call.
that of a circular plate.] He considered the ed the prophet to convince him of his false
earth as a plain, and the heavens as a solid hood; when the servant, yet firm in his pre
concave sphere, on which the stars were fix diction, uttered this well known proverb,
ed like mails, an opinion prevalent at that
time, and from which originated the proverb, Iloxazºtta;v ruxuxvaixò kal XuxtGraziº,
rt tº ovpavg) area ou; what if the heavens should .Multa cadunt inter calucem supremaque labra.
fall 2 to which Horace has alluded,3 Od. 3, v. And that very moment Ancaeus was told
7. He died 504 years B. C. Cic. Acad. Quast. that a wild boar had entered his vineyard;
4, c. 37, de Nat. D. 1, c. 10. Plut. Ph. [En upon which, he threw down the cup and ran
field Hist. Phil. Vol. 1, p. 156.] Plin. 2, c. to drive away the wild beast. He was killed
76. A native of Lampsacus, son of Aris in the attempt.
tocles. He was pupil to Diogenes the Cynic, AncAlitrs, a people of Britain, [near the
and Zoilus, who railed against Homer, and Atrebatii, and probably a clan of that nation.
preceptor to Alexander the Great, in rhe Baxter supposes them to have been the
toric, of whose life, and that of Philip, he herdsmen and shepherds of the Atrebatii, and
wrote his history. When Alexander, in a to have possessed those parts of Oxfordshire
fit of anger, threatened to put to death all the and Buckinghamshire most proper for pas
inhabitants of Lampsacus, because they had turage.] Caes. Bell. G. 5, c. 21.
maintained a long siege against him, Anaxi Anch EMöLus, a son of Rhoetus, king of the
menes was sent by his countrymen to ap Marrubii in Italy, ravished his mother-in-law
pease the king, who, as soon as he saw him, Casperia, for which he was expelled by his
swore he would not grant the favour he was father. He fled to Turnus, and was killed by
going to ask. Upon this, Anaximenes beg Pallas, son of Evander, in the wars of Eneas
ged the king to destroy the city and inslave against the Latins. Virg...En. 10, v. 389.
the inbabitants, and by his artful request the Anchisites, a wind which blows from
city of Lampsacus was saved from destruc. Anchisa, a harbour of Epirus. Cic. ad Atlit.
tion. Besides the life of Philip and his son, 7, ep. 1. Dionys. Hal.
he wrote an history of Greece in 12 books, ANCHESMUs, a mountain of Attica, where
all now lost. His nephew bore the same Jupiter.Anchesmius had a statue. Now Agios
name, and wrote an account of ancient paint Georgios or Mount St. George.]
ings. Paus. 6, c. 18.—Wal. Mar. 7, c. 3. Anchià LE, a city on the sea-coast of Cili.
—Diog. in Pit. cia. Sardanapalus, the last king of Assyria,
ANAxipólis, a comic poet of Thasos. Plin. built it. [The founder was buried here, and
14, c. 14. had a statue upon his tomb, of a man in the
ANAxippus, a comic writer, in the age of act of clapping his hands, with an Assyrian
Demetrius. He used to say, that philosophers inscription to this effect, “Sardanapalus, the
were wise only in their speeches, but fools in son of Anacyndaraxes, built Anchiale and
their actions. Athem.
Tarsus in one day; but do thou, O stranger,
ANAxis, a Boeotian historian, who wrote eat, drink and sport, since the rest of human
an history down to the age of Philip son of things are not worth this,” i.e. a clap of the
Amyntas. Diod. 15. hands. Arrian. 2, c. 5.]
[ANAzARBus, a city of Cilicia Campes ANch 1ALUs, a god of the Jews as some
tris, situate on the river Pyramus, at some suppose, in Martial's epigrams, 11 ep. 95.
distance from the sea. The adjacent terri [The term, according to Scaliger, is incorrect
tory was famed for its ſertility. By a decree ly written by Martial, and is compounded of
of the Roman senate it was allowed to as
Chai and Alah, i. e. per Deum virentern.—
sume the name of Caesarea in acknowledg This was also the name of a city in Thrace,
ment of the privileges conferred upon it by on the Euxine, south-west of Haemi-extre
Augustus. It was afterwards called succes ma-Another in Epirus.]
sively Justinopolis and Justinianopolis, in hon Anchistolius, a Spartan general sent a
our of the emperors Justin and Justinian. It gainst the Pisistratidae, and killed in the ex
was the birth-place of Dioscorides and Op pedition. Herodot. 5, c. 63.
pian. The Turks call it Ain-Zerbeh.] [Anchise Pontus, a name given to the
Ancieus, the son of Lycurgus and Antinoe, port of Onchesmusin Epirus, by the Romans.]
was in the expedition of the Argonauts. He Anchises, a son of Capys by Themis,
was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, in daughter of Ilus. He was of such a beauti
which he perished. Hygin. fab. 173, and ful complexion, that Venus came down from
248.-Ovid. Met. 8. The son of Neptune
heaven to mount Ida, in the form of a nymph,
and Astypalaea. He went with the Argo to enjoy his company. The goddess became
nauts, and succeeded Tiphys as pilot of the pregnant, and forbade Anchises ever to men
ship Argo. He reigned in Ionia, where he tion the favours he had received, on pain ei
married Samia, daughter of the Maeander, being struck with thunder. The child which
by whom he had four* Perilas, Enudus,
g Venus brought forth, was called Æneas; he

was educated as soon as born by the nymphs might find it difficult to distinguish the true
of Ida, and when of a proper age, was intrust one. They were made with such exactness,
ed to the care of Chiron the centaur. When that the king promised Veterius Mamurius,
Troy was taken, Anchises was become so in the artist, whatever reward he desired. rid.
firm that Eneas, whom the Greeks per Mamurius. They were kept in the temple
mitted to take away whatever he esteemed of Vesta, and an order of priests were chosen
most, carried him through the flames upon to watch over their safety. These priests
his shoulders, and thus saved his life. He ac were called Salii, and were twelve in num
companied his son in his voyage towards Ita ber; they carried every year, on the first of
ly, and died in Sicily in the 80th year of his March, the shields in a solemn procession
age. He was buried on mount Eryx, by Æ round the walls of Rome, dancing and singing
reas and Acestes king of the country, and the praises to the god Mars. This sacred festi
anniversary of his death was afterwards cele val continued three days after, during which
brated by his son and the Trojans, on his every important business was stopped. It
tomb. Some authors have maintained that was deemed unfortunate to be married on
Anchises had forgot the injunctions of Venus, those days, or to undertake any expedition,
and boasted at a ſeast, that he enjoyed her and Tacitus, in 1 Hist. c. 90, has attributed
favours on mount Ida, upon which he was the unsuccessful campaign of the emperor
killed with thunder. Others say, that the Otho against Vitellius, to his leaving Rome
wounds he received from the thunder were during the celebration of the Anciliorum ſes
not mortal, and that they only weakened and tum. These two verses of Ovid explain the
disfigured his body. Virgil, in the 6th book origin of the word Ancile, which is applied to
of the AEneid, introduces him in the Elysian these shields;
fields, relating to his son the fates that were Idque ancile vocat, quod ab omni parte re
to attend him, and the fortune of his descend cisum est,
ants, the Romans. rid. AEueas. Virg. JEn. Quâque notes oculis, angulus omnis abest;
1, 2. &c.—Hygin. ſab. 94, 254, 260,270.— 'ast. 3, v. 377, &c.
Hesiod. Theog. v. 1010.-4pollod. 3.--Orld.Varro, de L. L. 5, c. 6.-Val. Mar. 1, c. 1.-
Fast. 4, v. 34.—Homer. Il. 20. & Hymn. in Juv. 2, v. 124.—Plut. in Num.—Virg. JEn.
Wener.—Xenoph. Cyneg. c. 1.-Dionys. Hal. 9, 664.—Dionys. Hal. 2.-Liv. 1, c. 20.
l, de Antiq. Ron.—Pausanias. 8, c. 12, says,ANcow and AN conA, a town of Picenum,
that Anchises was buried at the foot of a built by the Sicilians, with a harbour in the
mountain in Arcadia, which, from him, has form of a crescent or elbow, (a) way) on the
been called Anchisia. shores of the Adriatic. [It was famous for its
Aschisia, a mountain of Arcadia, at the purple dye, which yielded only to that of
bottom of which wasa monument of Anchises. Phoenicia. The harbour was greatly improv
Paus. 8, c. 12 and 13. ed by the emperor Trajan, in commemora
AnchöA, a town near the mouth of the Ce tion of which service an arch was erected to
phissus, [in Boeotia,] where there is a lake of him on the mole, which still remains. An
the same name. Strab. cona is at the present day a flourishing trad
Anchora, [vid. Nicaea..] ing town, and retains its ancient name.] Near
AxchüRus, a son of Midas, king of Phry this place is the famous chapel of Loretto,
gia, who sacrificed himself for the good of his supposed by monkish historians to have been
country, when the earth had opened and brought through the air by angels, August
swallowed up many buildings. The oracle 10, A. D 1291, from Judaea, where it was a
had been consulted, and gave for answer,that cottage, inhabited by the virgin Mary. The
the gulf would never close, if Midas did not reputed sanctity of the place has often
throw into it whatever he had most precious. brought 100,000 pilgrims in one day to Loret
Though the king had parted with manythings to. Plin. 3, c. 13–Lucan. 2, v. 402.—Ital.
of immense value, yet the gulfcontinued open, 8, v. 437.
till Anchurus, thinking himself the most pre Ancus MARTIus, the 4th king of Rome.
cious of his father's possessions, took a tender was grandson to Numa, by his daughter.
leave of his wife and family, and leaped into [His name Ancus was derived from the Greek
the earth, which closed immediately over his zakay, because he had a crooked arm which
head. Midas erected there an altar of stones he could not stretch out to its full length."
to Jupiter, and that altar was the first object He waged a successful war against the La
which he turncil into gold, when he had re tins, Weientes, Fidenates, Volsci, and Sabines,
ceived his fatal gift from the gods. This joined mount Jamiculum to the city by a
unpolished lump of gold existed still in the bridge, and enclosed the Aventine mount
age of Plutarch. Plut. in Parall. within the walls of the city. He extended
Ascile and A.Ncy i.E., a sacred shield, the confines of the Roman territories to the
which, according to the Roman authors, fell sea, where he built the town of Ostia, at the
from heaven in the reign of Numa, when the mouth of the Tiber. He inherited the valour
Roman people laboured under a pestilence. of Romulus with the moderation of Numa.
Upon the preservation of this shield depended He died B. C. 661, after a reign of 24 years,
the fate of the Roman empire, and therefore and was succeeded by Tarquin the elder.
Numa ordered 11 of the same size and form Dionys. Hal. 3, c. 9.-Liv. 1, c. 32, &c.-
tº be made. that if evor any attempt was Flor. 1, c. 4.—Pirg. JEn. 6, v. 815.
made to carry them away, the plunderer [Ancyra, a city of Galatia, west of the
Halys. According to Pausanias, it was found her countrymen, who were engaged in a wal
wd by Midas, and the name was derived ſrom against Orchomenos, if any one of noble birth
an anchor which was foundhere and preserv devoted himself for the glory of his nation.
ed in the temple of Jupiter. This city was Antipoenus refused to do it, and his daughters
greatly enlarged by Augustus, and under Ne cheerfully accepted it, and received great
ro, was styled the metropolis of Galatia. It honours after death. Hercules, who fought
is now called by the Turks Angourt, and by on the side of Thebes, dedicated to them the
the Europeans, Angora, and is the place image of a lion in the temple of Diana. Paul,
whence the celebrated shawls and hosiery 9, c. 17.
made of goats-hair were originally brought. AND Roclipes, a noble Theban, who de
Near this place Bajazet was conquered and fended the democratical against the encroach
made prisoner by Timur, or, as the name isments of the oligarchical power He was kill
commonly, though incorrectly written, Ta ed by one of his enemies.—A sophist in the
merlane.] age of Aurelian, who gave an account of phi
ANdARATA, certain gladiators who ſought losophers.
blindfolded, whence the proverb, Andabata ANDRöcLus, a son of Codrus, who reigned
rum more to denote rash and inconsiderate in Ionia, and took Ephesus and Samos. Pats
measures. [The name comes from the Greek 7, c. 2.
&yaGarai, because they fought in chariots or on AND Ron KMus. vid. Andromadas.
horseback..] Cic. 7, ad Famil. ep. 10. ANDRödus, a slave known and protected
ANDANIA, a city of Arcadia, where Aris in the Roman circus, by a lion whose foot he
tomenes was educated. Paus. 4, c. 1, &c. It had cured. Gell. 5, c. 15.
received its name from a gulf of the same ANDRóg Eus, son of Minos and Pasiphº,
name. Id. 4, c. 3. was famous for his skill in wrestling. He
ANDEcAv1 [or ANDEs, a people of Gaul, overcame every antagonist at Athens, and
east of the Namnetes and north of the Liger, became such a favourite of the people, that
or Loire. Their capital was Juliomâgus, now Ægeus king of the country grew jealous of his
Angers. Caes. B. G. 2, 35.] popularity, and caused him to be assassinated
ANDEs, a village of Italy, near Mantua, as he was going to Thebes. Some say that
where Virgil was born; hence he is called he was killed by the wild bull of Marathon.
.4ndinuº. Ital. 8, v. 594, [But Ruperti reads, Minos declared war against Athens to revenge
.donio.] the death of his son, and peace was at last re
ANDocíDEs, an Athenian orator, son of Leo established on condition that Ægeussent year.
goras. He lived in the age of Socrates the ly seven boys and seven girls from Athens tº
philosopher, and was intimate with the most Crete to be devoured by the minotaur. ti
illustrious men of hisage. He was often ban Minotaurus. The Athenians established ſet
ished, but his dexterity always restored him tivals by order of Minos, in honour of his son,
to favour. Plut. has written his life in 10 and called them Androgeia. Hygin. fab.4l,
•orat. Four of his orations are extant. [vid. Diod. 4.—Wir. ACn. 6, v. 20.-Paus. 1, c. 1
Antiphon.] and 27.-Apollod. 2, c. 5, 1.3, c. 1 and 15–
ANDomâris, a river of India, falling into Plut. in Thes.
the Ganges. Arrian. [According to D'An - AND Rogy NE, a fabulous nation of Africa,
ville, the modern Sonn-sou. vid. Sonus. beyond the Nasamones. Every one of them
[ANDRAMittru M, vid. Adramyttium.] bore the characteristics of the male and fe
ANDREAs, a statuary of Argos. Paus. 6. mate sex; and one of their breasts was that
c. 16. A man of Panormus, who wrote of a man, and the other that of a woman. Lit.
wan account of all the remarkable events that cret. 5, v. 837.-Plin. 7, c. 2.
+had happened in Sicily. Athen. A son of ANDRom KcHE, a daughter of Eetion, king
the Peneus. Part of Boeotia, especially where of Thebes in Cilicia, married Hector son of
Orchomenos was built, was called Andreis Priam king of Troy, by whom she had Astya.
after him. Paus. 9, c. 34, &c. nax. She was so fond of her husband, that
ANDR1cLUs, [a mountain of Cilicia Tra she even fed his horses with her own hand.
chea, north of the promontory Anemurium.] During the Trojan warshe remained athome
Strab. 14. employed in her domestic concerns. Her
ANDRIus, a river of Troas falling into parting with Hector who was going to a bat
the Scamander. Plin. 5, c. 27. tle, in which he perished, has always been
ANDRuscus, a man who wrote an history deemed the best, most tender and pathetic of
of Naxos. Athen. 1.-A worthless person all the passages in Homer's Iliad. She re
called Pseudophilippus, on account of the like |caived the news of her husband's death with
ness of his features to king Philip. He incit. extreme sorrow ; and after the taking ol
ed the Macedonians to revolt against Rome, Troy, she had the misfortune to see her only
and was conquered and led in triumph by son Astyanax, after she had saved him from
Metellus, 152 B.C. Flor. 2, c. 14. the flames, thrown headlong from the walls
AND Robius, a ſamous painter. Plin. 35, of the city, by the hands of the man whose
c. 11. father had killed her husband.—(Senec. in
AND RoclfA, a daughter of Antipoenus of Troad.) Andromache, in the division of the
Thebes. She, with het sister Alcida, sacri prisoners by the Greeks. fell to the share of
ficed herself in the service of her country, Pyrrhus, who treated her as his wife, and
when the oracle had promised the victory to |carried her to Epirus. He had by her three

sons, Molossus, Pielus and Pergamus, and af posed, was brought to Rome by Scaurus and
terwards repudiated her. After this divorce carefully preserved. The fable of Andro
she married Helenus son of Priam, who, as meda and the sea monster has been explain
herself, was a captive of Pyrrhus. She reign ed, by supposing that she was courted by the
ed with him over part of the country, and be. captain of a ship, who attempted to carry her
came mother by him of Cestrinus. Some way, but was prevented by the interposition
say that Astyanax was killed by Ulysses, and of another more faithful lover.
Euripides says that Menelaus put him to ANDRow, a man set over the citadel of Sy
death. Homer. Il. 6, 22 and 24.—Q. Calab. racuse by Dionysius. Hermocrates advised
1.—Virg...En.3, v.436.-Hygin. fab. 123.− him, to seize it and revolt from the tyrant,
Dares. Phryg.—Ovid. .4m. I, el. 9, v. 35. which he refused to do. The tyrant put him
Trist. 5, el. 6, v. 43.−.Apollod. 3, c 12 to death for not discovering that Hermocrates
Paus. 1, c. 41. had incited him to rebellion. Polyaen. 5, c.
ANDRomâchus, an opulent person of S1 2.—A man of Halicaruassus who composed
cily, father to the historian Timaeus, [and some historical works. Plut. in Thes. A
founder of Tauromenium.] Diod. 16. He native of Ephesus, who wrote an account of
assisted Timoleon in recovering the liberty of the seven wise men of Greece. Diog.
the Syracusans. A general of Alexander, AND Ronicus Livius. vid. Livius.
to whom Parmenio gave the government of ANDRONicus, a peripatetic philosopher of
Syria. He was burnt alive by the Samaritans. Rhodes, who flourished 59 years B. C. He
Curt.4, c. 5 and 8. [A brother-in law of Se was the first who published and revised the
leucus Callinicus. A traitor who discover works of Aristotle and Theophrastus. His
ed to the Parthians all the measures of Cras periphrase is extant, the best edition of which
sus, and, on being chosen guide, led the Ro is that of Heinsius, 8vo. L. Bat. 1617. Plut.
man army into a situation whence there was in Syll.—A Latin grammarian, whose life
no mode of escape.] A poet of Byzantium. Suetonius has written.—An astronomer of
-A physician of Crete in the age of Nero, Athens, who built a marble octagonal tower
[he was physician to the emperor, and in in honour of the eight principal winds, on the
ventor of the famous medicine, called after top of which was placed a Triton with a stick
him, Theriaca Andromachi.] A sophist of in his hand, pointing always to the side
Naples, in the age of Dioclesian. whence the wind blew.
AND Românas, or ANDaodamus, a native ANDRoPHKG1, a savage nation of Euro
of Rhegium, who made laws for the [people pean Scythia. Herodot. 4, c. 18, 102.
of Chalcis in Macedonia.] Aristot. AND Ropompus, a Theban who killed
ANDaomièna, a daughter of Cepheus, king Xanthus in single combat by fraud. Paus.
of AEthiopia, by Cassiope. She was promised 2, c. 18.
in marriage to Phineus, her uncle, when ANDRos, an island in the AEgean sea, known
Neptune drowued the kingdom, and sent a by the different names of Epagris, Antandros,
sea monster to ravage the country, because Lasia Cauros, Hydrusia, Nonagria. It re
Cassiope had boasted herself fairer than Ju ce 1ved the name of Andros from Andros son
no and the Nereides. The oracle of Jupiter of Anius, one qf its kings, who lived in the
Ammon was consulted, and nothing could time of the Trojan war, Land the name of
stop the resentment of Neptune, if Andro Antandros, i. e. for one man, from its having
meda was not exposed to the sea monster. been given as his ransom by Ascanius the
She was accordingly tied naked on a rock, son of AEneas, when taken prisoner by the
and at the moment that the monster was go Pelasgians. It is still one of the most fertile
ing to devour her, Perseus, who returned and pleasant of the Grecian isles, and water
through the air from the conquest of the Gor ed with numerous springs, wheace one of its
gons, saw her, and was captivated with her ancient names Hydrusia. Its modern name
beauty. He promised to deliver her and de is .Andro. The chief town of the island was
story the monster, if he received her in likewise cºlled Andros.) Ovid. Met. 13, v.
marriage as a reward for his trouble. Ce 648.-Virg. JEn. 3, v. 80. Juv. 3, v. 70.-
pheus consented, and Perssus changed the sea Plan. 2, c. 103. JMela, 1 and 2.
monster into a rock, by showing him Medu AND Rosth ENEs, a governor of Thessaly,
sa's head, and untied Andromeda and mar who favoured the interest of Pompey. He
ried her. He had by her many children, a was conquered by J. Caesar. Caºs. 3. Bell.
intºng whom were Sthenelus, Ancaeus, and Civ. c. 80. A statuary of Thebes. Paus.
Electryon. The marriage of Andromeda 10, c. 19.-A geographer in the age of A
with Perseus was opposed by Phineus, who lexander.
after a bloody battle was changed into a stone AND Rotion, a Greek, who wrote a his
by Perseus. Some say that Minerva made tory of Attica, and a treatise on agriculture.
Andromeda a constellation in heaven after her Plin. —Paus iu, c. 8.
death. rid. Medusa, Perseus.-Hygin, far. ANEMolia, a city of Phocis, afterwards
*—Cur. de Nat. D. 2, c. 43.--Apollod. 2, c. called Hyampolis, [now Jamboli..] Strab.
*—Manil. 5, v, 533.-Propert. 3, el. 21.- ANGELIon, a statuary, who made Apollo's
According to Pliny, 1.5, c. 31, it was at Jop. statue at Delphi. Paus. 2, c. 32.
Fa in Judaea that Andromeda was tied to a ANGITEs, a river of Thrace, falling into
rºck. He mentions that the skeleton of the the S.rymon, [above Amphipolis.] Herodot;
huge sea monster, to which she had been ex 7, c. 113.

ANGLI, [a people of Germany at the base its beautiful caseades at the town of Tibur,
of the Chersonesus Cimbrica, in the country or Tivoli..] Stat. 1. Sylt. 3, v. 20. –Virg.
answering now to the north-eastern part of ..'Bn. 7, v. 683.-Strab. 5-Horat. 1, od. 7, v.
the Dutchy of Holstein. From them the 13.-Plut. de Fort. Rom.
English have derived their name. There is ANitohg1s, a city of Spain, near which a
still at the present day in that quarter, a dis battle was ſought between Asdrubal and the
trict called Angeln. Tacit. Germ. 40 —vid. Scipos. [Strabo calls it Conistorgis, a name
Saxones.] given to it from its being among the Conii,as
ANg h us, [a river of Illyricum, pursuing a Anitorgis was applied to it, from its being near
northern course, according to Herodotus, and the Anas. Strab. 3. Liv 25, c. 32.]
joining the Brongus, which flows into the ANIts, the son of Apollo and Rhea, was
Danube.] Herodot. 4, c. 49. king of Delos, and father of Andrus. He had
ANGUITIA, a wood in the country of the by Dorippe three daughters, Oeno, Spermo,
Marsi, between the lake Fucinus and Alba. and Elais, to whom Bacchus had given the
[The name is derived, according to Solinus, power of changing whatever they pleased in
from a sister of Circe who dwelt in the vi to wine, corn, and oil. When Agamemnon
cinity. It is now Silva d'Albi. The Marsi, went to the Trojan war, he wished to carry
especially those of them who dwelt near this them with him to supply his army with pro
wood, are said by the ancient writers to have visions; but they complained to Bacchus,
possessed power over serpents, and never to who changed them into doves. Orid. Mel.
have been injured by them.] Sil. 8,-Pirg. 13, v. 642–Dionys. Hal. 1.-Diod. 5–Virg,
Jºn. 7, v. 759. JEn. 3, v. 80.
ANIA, a Roman widow, celebrated for her ANNA, a goddess, in whose honour the Ro
beauty. One of her friends advised her to mans instituted festivals. She was, according
marry again. No, said she, if I marry a man to some, Anna the daughter of Belus and sis:
as affectionate as my first husband, I shall be ter of Dido, who, after her sister's death, fled
apprehensive for his death ; and if he is bad, from Carthage, which Jarbas had besieged,
why have him, after such a kind and indul and came to Italy, where AEneas met her, as
gent one: he walked on the banks of the Tiber, and
AN1cetts, a freedman who directed the gave her an honourable reception, for the kind
education of Nero, and became the instrument messes she had shown him when he was at
of his crimes. Swet. in Ner. Carthage. Lavinia, the wife of Æueas, was
AN1c1A, a family at Rome, which in the jealous of the tender treatment which was
flourishing times of the republic, produced shown to Anna, and meditated her ruin. Anna
many brave and illustrious citizens. –A re was apprized of this by her sister in a dream,
lation of Atticus. C. Nepos. and she fled to the river Numicus, of which
Anicius GALLus, triumphed over the Il she became a deity, and ordered the inhabit.
lyrians and their king Gentius, and was pro ants of the country to call her.Anna Perth
praetor of Rome, A. U. C. 585. A consul na, because she would remain for ever under
with Corn. Cethegus, A. U. C. 594. Pro the waters. Her festivals were performed
bus, a Roman consul in the fourth century, with many rejoicings, and the females often,
famous for his humanity. in the midst of their cheerfulness, forgot their
ANIGRUs, [a river of Triphylia in Elis, to natural decency. They were introduced in
the north of Lepreum. Near this river was to Rome, and celebrated the 15th of March.
a cavern, called the cave of the nymphs Ani The Romans generally sacrificed to her, to
grides or Amigriades, and it was pretended obtain a long and happy life; and hence the
that any person who had a complaint of the words .1nnare and Perennare. Some have
skin,might be cured, iſ, after having sacrificed supposed Anna to be the moon, quia menu.
to the nymphs and rubbed his body well, he bus impleat annum; others call her Themis,
swam over the Anigrus. The river in fact or lo, the daughter of Inachus, and some
would seem to have possessed some mineral times Maia. Auother more received opinion
properties, as Pausanias and Strabo speak of maintains, that Anna was an old industrious
an unpleasant smell emitted from it, which woman of Bovillae, who, when the Roman poº
the latter states was perceptible at the dis pulace had fled from the city to mount Sacer,
tance of 20 stadia. The natives however ac brought them cakes every day; for which
counted for the smell by a tradition that Chi kind treatment the Romans, when peace was
ron or some one of the centaurs washed in re-established, decreed immortal honours to
the stream the wounds which Hercules had her whom they called Perenna ab perennitate
inflicted, and that the water was hence inſect rullut, and who, as they supposed, was be
ed with the poison of the Hydra.-Paus. 5, come one of their deities. Ovid. Fast. 3, v.
c. 5.-Strab. 8.] 659, &c.—Sil 8, v. 73.—Pirg. JEn. 4, v. 9.
ANio and A Nien, now the Tererone, a 20, 421, and 500.
river of Italy, flowing through the country of ANNA CoMNENA, a princess of Constan
Tiber, and falling into the river Tiber, about tinople, known to the world for the Greek
three miles north of Rome. It receives its history which she wrote of her father Alexi.
name, as some suppose, from Anius a kinz of as emperor of the east. The character ol
Etruria, who drowned himself there when he this history is not very high for authenticity
could not recover his daughter, who had been or beauty of composition; the historian is lost
carried away. [This river is celebrated for in the daughter; and instead of simplicity of

style and narrative, as Gibbonsays, an elabor his way so easy, by softening the rocks with
ate affectation of rhetoric and science betrays fire and vinegar, that even his armed elephants
in every page the vanity of a female author, descended the mountains without danger or
[and yet it forms an useful contrast to the de difficulty, where a man disencumbered of his
grading and partial statements of the Latin arms, could not walk before in safety. [An
historians of the time.] The best edition of mibal, according to most authorities, passed
Anna Comnena, is that of Paris, folio, 1651. into Italy over the Cottian Alps. The more
ANNAEus, a Roman family which was accurate opinion, however, is in favour of the
subdivided into the Lucani, Senecae, Floris, modern Mont Cenis. vid. Alpes. The man
&c. ner in which this passage is said to have been
ANNiles, a chronological history which effected by him, is rejected by many authors
gives an account of all the important events as fictitious. Polybius is altogether silent on
of every year in a state, without entering into the subject. Pliny, it is true, makes mention
the causes which produced them. The an of the quality of vinegar above alluded to, but
mals of Tacitus may be considered in this light. whence could Annibal have procured a suſ.
In the first ages of Rome, the writing of the ficient supply for his purpose?—After having
annals was one of the duties and privileges of crossed the Alps, the Carthaginian comman
the high-priest; whence they have been called der was opposed by the Romans as soon as he
Annales Maximi, from the priest Pontiyear entered upon the plains of Italy, the first bat
.Marinus, who consecrated them, and gave tle was fought on the banks of the Ticinus,
thern as truly genuine and authentic. [The the consul P. Corn. Scipio commanding the
Annales Maximiconsisted of 80 books. They Romans. Victory declared for the Cartha
were most of them destroyed in the burning ginians, and Scipio was compelled to leave
of the city by the Gauls. After the time of the field severely wounded. A second battle
Sylla, the pontifices seem to have dropt the was fought on the banks of the Trebia, in
custom of compiling annals. Several private whi. h Annibal conquered the united forces
persons, however, as Cato, Pictor, Horten of the consuls Scipio and Sempromius. After
sius and Tacitus,composed historical accounts wintering in Cisalpine Gaul and drawing
of Roman affairs, which from their similarity over to his cause the greater part of its inha
to the former they likewise styled Annals.] bitants, he invaded Etruria. Here at the
ANNAL1s LEx, settled the age at which, lake Trasimenus he defeated with great
among the Romans, a citizen could be ad slaughter the consul Flaminius,) and soon
mitted to exercise the offices of the state. after met the two consuls C. Terentius and
This law originated in Athens, and was in L. A.milius at Cannae. His army consist
troduced in Rome. ed of 40,000 foot and 10,000 horse when he
As N1K sus, a poet in the age of Trajan. engaged the Romans at the celebrated bat
Assisal, a celebrated Carthaginian ge tle of Cannae The slaughter was so great,
neral, son of Amilcar. He was educated in that no less than 40,000 Romans were kill
his father's camp, and inured from his early ed, and the conqueror made a brid e with
years to the labours of the field. He passed the dead carcasses; and as a sign of his vic
into Spain when nine years old, and at the tory, he sent to Carthage three bushels of
request of his father, took a solemn oath he gold rings which had been taken from 5630
rever would be at peace with the Romans. Roman knights slain in the battle. [Annibal
After his father's death, he was appointed has been censured for not immediately march
over the cavalry in Spain : and some time ing to Rome after this victory. So consum
after, upon the death of Asdrubal, he was in mate a commander, however, as he und, ubt
rested with the command of all the armies edly was, could scarcely have neglected doing
of Carthage, though not yet in the 25th year this, had he not been influenced by some pow
of his age. In three years of continual suc erful motive which delayed his approach to
cess, he subdued all the nations of Spain which the capital. It is very probable that he felt
opposed the Carthaginian power, and took the necessity of giving his soldiers some re
Saguntum aftera siege of eight months. The pose after so hard fought a battle, and was
city was in alliance with the Romans, and its conscious that they were in no condition im
fall was the cause of the second Punic war, mediately to take the field against fresh and
which Annibal prepared to support with all desperate opponents. Besides, the check
the courage and prudence of a consummate which he had received at Spoletum in Um
general. He levied three large armies, one of bria, must have taught him how ill-fitted his
which he sent to Africa, he left another in army was for the operations of a siege.] The
Spain, and marched at the head of the third delay of Annibal gave the enemy spirit and
towards Italy. This army some have calcu boldness, and when at last he approached the
lated at 20,000 foot and 6,000 horse; others walls of Rome, he was informed that the piece
say that it consisted of 100,000 footand 20,000 of ground on which his army then stood, was
horse. Lir. 21, c. 38. He came to the Alps selling at a high price in the Roman forum.
which were deemed almost inaccessible, and After hovering for some time round the city,
had never been passed over before him but he retired to Capua, where the Carthaginian
by Hercules, and after much trouble gained soldierssoon forgot to conquer in the pleasures
the top in nine days. He conquered the un and riot of this luxurious city. From that cir
civilized inhabitants that opposed his passage, cumstance it has been said, and with proprie
andafter the amazing loss of 30,000 men, made ty, that Capua was a Cannae to Annibal. Aſ
ter the battle of Cannae the Romans became finger, and as he breathed his last, exclaimed,
more cautious, and when the dictator Fabius Solranus duturnă curá populum Romanum,
Maximus had defied the artifice as well as the quando mortem senis expectare longum cen. º

valour ofAnnibal, they began to look for bet set. He died in his 70th year, according to
ter times. Marcellus, who succeeded Fabius some, about 182 years B. C. That year was
in the field, first taught the Romans at Nola, famous for the death of the three greatest
that Annibal was no invincible. After many generals of the age, Annibal, Scipio, and Phi
important debates in the senate, it was de lopoemen. The death of so formidable a ri
creed, that war should be carried into Africa, val was the cause of great rejoicings in Rome;
to remove Annibal from the gates of Rome ; he had always been a professed enemy to the
and [Publius Cornelius Scipio,the son of him Roman name, and ever endeavoured to de
who commanded the Romans at the battle of stroy its power. If he shone in the field, he
Ticinus,) who was the first proposer of the also distinguished himself by his studies. He
plan, was empowered to put it into execution. was taught Greek by Sosilus a Lacedaemo
When Carthage saw the enemy on her coasts, ſian, and he even wrote some books in that
she recalled Annibal from Italy : and that language on different subjects. It is remark
great general is said to have left with tears able, that the life of Annibal, whom the Ro
in his eyes, a country, which during sixteen mans wished so many times to destroy by
years he had kept under continual alarus, perfidy, was never attempted by any one of
and which he could almost call his own. He his soldiers or countrymen. He made him.
and Scipio met near Carthage, and after a self as conspicuous in the government of the
parley, in which neither would give the pre state, as at the head of armies, and though his
ference to his enemy, they determined to come enemies reproached him with the rudeness of
to a general engagement. The battle was laughing in the Carthaginian senate, while
fought near Zama: Scipio made a great ºvery senator was bathed in tears for the
slaughter of the enemy, 20,000 were killed misfor unes of the country, Annibal defended
and the same number made prisoners. Anni himself by saying, that in him, who had been
bal, after he had lost the day, fled to Adru bred all his life in a camp, ought to be dis
metum, and soon after this decisive battle, pensed with all the more polished feelings of
the Romans granted peace to Carthage, on a capital He was so apprehensive for his
hard conditions. [Annibal's credit, however, safety, that when he was in Bithynia, his
was not destroyed among his countrymen by house was fortified like a castle, and on every
the issue of this battle. He was employed by side there were secret doors which could
them in some other military operations, un give immediate escape if his life was ever at
til the Roman senate refusing to deliver up tempted. When he quitted Italy, and em
the hostages while he was suffered to re barked on board a vessel for Africa, he so
main at the head of the army, he was com strongly suspected the fidelity of his pilot,
pelled to lay down his command. After this who told him that the lofty mountain
he was employed in a civil capacity, and dis which appeared at a distance was a promon
played as great abilities here as he had done tory of Sicily, that he killed him on the spot;
in military affairs. He regulated the finan and when he was convinced of his fatal error,
ces, corrected abuses, exposed various frauds, he gave a magnificent burial to the man whom
and would eventually have proved of more he had so falsely murdered, and called the
real service to his country than he had been promontory by his name [Pelorus.] The
while leading her armies, had not this bold labours which he sustained, and the incle
and honest line of conduct rendered him so mency of the weather to which he exposed
unpopular that he was compelled to leave himself in crossing the Alps, so weakened
Africa. At Tyre he was received with the one of his eyes, that he ever aſter lost the use
greatest distinction. Thence he passed to of it. The Romans have celebrated the hu
Antiochus at Antioch, and urged him to raake manity of Annibal, who, after the battle of
war on the Romans. Annibal's advice to Cannae, sought the body of the fallen consul
the monarch was, that Italy should be made [AEmilius] amidst the heaps of slain, and hon
the seat of war, for the conducting of which oured it with a funeral becoming the dignity
he offered his services. Antiochus, however, of Rome. He performed the same friendly
distrusting his sincerity, adopted a different offices to the remains of Marcellus and Tib.
plan of operations, was conquered, and the Gracchus, who had fallen in battle. He oſ
surrender of Annibal was stipulated as one of ten blamed the unsettled measures of his
the conditions of peace. He escaped however country; and when the enemy had thrown
to Prusias king of Bithynia, whom he incited into his camp the head of his brother Asdru
to make war on Eumenes king of Pergamus. bal, who had been conquered as he came from
Eumenes complaining to the Romans, the Spain with a reinforcement into Italy, Anni
latter sent an embassy to Prusias, and among bal said that the Carthaginian arms would
other things, demanded that Annibal should no longer meet with their usual success. Ju
be delivered up..] A party of soldiers, in con venal, in speaking of Annibal, observes, that
sequence of this order, were sent to seize An the ring which caused his death made a due
nibal, who, when he heard that his house atonement to the Romans for the many thou
was besieged on every side, and all means of sand rings which had been sent to Carthage
escape fruitless, took a dose of poison, which after the battle of Cannae. Annibal, when in
he always carried with him in a ring on his Spain, married a woman of Castulo. The

Romans entertained such a high opinion of an account of his discoveries in the Punic
him as a commander, that Scipio who con language, which was translated into Greek.
quered him, calls him the greatest general Many consider the whole work as devoid of
that ever lived, and gives the second rank to authenticity, and ascribe it to a Sicilian Greek:
Pyrrhus the Epirot, and places himself the Mannert, however, successfully defends its
next to these m merit and abilities. It is credibility. It was first published by Fro
plain that the failure of Annibal's expedition ben, 1533, and afterwards in Hudson's Geo
in Italy did not arise from his neglect, but graph. Vet. Scriptores Graci minores, 1698.-
from that of his countrymen, who gave him .Mannert...Anc. Geogr. Vol. 1, p. 47.]——
no asistance; far from imitating their ene Another banished from Carthage for taming
mies of Rome, who even raised in one year a lion for his own amusement, which was in
18 legions to oppose the ſormidable Cartha terpreted as if he wished to aspire to sove
ginian. Livy has painted the character of reign power. Plin. 8, c. 16.—This name
Annibal like an enemy, and it is much to be was eommon to many Carthaginians, who
lamented that this greathistorian has withheld signalized themselves among their country
the tribute due to the merits and virtues of men during the Punic wars against Rome,
the greatest of generals. C. Nep. in vitā.- and in their wars against the Sicilians. Liv.
Lir. 21, 22, &c.—Plut. in Flamin, &c.—Jus 26, 27, &c.
tin. 32, c. 4.—Sil. Ital. 1, &c.—Appian.— ANopæA, [a mountain of Greece, part of
Florus 2 and S.–Polyb.—Diod.—Juv. 10, v. the chain of Oeta. A small pass in this moun
159, &c. Pal...Mar.—Horat. 4, Od. 4.—-lpod. tain, called by the same name, ſormed a com
16–The son of the great Annibal, was munication between Thessaly and the country
sent by Himilco to Lilybaeum, which was be of º Epicnemidian Locri. Herod. 7, c.
sieged by the Romans, to keep the Sicilians 216.
in their duty. Polyb. 1.-A Carthaginian ANSER, a Roman poet whom Ovid, Trist.
general, son of Asdrubal, commonly called of 3, el. 1, v. 425, calls bold and impertinent.
Rhodes, above 160 years before the birth of Virgil and Propertius are said to have play
the great Annibal. Justin. 19, c.2.—Xenoph. ed upon his name with some degree of severi
Hist. Grºc. A son of Giscon, and grand ty.
son of Amilcar, sent by the Carthaginians to ANsiba RII, a people of Germany. Tacif.
the assistance of Ægesta a town of Sicily. Ann. 13, c. 55.
He was overpowered by Hermocrates, an ex ANTAEAs, a king of Scythia, who said that
iled Syracusan. Justin. 22 and 23. A the neighing of a horse was far preferable to
Carthaginian, surnamed Senior. He was the music of Ismenias, a famous musician who
conquered by the consul, C. Sulpit. Pater had been taken captive. Plut.
culus, in Sardinia, and hung on a cross by his ANTAEus, a giant of Libya, son of Terra
countrymen for his ill success. and Neptune. He was sostrong in wrestling,
ANNicERIs, [a philosopher of Cyrene and that he boasted that he would erect a temple
disciple of Aristippus. He so far receded from to his father with the skulls of his conquered
the doctrine of his master, as to acknowledge antagonists. Hercules attacked him, and as
the merit of filial piety, friendship, and pa he received new strength from his mother as
triotism, and to allow that a wise man might often as he touched the ground, the hero lift.”
retain the possession of himself in the midst ed him up in the air, and squeezed him to
of external troubles ; but he inherited so death in his arms. Lucan. 4, v. 598.-Stat.
much of his frivolous taste as to value him 6. Theb. v. 893.−Juv. 3, v. 88.-A gover
self upon the most trivial accomplishments, ºrity and Ethiºpiaume diº
particularly upon his dexterity in being able [ANTAEopolis, a city of Thebais on the
to drive a chariot twice round a course in the eastern side of the Nile, named after An
º ring.
Enfield. Hist. Phil. Vol. 1, p. taeus. It is called now Kau-il-Kubbara.]
ANTAGóras, a Rhodian poet, much ad
Asxo and HANNo, a Carthaginian gene mired by Antigonus. One day as he was
ral conquered in Spain by Scipio, and sent to cooking some fish, the king asked him whe
Rome. He was son of Bomilcar, whom An ther Homer ever dressed any meals when he
nibal sent privately over the Rhone to con was recording the actions of Agamemnon 2
quer the Gauls. Liv. 21, c. 27. A Car And do you think, replied the poet, that he
thaginian who taught birds to sing “Anno is ever inquired whether any individual dressed
a god,” after which he restored them to their fish in his army 2 Plut. Symp. & Apoph.
native liberty; but the birds lost with their ANIAlcidas, of Sparta, son of Leon, was
slavery what they had been taught, JElian. sent into Persia, where he made a peace with
W.H. ult.lib.c. 30. [A Carthaginian com Artaxerxes very disadvantageous to his coun
mander sent forth to plant colonies on the try, by which, B.C. 387, the Greek cities of
Atlantic coast of Africa. He is supposed by Asia became tributary to the Persian mo
Mannert to bave discovered as far as the narch. Paus. 9, c. 1, &c.—Diod. 14-Plut.
4th degree of north latitude. The same wri in driaz.
ter makes him to have been a little prior to ANTANdros, now St. Dimitri, [a city of
the time of Herodotus. According to Dod Troas on the north side of the gulf of Adra
well, however, he lived in the age of Alexan possessed it The
myttium. Cimmerians are said to have
for a century, and to have made
der oralittle aſter; and according to Vossius.
“hortly after the Trojan war. Hanno wrotei it their place of arms. According to Servius,
py to

it was founded by inhabitants of Andros, Greek academies, to inform the scholars that
driven from their island by a sedition. Some it is their immediate duty to be grateful to .
place it at the foot of Mount Ida.] Strab. 13. their teachers, and to reward their trouble
—Mela. 1, c. 18. with love and reverence. [The original mear
Anteius Publius was appointed over ing of the name Anteros is, the Deity who
Syria by Nero. He was accused of sedition avenges slighted love. By later writers it is
and conspiracy, and drank poison, which applied to a brother of Cupid, but in constant
operating slowly, obliged him to open his opposition to him; and in the palaestra at Elis,
veins. Tacit...An. 13, &c. he was represented contending with him.
ANTEMNAE, a city of the Sabines [at the The signification of mutual love is only given
confluence of the Anio and Tiber.] Virg. to the word by later writers, according to
JEn. 7, v. 631. Dionys. Hal. Boettiger. Pausan. 1,30, id. 6,23–Plutarch.
ANtENort, a Trojan prince related to Eret. 20.]—A grammarian of Alexandria,
Priam. It is said that during the Trojan war, in the age of the emperor Claudius.
he always kept a secret correspondence with ANTHEA, a town of Achaia. Paws. 7, c.
the Greeks, and chiefly with Menelaus and 18.-Of Messenia. Id. 4, c. 31.
Ulysses. In the council of Priam, Homer in AnthèAs, a son of Eumelus, killed in at
troduces him as advising the Trojans to re tempting to sow corn from the chariot of Trip
store Helen, and conclude the war. He ad tolemus drawn by dragons. Paus. 7, c. 18.
vised Ulysses to carry away the Trojan pal ANTHEDon, a city of Boeotia, [a little to
ladium, and encouraged the Greeks to make the north-east of Mount Messapius.] It re
the wooden horse, which, at his persuasion ceived its name from the flowery plains that
was brought into the city of Troy by a breach surrounded it, or from Anthedon, a certain
made in the walls. AEneas has been accus nymph. [In the midst of the city was a tem
ed of being a partner of his guilt; and the ple of the Cabiri, and near it a sacred wood
might that Troy was taken, they had a num of Ceres and a temple of Proserpine with
ber of Greeks stationed at the doors of their her statue in white marble. It had also a
houses to protect them from harm. [After temple of Bacchus.] Paus. 7, c. 10, 1.9, c.
the destruction of his country, Antenor, ac 22. [A town of Palestine, called also A
cording to a fabulous account, led a colony of grippias, on the sea coast to the south-west
Heneti, a people of Paphlagonia, into Italy, of Gaza. Herod gave it the second name in
near the mouth of the Po, where, expelling honour of Agrippa. It is now called Daron.
the Euganei from their possessions, he settled Strab. 4.—Plum.4, c. 7.]
in them and founded Patavium or Padua.] AnthèI.A., a town near [the straits of
His children were also concerned in the Tro
Thermopylae, and watered by the Asopus, I
jan war, and displayed much valour against near which Ceres and Amphictyon had a
the Greeks. Their names were Polybius, temple. Herodot. 7, c. 176.
Acamas, Agenor, and according to others, Po ANTHEMis, [one of the names of the island
lydamas and Helicaon. 1.-Plin.
Liv. 1, c. of Samos. | Sirab. 10.
3, c. 13. –Virg. JEn. 1, v. 242.–Tacit. 16, ANTHEMUs, a city of Macedonia [to the
c. 21.-Homer, Il. 3, 7, 8, 11.-Ovid. Met. 13. north-east of Thessalonica.
—Dictys. Cret. 5–Dares. Phryg. 6.—Strab. ANTHEMUsia,
city of Mesopotamia,
3.—Dionys. Hal. 1.-Paus. 10, c. 27.- the south-east ofaSamosata, and just below
A Cretan who wrote a history of his country. Edessa. The name was derived from the
Macedonian city Anthemus.J Strab.
ANTERos, (arts and gar.) a son of Mars AnthèNE, a town of [Cynuria in Argolis.]
and Venus. He was not, as the derivation of Thucyd. 5, c. 41.
his name implies, a deity that presided over ANTHERMUs, a Chian sculptor, son of
an opposition to love, but he was the god of Miceiades, and grandson to Malas. [His
mutual love and of mutual tenderness. Ve
nus had complained to Themis, that her son sons Bupalus and
Anthermus] made a statue
of the poet Hipponax, which caused univer
Cupid always continued a child, and was told laughter, on account of the deformity of
that if he had another brother, he would sal its countenance. The poet was so incensed
grow up in a short space of time. As soon as upon this, and inveighed with so much bitter.
Anteros was born, Cupid felt his strength in ness against the statuaries, that they hung
crease, and his wings enlarge; but if ever his themselves, according to the opinion of some
brother was at a distance from him, he found authors. Plin. 36, c. 5.
himself reduced to his ancient shape. From ANTREs, a native of Anthedon, who first
this circumstance itis seen, that return of pas
sion gives vigour to love. Anteros had a tem invented hymns. Plut. de Mus.
ANTHESPHoRIA, festivals celebrated in Si
ple at Athens raised to his honour, when Me cily, in honour of Proserpine, who was car
les had experienced the coldness and disdain ried away by Pluto as she was gathering
of Timagoras, whom he passionately esteem
ed, and for whom he had killed himself. rid. flowers. [The word is derived aro Tov ºsgºw
arºsa, i.e.from carrying flowers..] Claudian.
Meles Cupid and Anteros are often repre de Rapt. Pros. Festivals of the same
sented striving to seize a palm-tree from one name were also observed at Argos in honour
ańother, to teach us that true love always en
of Juno, who was called Antheia. Paus.
deavours to overcome by kindness and grati. Corinth.-Pollur. Onon. 1, c. 1.
tude. They were always painted in the ANTHEstERIA, festivals in honour of Bac

chus among the Greeks. They were cele Anticlea killed herself when she heard a false
brated in the month of February, called An report of her son's death. Homer. Od. 11,
thesterion, whence the name is derived, and 19.-Hygin. fab. 201, 243.-Paus. 10, c. 29.
continued three days. The first was called ANticlides, a Greek historian, whose
II,éerytz are rºw ºriºs: or, ur, because they works are now lost. They are quoted by
tapped their barrels of liquor. The second .Athenæus, and Plut. in Aler.
day was called Xosr, from the measure x22, Antic Rägus, [a detached chain of the
because every individual drank of his own ridge of Mount Cragus in Lycia, running in a
vessel, in commemoration of the arrival of north-east direction along the coast of the
Orestes, who, after the murder of his mother, Sinus Glaucus.) Strab.4.
came, without being purified, to Demophoon, ANticRATEs, a Spartan, who wounded
or Pandion, king of Athens, and was oblig Epaminondas, the Theban general, at the
ed with all the Athenians, to drink by him battle of Mantinea. Plut. in Ages.
self, for fear of polluting the people by drink Anticy RA, [a city of Phocis, on the isth
ing with them before he was purified of the mus of a small peninsula in the Sinus Corin
parricide. It was usual on that day, to ride thiacus, west of the Sinus Crissaeus. It is
out in chariots, and ridicule those that pass supposed by Pausanias to have been the city
ed by. The best drinker was rewarded called by Homer Cyparissa. Above the port
with a crown of leaves, or rather of gold, and was a temple consecrated to Neptune. Its
with a cask of wine. The third day was call. modern name is .1spro-Spitia, or the white
ed xvirgº, from zvrea, a vessel brought out houses, from some traces of buildings which
full of all sorts of seed and herbs, deemed still remain. There was another of the same
sacred to Mercury, and therefore not touch name in Thessaly at the mouth of the Sper
ed. The slaves had the permission of be chius.-Both these places were ſamous for the
ing merry and free during these festivals : hellebore which they produced, the great re
and at the end of the solemnity a herald medy for madness among the ancients. Stra
proclaimed, eafał Kapse, ºvz st’ Ay&artºgiz, bo says that the secoud Anticyra produced
i. e. Depart, ye Carian slaves, the festivals better hellebore than the first, but that the
are at an end. ...HElian. V. H. 2, c. 41. article was better prepared at the latter.
ANTHLA, a sister of Priam, seized by the The proverb Naviget Anticyram was applied
Greeks. She compelled the people of Pal by the ancients to a person deemed insane.
lene to burn their ships, and build Scione. Horace has been supposed by some to allude
Polyten. 7, c. 47. to three places of this name, but this is a mis
Anthium, a town of Thrace, afterwards take, the poet merely speaks of a head so
called Apollonia. [The name was subse insane as not to be cured by the produce of
quently changed to Sozopolis, and is now pro three Anticyras, if there even were three and
nounced Sizeboli. Pium. 4, c. 11.-A city of not two merely.) Paus. 10, c. 36.-Horat.
Italy. 2, Sat. 3, v. 166. De. Art. Poet. v. 300,—
Asthius, (flowery,) a name of Bacchus Perstus 4, v. 16.-Strab. 9.—Mela, 2, c. 3.−
worshipped at Athens. He had also a statue Ovid. Pont. 4, ep. 3, v. 53.
at Patrae. ANTIDötus, an excellent painter, pupil of
AsTho, a daughter of Amuliusking of Alba. Euphranor. Plin. 35, c. 11.
As Thaorophic 1, a people of Scythia that ANTIGENEs, one of Alexander's generals,
fed on human flesh. They lived near the publicly rewarded for his valour. Curt. 5, c.
country of the Massagetae. Plin. 4, c. 12, l. 14.
6, c. 30.-Mela, 2, c. 1. ANTIGENIDAs, a famous musician of The
As rhylla, a city of Egypt [about west bes, disciple, to Philoxenus. He taught his
from the Canopic branch of the Nile, and pupil Ismenias to despise the judgment of the
north-west from Naucratis. It is supposed populace. Cic, in Brut. 97.
by Larcher to have been the same with Gy AnticóNA, daughter of Berenice, was
naecopolis. It maintained the queens of the wife to king Pyrrhus. Plut. in Pyrrh.
country in shoes, or, according to .4thenaeus ANTIGONE, a daughter of GEdipus, king of
1, in girdles. Herodot. 2, c. 98. Thebes, by his mother Jocasta. She paid
Axtra LEx was made for the suppression the last sad offices to her brother Polypices,
of luxury at Rome. Its particulars are not against the positive orders of Creon, who,
known. The enactor was Antius Restio, who when he heard of it, ordered her to be buried
afterwards never supped abroad for fear of alive. She however killed herself before the
being himself a witness of the profusion and sentence was executed, and Haemon, the
extravagance which his law meant to destroy, king's son, who was passionately fond of her,
but without effect. Macrob. 3, c. 17. and had not been able to obtain her pardon,
AsticlăA, a daughter of Autolycus and killed himself on her grave. The death of
Amphithea. Her father, who was a famous Antigone is the subject of one of the tragedies
robber, permitted Sisyphus, son of Æolus, to of Sophocles. The Atheniaus were so pleas
enjoy the favours of his daughter, and Anti ed with it at the first representation, that they
clea was really pregnant of Ulysses when she presented the author with the government of
married Laertes king of Ithaca. Laertes was Samos. This tragedy was represented 32
nevertheless the reputed father of Ulysses. times at Athens, without interruption. So
Ulysses is reproached by Ajax in Ovid. Mel. phocl. in .Antig.—Hygin. fab. 67, 72, 343,
as being the son of Sisyphus. It is said that 254.—Apollod. 3, c. 5-–Ovid.
Trist. 3, el. 3.

—Philoslrat. 2, c. 29.—Stat. Theb. 12, v. 350. B. C. 301. Antigonus was defeated and dies
A daughter of Eurytion king of Phthia in of his wounds, and his son Demetrius fled
'Fhessaly. Apollod.—A daughter of Lao from the field. Antigonus was 84 years
medom. She was the sister of Prium, and was old when he died.] During his life, he
changed into a stork for comparing herself was master of all Asia Minor, as far as Syria:
to Juno. Ovid. JMet. 6, v. 93. but after his death, his son Demetrius lost
ANTIgonia, a town of Epirus, [south-west Asia, and established himself in Macedonia
of Apollonia.] Plin. 4, c. 1. One of Ma upon the death of Cassander, and some time
cedonia, [in the district of Mygdonia,] found after attempted to recover his former posses--
ed by Antigonus, son of Gonatas. Id. 4, c. sions, but died in captivity, in the court of his
10–One in Syria, on the borders of the son-in-law, Scleucus. Antigonus was con
Orontes, [built by Antigonus, and intended cerned in the different intrigues of the Greeks.
as the residence of the govenors of Egypt He made a treaty of alliance with the AEto
and Syria, but destroyed by him when Seleu lians, and was highly respected by the Athe
cia was built, and the inhabitants removed to nians, to whom he showed himself very liber
the latter city.] Strab. 16. Another in alandindulgent. Antigonus discharged some
Bithynia, called also Nicaea. Id. 12. An of his officers because they spent their timein
other in Arcadia, [founded on the ruins of the taverns, and he gave their commissions to
ancient Mantinea.] Paus.8, c. 8. One of common soldiers, who performed their duty
Troas in Asia Minor, [probably the same with punctuality. A certain poet called him
with that which was called Alexandria.] divine; but the king despised his flattery,
Strab. 13.
and bade him go and inquire of his servants
ANtigöNUs, one of Alexander's generals, whether he was really what he supposed
universally supposed to be the illegitimate him. Strab. 13.-Diod. 17, &c.—Paus. 1, e.
son of Philip, Alexander's father. In the di 6, &c.—Justin. 13, 14, and 15.-C. Mep. in
vision of the provinces after the king's death, Eumen.—Plut. in Demetr. Eumen. & Arnt.
he received Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phrygia. —Gonâtas, [so called from the place of
He united with Antipater and Ptolemy, to his birth, son of Demetrius, and grandson to
destroy Perdiccas and Eumenes : and after Antigonus, was king of Macedonia. He con
the death of Perdiccas, he made continual quered the Gauls, [who had made an irrup
war against Eumenes, whom, after three tion into his kingdom.] and at last was ex
years of various fortune, he took prisoner, pelled by Pyrrhus, who seized the throne.
and put to death. He afterwards declared [He afterwards recovered a great part of
war against Cassander, and had several en Macedonia, and followed Pyrrhus to the neigh
gagements by his generals with Lysimachus. bourhood of Argos. In a conflict that ensued
He obliged Seleucus to retire from Syria, there, Pyrrhus was slain.] After the death
and fly for refuge and safety to Egypt. Ptole of Pyrrhus, he reeovered all Macedonia, and
my, who had established himself in Egypt, died after a reign of 34 years, leaving his son
promised to defend Seleucus, and from that Demetrius [the 2d] to succeed, B. C. 243.
time all friendship ceased between Ptolemy Justin. 21 and 25.-Polyb.—Plut. in Demetr.
and Antigonus, and a new war was begun, [in —The guardian ofhis nephew, Philip, the
which Seleucus, Ptolemy, Lysimachus and son of Demetrius, who married the widow of
Cassander arrayed themselves against Anti Demetrius, and usurped the kingdom. He
gonus. After varied success, the confede was called Doson, from his promising much
rates made a treaty with him and surrender and giving nothing. He conquered Cleo
£d to him the possession of the whole of Asia, menes king of Sparta, and obliged him to re
upon condition that the Grecian cities should tire into Egypt, because he favoured the
remain free. This treaty was soon broken, AEtolians against the Greeks. He died B.C.
and Ptolemy made a descent into Lesser 221, after a reign of 11 years, leaving
Asia and on some of the Greek isles, which crown to the lawful possessor, Philip, who his
was at first successful, but he was defeated in distinguished
himself by his cruelties and the
a sea-fight by Demetrius, the son of Antigo war he made against the Romans. Justin.
mus, who took the island of Cyprus, made 28 and 29.-Polyb. 2.-Plut. in Cleom.—
16,000 prisoners, and sunk 200 of his ships.] A son of Aristobulus [the 2d] king of Judaea,
After this famous naval battle, which hap who obtained an army from the king of Par
pened 26 years after Alexander's death, An thia, by promising him 1000 talents and 500
tigonus and his son assumed the title of kings, women. With these foreign troops he at
and their example was followed by all the tacked his country, and cut off the ears of Hyr.
rest of Alexander's generals. [From this cauus [his uncle] to make him unfit for the
period, B.C. 300, his own reign in Asia, that priesthood. Herod, with the aid of the Ro
of Ptolemy in Egypt, and those of the other
captains of Alexander in their respective ter mans, took him prisoner, and he was put to
ritories, properly commence. Antigonus now death by Antony. Joseph. 14.—Dion. &
Plut. in .4nton. Carystius, an historian
formed the design of driving Ptolenty from in the age of Philadelphus, who wrote the lives
Xypt, but ſailed. His power soon became
so formidable that a new confederacy was 9ſ some of the ancient philosophers, [also an
heroic poem, entitled “Autipater,” mention
formed against him by Cassander, Lysima ed by Athenaeus, and other works. The on
chus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy. The contending ly remains we have of them are his “collec
parties met in the plain of Ipsus in Phrygia. violts of wonderful Stories” concerning animals

and other natural bodies. This work was changed into a constellation. Some writers
first published at Basle, 1568, and was after suppose that Antinous was drowned in the
wards reprinted at Leyden by Meursius, Nile. [According to another account, Adrian,
1619, in 4to. It forms a part also of the vo consulting an oracle at Besa, was informed
iume entitled. Historiarum JMirabilium Auc that he was threatened with great danger, un
tores Graci. printed at Leyden in 1622, in less a person that was dear to him, was immo
4to.] Diog.—4then. lated for his preservation. Upon hearing
Astilleisus, [a ridge of mountains in tints Antinous threw himself from a rock in
Syria, east of and running parallel with the to the Nile as an offering for the safety of the
ridge of Libanus. Nearit rises the Orontes.] emperor, who built Autinoopolis on the spot,
Strab.-Plin. 5. c. 20. in memory of him.]—A native of Ithaca,
Axtilochus, a king of Messenia. The son of Eupenthes and one of Penelope's suitors.
eldest son of Nestor by Eurydice. He went He was brutal and cruel in his manners; and
to the Trojan war with his father, and was excited his companions to destroy Telema
killed by Memnon, the son of Aurora. Ho chus, whose advice comforted his mother
mer. Od. 4.—Ovid. Hereud. says he was killed Penelope. When Ulysses returned home,
by Hector.—A poet who wrote a panegy he came to the palace in a beggar's dress,
ric upon Lysander, and received a hat filled and begged for bread, which Antinous refus
with silver. Plut. in Lys. An historian ed, and even struck him. After Ulysses had
commended by Dionys. Hal. discovered himself to Telemachus, and Eu
ANTIMächt's, a Greek poet of Ionia. He maeus, he attacked the suitors, who were ig
wrote a treatise on the age and genealogy of norant who he was, and killed Antinous
Homer, and endeavoured to prove him a ma among the first. Homer. Od. 1, 16, 17 and
tive of Colophon. He wrote a poen, upon the 22.-Propert. 2, el. 5, v. 7.
Theban war; and before he had brought his AntiochiA, a city of Syria, once the third
heroes to the city of Thebes, he had filled 24 city of the world for beauty, greatness, and
books. [At a public recital of this poem all population. [It was built by Seleucus Nica
his auditory deserted him except Plato, upon tor in memory of his father Antiochus, on
which Antimachus declared that he would the river Orontes, about 20 miles from its
read on, as Plato alone was equal to a whole mouth, and was equi-distant from Constan
andience. Quintilian ranks him next to Ho unople and Alexandria, being about 700 miles
mer in Epic poetry, but at a great distance. from each. Here the disciples of our Saviour
The emperor Adrian endeavoured to revive were first called Christians, and the chief pa
his fame when it was almºst forgotten, and to triarch of Asia resided. It was afterwards
rank him above Homer, but in vain ) He known by the name ºf Tetrapolis, being di
was surnamed Clarius, from Claros, a moun vided as it were into four cities, each having
tain near Colophon, where he was born. [He its separate wall, besides a common one en
flourished about 408 B. ...] Paus. 9, c. 35. closing all. The first was built by Seleucus
—Plut. in Lysand. & Timol.—Propert. 2, el. Nicator, the second by those who repaired
34, v.45.-Quinfil. 10, c. 1.-Another poet thither on its being made the capital of the
of the same name, surnamed Psecas, because Syro-Macedonian empire, the third by Se
he praised himself. Suidas. A Trojan leucus Callinicus, and the fourth by Antio
whom Paris bribed to oppose the restoring of chus Epiphanes. It is now called Antakia,
Helen to Menelaus and Ulysses, who had and has suffered severely by a late earthquake.
come as ambassadors to recover her. His At the distance of 4 or 5 miles below was
sons, Hippolochus and Pisander, were kille a celebrated grove called Daphne; whence,
by Agamemnon. Homer. Ii. 11, v. 123, 1.12, v. for the sake of distinction, it has been called
133-A native of Heliopolis, who wrote a Antiochia near Daphne, vid. Daphne.]
poem on the creation of the world, in 3780 Dionys. Perieg.—A city called also Nisi
werses. bis, in Mesopotamia, built by Seleucus, son of
ANTIsøE, one of the daughters of Pelias, Antiochus.—A city of Pisidia, [situate
ºpoliod. 1.-Paus. 8, c. 11. however, in Phrygia, above Pisidia.]—Aci
ANTimoria, annual sacrifices and quin ty [at the foot] of mount Cragus.--Another
guemial games in honour of Antinous, insti in Margiana, called Alexandria and Seleucia.
tuted by the emperor Adrian at Mantinea, Another [at the foot] of mount Taurus,
where Antinous was worshipped as a divini [in the province of Syria, called Comagene.]
ty. [They were celebrated also at Argos.] Another of Caria, on the river viean
Astisoopolis [or ANTINGE,] a town of
Egypt, built in honour of Antinous, [opposite ANT16cHis, the name of the mother of An
Hermopolis Magna, on the eastern bank of tiochus, the son of Seleucus.-A tribe of
the Nile. It was previously an obscure place Athens.
*alled Besa, but became a magnificent city, ANT10chus, surnamed Soter, was son of
rid. Antinous. It is now called Ensené, and Seleucus, and king of Syria and Asia. He
a revered sepulchre has also caused it to re made a treaty of alliance with Ptolemy Phi
ceive the name of Shek-Abadé. ladelphus, king of Egypt. He fell into a lin
Astiséus, a youth of Bithynia, of whom gering disease, which none of his father's
the emperor Adrian was so extremely fond, physicians could cure for some time, till it
that at his death he erected a temple to him, was discovered that his pulse was more ir
*Ed wished it to be believed that he had been regular than usual when
Stratonice his step

mother entered his room, and that love for plunder the temple of Belus in Susiana, which
her was the cause of his illness. This was so incensed the inhabitants that they killed
told the father, who willingly gave Stratonice him with his followers, 187 years before the
to his son,that his immoderate love might not christian era. [According to Aurelius Victor,
cause his death. He died 291 B. C. after a he became very dissolute at the close of his
reign of 19 years. . [He was called Soter or life, and was killed at an entertainment by a
Saviour by the provinces of Lower Asia, from guest whom he had insulted.] In his char.
his having freed them from the Gauls, whom acter of king, Antiochus was humane and li.
he defeated in battle.] Justin. 17, c. 2, &c.— beral, the patron of learning, and the friend
P'al. Mar. 5.-Polyb. 4. Appran. 'The of merit: and he published an edict, ordering
second of that name, surnamed Theos (God) his subjects never to obey except his com.
by the Milesians, because he put to death mands were consistent with the laws of the
their tyrant Timarchus, was son and successor country. He had three sons, Seleucus Philo
of Antiochus Soter. [In the third year of pater, Antiochus Epiphanes, and Demetrius,
his reign, a bloody war broke out between him The first succeeded him, and the two others
and Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt. During were kept as hostages by the Romans. Justin,
this, he lost all his provinces beyond the 31 and 33.-Strab. 16.-Lav. 34, c. 59.-Flor.
Euphrates by a revolt of the Parthians and 2, c. 1.-Appian. Bell. Syr.—The fourth
the Bactrians. These losses compelled him Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, or Illus.
to sue for peace unto Ptolemy, and it was on trious, was king of Syria, after the death of
ly granted on condition of his divorcing his his brother Seleucus, and reigned eleven
former wife Laodice, and marrying Ptolemy's years. He destroyed Jerusalem, and was so
daughter Berenice. The male issue of this cruel to the Jews, that they called him Epi.
marriage were also to succeed to the crown. manes, or Furious, and not Epiphanes. He
Ptolemy died two years after this, and An attempted to plunder Persepolis withouteſ.
tiochus repudiated Berenice and restored ſect. He was of a voracious appetite, and
Laodice. The latter resolving to secure the fond of childish diversions; he used for his
succession to her son, poisoned Antiochus.) pleasure to empty bags of money in the
and suborned Artemon, whose features were streets, to see the people's eagerness to gather
similar to his, to represent him as king. Ar it; he bathed in the public baths with the
temon, subservient to her will, pretended to populace, and was fond of perfuming him.
be indisposed, and, as king, called all the mi self to excess. He invited all the Greeks he
nisters, and recommended to them Seleucus, could at Antioch, and waited upou them as:
surnamed Callinicus, son of Laodice, as his servant, and danced with such indecency
successor. After this ridiculous imposture, among the stage-players, that even the most
it was made public that the king had died a dissipate and shameless blushed at the sight
natural death, and Laodice placed her son on [It is of this Antiochus that some relate theat.
the throne, and dispatched Berence and her tempt to plunder the temple in Elimais. He
son, 246 years before the christian era. Ap is said to have been repulsed in this attempt:
pian. The third of that name, surnamed and to have died of a sudden and severe main
the Great, brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, was dy when marching to extirpate the Jews.]
king of Syria and Asia, and reigned 36 years. Polybius.-Justin. 34, c. 3. The fifth, sur
He was defeated by Ptolemy Philopater at pamed Eupator, or Noble, succeeded his father
Raphia, [and was compelled to surrender to Epiphanes on the throne of Syria, 164 B.C.
him the whole of Coelesyria and Palestine. He made a peace with the Jews, and in the
He was more successful, however, in Upper second year of his reign was put to death by
Asia, where he recovered possession of Me his uncle Demetrius, who said that the crown
dia, and made treaties with the kings of Par was lawfully his own, and that it had been
thia and Bactria, who agreed to aid him in seized from his father. Justin. 34.—Joseph
regaining other of his former provinces, if 12. The sixth, king of Syria, was sur.
their respective kingdoms were secured to named Theos. His father Alexander Balas,
them. He crossed over also into India, and intrusted him to the care of Malcus, an
renewed his alliance with the king of that Arabian; and he received the crown from
country.] After the death of Philopater, he Tryphon, in opposition to his brother Deme.
endeavoured to crush his infant son Epi trius, whom the people hated. Before he had
phanes; but his guardians solicited the aid been a year on the throne, Tryphon murder.
of the Romans, and Antiochus was compel ed him, 143 B.C. and reigned in his place for
led to resign his pretensions. He conquered three years. Joseph. 13. The seventh,
the greatest part of Greece, of which some called Sudetes, or the Hunter, reigned up.
cities implored the aid of Rome; and Annieal, years. In the beginning of his reign, he was
who had taken refuge at his court, encourag afraid of Tryphon, and concealed himself, but
ed him to make war against Italy. He dis. he soon obtained the means of destroying his
trusted however the sincerity of Annibal. His enemy. He made war against Phraates king
measures were dilatory, and not agreeable to of Parthia, [entered Parthia, and regained the
the advice of the Carthaginian commander, provinces which Phraates had separated from
and he was conquered and obliged to retire the Syriau empire. His soldiers however hav.
beyond mount Taurus, and pay a yearly fine ing been dispersed after this in winter-qual
of 2000 talents to the Romans. His revenues
ters, were attacked and cut to pieces, and
being unable to pay the fine, he attempted to Antiochus along with them.] Justin. 36, a

1.—Appian. Bell. Syr. The eighth, sur the resentment of her father, she fled to
named Grypus, from his aquiline nose, was mount Cithaeron, where she brought forth
son of Demetrius Nicanor by Cleopatra. His twins, Amphion and Zethus. She exposed
brother Seleucus was destroyed by Cleopatra, them, to prevent discovery, but they were
and he himself [some time after, on his mani preserved. After this she fled to Epopeus,
festing an inclination to be independent of his king of Sicyon, who married her. Some say
mother.] would have shared the same fate, that Epopeus carried her away, for which
had he not discovered his mother's artifice, action Nycteus made war against him, and
and compelled her to drink the poison which at his death left his crown to his brother Ly
was prepared for himself. He killed Alexan cus, intreating him to continue the war and
ier Zebina, whom Ptolemy had set to oppose punish the ravisher of his daughter Lycus
him on the throne of Syria, and was at last obeyed his injunctions, killed Epopeus, and
assassinated B. C. 112, after a reign of [29 recovered Antiope, whom he loved, and mar
years according to Josephus, and 26 years ac ried, though his niece. His first wife, Dirce,
cording to Porphyrius.] Justin. 39, &e.— was jealous of his new connection; she pre
Joseph-Appian. The ninth, surnamed vailed upon her husband, and Antiope was
Cyzenicus, from the city of Cyzicus where delivered into her hands, and confined in a
he received his education, was son of Antio prison, where she was daily tormented. An
chus Sidetes, by Cleopatra. He disputed the tiope, after many years imprisonment, obtain
kingdom with his brother Grypus, who ed means to escape, and went after her sons,
ceded to him Coelosyria, part of his patri who undertook to avenge her wrongs upon
mony. He was at last conquered by his ne Lycus and his wife Dirce. They took
phew Seleucus near Antioch, and rather than Thebes, put the king to death, and tied Dirce
to continue prisoner in his hands, he killed to the tail of a wild bull, who dragged her
himself, B. C.93. While a private man, he till she died. Bacchus changed her into a
seemed worthy to reign; but when on the fountain, and deprived Antiope of the use of
her senses. In this forlorn situation she wan
throne, he was dissolute and tyrannical. He
was fond of mechanics, and invented some dered all over Greece, and at last found re
useful military engines. .4ppian.—Joseph. lief from Phocus, son of Ornytion, who cured
-The tenth, was ironically surnamed Pi her of her disorder, and married her. Hy
wi, because he married Selena, the wife of his girus, fab. 7, says that Antiope was divorced
ather and of his uncle. He was the son of by Lycus, because she had been ravished by
Antiochus ninth, and he expelled Seleucus Epopeus, whom he calls Epaphus, and that
the son of Grypus from Syria, and was killed aſter her repudiation she became pregnant
in a battle he ſought against the Parthians, in by Jupiter. Meanwhile Lycus married Dirce,
the cause of the Galatians. Joseph-Ap who suspected that her husband still kept
pian–After his death, the kingdom of Sy the company of Antiope, upon which she im
ria was torn to pieces by the factions of the prisoned her. Antiope however escaped
royal family or usurpers, who under a good from her confinement, and brought forth on
ºr false title, under the name of Antiochus or mount Cithaeron. Some authors have called
his relations, established themselves for a lit her daughter of Asopus, because she was
tletine assovereigns either of Syria, or Da born on the banks of that river. The Scho
mascus, or other dependent provinces. At liast on Apollon. 1, v. 735, maintains that
last Antiochus, surnained .Asiaticus, the son there were two persons of the name, one the
ºf Antiochus the ninth, was restored to his daughter of Nycteus, and the other of Aso
Paternal throne by the influence of Lucullus pus, and mother of Amphion and Zethus.
the Roman general, on the expulsion of Ti Paus. 2, c. 6, l. 9, c. 17.—Ovid. 6. Met. v.
grades king of Armenia from the Syrian do 110 – Apollod. 3. c. 5–Propert. 3, el. 15–
minions; but ſour years after, Pompey de Hom. Od. 11, v. 259,-Hygin. ſab. 7, 8, and
pºsed him, and observed, that he who hid 155. A daughter of Mars, queen of the
himself while an usurpersat upon his throne, Amazons, taken prisoner by Hercules, and
ºught not to be a king. From that time, B given in marriage to Theseus. She is also
C-65, Syria became a Roman province, and called Hippolyte. vid Hippolyte.
terace of Antiochus was extinguished. Jus ANTiPARos, a small island in the Ægean
*-49–A philosopher of Ascalon, famous sea, opposite Paros, [and separated from it
ºr his writings, and the respect with which by a strait about 7 miles wide. Its most
he was treated by his pupils, Lucullus, Cice ancient name was Qlearos, and it was set
ro, and Brutus. Plut. in Lucull.—An his tled by a colony of Sidonians. This island is
tarian of Syracuse, son of Xenophanes, who famous for its grotto, which is of great depth,
"rote, besides other works, an history of Si and was believed by the ancient Greeks to
cily, in nine books, in which he began at the communicate beneath the waters with some
*ze of king Cocalus. Sirab-Diod, 12. of the neghbouring islands.] .
A sculptor, said to have made the famous sta AnturiteR, [a Macedonian of noble birth,
ºne of Pallas, preserved in the Ludovisi gar distinguished by his natural talents and ex
"em at Rome. cellent education. He was minister to Philip,
Astºre, daughter of Nycteus, king of and during the absence of Alexander in Asia:
by Polyxo, was beloved by Jupiter, was governor of Macedonia, and of all
*to deceive her, changed himself into a Greece..] Antipater exerted himself in the
*77. She became pregnant, and, to avoid cause of his king ; 63he made war against

Sparta, and was soon after called into Per

the two brothers by the advice of Lysimachus,
sia with a reinforcement by Alexander. He and soon after Demetrius killed Antipater,
has been suspected of giving poison to Alexand made himself king of Macedonia, 294 B
ander, to raise himself to power.—After A C. Justin. 26, c. 1. A king of Macedonia.
who reigned only 45 days, 277 B.C.
lexander's death, his generals divided the em *
pire among themselves, and the government powerful prince, father to Herod He was
of the European provinces] was allotted to appointed governor of Judea by Caesar, whom
Antip.ter. The war which Greece, and he had assisted in the Alexandrine war. Ja
chiefly Athens, meditated during Alexander's seph.-A celebrated sophist of Hieropolis.
life, now burst forth with uncommon fury as preceptor to the children of the emperor Se
soon as the news of his death was received. verus-[A philosopher of Sidon, or Tar
The Athenians levied an army of 30,000 sus, commended hy Cicero and Seneca, flou
men, and equipped 200 ships against Anti rished about 80 B.C. He was the disciple
pater, who was master of Macedonia. Their ind successor of Diogenes the Babylonian,
expedition was attended with much success. and his chief opponent was Carneades.]
Antipater was routed in Thessaly, and even A disciple of Aristotle, who wrote two books
besieged in the town of Lamia. But when of letters.-A poet of Thessalonica, in the
Leosthenes the Athenian general was mortal age of Augustus.
ly wounded under the walls of Lamia, the ANTiPATRIA, a city of Macedonia, [on the
fortune of the war was changed. Antipater eastern confines, north-east of Nicaea..] Lir.
obliged the enemy to raise the siege, and soon 31, c. 27.
after received a reinforcement from Crate. ANTIrātris, [or Capharsaba, a town of
rus from Asia, with which he conquered the Palestine, situate in Samaria, near the coast,
Athenians at Cranon in Thessaly. After this south-east of Apollonias. It was rebuilt by
defeat, Antipater and Craterus marched into Herod the Great, and called Antipatris, in
Boeotia, and conquered the AEtolians, and honour of his father Antipater J
granted peace to the Athenians, on the con Antiphines, an ingenious statuary of
ditions which Leosthenes had proposed to Argos. Paus. 5, c. 17. A comic poet of
Antipater when besieged in Lamia, viz. that Rhodes, or rather of Smyrna, who wrote
he should be absolute master over them. Be above 90 comedies, and died in the 74th year
sides this, he demanded from their ambassa of his age, by the fall of an apple upon his
dors, Demades Phocion and Xenocrates, head.—A physician of Delos, who used to
that they should deliver into their hands the say that diseases originated from the variety
orators Demosthenes and Hyperides, whose of food that was eaten. Clem. .4ler.—4 them.
eloquence had inflamed the minds of their ANTIPHATEs, a king of the Laestrygones,
countrymen, and had been the primary descended from Lamus, the founder of For
causes of the war. The conditions were ac miae. Ulysses, returning from Troy, came
cepted, [the popular government, that of So upon his coast, and sent three men to exa
lon, was abolished, and a Macedonian gover mine the country. Antiphates devoured one of
nor with a garrison was stationed in Athens.] them, and pursued the others, and sunk the
Antipater and Craterus were the first who, fleet of Ulysses with stones, except the ship
made hostile preparations against Perdiccas; in which Ulysses was. Ovid. Met. 14, v. 232.
and during that time, Polysperchon defeated ANTiPhill portus, a harbour on the A
the AEtolians, who made an invasion into frican side of the Red Sea. Strab. 16.
Mlacedonia. Antipater gave assistance to ANT philus, an Athenian who succeeded
Eumenes in Asia, against Antigonus accord Leosthenes at the siege of Lamia against
ing to Justin. 14, c 2. At his death, B. C. Antipater Diod. 18. A noble painter,
319, Antipater appointed Polysperchon mas who represented a youth leaning over a fire
ter of all his possessions; and as he was the and blowing it, from which the whole house
oldest of all the generals and successors of seemed to be illuminated. He was an Egyp
Alexander, he recommended that he might tian by birth; he imitated Apelles, and was
be the supreme ruler in their councils, that disciple to Ctesidemus. Plan. 35, c. 10.
every thing might be done according to his Antiphon, a poet. A native of Rham
judgment. As for his son Cassander, he left nus, called Nestor, from his eloquence and
him in a subordinate station under Polysper prudence. [He was the first who wrote
chon. But Cassander was of too aspiring a precepts on oratory. He exerted himself in
disposition tamely to obey his father's injunc establishing the tyranny of the 400 at Athens,
tions. He recovered Macedonia, and made and was for this offence condemned and exc
himself absolute. Curt. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10. cuted. 60 orations under his name were ſor
—Justin. : 1, 12, 13, &c.—Diod. 17, 18, &c. merly extant, but there now remain only 16.
C. Mep, an Phoc. & Eumen.—Plut. in Eumen. They are printed in the editions ef the Greek
.Alexand. &c.—A son of Cassander, king Orators.] An Athenian who interpreted
of Macedonia, and son-in-law of Lysimachus. dreams, and wrote an history of his art. Cic.
He killed his mother, because she wished his de Div. 1 and 2. A poet of Attica, who
brother Alexander to succeed to the throne. wrote tragedies, epic poems, and orations.
Alexander, to revenge the death of his Dionysius put him to death, because he refused
mother, solicited the assistance of Deme to praise his compositions. Being once asked
trius; but peace was re-established between by the tyrant, what brass was the best 2 he

answered, that with which the statues of Har v. 82.-Sueton. in Aug. 54. Petro of Ga
modius and Aristogiton were made. Plut.— bii, was the author of a celebrated treaty be
..?ristot. tween Rome and his country, in the age of
Asriphus. a son of Thessalus, grandson Tarquin the Proud. Dionys. Hal. 4.
to Hercules. Ile went to the Trojan war in ANTITAURUs, [a chain of mountains, run
30ships. Homer. Il. 2, v. 185-–A brother ning from Armenia through Cappadocia to
of Ctimenus, was son of Ganyctor the Nau the west and south-west. It connects itself
pactian. These two brothers murdered the with the chain of Mount Taurus, between
poet Hesiod, on the false suspicion that he Cataonia and Lycaonia, vid. Paryadres.
had offered violence to their sister, and threw JMannert. Anc. Geogr. Vol. 6. part. 2, p. 5.]
his body into the sea. The poet's dog dis ANtium, a maritime town of Italy, built by
covered them, and they were seized and con Ascanius, or, according to others, by a son of
victed of the murder. Plut. de Solert. Anim. Ulysses and Circe, upon a promontory 32
As Tipolis, a city of Gaul, [on the coast miles from Ostia. It was the capital of the
of the Mediterranean, south-east of the river Volsci, who made war against the Romans,
Varus, built and colonised by the Massilians. for above 200 years. Camillus took it, and
It is now.Antibes.] Tacit. 2, Hist. c. 15. carried all the beaks of their ships to Rome,
ANTIRRhiuxi, a promontory of Ætolia. and placed them in the forum, on a tribunal,
opposite Rhium in Peloponnesus, whence the which from thence was called Rostra. This
name. [It is on the Sinus Corinthiacus or town was dedicated to the goddess of fortune,
Gulf of Lepanto. The two promontories, [who had here a splendid temple. Nero was
being fortified with castles, have been called born in this city. It is now Anzio.] Cic. de
the Dardanelles of Lepanto.] Div. 1.-Horat. 1, od. 35.-Liv. 8, c. 14.
ANTissa, [a city of Lesbos, between the ANToMENEs, the last king of Corinth. Af.
promontory Sigeum and Methymne. Hav. ter his death, magistrates with regal authoris
ing offended the Romans, it was depopulated ty were chosen annually.
by Labeo, and the inhabitants were removed AntóNIA LEx, was enacted by M. An
to Methymne. It was afterwards rebuilt, tony, the consul, A. U. C. 710. It abrogated
and is supposed to have been insulated by an the Lez Alia, and renewed the Lex Cornelia,
arm of the sea from the rest of the island. by taking away from the people the privilege
Hence the name Antissa, it being opposite to of choosing priests, and restoring it to the col
Lesbos, whose more ancient name was Issa. lege of priests, to which it originally belong
Strab. 1.-Plin-2, c. 91.] ed. Dio. 44.—Another by the same. It
ANTISTHENEs, a philosopher [founder of allowed an appeal to the people, to those who
the Cynic sect, born of an Athenian father were condemned de majestate, or of perfidious
and of a Phrygian mother. He taught rhe measures against the state. Another by
toric, and had among his pupils the famous the same, during his triumvirate. It made it
Diogenes; but when he had heard Socrates, a capital offence to propose ever after the
he shut up his school, and told his pupils, election of a dictator, and for any person to
“Go seek for yourselves a master, I have accept of the office. Appian. de Ball. Civ. 3.
now found one.” One of his pupils asked him AntóN1A, a daughter of M. Antony, by
what philosophy had taught him : “To live Octavia. She married Domitius AEnobarbus,
with myself,” said he. He sold his all, and and was mother of Nero, and two daughters.
preserved only a very ragged coat, which A sister of Germanicus. The wife of
drew the attention of Socrates, and tempted Drusus the son of Livia, and brother to Ti
him to say to the cynic, who carried his con berius. She became mother of three chil
tempt of dress too far, “Antisthenes, I see dren, Germanicus, Caligula's father; Clau
thy vanity through the holes of thy coat.” dius the emperor: and the debauched Livia.
[He paid little regard to the gods and the re Her husband died very early, and she never
ligion of his country, though, as might be ex would marry again, but spent her time in the
pected from a disciple of Socrates, he thought education of her children. Some people sup
justly respecting the Supreme Being. He pose her grandson Caligula ordered her to be
wrote many books, of which none are extant, poisoned, A. D. 38. Wal. Mar. 4, c. 3–
except two declamations under the names of A castle of Jerusalem, which received this
Ajax and Ulysses. These were published in name in honour of M. Antony. [Its previous
the collection of ancient orators by Aldus in name was Baris. It was situate at the north
1513; by H. Stephens in 1575, and by Can west angle of the temple on a steep hill, and
ter, as an appendix to his edition of Aristides, founded by Hyrcanus. Herod enlarged and
printed at Basle in 1566.] His doctrines of fortified it, and called it Antonia. It was taken
austerity were followed as long as he was by Titus, who thus became master of the
- an example of the cynical character, temple and city, as it commanded both.
but after his death they were all forgotten. Joseph. Bell. Jud. 5, c. 15.]
Antisthenes flourished 396 years B. C. Cic. Antoninus Pius, [or Titus Aurelius Ful
de Orat. 3, c. 36.-Diod. 6.-Plut. in Lyc. vius Boionius Antoninus,) was adopted by
Artistics LABEo, an excellent lawyer at the emperor Adrian, to whom he succeeded.
Rºme, who defended in bold language, the The prince is remarkable for all the virtues
liberties of his country against Augustus, [for that can form a perfect statesman, philoso
which Horace, paying court to Augustus, pher, and king. He rebuilt whatever cities
tº him with madness.] Horat. 1, Sat. 3, had been destroyed by 5wars in former rºigu,
I -

In cases of famine or inundation, he relieved language, slaughtered many thousands in A

the distressed, and supplied their wants with lexandria. After assuming the name and
his own money. He suffered the governors dress of Achilles, and styling himself the con
of the provinces to remain long in the admi queror of provinces he had never seen, he
mistration, that no opportunity of extortion was assassinated at Edessa by Macrinus,
might be given to new-comers. In his con April 8, in the 43d year of his age, A. D. 217.
duct towards his subjects, he behaved with His body was sent to his wife Julia, who stab
affability and humanity, and listened with pa bed herself at the sight. There is extant a
tience to every complaint brought before him. Greek itinerary, and another book called
When told of conquering heroes, he said with Iter Britannicum, which some have attribut
Scipio, I prefer the life and preservation of a ed to the emperor Antoninus, though it was
citizen, to the death 100 enemies. He did more probably written by a person of that
not persecute the christians like his predeces name whose age is unknown.,
sors, but his life was a scene of universal be LAN toNINopolis, a city of Mesopotamia,
nevolence. His last moments were easy, placed by D'Anville on the northern confines
though preceded by a lingering illness. When of the country, but more correctly by Man
consul of Asia, he lodged at Smyrna in the nert in the vicinity, and to the north-east of
house of a sophist, who in civility obliged the Charra and Edessa. It is suppossed to have
governor to change his house at night. The been founded by Severus or Caracalla, and
sophist, when Antoninus became emperor, named after the Emperor Antoninus. It
visited Rome, and was jocosely desired to was subsequently called Constantia, from
use the palace as his own house, without any Constantine, who enlarged and strengtheued
apprehension of being turned out at night. it. Mannert supposes it to be the same
He extended the boundaries of the Roman with the ruined city of Uran Schar, mention
province in Britain, by means of his general ed by Niehbuhr.]
Lollius Urbicus, who, having reconquered M. ANto Nius GNipho, a poet of Gaul
the Maeatae, restored the second wall of Agri who taught rhetoric at Rome; Cicero and
cola, which is hence commonly called the val other illustrious men frequented his school.
lum.Antonini. It lay between the Clyde and He never asked any thing for his lectures,
Forth. vid. Brittania;] but he waged no whence he received more from the liberality
wars during his reign, and only repulsed the of his pupils. Sueton. de Illust. Gr. 7.
enemies of the empire who appeared in the An orator, grandfather to the triumvir of the
field. He died in the 75th year of his age, af. same name. He was killed in the civil wars
ter a reign of 29 years, A. D. 161. He was of Marius, and his head was hung in the forum.
succeeded by his adopted son M. Aurelius Wal. Mar. 9, c. 3.-Lucan. 2, v. 121.
Antoninus, surnamed the philosopher, a Marcus, the eldest son of the orator of the
prince as virtuous as his father. [He raised same name, by means of Cotta and Cethegus,
to the imperial dignity L. Aurelius Commo obtained from the senate the office of manag
dus, who had been equally intended for the ing the corn on the maritime coasts of the
succession along with him by Antoninus Pius, Mediterranean with unlimited power. This
but had been excluded by the latter on ac gave him many opportunities of plundering
count of his vices. He gave him his own ori the provinces and enriching himself. Sallusi.
ginal name of Verus, by which he was after Frag.—Caius, another son of the orator of
wards known.] His voluptuousness and that name, who obtained a troop of horse from
dissipation were as conspicuous as the mo Sylla, and plundered Achaia. He was carried
deration of the philosopher. During their before the praetor M. Lucullus, and banished
reign, the Quadi, Parthians, and Marcoman from the senate by the censors, for pillaging
mi were defeated. Antoninus wrote a book the allies, and refusing to appear when sum
in Greek, entitled, taxa &’ savrov, concerning moned before justice. Caius, son of An
himself, the best editions of which are the 4to. tonius Caius, was consul with Cicero.
Cantab. 1652, and the 8vo. Oxon. 1704. Af. Marcus, the triumvir, was grandson to the
ter the war with the Quadi had been finish orator M. Antonius, and son of Antonius,
ed, Verus died of an apoplexy, and Anto surnamed Cretensis, from his wars in Crete.
ninus survived him eight years, and died [at He was augur and tribune of the people, in
Windobona, now Vienna, of a pestilential dis which he distinguished himself by his ambi
order which prevailed in the army, in the tious views. He always entertained a secret
57th year of his age, after a reign of somewhat resentment against Cicero, which arose from
more than 19 years..] Dio. Cassius.—Bas Cicero's having put to death Corn. Lentulus,
sianus Caracalla, son of the emperor Septi who was concerned in Catiline's conspiracy.
mus Severus, was celebrated for his cruel This Lentulus had married Antonius's mo
ties. He killed his brother Geta in his moth ther after his father’s death. When the
er's arms, and attempted to destroy the writ senate was torn by the factions of Pompey's
ings of Aristotle, observing that Asistotle was and Caesar's adherents, Antony proposed that
one of those who sent poison to Alexander. both should lay aside the command of their
He married his mother, and publicly lived armies in the provinces; but as this proposi
with her, which gave occasion to the people tion met not with success, he privately retir
of Alexandria to say that he was an OEdipus, ed from Rome to the camp of Caesar, and ad
and his wife a Jocasta. This joke was fatal to vised him to march his army to Rome. In
them; and the emperor, to punish their ill support of his attachment, he commanded the

left wing of hisarmy at Pharsalia, and accord Lepidus. Octavius and Antony then passed
ing to a premeditated scheme, offered him a into Macedonia and defeated Brutus and Cas
diadem in the presence of the Roman people. sius at Philippi. After this, the latter passed
When Caesar was assassinated in the senate over to the eastern provinces, where he lived
house, his friend Antony spoke an oration for a time in great dissipation and luxury with
over his body; and to ingratiate himself and the famous Cleopatra at Alexandria. Upon
his party with the populace, he reminded the death of his wiſe Fulvia, he became re
them of the liberal treatment they had receiv conciled with Octavius, against whom Ful
ed from Caesar. [Antony soon became pow via had raised an army in ltaly, for the pur
erful, and began to tread in Caesar's footsteps, pose it is supposed, of drawing her husband
and govern with absolute sway. The arri away from Cleopatra and inducing him to
val of Octavius Hit Rome, thwarted, however, come to the latter country. Augustus gave
his ambitious views. The latter soon raised | Antony his sister Octavia in marriage, and a
a formidable party in the Senate, and was new division was made of the empire. Oc
strengthened by the accession of Cicero to his |tavius had Dalmatia, ltaly, the two Gauls,
cause. Violent quarrels soon ensued between |Spain, and Sardinia, Antony all the provinces
Octavius and Antony. Endeavours were |east of Codropolis in Illyricum, as far as the
used to reconcile them, but in vain. Antony, Euphrates, while Lepidus received Africa.
in order to have a pretence of sending for the On returning to the east, Antony once more
legions from Macedonia, prevailed on the peo became enslaved by the charms of Cleopatra.
ple to grant him the government of Cisalpine |An unsuccessful expediton against the Par
Gaul, which the senate had before conferred |thians ensued, and at last the repudiation of
q. Decimus Brutus, one of the conspirators Octavia involved him in a new war with
against Caesar. Matters soon came to an |Octavius. The battle of Actium put an end
open rupture. Octavius offered his aid to the to this contest and to all the hopes of Antony.
senate, who accepted it, and passed a decree, It was fought at sea, contrary to the advice of
approving of his conduct and that of Brutus, |Antony's best officers, and chiefly through
who at the head of three legions was prepar the persuasion of Cleopatra, who was proud
ing to oppose Antony, then on his march to of her naval force. She abandoned him in the
seize Cisalpine Gaul. Brutus, not being midst of the fight with her 50 gallies, and
strong enough to keep the field against An took to flight. This drew Antony from the
tony, shut himself np in Mutina, where his battle and ruined his cause.]—After the
ºpponent besieged hith. The senate declar battle of Actium, Antony followed Cleopatra
ed Antony an enemy to his country. The | into Egypt, where he was soon informed of
Consuls Hirtius and Pansa took the field the deſection of all his allies and adherents,
against him along with Octavius, and advan and saw the conqueror on his shores. He
ced to Mutina in order to raise the siege. In stabbed himself, and Cleopatra likewise kill
the first engagement Antony had the advan ed herself by the bite of an asp. Antony died
tage and Pansa was mortally wounded, but in the 56th year of his age, B.C. 30, and the
he was defeated the same day by Hirtius as conqueror shed tears when he was inſormed
he was returning to his camp. In a subse that his enemy was no more. Antony leſt
qment engagement, Antony was again van seven children by his three wives. He has
quished, his lines were forced, and Oc been blamed for his great effeminacy, ſor his
tavius had an opportunity of distinguishing uncommon love of pleasures, and his fondness
himself, Hirtius being slain in the action, and of drinking. It is said that he wrote a book
the whole command devolving on the former. in praise of drunkenness. He was fond of
Antony, after this check, abandoned the imitating Hercules, from whom, according
siege of Mutina, and crossed the Alps, in hopes to some accounts, he was descended ; and he
of receiving succours from his friends. This is often represented as Hercules, with Cleo
was all that Octavius wanted; his intent patra in the form of Omphale, dressed in
was to humble Antony, not to destroy him, the arms of her submissive lover, and beating
fºreseeing plainly that the republican party him with her sandals. In his public charac
would be uppermost, and his own ruin must ter, Antony was brave and courageous, but
*on ensue. A reconciliation was soon effect with the intrepidity of Caesar, he possessed all
*lbetweenhimand Antony, who had already his voluptuous inclinations. He was prodigal
Sained an accession of strength by the junction to a degree, and did not scruple to call, from
ºf Lepidus. These three leaders had an in vanity, his sons by Cleopatra, kings of kings.
ºrview near Bononia, in a small island of the His fondness for low company, and his de
river Rhenus, where they came to an agree bauchery, form the best parts of Cicero's
mºnt to divide all the provinces of the empire Philippics. It is said that the night after Caesar's
*nd the supreme authority among themselves murder, Cassius supped with Antony; and
ºf five years, under the name of triumvirs, being asked whether he had a dagger with
him, answered, yes, if you, Antony, aspire to
and as reformers of the republic with consular
Pºwer. Thus was formed the second trium sovereign power. Plutarch has written an
Virate. The most horrid part of the transac account of his life. Jºrg. .ºn. 8, v. 685.--
** was the cold-blooded proscription of Horat. ep. 9.—Jur. 10, v. 122.--C. Nep. in
*y of their friends, and relatives, and Ci ...Attic.—Cic. in Philip.–Justin. 41 and 42.
** head was given in exchange by Augus —Julius, son of Antony the triumvir, by Ful
** Antony's uncle and for the uncle of via, was consul with Paulus Fabius Maximus.

He was surnamed Africanus, and put to death|arrival of Cadmus, the Hyantes took up arms
by order of Augustus. Some say that he to oppose him, but the Aones submitted, and
killed himself. It is supposed that he wrote were incorporated with the Phoenicians. The
an heroic poem on Diomede, in 12 books. Muses were called .domite from Mount Heli
Horace dedicated [the 2d Ode of the 4th con in Boeotia.) Paus. 9, c. 3.-Orid. Met.
Book] to him. Tacit. 4, Ann. c. 44.——Lu 3, 7, 10, 13. Trist. el. 5, v. 10. Fast. 3, v.
cius, the triumvir's brother, was besieged in 456, l. 4, v.245.-Pirg. G. 3, v. 11.
Pelusium by Augustus, and obliged to surren AoNIA, one of the ancient names of Boeo
der himself with 300 men by famine. The tia.
conqueror spared his life. Some say that he AöRIs, a famous hunter, son of Aras, king
was killed at the shrine of Caesar.—A no of Corinth. He was so fond of his sister Ara.
ble, but unfortunate youth. His father, Julius, thyraea, that he called part of the country by
was put to death by Augustus, for his criminal her name. Paus. 2, c. 12. The wife of
conversation with Julia, and he himself was Neleus, called more commonly Chloris. Id.
removed by the emperor to Marseilles, on 9, c. 36.
pretence of finishing his education. Tacit. 5, Aor Nos, Ao RNus, Ao RN is, a lofty rock
.4nn. c. 44. Felix, a freedman of Claudius, in India, taken by Alexander. Hercules had
appointed governor of Judaea. He married besieged it, but was never able to conquer it.
Drusilla, the grand-daughter of Antony and |It was situate on the Suastus or Surat, and
Cleopatra. Tacit. 4, Hist. 9.-Musa, a is now called Renas.] Curt. 8, c. 11.-Mr.
physician of Augustus. Plin. 29. rian. 4.—Strab. 15.—Plut. in Aler.—[An.
ANToRides, a painter, disciple to Aristip. other in Bactriana, east of Zariaspa Bactra.
pus. Plin. - It is now Telºkan, situate on a high mountain
ANūnis, an Egyptian deity, represented called Nork-Koh, or the mountain of silver.]
under the form of a man with the head of a Another near Baiae and Puteoli. It was
dog. His worship was introduced from also called Avernus. Virg. JEn. 6, v.242.
Egypt into Greece and Italy. [The dog was |Aons 1, a people on the shores of the Cas
first consecrated to Anubis, afterwards the pian, who, according to Strabo, carried on a
figure of this animal was substituted for that trade ingold and various articles of merchan
of Anubis himself, and lastly the head of a dise with southern Asia and with India.]
dog was annexed to a human body as an em ApšMA, a daughter of Artaxerxes, who
blem of the new deity.] Diod. 1.-Lucan. marlied Parnabazus, satrap of Ionia-A
8, v. 331.—Orid. Met. 9, v. 686.-Plut. de daughter of Antiochus. Paus. 1, c. 8.
Isid. and Osirid.—Herodot. 4.—Virg. JEn. 8, APAME, the mother of Nicomedes by Pru
Y. 698. sias king of Bithynia. The mother of An
ANxu R, called also Terracina, a city of the tiochus Soter, by Seleucus Nicator.
Volsci, taken by the Romans, A.U. C. 348. APAMiA or APAMEA [a city of Phrygia,
It was sacred to [Jupitera:vgºt, or the beard built by Antiochus Soter, on the site of the
less. La Cerda and others contend that in ancient Cibotus. The latter place was so
conformity with this derivation, the name of called from kačarº, an ark or coffer, because
the place should be written Axur, as it is it was the mart or common treasury of those
even found on some old coins; Heyne, how who traded from Italy and Greece to Asia
ever, rejects the Greek derivation of the Minor. This name was afterwards added
name, and makes Anxur to have been a for a similar reason to Apamea. It was situate
Volscian term, and the letter n to have been at the confluence of the Marsyas and Maean
sometimes omitted on account of its slight der, and is now called Aphiom-Kara-Hisar,
sound. Heyne Comment. ad Virg. JEn. 7, v. or the black castle of opium, which drug is
799. The modern name is Terracina.] Liv. collected in its environs. Another in Bithy
4, c. 59.-Horat. 1, Sat. 5, v. 26.—Lucan. 3, nia, originally called Myrlea, but destroyed
v. 84.— Pirg, VEn. 7, v. 799. by Philip, father of Perses, and rebuilt by
ANYtus, an Athenian rhetorician, who, Prusias, who called it after his wife's name
with Melitus and Lacon, accused Socrates of Apamea. Another in Syria, at the conflu.
impiety, and was the cause of his condemna ence of the Orontes and Marsyas, which form
tion. These false accusers were afterwards a small lake. It was founded by Seleucus
put to death by the Athenians. Diog.— Nicator, and called after his wife. It is now
.Elian. V. H.2, c. 13.-Horut. 2, Sat. 4, v. 3. Famieh. Seleucus is said to have kept in the
—Plut. in Alcib. Adjacent pastures 500 war elephants.--An:
[ANzARBAs, a river near the Tigris. other in Mesopotamia, on the Tigris, in a dis
.Marcel. 18. [rid. Zabatus.] trict which lay between the canal and the
Aollius, a son of Romulus by IIersilia, af. river, whence the epithet Messene applied
terwards called Abillius. to this city, because it was in the midst of
AoN, a son of Neptune, who came to Fu that small territory which is now called
boea and Boeotia, from Apulia, where he col Digel. Another on the confines of Media
lected the inhabitants into cities, and reigned and Parthia, not far from Raga. It was sur.
over them. They were called .dones, and named Raphane. Another at the conflu.
the country Munia, from him. ence of the Tigris and Euphrates, now Komº |
Aón Es, the inhabitants of Aonia, called af Arar N1, a nation of shepherds near the
terwards Boeotia. [They, jointly with the Caspian sea. Strab.
Hyantes, succeeded *
Ectenes. On the Apati R1a, a festival at Athens, which re

ceived its name from arare, deceit, because it lexander, but the king expressed not much
was instituted in memory of a stratagem by satisfaction at the sight of it; and at that
which Xanthus king of Boeotia was killed by moment a horse passing by, neighed at the
Melanthus king of Athens, upon the following horse which was represented in the piece,
occasion. When a war arose between the supposing it to be alive; upon which the
Baeotians and Athenians about a piece ol painter said, “One would imagine that the
ground which divided their territories, Xan horse is a better judge of painting than your
thus made a proposal to the Athenian king to majesty.” When Alexander ordered him to
decide the battle by single combat. Thy draw the picture of Campaspe, one of his mis
moetes, who was then on the throne of Athens, tresses, Apelles became enamoured of her,
refused, but his successor Melanthus accept and the king permitted him to marry her.—
ed the challenge. When they began the en He wrote three volumes upon painting, which
gagement, Melanthus exclaimed, that his an were still extant in the age of Pliny. It is
tagonist had some person behind him to sup said that he was accused in Egypt of conspir
port him; upon which Xanthus looked be ing against the life of Ptolemy, and that he
hind, and was killed by Melanthus. From would have been put to death had not the
this success, Jupiter was called ararayag, de real conspirator discovered himself, and sav
reirer, and Bacchus, who was supposed to eu the painter. Apelles never put his name
be behind Xanthus, was called Maxavai) tº, to any pictures but three; a sleeping Venus,
clothed in the skin of a black goat. Some de Venus Anadyomene, and an Alexander. The
rive the word from a rategiz, i.e. cact aga, proverb of JNe sutor ultra crepidam, is ap
because on the day of the festival, the children plied to him by some. Plin. 35, c. 10.—Horat.
accompanied their fathers to be registered 2, ep. 1, v. 238.-Cic. in Famil. 1, ep. 9.—
among the citizens. The festiv llasted three Ovid. de Art. Am. 3, v. 401.-Pal. Mar. 8,
days, the first day was called degria, because c. 11.-A tragic writer. Suet. Calig. 33.
suppers, 3-3-ol, were prepared for each sepa —— A Macedonian general, &c.
rate tribe. The second day was called APELLicon, a Teian peripatetic philoso
arzºgwrit, are rºw ava grºw, because sacrifices pher, whose fondness for books was so great
were offered to Jupiter and Minerva, and the that he is accused of stealing them, when he
head of the victims was generally turned up could not obtain them with money. He
towards the heavens. The third was called bought the works of Aristotle and Theo
Kvgºrie, from Kovgor, a youth, or Kevga, shar phratus, [vid. Scepsis. On removing the li
tag, because the young men had their hair cut brary to Athens, he caused the writings of
off before they were registered, when ther Aristotle and Theophrastus to be copied, but
parents swore that they were free-born Athe the chasms occasioned by the depredations of
dians. They generally sacrificed two ewes time were supplied by the transcribers, and
and a she-goat to Diana. This festival was erroneous and faulty copies were consequently
adopted by the Ionians, except the inhabit circulated. } The extensive library which he
ants of Ephesus and Colophon. A sur had collected at Athens, was carried to Rome
name of Minerva—of Venus. when Sylla had conquered the capital of At
APELLA, a word, Horat. 1, Sat. 5, v. 10. tica, and among the valuable books was found
which has given much trouble to critics and an original manuscript of Aristotle. He died
commentators. Some suppose it to mean cir about 86 years before Christ. Strab. 13.
cumcised (sine pelle) an epithet highly ap APENNiNUs. a ridge of high mountains
plicable to a Jew. Others maintain that it is which run through the middle of Italy. [They
a proper name, upon the authority of Cicero, may be regarded as a continuation of the
addttic. 12, ep. 19, who mentions a person of .Maritime Alps, leaving that chain in lat. 44°
the same name. [vid. Bentley, ºp. ad Mill. 12 N.] Some have supposed that they once
2.530, ed. Lips.] ran across to Sicily. Lucan. 2, v. 306.—Ovid.
APELLEs, a celebrated painter of Cos, or, .Met. 2, v. 226.-Ital. 4, v. 743. —Strab. 2.--
* others say, of Ephesus, or Colophon, son of Mela, 2, c. 4.
Pithius. He lived in the age of Alexander Aprit, MAR cus, a Latin orator of Gaul,
the Great, who honoured him so much that who distinguished himself as a politician, as
he forbade any man but Apelles to draw his well as by his genius. The dialogue on
Picture. He was so attentive to his profes orators, inserted in the works of Tacitus
ºn that he never spent a day without em and Quintilian, is attributed to him. He died
Flºying his pencil, whence the proverb of A. D. 85.-Another. vid. Numerianus.
Mulla dies sine lined. His most perfect pic Apertopia, a small island on the coast of
ture was Venus Anadyomene. [The lower Argolis. Paus. 2, c. 34.
Part of this became injured by time, but no APřsus, APEs As, or APESANTUs, a moun
* ventured to repair it. An unfinished tain of Peloponnesus, near Lerna. Stat. in
Venus, of which the head and neck only were Theb. 3, v. 461.
executed, was very much admired.] He ApHKcA, a town of Palestine, [between
made a painting of Alexander holding thunder Heliopolis and Byblus,) where Venus was
in his hand, so much like life, that Pliny, who worshipped, and where she had a temple and
ºw it, says that the hand of the king with an oracle. [The temple is said to have been
*thunder seemed to come out of the pic a school of wickedness, and was rased to the
**, This picture was placed in Diana's ground by Constantine the Great. Euseb.
*mple at Ephesus. He made another of A vita Const. Mag. 3, 55.]

APHAEA, a name of Diana, who had a tem have been born from the froth of the ocean
ple in AEgina. Paus. 2, e 30. Hesiod. Th. 195.-Plin. 36, c. 5.
ApHAR, the capital city of Arabia, [situate AphyTAE or Aphytus, a city of Thrace.
on the coast of the Red Sea, not far north from [in the peninsula of Pallene, on the Sinus
the Promontorium Aromatum. It is now Thermaicus, where Jupiter Ammon was
...Al-Fara, between Mecca and Medina.] .4r worshipped. Lysander besieged the town;
rian. in Peripl. but the god of the place appeared to him in
ApHAREus, a king of essenia, son of Pe a dream, and advised him to raise the siege,
riere, and Gorgophone, who married Arene which he immediately did. Paus. 3, c. 18.
daughter of CEbalus, by whom he had three APIA, an ancient name of Peloponnesus,
sons. Paus. 3, c. 1––A relation of Isocra which it received from king Apis. It was af
tes wilo wrote 37 tragedies. terwards called Ægialea, Pelasgia, Argia,
APHAs, a river of Epirus, which falls into and at last Peloponnesus, or the island of
the bay of Ambracia. |D Auville calls it the Pelops. Homer. Il. 1, v. 270. Also the
Avas. It is now the Vuvo.] Plin. 4, c. 1. name of the earth, worshipped annong the
AphellAs, a king of Cyrene, who with Lydians as a powerful deity. Herodot. 4, c.
the aid of Agathocles, endeavoured to reduce 59
all Africa under his power. Justin. 22, c. 7. AP1ANUs, or Apion, was born at Oasis in
Ap, Esas, a mountain in Argolis, whence, Egypt, whence he went to Alexandria, of
as the poets have imagined, Perseus attempt which he was deemed a citizen. He suc
ed to fly to heaven. Stat. 3. Theb. v. 461. ceeded Theus in the profession of rhetoric in
Aphet E, La city of Thessaly at the en the reign of Tiberius, and wrote a book
trance of the Sinus Pelasgicus or Gulf of Polo, against the Jews, which Josephus refuted.
from which the ship Argo is said to have He was at the head of an embassy which the
taken her departure for Colchis. It is now people of Alexandria sent to Caligula, to com
Fetio.] - plain of the Jews. [He flourished about
APHIDNAE, a borough of Attica, which re the time of the Emperor Tiberius. He
ceived its name from Aphidnus, one of the was the author also of a learned treatise on
companions of Theseus. Herodot. the Antiquities of Egypt.] Seneca, ep. 83.−
Aph Rices, an Indian prince, who defended Plin. praf. Hist.
the rock Aurnus with 20,000 loot and 15 ele ApicatA, married Sejanus, by whom she
phants. He was killed by his troops, and had three children. She was repudiated. Ta
his head sent to Alexander. |cit. ..lnn. 4, c. 3.
Aphrodisi A, festivals un honour of Venus, | Apicius, a famous glutton in Rome.—
celebrated in different parts of Greece, but There were three of the same name, all in
chiefly in Cyprus. They were first institut |mous for their voracious appetite. The first
ed by Cinyras from whose family the priests lived in the time of the rerublic, the second in
of the goddess were always chosen. All those the reign of Augustus and Tiberius, and the
that were intiated offered a piece of money to third under Trajan. The second was the
Venus, as a harlot, and received as a mark most famous, as he wrote a book on the plea
of the favours of the goddess, a measure of sures and incitements of eating. He destroy
salt and a baaao: ; the salt, because Venus ed himself after he had consumed the great
arose from the sea ; the baxacº, because she |est part of his estate. The best edition of
is the goddess of wantonness. They were Apicius Cælius de Arte Coquinaria, is that of
celebrated at Corinth by harlots, and in every Amst. 12mo. 1709. [The third was in pos
part of Greece they were very much fre session of a secret for preserving oysters, and
quented. Strab. 14.—Athen.—A city of sent some perſectly fresh to the emperor
Thrace, north of the peninsula which joins Trajan as far as Parthia.] Juv. 11, v. 3.−
the Thracian Chersonese to the continent, .Martial. 2, ep. 69.
between Heraclea to the east and Cardia to APIDKNUs, one of the chief rivers of Thes
the west.] saly, at the south of the Peneus, into which
AP Rodisias, a town of Caria, sacred to it falls [a little west of Larissa. It is now the
Venus, [uow Gheira. It lay east of Alaban Salampria.] Lucan. 6, v. 372.
da, towards the confines of Phrygia.] Tacit. ApinA, and APINAE, a city of Apulia, des
.1nn. 3, c. 62. troyed with Trica, in its neighbourhood, by
AphnodisiuM or A, a town of Apulia Diomedes; whence came the proverb of
built by Diomede in honour of Venus.—A ..Apina & Trica, to express trifling things.
city in the north-eastern part of Cyprus, nine Marlial. 4, ep. 1.-Plin. 3, c. 11.
miles from Salamis.-[An island on the AP101.A, and APiol, E, a town of Italy, ta
coast of Boetica. A promontory of Caria, ken by Tarquin the Proud. The Roman ca
near Cnidus. pitol was begun with the spoils taken from
[ApH.Ronitopolis, a city of Egypt, the that city. Plin. 3, c. 5.
capital of the 36th nome, now Alfieh.-- Apion, a surname of Ptolemy, one of the
Another in the same country, the capital of descendants of Ptolemy Lagus.--A gram
the 42d nome, now Ilfu. Another in the marian. vid. Apianus.
same country, belonging to the Nome Her APIs, one of the ancient kings of Pelopon
monthites, now Asſ-un.] nesus, son of Phoroneus and Laodice. Some
Aph Ronite, the Grecian name of Venus, say that Apollo was his father, and that he
from aq'gºt, froth, because Venus is said to was king of Argos, while others call him king

of Sicyon, and fix the time of his reign above was consecrated. Hence it has been inferred
300 years earlier, which is enough to show that Apis was the tutelary divinity of the es
he is but obscurely known, if known at all. tablished form given to the solar year, which
He was a native of Naupactus, and descend was to consist invariably of 365 days, and of
ed from Inachus. He received divine hon the Cycle of 25 years discovered at the same
curs after death, as he had been munificent time. The priests, by fixing the course of the
and humane to his subjects. The country sacred animal's life to 25 years, and by ma
where he reigned was called Apia; and af king the installation of a new Apis concur with
terwards it received the name of Pelasgia, the renewal of this period, had probably per
Argia, or Argolis, and at last, that of Pelo ceived, as the result of long meteorological
ponnesus, from Pelops. Some, amongst observations, that this revolution always
whomare Warro and St. Augustine, have ima brought about abundant seasons. Hence the
gined that Apis went to Egypt, with a co favourable reception with which the new
lony of Greeks, and that he civilized the in Apis would meet, his appearance coinciding
habitants, and polished their manners, for with abundant harvest. The name Api in
which they made him a god after death, and Coptic signifies number, and seems to have
paid livine honours to him under the name had reference to the number of cubits which
of Serapis. Thistradition, according to some marked the Nile's rise, the great source of
of the moderns, is without foundation. .12s
Egyptian fertility..] After his death, which
chyl. in Suppl. -d-gust. de Civ. Dev. 18, c. sometimes was natural, the greatest cries
5.—Paus. 2, c. 5.--Hpollod. 2, c. 1.--A son and lamentations were heard in Egypt, as if
of Jason, born in Arcadia : he was killed by Osiris was just dead; the prie-ts shaved their
the horses of Etolus. Paus. 5, c. 1.-A heads, which was a sign of the deepest
town of Egypt on the lake Mareotis.-A mourning. This continued till another ox
god of the Egyptians worshipped under the appeared with the proper characteristics to
form of an ox. Some say that Isis and Osiris succeed as the deity, which was followed with
are the deities worshipped under this name, the greatest acclamations, as if Osiris was
because during their reign they taught the returned to life. This ox, which was found
Egyptians agriculture. The Egyptians believ to represent Apis, was left 40 days in the
ed that the soul of Osiris was really departed city of Nilopolis he ore he was carried to
into the ox, where it wished to dwell, because Memphis, during which time none but wo
that animal had been of the most essential men were permitted to appear before him,
service in the cultivation of the ground, and this they performed, according to their
which Osiris had introduced into Egypt. superstitious notions, in a wanton and indecent
The ox that was chosen was always distin manner. There was also an ox worshipped
guished by particular marks; his body was at Heliopolis, under the name of Mnevis;
black he had a square white spot upon the some supposed that he was Osiris, but others
forehead, the figure of an eagle upon the maintain that the Apis of Memphis was sa
back, a knot under the tongue like a beetle, cred to Osiris, and Mnevis to Isis. When
the hairs of his tail where double, and his Cambyses came into Egypt, the people were
rightside was marked with a whitish spot, re celebrating the festivals of Apis with every
sembling the crescent of the moon. Without tuark of joy and triumph, which the conquer
these, an ox could not be taken, as the god or interpreted as an insult upon himself. He
Apis; and it is to be imagined that the priests called the priests of Apis, and ordered the
gave these distinguishing characteristics to deity himself to come before him. When he
the animal on whom their credit and even saw that an ox was the object of their venera
prosperity depended. The festival of Apis tion, and the cause of such rejoicings, he
issted seven days, [and commenced with the wounded it on the thigh, ordered the priests
annual inundation of the Nile. The cres to be chastised, and commanded his soldiers
cent on the animal's right side, indicated, ac to slaughter such as were found celebrating
cording to Ælian, the commencement of this such riotous festivals. The god Apis had
inundation.] The ox was led in a solemn generally two stables, or rather temples. If
procession by the priests, and every one was he eat from the hand, it was a favourable
anxious to receive him into his house, and it omen; but if he refused the food that was
was believed that the children who smelt his offered him, it was interpreted as unlucky.
breath received the knowledge of futurity. From this, Germanicus, when he visited
The ox was conducted to the banks of the Egypt, drew the omens of his approaching
Nile with much ceremony, and if he had lived death. When his oracle was consulted, in
to the time when their sacred books allowed, cense was burnt on an altar, and a piece of
they drowned him in the river, and embalm money placed upon it, after which the people
ed his body, and buried it in solemn state in that wished to know futurity, applied their
the city of Memphis. [The period allowed ear to the mouth of the God and immediately
for the life of the sacred Apis was 25 years. retired, stopping their ears till they had de
This number was the product of five by it parted from the temple. The first sounds
self, and gave the number of the letters of the that were heard, were taken as the answer
Egyptian Alphabet, as well as the animal's of the oracle to their questions. Paus. 7, c.
age; and this number marked a period of 22.-Herodot. 2 and 3.-Plin. 8, c. 38, &c.-
the sun and moon, to which luminaries Apis Strab. 7.-Plut. in Istd. and Osir.—-Apollod.

1, c. 7, 1.2, c. 1.-Mela, 1, c. 9.-Plin. 8, c. have been attributed. The Apollo, son of

39, &c.—Strab. 7.—JElian. V. H. 4 and 6. Vulcan, was the sume as the Orus or Horus
—Diod. 1. of the Egyptians, and was the most ancient,
APirius GALBA, a celebrated buffoon in from whom the actions of the others have
the time of Tiberius. Juv. 5, v. 4. been copied. The three others seem to be
ApollinaREs LUDI, games celebrated at of Grecian origin. The tradition that the
Rome in honour of Apollo. They originated son of Latona was born in the floating is
from the following circumstances; an old pro land of Delos, is taken from the Egyptian
phetic poem informed the Romans, that if mythology, which asserts that the son of
they instituted yearly games to Apollo, and Vulcan, which is supposed to be Orus, was
made a collection of money for his service, saved by his mother Isis from the persecu
they would be able to repel the enemy whose tion of Typhon, and intrusted to the care
of Latona, who concealed him in the island
approach already signified their destruction.
The first time they were celebrated, Rome of Chemmis. When Latona was preguant
was alarmed by the approach of the enemy, by Jupiter, Juno, who was everjealous of her
and instantly the people rushed out of the city, husband's amours, raised the serpent Python
and saw a cloud of arrows discharged from to torment Latona, who was refused a place
the sky on the troops of the enemy. With to give birth to her children, till Neptune,
this heavenly assistance they easily obtained moved at the severity of her fate, raised
the victory. The people generally sat crown: the island of Delos from beneath the sea,
ed with laurel at the representation of these where Latona brought forth Apollo and Dia
games, which were usually celebrated at the na. Apollo was the god of all the fine arts,
option of the praetor till the year U. C. 545, of medicine, music, poetry, and eloquence, of
when a law was passed to settle the celebra all which he was deemed the inventor. He
tion yearly on the same day, about the nones had received from Jupiter the power of
of July. When this alteration happened, Rome knowing futurity, and he was the only one of
was infested with a dreadful pestilence, which the gods whose oracles were in general re
however, seemed to be appeased by this act pute over the world. His amours with
of religion. [These games were merely sceni Leucothoe, Daphne, Issa, Bolina, Coronis,
cal.] Liv. 25, c. 12. Clymene, Cyrene, Chione, Acacallis, Cal
Apollin ARIs, C. Sulpitius, a grammarian liope, &c. are well known, and the various
of Carthage, [flourished in the second cen shapes he assumed to gratify his passion. He
tury, under the Antonines. He wassucceed was very fond of young Hyacinthus, whom
ed in his profession by his scholar Helvius he accidentally killed with a quoit; as also of
Pertinax, who afterwards became Emperor.] Cyparissus, who was changed into a cypress
He is supposed to be the author of the verses tree. When his son Æsculapius had been
perfixed to Terence's plays as arguments. killed with the thunders of Jupiter, for raising
A writer better known by the name of the dead to life, Apollo, in his resentment,
Sidonius. vid. Sidonius. killed the Cyclops who had fabricated the
[Apollinis Promontorium, was situate on thunderbolts. Jupiter was incensed at this
the coast of Africa, east of Utica, and north act of violence, and he banished Apollo from
of Carthage. It is now Ras-Zebud.] heaven, and deprived him of his dignity. The
[Apollinopolis magna, the capital of exiled deity came to Admetus king of Thes
the 52d Egyptian Nome, in the southern part saly; and hired himself to be one of his shep
of U. per Egypt, about 25 miles nearly north herds, in which ignoble employment he re
of the great cataracts. It is now Edſou, mained mine years; from which circumstance
and is remarkable for its splendid temple, in he was called the god of shepherds, and at
a state of high preservation.] his sacrifices a wolf was generally offered, as
[Apollinopó parva, a city of Egypt that animal is the declared enemy of the
in the Nome of Coptos, north-west of Thebes. sheepfold. During his residence in Thessaly,
It is now Kous.] he rewarded the tender treatment of Adme
{Apollinis funum, a town of Lydia, west tus. He gave him a chariot, drawn by a
of Thyatira.-A town of Africa propria, lion and a bull, with which he was able to ob
north-east of Tabraca.] tain in marriage Alceste the daughter of Pe
Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, called lias; and soon after, the Parcae granted, at
also Phoebus, is often confounded with the Apollo's request, that Admetus might be re
sun. [vid, the end of this article.] According deemed from death, if another person laid
to Cicero, there were four persons of this down his life for him. He assisted Neptune
name. The first was son of Vulcan, and the in building the walls of Troy; and when he
tutelary god of the Athenians. The second was refused the promised reward from Lao
was son of a Corybaut, and was born in medon, the king of the country, he destroyed
Crete, for the dominion of which he disput the inhabitants by a pestilence. As soon as
ed even with Jupiter himself. The third he was born, Apollo destroyed with arrows
was son of Jupiter and Latonn, and came the serpent Python, whom Juno had sent to
from the nations of the Hyperboreans to persecute Latona; hence he was called Py
Delphi. The fourth was born in Arcadia, thius; and he afterwards vindicated the hon
and called Nomius, because he gave laws to our of his mother by putting to death the
the inhabitants. To the son of Jupiter and children ofthe proud Niobe. rid. Niobe. He
Latona all the actions of the others seem to was not the inventor of the lyre, as some have

imagined, but Mercury gave it him, and re oblitio); and from the Sun's being the ani
ceived as a reward the famous caduceus with mating and sustaining principle of nature, he
which Apollo was wont to drive the flocks of is represented as a musician, poet, prophet,
Admetus. His contest with Pan and Marsy physician, &c. See the subject discussed more
as, and the punishment inflicted upon viidas at large at the end of the article Jupiter.]
are well knowu. He received the surnames Ovid. Met. 1, fab. 9 and 10, l. 4, fab. 3, &c.—
of Phºebus, Delius, Cynthius, Paean, Delphi Paus 2, c. 7, 1.5, c. 7, 1.7, c. 20, 1.9, c. 30,
cus, Nomius, Lycius, Clarius, Ismenius, Vul &c.—Hygun, fab 9, 14, 50, 93, 140, 161,202,
turius, Smintheus, &c. for reasons which are 203, &c.—Stat. 1. Theb. 560.-Tibull.2, el. 3.
explained underthose words. Apollo is gene ——Hom. li. & Hymn in Apol.
rally represented with long hair, and the Ro Wirg. .42n. 2, 3, &c. G.4, v. 323.—Horat. 1,
mans were fond of imitating his figure; and od. 10. – Lucian.—Dial...Mer. & Pulc.—Pro
therefore in their youth they were remarka pert. 2, el. 28.-Callimach. in Apoll.—Apol
ble for their fine head of hair, which they cut iod. 1, c. 3, 4 and 9, l. 2, c. 5, 10 and 12.--
short at the age of seventeen or eighteen; he Also a temple of Apollo upon mount Leucas,
is always represented as a tall beardless which appeared at a great distance at sea;
young man with a handsome shape, holding and served as a guide to mariners, and re
in his hand a bow, and sometimes a lyre; his minded them to avoid the dangerous rocks
head is generally surrounded with beams of that were along the coast. Virg. JEn. 3, v.
light. He was the deity who, according to 275.
the notions of the ancients, inflicted plagues, Apollockites, a friend of Dion, suppos
and in that moment he appeared surrounded ed by some to be the son of Dionysius.
with clouds. His worship and power were ApollopóRus, a famous grammarian and
universally acknowledged; he had temples mythologist of Athens, son of Asclepiades,
and statues in every country, particularly in and disciple to [Aristarchus the grammarian,
Egypt, Greece, and Italy. His statue, which and the two Stoic philosophers, Panaetius
stood upon mount Actium, as a mark to and Diogenes the Babylonian.] He flourished
mariners to avoid the dangerous coasts, was about 148 years before the christian era, and
particularly famous, and it appeared a great wrote an history of Athens, besides other
distance at sea. Augustus, before the battle works. But of all his compositions, nothing is
of Actium, addressed himself to it for victory. extant but his Bibliotheca, a valuable work,
[He is crowned with laurel, which was sa divided into three books. It is an abridged
cred to him. The animals consecrated to history of the gods, and of the ancient heroes,
him were the wolf and hawk, as symbols of of whose actions and genealogy it gives a true
his piercing eyes; the crow and raven, from and faithful account. The best edition is that
their supposed faculty of predicting the fu of Heyne, Goett. in 8vo. 3 vols. 1782. Athen,
ture; the cock, from his announcing the –Plin. 7, c. 37.—Diod. 4 and 13. A tra
dawn and the rising of the sun; the grass gic poet of Cilicia, who wrote tragedies en
hopper and swan, from their tuneful powers; ) titled Ulysses, Thyestes, &c, A comic
and in his sacrifices, wolves and hawks were poet of Gela in Sicily, in the age of Menan
offered, as they were the natural enemies of der, who wrote 4 plays. An architect of
the flocks over which he presided. Bullocks Damascus, who directed the building of Tra
and lambs were also immolated to him. As jan's bridge across the Danube. He was
he presided over poetry, he was often seen banished, and afterwards put to death by
on mount Parnassus with the nine muses. Adrian, to whom, when in a private station.
His most famous oracles were at Delphi, De he had spoken in too bold a manner. A
los, Claros, Tenedos, Cyrrha, and Patara. writer who composed an history of Parthia.
His most splendid temple was at Delphi, —A disciple of Epicurus the most learned
where every nation and individual made con of his school, and deservedly surnamed the
siderable presents when they consulted the or Illustrious. He wrote about 40 volumes on
scle. Augustus, after the battle of Actium, different subjects. Diog. A painter of
built him a temple on mount Palatine, which Athens, of whom Zeuxis was a pupil. Two
he enriched with a valuable library. He had of his paintings were admired at Pergamus
•famous Colossus in Rhodes, which was one in the age of Pliny: a priest in a suppliant
ºf the seven wonders of the world. Apollo has posture, and Ajax struck with Minerva's
been taken for the Sun; but it may be prov thunders. He was of such an irascible dispo
ed by different passages in the ancient wri sition that he destroyed his own pieces upon
ters, that Apollo, the Sun, Phoebus, and Hy the least provocation. [and was so conscious of
Perion, were all different characters and his superiority, that he assumed a regal tiara
deities, though confounded together. When as the prince of his profession.] Plin. 34, c.
once Apollo was addressed as the Sun, and 8. A rhetorician of Pergamus, preceptor
represented with a crown of rays on his head. and friend to Augustus, who wrote a book on
the idea was adopted by every writer, and rhetoric. Strab. 13.
iron thence arose the mistake. [The truth nourApollonia, a festival at AEgialea in ho
of Apollo and Diana. It arose from this
*ppears to be, that the worship of Apollo was
* remnant of Sabaism, or the worship of the circumstance: these two deities came to
heavenly bodies, and that he was a type of AEgialea, after the conquest of the serpent
Python; but they were frightened away, and
the sun. He was produced from Latona,
who represented the wnight of Chaos, (anºn, fied to Crete. Egialea
was soon visited with

an epidemical distemper, and the inhabitants, that they conferred on him the freedom of the
by the advice of their prophets, sent seven city. The best edition of Apollonius is that
chosen boys with the same number of girls, by Brunck, 2 vols. 8vo. the new edition, Lips.
to entreat them to return to Ægialea. Apol 1810, with the additional Greek scholia, curi
lo and Diana granted their petition, in honour G. H. Schaeffer.] Quintul. 10, c. 1. M

of which a temple was raised to II*154, the Greek orator, suruamed Molo, was a native
goddess of persuasion ; and ever after, a of Alabanda in Caria. He opened a school of
number of youths of both sexes were chosen rhetoric at Rhodes and Rome, and had J. Caº
to march in solemn procession, as if anxious sar and Cicero among his pupils. He discou
to bring back Apollo and Diana. Pausan, in raged the attendance of those whom he sup
Corinth. [A town of Epirus, now Polina, posed incapable of distinguishing themselves
on the river Aous or Lao. Another in as orators, and he recommended to them pur.
Macedonia, south-east of Thessalonica. suits more congenial to their abilities. He
Another in the same country, north of Chal wrote an history, in which he did not candid
cis, now Polina. Another in Thrace on ly treat the people of Judaea, according to the
the coast of the Euxine, aſterwards called complaint of Josephus contra .dpion. Cic. We
Sozopolis, now Siceboli. Another in Bithy Orut. I, c. 28, 75, 126, and 130. .1d Famil. 3,
nia, on a lake which receives the Rhyndacus. ep. 16. De Invent. I, c. 81.-Quintul. 3, c. 1,
It is now .1bouilona. Another in Assyria, l. 2, c. 6.—Suet. in Cues. 4.—Plut. in Cats.
on the Delas, north-east of Artemita. A Greek historian about the age of Au
Another in Cyrenaica. Under the lower gustus, who wrote upon the philosophy of
empire, it took the name of Sozusa. It is Zeno and of his followers. Strab. 14.—A
now Marza-Susa, or Sosush.--&c. stoic philosopher who attended Cato of Uti
Apollonius, a stoic philosopher of Chal ca in his last moments. Plut. in Cat.—
cis sent for by Antoninus Pius, to instruct his Tyaneus, a Pythagorean philosopher, [and
adopted son Marcus Antoninus. When he notorious impostor, born at Tyana in Cappa
came to Rome, he refused to go to the palace, docia, about the commencement of the chris
observing, that the master ought not to wait tian era.] Being one day haranguing the
upon his pupil, but the pupil upon him. The populace at Ephesus, he suddenly exclaimed,
emperor hearing this, said, laughing, “It “Strike the tyrant, strike him : the blow is
was then easier for Apollonius to come from given, he is wounded, and fallen " At that
Chalcis to Rome, than from Rome to the pa very moment the emperor Domitian had
lace.” A geometrician of Perga in Pam been stabbed at Rome. The magician ac
phylia. He lived about 240 years before the quired much reputation when this circum
christian era, and composed a commentary stance was known. He was courted by kings
on Euclid, whose pupils he attended at Alex and princes, and commanded unusual atten
andria. [He wrote a treatise on conic sections, tion by his numberless artifices. His friend
in eight books, seven of which only remain. and companion, called Damis, wrote his life.
It is asserted that all the books were extant [These memoirs were communicated to the
in Arabic. Of the seven which we have, the empress Julia, wife of Severus, and by her to
first four-have been preserved in the original Philostratus, with a request that he would
Greek, and the 5th, 6th, and 7th have been transcribe and embellish the narrative.) In
transmitted to us, in an Arabic translation. his history the biographer relates so many
This work of Apollonius ranks among the curious and extraordinary anecdotes of his
most valuable remains of antiquity.] He first hero, that many have justly deemed it a ro
endeavoured to explain the causes of the ap mance ; yet for all this, Hierocles had the
parent stopping and retrograde motion of the presumption to compare the impostures of
planets, by cycles and epicycles, or circles Apollonius with the miracles of Jesus Christ.
within circles.—The best edition of Apollo [The best edition of Philostratus is that of
nius is Dr. Halley's, Oxon. fol. 1710. [The Olearius, Lips. 1709, fol.]—A sophist of
first ſour books in Greek and Latin, the rest Alexandria, distinguished for his Lericon
in Latin only, and the last restored by the Graecum Iliadis et Odysseſt, a book that was
editor.]—A poet of [Alexandria] in Egypt, edited by Willoison, in 4to.2 vols. Paris, 1773,
generally called Apollonius of Rhodes, be. [and by Tollius, Lugd., Bat. 1788, in 8vo.]
cause he lived for some time there. He was Apollonius was one of the pupils of Didymus,
pupil, when young, to Callimachus and Pa. and flourished in the beginning of the first
nactius, and succeeded to Eratosthenes as li century.
brarian of the famous library of Alexandria, [ApoMYos, a name, under which Jupiter
under Ptolemy Euergetes. He was ungrate and Hercules were worshipped at the Olym
ful to his master Callimachus, who wrote a pic games, being supplicated to destroy or
poem against him, in which he denominated drive away the vast numbers of flies which
him lbis. Of all his works nothing remains always attended great sacrifices. The sacri
but his poem on the expedition of the Argo fice to the Apomyos Deus on these occasions,
nauts, in ſour books. [He was so mortified was always the first, that he might drive
at the censures cast upon this poem on its away the flies from the rest.]
first publication, that he retired to Rhodes, AponiaNA, an island near Lilybaeum. Hirt.
and opened a school of rhetoric. When he Afric. 2.
had afterwards corrected and improved his M. Aronius, a governor of Moesia, re
work, the Rhodians were so pleased with it, warded with a triumphal statue by Otho, for

defeating 9000 barbarians. Tacit. Hist. 1, far as Capua, and it received its name from
c. 79. him. [It was constructed, A. U. C. 441.
Arôxus, now Abano, a fountain, with a vil Capua, where it ended, was then the limit of
lage of the same name near Patavium in Italy. the Roman empire. By whom it was con
The waters of the fountain, which were hot, tinued to Brundusium is uncertain. Caesar,
were wholesome, and were supposed to have however, is generally supposed to have been
an oracular power. [It was Livy's birth the person. Its whole length was about 342
place, according to Martial. 1, 62.] Lucan. miles. It was called Regima Viarum, and was
7, v. 194.—Suet. in Tiber. 14. paved with the hardest flint, so firmly, that in
Apostrophia, a surname of Venus in several places it remains entire unto this day,
Boeotia, who was distinguished under these (above 2000 years,) and so broad that two car
names, Venus Urania, Vulgaria, and Apos riages might pass each other ; commonly,
trophia. The former was the patroness of however, not exceeding 14 feet. Caius Grac
a pure and chaste love; the second of carnal |chus placed on it the small columns called
and sensual desires; and the last incited men termini, which marked the miles.) vid. Via.
to illicit and unnatural gratifications, to in |Lucan. 3, v. 285.-Stal. 2. Sylv.2, v. 12.--
cests and rapes. Venus Apostrophia was in .Mart. 9, ep. 104.—Suet. in Tiber. 14.
voked by the Thebans, that they might be Applid Es, a name given to these five dei
saved from such unlawful desires. She is ties, Venus, Pallas, Vesta, Concord, and
the same as the Verticordia of the Romans. Peace, because a temple was erected to them
Paus. 9, c. 16.-Pal...Mac. 8, c. 15. near the Appian way. The name was also
Aporheosis, a ceremony observed by applied to those courtezans at Rome who
some ancient nations, by which they raised lived near the temple of Venus by the Ap
their kings, heroes, and great men, to the pia Aquae, and the forum ofJ. Caesar. Ovid.
rank of deities. [Neither the Egyptians nor de Art. .4m. 3, v. 452.
Persians seem to have adopted this custom. Appi ANUs, a Greek historian of Alexan
The Greeks were the first who admitted it. dria, who flourished A. D, 123. His univer
The Romans borrowed it from them, and sal history, which consisted of 24 books, was
not only deified the most prudent and humane a series of history of all the nations that had
of their emperors, but also the most been conquered by the Romans in the order
cruel and profligate. Augustus, at the age of time ; and in the composition, the writer
of 28 years, was declared the tutelary god of displayed, with a style simple and unadorned,
all the cities of the empire.] Herodian. 4, c. a great knowledge of military affairs, and de
2, has left us an account of the apotheosis of a
scribed his battles in a masterly manner.
Roman emperor. After the body of the de [Appian has been charged with many errors,
ceased was burnt, an ivory image was laid and with copying without acknowledgment
on a couch for seven days, representing the from Polybius, Plutarch, and others. Scali
emperor with a sickly aspect. The city was ger calls him “alienorum laborum fucum.”
in sorrow. [For the greater part of the day, Photius, on the other hand, considers him a
the senate sat ranged on the left side of the very accurate and eloquent writer.] This
bed, dressed in robes of mourning, the ladies excellent work is greatly mutilated, and there
of the first rank sitting on the right side in is extant now only the account of the Punic,
white robes, without any ornaments. Dur. Syrian, Parthian, Mithridatic, and Spanish
ing the seven days, the physicians paid regu wars, with those of Illyricum and the civil
lar visits to the sick person, and always re dissentions, with a fragment of the Celtic
ported that he grew worse, until at length wars. The best editions are those of Tollius
they gave out that he was dead.] When and Variorun', 2 vols. 8vo. Amst. 1670, and
the death was announced a band of young that of Schweighaeuser, 3 vols. 8vo. Lips.
senators and Equites carried the couch and 1785. He was so eloquent that the empe
image to the Campus Martius, where it was ror Trajan highly promoted him in the
deposited on an edifice in the form of a pyra state.
mid, where spices and combustible materials Appr1 ForuM, now Burgo Longo, a little
where thrown. After this the bearers walked village not far from Rome, [in the country of
round the pile in solemn procession, and the the Volsci,) built by the cousul Appius. Ho
images of the most illustrious Romans were ral. 1, Sat. 5.
drawn in state, and immediately the new em Appius, the praenomen of an illustrious
peror, with a torch, set fire to the pile, and family at Rome. A censor of that name,
was assisted by the surrounding multitude. A. U C. 442. Horat. 1, Sat. 6.
Meanwhile an eagle was let fly from the mid Appius C1, Audius, a decemvir who abu
dle of the pile, which was supposed to carry sed his power. He attempted the virtue of
the soul of the deceased to heaven, where he
Virginia, whom her father killed to preserve
was ranked among the gods. If the deified her chastity. This act of violence was the
was a female, a peacock, and not an eagle cause of a revolution in the state, and the
was sent from the flames.—The Greeks ob ravisher destroyed himself when cited to ap"
served ceremonies much of the same na pear before the tribunal of his country. Lir.
ture. 3, c. 33. Claudius Caecus, a Roman ora
APria vra, a celebrated road leading from tor, who built the Appian way and many
the Porta Capena at Rome to Brundusium. aqueducts in Rome. When Pyrrhus, who
through Capua. Appius Claudius made it as was come to assist the Tarentines against
Rome, demanded peace of the senators, Ap- to study, and learnt Latin without a master.

pius, grown old in the service of the republic, [Apuleius, in consequence of the unfounded
caused himself to be carried to the senate accusation above mentioned, was ranked
house, and by his authority, dissuaded them among the professors of magic, and after his
from granting a peace which would prove death, miracles were ascribed to him.] The
dishonourable to the Roman name. Ovid. Fast. most famous of his works extant is the golden
6, v, 203.—Cic. in Brut. & Tusc. 4. A ass, in eleven books, an allegorical piece. [He
Roman who, when he heard that he had been wrote also a philosophical work on the doc
proscribed by the triumvirs, divided his rich trines of Plato, a Latin translation of Aristo
es among his servants, and embarked with tle's treatise “ de Mundo,” &c.] The best
them for Sicily; in their passage the vessel editions of Apuleius are the Delphin, 2 vols.
was shipwrecked, and Appius alone saved his 4to. Paris, 1688; [that printed at Gouda in
life. Appian 4. Claudius Crassus, a con Holland, cum notis Prica’i et Variorum, 8vo,
sul, who with Sp. Naut. Rutulius, conquered 1650, which, after all, is not a very superior
the Celtiberians, and was defeated by Perses, one; and that printed at Leyden, 1786, in
king of Macedonia. Liv. Claudius Pul 4to. with Oudendorp's notes and a preface by
cher, a grandson of Ap, Cl. Caecus, consul in Ruhnken. Only one volume of this last edi
the age of Sylla, retired from grandeur to en tion however was ever published.]
joy the pleasures of private life. Clausus, Apulia, (now la Puglia, a country of Mag
a general of the Sabines, who, upon being ill na Graecia in Italy, lying along the Adriatie.
treated by his countrymen, retired to Rome It would appear that all the country from the
with 5000 of his friends, and was admitted in river Fronto to the Japygian promontory was
to the senate in the early ages of the repub called originally Japygia. Subsequently,
lic. Plut. in Poplic. Herdonius, seized however, the north-western part, from the
the capitol with 4000 exiles, A. U. C. 292, Fronto to the Aufidus, was called Daunia ;
and was soon after overthrown. Liv. 3, c. after which followed Peucetia and Messapia,
15.-Flor. 3, c. 19.—The name of Appius the latter including the country around Ta
was common in Rome, and particularly to rentum. The Romans, however, gave to the
many consuls whose history is not marked by district of Daunia the old Ausonian appel
any uncommon event. lation of Apulia, and to Messapia the name
Aphies and Aprilus, one of the kings of of Calabria. Its principal mountains were
Egypt [in the year before Christ 594, sup Garganus, and Vultur: its chief rivers, the
osed to be the Pharaoh Hophra of scripture. Fronto, Aufidus, and Bradanus.] It was fa
He took Sidon, and lived in great prosperity mous for its wools, superior to all the pro
till his subjects revolted to Amasis, by whom duce of Italy. Some suppose that it is called
he was conquered and strangled. Herodot. aſter Apulus, an ancient king of the country
2, c. 159, &c.—Diod. 1. before the Trojan war. Plin. 3. c. 11.-Cir.
Apsinthir, a people of Thrace, [on the de Div. 1, c. 43.-Strab. 6.-Mela, 2, c. 4.—
coast, east of the Hebrus.] They received .Marlial. in Apoph. 155.
their name from a river called Apsinthus, A auil EIA, or Aau in,EGIA, a town found
which flowed through their territory. Dionys. ed by a Roman colony, called from its gran
Perieg. deur, Roma secunda, and situated [on the
APsinus, an Athenian sophist in the third northern coast of the Sinus Tergestinus, or
century, author of a work called Praceptor Gulf of Trieste.] The Romans built it chief
de Arte Rhetoricó. ly to oppose the frequent incursions of the
Apsus, a river of Macedonia, falling into barbarians. The Roman emperors enlarged
the lonian sea between Dyrrhachium and and beautified it, and often made it their resi
Apollonia. [Now the Crevasta.] Lucan. 5, dence. [It derived its name from the aquila,
v. 46. or legionary standard of the Romans who had
AptkRA, an inland town of Crete. [It lay long encamped here. This city was taken
west of Cydonia. Its port was Kisshmos. and sacked by Attila. Since that time a few
The modern name is Atteria, or Paleocastro.] fishermen's huts point outwhere itstood.] Ital.
Ptol.–Plin. 4, c. 12. 8, v. 605.-Martial. 4, ep. 25.-Mela, 2, c. 4.
[Apu, E1A, LEG Es, proposed by L. Apu Aauilius Nig ER, an historian mention
leius Saturninus, A. U. C. 653, Iribune of the ed by Surton. in Aug. 11. Marcus, a Ro
commons; about dividing the public lands man consul who had the government of Asia
among the veteran soldiers, settling colonies. Minor. Justin. 36, c. 4.—Sabinus, a law
punishing crimes against the state, furnishing yer of Rome, surnamed the Cato of his age.
corn to the poor at 10 12 of an ass, a bushel.] He was father to Aquilia Severa, whom
APULEIUs, a learned man, who was born at Heliogabalus married. Severus, a poet
Madaura in Africa, [and lived in the 2d cen and historian in the age of Valentinian.
tury, under the Antonines.] He studied at Aauillo, a wind blowing, according to
Carthage, Athens, and Rome, where he mar. Vitruvius, from the north-north-east point
ried a rich widow called Pudentilla, for which of the horizon.] Its name is derived, accord
he was accused by some of her relations of ing to some, from Aquila, on account of its
using magical arts to win her heart. His keenness and velocity.
apology was a masterly composition. In hi Aaul LoN1A. [a city of Apulia, on the road
youth, Apuleius had been very expensive : from Beneventum in Samnium to Venusia."
but me whº, in a maturer age, more devoted Lir. 10, c. 38. -


Aauisum, a town of Latium. [south-west ||east of the Tigris, now Wasit. It has attract
of Venafrum, where Juvenal was born. A |ed the attention of the learned by reason of
dye was invented there, which greatly re the affinity of its name with that of Erech,
sembled the real purple. Horat. 1, ep. mentioned in the Old Testament among the
10, v. 27.—Strab-Ital. 8, v. 404.—Juv 3, cities constructed by Nimrod J Tibul. 4, el. 1.
v.319.' ARACHNE, a woman of Colophon, daugh
AquitANIA, a country of Gaul, [between ter to Idmon a dyer. She was so skilful in
the Garumna or Garonne and Pyrenees. The working with the needle,that she challenged
Aquitani were of Spanish origin. As Aqui Minerva, the goddess of the art to a trial of
tania was less than either of the other two di skill. She represented on her work the
visions of Gaul, Augustus extended it to the amours of Jupiter with Europa, Antiope, Le
Ligeris or Loire, rid. Gallia.] Plin. 4, c. 17. da, Asteria, Danaë, Alcmena, &c. but though
—Strab. 4. her piece was perfect and mastery, she was
ARA, a constellation, consisting of seven defeated by Minerva, and han-ed herself in
stars, near the tail of the Scorpion. Ovid. despair, and was changed into a spider by the
.Met. 2, v. 133. goddess. Ovid. Met. 6, fab. 1, &c.—A city
ARA Lugnus Ensis, an altar at the con of Thessaly.
fluence of the Arar and Rhone, [consecrated ARA chosia, [a province of Persia, west
to Augustus by sixty cities of Gaul, A. U. C. of the Indus, and north of Gedrosia. It was
742, called by the writers of the middle ages anciently inhabited by the Arimaspi. The an
-ittanacum, now the point of Annai.] Juv. 1, cient Arachosia is traced by Major Rennell
Y.44. in the modern Arokhage. Captain Wilſord
ARAsia, a large country of Asia, forming charges D'Anville with a mistake in placing
a peninsula between the Arabian and Persian this province south of Candahar.]
gulfs. It is generally divided into three dif ARAchót E and ARAchoti, a people of
ſerent parts, Petraea, Deserta, and Felix. It India, who received their name from the
was famous for its frankincense and aromatic river Arachotus, which flows down from
plants. [Its length from the cape of Babel mount Caucasus. [They are styled Auvoxaat
mandel to the extreme angle on the Eu you, frºm their linen attire.] Duonys. Perieg.
phrates is about 1800 British miles, and its —Curt. 9, c. 7.
mean breadth, 800–That part of it which [ARA, Hötus, a city of Arachosia, built by
bordered on Judaea was called Idumaea or Semiram is, on a lake of the same name, and
Edom, and was possessed by the posterity of called by her Cophes. A river of Aracho
Esau. The Arabians recognize for their sia, rising in the hills north-east of the mo
ancestors Jectan or Khatan the son of Eber, dern Gazni, and losing itself in a marsh about
and Ismael the son of Abraham.—The soil of 4 miles to the south of Candahar. Its no
the country is in general sandy and barren, dern name is Abeh-Tarnic, or the river Tar
either wholly destitute of water, or supplied nic.]
only with scantv springs. Arabia Felix was Aftachthus, or ARETHoN, one of the four
famous in former days for its spices, and ge capital rivers of Epirus, falling into the bay
neral fertility. Few, if any, traces of its anci of Ambracia. [Ambracia was situate upon
ent opulence remain.] Herodot. 1, 6, 3, and it. It is the now the Arta.] Strab. 7.
Diod. 1 and 2.-Plan. 12 and 14.—Strab. 16. ARAcx NThus, [a mountain of Ætolia,
—Xenoph.--Tibull. 2, el. 2.-Curt. 5, c. 1. north-west of Calydon, towards the river
—Virg. G. 1, v. 57. Achelous.]
Arabices sixus, [that part or branch of ARALUs, [a town in an island of the same
the Mare Erythraeum which interposes it name, on the coast of Phoenicia, built, accord
self between Egypt and Arabia. It is now ing to Strabo, by exiles from Sidon. The
called the Red Sea. The meaning of this island is called Arpad in the Scriptures, and
modern appellation must be looked for in the its modern name is Rou-Wadde.]
name of Idumea, or the land of Edom, whose ARAE, [vid. ACG1MURus.]
casts this sea touches on the north. Edom ARE Phil, Enorum, urid Philaeni.]
in the Hebrew tongue signifies red, and was A Ran, now the Saone, a very slow smooth
the name given to Esau, for selling his birth running river of Gaul. It rises near Mons
right for a mess of red pottage. This country, Vogesus, and after a southern course, falls in
which his posterity possessed, was called af. to the Rhodanus at Lugdunum.]
ter his name, and so was the sea which ad ARKtus, a Greek poet of Cicilia, about
joined it. The Greeks, however, not under 277 B. C. He was greatly esteemed by An
standing the reason of the appellation, trans tigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, at whose
lated what is in Hebrew the Sea of Edom, court he passed much of his time, and by
into ºváez 82a-2 ra. Thence comes the La whose desire he wrote a poem on astronomy,
tin form Mare rubrum, and the modern in which he gives an account of the situations,
name Red Sea. It is otherwise called Golfo rising and setting, number and motion of the
di Mecca.) stars. Cicero represents him as unacquaint
[Ahabius, ARABIs, or ARBIs, a river of ed with astrology, yet capable of writing
Gedrasia, near its eastern boundary, running upon it in elegant and highly finished verses.
into the Indian Ocean, now the Araba or ll which, however, from the subject, admit of
-Mend. Arrian, 6. c. 21.] little variety. Aratus wrote beside, hymns
Anarca and AREccA, [a city of Susiana, and epigrains, &c. and had amoug his inter

preters and commentators many of the learn ARAXEs, [a river of A menia Major,
ed men of Greece, whose works are lost, be issuing from Mons Abus, on the side oppo
sides Cicero. Claudius, and Germanicus Cae. site to that whence the southern arm of the
sar, who, in their youth, or moments of re Euphrates flows. It runs east until it meets
laxation, translated the phanomena into La the mountains which separate Armenia from
tin verse. [St. Paul quotes from it, Acts northern Media, when it turns to the north,
17, c. 28. The best edition of Aratus is that of and alter receiving the Cyrus, falls into the
Buhle, Lips. 1793. –1801, 2 vols. 8vo.] Cic. Caspian Sea. It is now the Arras. An
de Mat. D. 2, c. 41.-Paus. 1, c. 2.--Orld. other in Persia, running by Persepolis, and
.4m. 1, el. 15, v. 26. The son of Cli falling into the Medus, now Bend Ernir.
nias, was born at Sicyon in Achaia, [B. Xenophon calls the Chaboras by the name of
C. 273.J When he was but seven years Araxes, (vid. Chaboras,) and gives the name
of age, his father, who held the government of Phasis to the Armenian Araxes. Xen.
of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, .4 mab.]
who made himself absolute. After some re A Reicks, a Mede who revolted with Be
volutions, the sovereignty came into the lesis against Sardanapalus, and founded the
hands of Nicocles, whom Aratus murdered empire of Media upon the ruins of the Assy
to restore his country to liberty. He was so rian power, 820 years before the christian
jealous of tyrannical power, that he even de era. He reigned above fifty years, and was
stroyed a picture which was the representa famous for the greatness of his undertakings,
tion of a tyrant. He joined the republic of as well as for his valour. Justin. 1, c. 3.-
Sicyon to the Achaean league, which he Paterc. 1, c. 6.
strengthened by making a treaty of alliance AR BELA, (orum) now Irbil, [a city of
with the Corinthians, and with Ptolemy king Assyria in the province of Adiabene, east of
of Egypt. He was chosen chief commander Ninus, near the Zabata or Zab. On the op
of the forces of the Achaeans, and drove away posite side of this river was fought the deci
the Macedonians from Athens and Corinth. sive battle of Arbela, between Alexander and
He made war against the Spartans, but was Darias, Oct. 2d. B. C. 331. The field of
conquered in a battle by their king Cleo battle was the plain of Gaugamela. The lat
menes. To repair the losses he had sustain ter, however, being an obscure place, this
ed, he solicited the assistance of Antigonus conflict was named after Arbela.]
Doson, and drove away Cleomenes from ARBIs, [rid. Arabius.]
Sparta, who fled to Egypt, where he killed AR Buscú1.A, an actress on the Itoman
himself. The AEtolians soon after attacked stage, who laughed at the hisses of the popu
the Achaeans; and Aratus, to support his lace, while she received the applauses of the
character, was obliged to call to his aid Phi knights. Hor. 1, Sat 10, v. 77.
lip king of Macedonia. His friendship with ARcAdiA, [a country in the centre of the
this new ally did not long continue. Philip Peloponnesus, and, next to Laconia, the larg
showed himself cruel and oppressive, and est of its six provinces. It was very mountain
put to death some of the noblest of the Achae ous, though, at the same time, well watered.
ans, and even seduced the wife of the son of The most fertile part was towards the south,
Aratus. Aratus, who was now advanced in where the country sloped off and contained
years, showed his displeasure by withdraw many fruitful vales, and numerous streams.
ing himself from the society and friendship of The Arcadians were a pastoral people. Hence
Philip. But this rupture was fatal. Philip their attachment to music, and hence also the
dreaded the power and influence of Aratus, worship of Pan, as the tutelary deity of the
and therefore he caused him and his son to land. Agriculture was also partially attend
be poisoned. Some days before his death, ed to. The Arcadians, from their mode of
Aratus was observed to spit blood; and life, were brave and warlike, and frequently
when apprised of it by his friends, he replied carried on a successful warfare with their
“Such are the rewards which a connexion neighbours, especially the Spartans. They
with kings will produce.” He was buried served also as foreign mercenaries, and may
with great pomp by his countrymen; and be termed in this respect, the Swiss of anti
two solemn sacrifices were annually made to quity. The most ancient name of Arcadia
him, the first on the day that he delivered was Drymolis, (the woody region.) from Jews.
Sicyon from tyranny, and the second on the /uercus. The Arcadians themselves carried
day of his birth. During those sacrifices, their origin very far back, and gave their na
which were called.4 rateia, the priests wore a tion the name of Pros, leni (before the moon.)
ribbon bespangled with white and purple They seem to have derived the first rudi
spots, and the public school-master walked ments of civilization from the Pelasgi, and
in procession at the head of his scholars, and hence the tradition that a king, named Pelos
was always accompanied by the richest and gus, taught them to build huts, and clothe
most eminent senators, adorned with gar themselves with the skins of animals. Arcas,
lands. Aratus died in the 62d year of his a descendant of this same Pelasgus, taught
age, B. C. 213. He wrote a history of the them the art of baking bread, and of weaving.
Achaean league, much commended by Poly From this second benefactor the people and
bius. Plut. in vita.-Paus. 2, c. 8.—Cic. de their country were respectively called Arca
Offic. 2, c. 23.-Strab. 14.—Lw. 27, c. 31.— des and Arcadia. A republican form of go
''ol, b. 2. --
vernment arose subsequently, after the first

\lessenian war: Aristocrates the 2d. having generals, who obtained 'esopotamia at the
been stoned to death by the Arcadians for his general division of the provinces after the
treachery towards the Messenians. The chief king's death. A chief of Catana, which
cities of Arcadia were Martinea, Tegaca, and he betrayed to Dionysius the elder. Diod.
Megalopolis. Arcadia eventually attached 14. A philosopher of Pitane in AEolia, dis
itself to the Achaean league, and fell under cºple of Polemon. He visited Sardes and
the Roman power. It is commonly believed Athens, and was the founder of the middle
that a colony of Arcadians settled in Italy in academy, as Socrates founded the ancient,
very early times. This, however, is a mere and Carneades the new one. [He was ac
fable, and is contradicted by the inland na customed to maintain, that whatever certain
ture of the country, and by the Arcadians ty there may be in the nature of things, every
never having been a maritime people. vul thing is uncertain to the human understand
Pelasgi, and Italy, and also Evander.—Polyb. ing.] He acquired many pupils in the cha
4, 20.-Diodor. 4,34.—Thucyd. 7, 57.-Plin. racter of teacher; but some of them left him
1,5—-Apollodor. 2, 1–Paus. 8, 4.] for Epicurus, though no Epicurean came to
AacADius, eldest son of Theodosius the him ; which gave him occasion to say, that
Great, succeeded his father A. D. 395, [who it is easy to make an eunuch of a man, but
at his death divided the empire between his impossible to make a man of an eunuch. He
two sons, giving Arcadius the eastern, and was very fond of Homer, and generally divid
Honorius the western division.] After this ed his time among the pleasures of philoso
separation of the Roman empire, the two phy, love, reading, and the table. He died in
powers looked upon one another with indif. his 75th year, B. C. 241, or 300, according to
ſerence: and soon after, their indifference some. Duog. in vilă.-Persius. 3, v. 8,-
was changed into jealousy, and contributed Cic. de Finib.
to hasten their mutual ruin. In the reign of ARchA:ANAx of Mitylene, was intimate
Arcadius, Alaricus attacked the western em with Pi istratus tyraut of Athens. He forti
pire, and plundered Rome. Arcadius marri fied Sigaeum with a wall from the ruins of
ed Eudoxia, a bold, ambitious woman, and ancient Troy. Strab. 13.
died in the 31st year of his age, after a reign ARchAGAthus, son of Archagathus, was
of 13 years, in which he bore the character slain in Africa by his soldiers, B.C. 285. He
of an effeminate prince, who suffered himself poisoned his grandfather Agathocles, tyrant
to be governed by favourites, and who aban of Syracuse. Diod. 20.—Justin. 22, c. 5,
doned his subjects to the tyranny of minis &c. says that he was put to death by Arche
ters, whilst he lost himself in the pleasures of silaus.
a voluptuous court. ARcheg ETEs, [a surname of Hercules, in
AR casuri, Lan estate of Cicero's brother the island of Malta, whither his worship was
near Minturnaº.] Cic. 7, ep. ad Att, 10. brought from Tyre. The same title was
Arcas, a son of Jupiter and Callisto. vid. also given to Apollo.]
however, Arcadia.] He nearly killed his mo. ARCH Elius, a name common to some
ther, whom Juno had changed into a bear. kings of Cappadocia. One of them was con
He reigned in Arcadia, and taught his sub quered by Sylla, for assisting Mithridates.—
jects agriculture, and the art of spinning A person of that name married Berenice, and
wool. After his death, Jupiter made him a made himself king of Egypt; a dignity he en
constellation, with his mother As he was one joyed only six months, as he was killed by the
day hunting, he met a wood nymph, who soldiers of Gabinius, B.C. 56. He had been
begged his assistance, because the tree over unade priest of Comana by Pompey. His
which she presided, and on whose preservation g, andson was made king of Cappadocia by
her life depended, was going to be carried Antony, whom he assisted at Actium, and he
away by the impetuous torrent of a river. maintained his independence under Augustus,
Areas changed the course of the waters, and till Tiberus perfidiously destroyed him.—
preserved the tree, and married the nymph, A king of Macedonia, who succeeded his
by whom he had three sons, Azan, Aphidas, father Perdiccas the second : as he was but
and Elatus, among whom he divided his king a natural child, he killed the legitimate heirs
dom. The descendants of Azan planted co to gain the kingdom. He proved himself to
lonies in Phrygia. Aphidas received for his be a great monarch : he was at last killed by
share Tegea, which on that account had been one of his favourites, because he had promised
called the inheritance of Aphidas; and Elitus him his daughter in marriage and given her
became master of mount Cyllene, and some to another, after a reign of 3 years. He pa
time after passed into Phocis. Paus. 8, c. 4. tronized the poet Euripides. Diod. 14.—Jus
–Hygin-fab. 155 and 176.-Apollod. 3, c. 8. lin. 7, c. 4.—./Bluan. V. H. 2, 8, 12, 14.—A
—Strab. 8-Orid. Fast. 1, v.470. One of king of the Jews, [son of Herod the Great.]
Actaeon's dogs. He married Glaphyre, daughter of Arche
[Ance, a city of Phoenicia, east of Tripo laus, king of Macedonia, and widow of his
is, where Alexander Severus was born.] brother Alexander. Augustus banished him
ARCEsilaus, son of Battus, king of Cy for his cruelties, to Vienna, [or Vienne, in
rene, was driven from his kingdom in a sedi Gaul,] where he died. Diod. A king of
tion, and died B. C. 575. The second of that Lacedæmon, son of Agesilaus. He reigned
name died B. C. 550. Polyan. 8, c. 41.- 42 years with Charlaus, of the other branch
H-redot. 4, c. 159. One of Alexander's of the family. Herodot. 7, c. 204.-Paus. 3,

c. 5–A general of Antigonus the younger, gia. Cic. pro Arch. Apolemarch of The
appointed governor of Acrocorinthus with bes, assassinated in the conspiracy of Pelopi
the philosopher Persatus. Polyaen. 6, c. 2. das, which he could have prevented, if he
A celebrated general of Mithridates, had not deſerred to the morrow the reading
against Sylla. Id. 8, c. 8.-A philosopher of a letter which he had received from Archi
{born either at Miletus or Athens,] son of as the Athenian high-priest, and which gave
Apollodorus, and successor to Anaxagoras. him information of his danger. Plut. in Pe
He was preceptor to Socrates, and was call lop. A high-priest of Athens, contempora
ed Physicus, [from the celebrity he acquired ry and intimate with the polemarch of the
in teaching the doctrines of Anaxagoras res same name. Id. ibid. A Theban taken
pecting natural bodies.] He supposed that in the act of adultery, and punished accord
heat and cold were the principles of all things. ing to the law, and tied to a post in the pub
[In ethics, his fundamental principle was lic place, for which punishment he abolished
that there was no essential difference between the oligarchy. Aristot.
right and wrong, but that it resulted from po ARchibiñDEs, a philosopher of Athens,
sitive institution, and consequently that all who affected the manners of the Spartans,
actions are indifferent until human laws de and was very inimical to the views and mea
clare them to be good or evil..] Cic. Tusc. 5. sures of Phocion. Plut. in Phoc.- An am
—Diog. in vita.-Augustin, deciv. Dei, 8.— bassador to Byzantium, &c. Polyten. 4, c.
sculptor of Priene, in the age of Claudius. 44.
He made an apotheosis of Homer, a piece of ARchibius, the son of the geographer Pto
sculpture highly admired, and said to have lemy.
been discovered under ground A. D. 1658. ARchipAMIA, a priestess of Ceres, who on
Arch EMāchus, a Greek writer, who pub account of her affection for Aristomenes restor
lished an history of Euboea. Athen. 6. ed him to liberty when he had been taken pri
Arch EMöRus, or Opheltes, son of Ly soner by her female attendants at the celebra
curgus, king of Thrace, by Eurydice, was tion of their festivals. Paus. 4, c. 17.-A
brought up by Hypsipyle, queen of Lemnos, daughter of Cleadas, who, upon hearing that
who had fled to Thrace, and was employed as her countrymen, the Spartans, were debating
nurse in the king's family. Hypsipyle was whether they should send away their women
met by the army of Adrastus, who was going to Crete against the hostile approach of Pyr
against Thebes; and she was forced to show hus, seized a sword, and ran to the senate
them a fountain where they might quench house, exclaiming that the women were as
their thirst. To do this more expeditiously, able to fight as the men. Upon this the de
she put down the child on the grass, and at her cree was repealed. Plut. in Pyrr.—Polyaen.
return found him killed by a serpent. The 8, c. 8.
Greeks were so afflicted at this misfortune, ARchid AMUs, king of Sparta, son of Anax
that they instituted games in honour of Ar idamus, succeeded by Agasicles. Another.
chemorus, which were called Nemacan, and grandson of Leotychidas, by his son Zeuxida
king Adrastus inlisted among the combatants, mus. He succeeded his grandfather, and
and was victorious. Apollod.2 and 3–Paus. reigned in conjunction with Plistoanax. He
3, c. 48.-Stat. Theb. 6. conquered the Argives and Arcadians, and
ARch EptoLEMus, son of Iphitus, king of privately assisted the Phocians in plundering
Elis, went to the Trojan war, and fought the temple of Delphi. He was called to the
against the Greeks. As he was fighting near aid of Tarentum against the Romans, and
Hector, he was killed by Ajax, son of Tela. killed there in a battle, after a reign of 23
mon. Homer. Il. 8, v. 128. years. Diod. 16.—Xenoph.-Another, who
Archestratus, a tragic poet, whose pie conquered the Helots, [who had made an in
ces were first acted during the Peloponnesian surrection after a violent earthquake..] Dio 1.
war. Plut. in Arist.—A follower of Epi 11. A son of Agesilaus, who led the Spar
curus, who wrote a poem in commendation tan auxiliaries to Cleombrotus at the battle
of gluttony of Leuctra, [in which action he commanded
ARchiAs, a Corinthian descended from the left wing and lost his life.]
Hercules. He founded Syracuse B. C. 732. ARchid EMUs, a stoic philosopher, who wil
Beinig told by an oracle to make choice of lingly exiled himself among the Parthians.
health or riches, he chose the latter. Dionys. Plut. de eril.
Hal. 2 A poet of Antioch, intimate with ARchidium, a city of Crete, named after
Lucullus, [Metellus, Catullus, Crassus, and Archidius, son of Tegeates. Paus. 8, c. 53.
other persons of the most distinguished rank AnchIgA1.LUs, the high-priest of Cybele's
and character at Rome, whither he came in temple, [always chosen from one of the most
the consulship of Marius and Catulus, B. C. distinguished families.] rid. Galli.
102.] He obtained the rank and name of a ARchigéNEs, a physician, born at Apa
Roman citizen by the means of Cicero, who mea, in Syria. He lived in the reigns of Do
defended him in an elegant oration, when his mitian, Nerva, and Trajan, and died in the
enemies had disputed his privileges of citizen 73d year of his age. [He is highly commend
of Rome. He wrote a poem on the Cimbri ed by Galen, and appears to have been in high
aa war, and began another concerning Cice repute from the frequent and honourable men
ro's consulship, both are now lost. Some of tion of his name in Juvenal. He wrote on
his epigrams are preserved in the Antholo Pharmacy, on local affections, ou the cure of

chronic diseases, &c. Only a few fragments and villages of Egypt, and began those mounds
of his writings remain.] Juv. 6, v. 235. of earth by means of which communication
ARchilochus, a poet of Paros, who wrote is kept ſrom town to town during the inunda
elegies, satires, odes, and epigrams, and was tions of the Nile. [Diodorus Siculus also as
the first who introduced iambics in his verses. cribes to him the invention of the,fscrew
He had courted Neobule, the daughter of Ly pump, which he communicated to the Egyp
cambes, and had received promises of mar tians.] The story of his burning-glasses had
riage; but the father gave her to another, always appeared fabulous to some of the mo
superior to the poet in rank and fortune; up derns, till the experiments of Buffon demon
on which Archilochus wrote such a bitter sa strated it beyond contradiction. These cele
tire, that Lycambes hanged himself in a fit of brated glasses are supposed to have been re
despair. The Spartans condemned his verses flectors made of metal, and capable of pro
an account of their indelicacy, and banished ducing their effect at the distance of a bow
him from their city as a petulant and danger shot. The manner in which he discovered
ous citizen. Some fragments of his poetry how much brass a goldsmith had mixed with
remain, which display vigour and animation. gold in making a golden crown for the king
boldness and vehemence in the highest de is well known. [The ardour of his mind in the
gree, from which reason perhaps Cicero calls pursuit of science is fully evinced by his fa.
virulent edicts, Archilochia edicta. [The mous declaration to Hiero, pronounced in con
innention of iambic verse is ascribed to him, sequence of his accurate acquaintance with
and also of Epodes. He is generally ranked the powers of the lever, Aor row a ta kat rºy
among the first victors at the Pythian Games. zozºwo, kiwhra, “Give me a place where I
The estimation in which he was held may be may stand, and I will move the earth.”] Ma
inferred from the fact that Corax of Naxos, ny of his works are extant, especially trea
by whom he was killed, was expelled from tises de spherá & cylindro, circuli dimensio,
the temple of Apollo at Delphi, though the de lineis spiralibus, de quadratură paraboles,
deed was done in open war. He is supposed de numero arena, &c. [The best edition of his
tohave flourished about 742 B.C.] Cic. Tusc. works, is the splendid one in folio, printed at
1–Quintul. 10, c. 1.-Herodot. 1, c. 12.— Oxford in 1792. It was prepared for the v. 79.—Athen. 1, 2, &c. press by Joseph Torelli of Verona. A valua
A son of Nestor, killed by Memnon in the ble appendix is added by the Rev. Abram
Trojan war. Homer. Il. 2. A Greek his Robertson, of Christ-Church College, Ox
torian who wrote a chronological table and ford, who had the whole care of the edition.]
other works, about the 20th or 30th Olympi Cic. Tusc. 1, c. 25. De JNſat. D. 2, c. 34.—
ad. -
Liv. 24, c. 34.—Quintul. 1, c. 10. –Vitrup.
AnchistãoEs, a famous geometrician of 9, c. 3.-Polyb. 7.-Plut. in JMarcell.—Wal.
Syracuse, (born B. C. 287, who invented a JMar. 8, c. 7.
machine of glass that faithfully represented ARchipei,Kqus, a part of the sea where
the motion of all the heavenly bodies. When islands in great number are interspersed,
Marcellus, the Roman consul, besieged Sy such as that part of the Mediterranean which
racuse, Archimedes constructed machines lies between Greece and Asia Minor, and is
whichsuddenly raised up in the air the ships of generally called Mare AEgeum. [Lempriere
the enemy from the bay before the city, and gives the term Archipelagus, as Latinized by
let them ſall with such violence into the Hoffman. It is, however, a modern Greek
water that they sunk. He set them also on word, Archipelago.
There is some doubt
When the whether the original modern term be Egio
fire with his burning-glasses.
town was taken, the Roman general gave Pelago or Agio Pelago; the former a corrup
strict orders to his soldiers not to hurt Archi tion of the word JEgaeum, the latter derived
medes, and even offered a reward to him who from the sanctity of the monasteries on Mount
should bring him alive and safe into his pre Athos and in the islands. The vulgar error of
sence. All these precautions were useless ; deriving it from agx” and ºrnaayor, is well
the philosopher was so deeply engaged in known.
tolving a problem, that he was even ignorant ARchippe, a city of the Marsi, destroyed
that the enemy were in possession ofthe town: by an earthquake, and lost in the lake of Fu
and a soldier, without knowing who he was, cinus. Plin. 3, c. 19.
killed him, because he refused to follow him, Archippus, a king of Italy, from whom
B.C. 212. Miarcellus raised a monument perhaps the town of Archippe received its
over him, and marked upon it a cylinder and name. Virg. JEn. 7, v. 752–A philoso
asphere. [In doing this he fulfilled a wish pher of Thebes, pupil to Pythagoras.—A
which Archimedes had expressed in his life comic poet of Athens, of whose eight come
time to a friend, that a sphere and a cylin dies only one obtained the prize.—A philo
der, on the discovery of the proportion be sopher in the age of Trajan.
tween which he greatlyprided himself, might ARchitis, a name of Venus, worshipped
be marked upon his tomb.] The place of his on inount Libanus.
interment remained long unknown, till Cice AnchoN, one of Alexander's generals, who
to, during his quaestorship in Sicily, found it received the province of Babylon, at the ge
near one of the gates of Syracuse, surrounded neral division after the king's death. Diod.
with thorns and brambles. Some suppose 18.
that Archimedes raised the site of the towns Anchonres, the name of the chief magis

trates of Athens. They were nine in num rus; their power was originally for life, but
ber, and none were chosen but such as were afterwards it was limited to ten years, and at
descended from ancestors who had been free last to one year. After some time, the qua
citizens of the republic for three generations. lifications which were required to be an ar
They were also to be without deformity in chon were not strictly observed. Adrian, be
all the parts and members of their body, and fore he was elected emperor of Rome, was
were obliged to produce testimonies of their made archon at Athens, though a foreigner
dutiful behaviour to their parents, of the ser and the same honours were conferred upon
vices they had rendered their country, and Plutarch. The perpetual archons, after the
the competency of their fortune to support death of Codrus, were Medon, whose office
their dignity. They took a solemn oath that began B. C. 1070; Acastus, 1050; Archip
they would observe the laws, administer jus pus, 1014; Thersippus, 995; Phorbas, 954;
tice with impartiality, and never suffer them Megacles, 923; Diognetus, 893; Pherceles,
selves to be corrupted. If they ever receiv 865 : Ariphron, 846; Thespieus, 826 : Aga
ed bribes, they were compelled by the laws to mestor, 799; AEschylus, 798; Alcmaeon.
dedicate to the god of Delphi, a statue of gold 756; after whose death the archons were de
of equal weight with their body. They all |cennial, the first of whom was Charops, who
had the power of punishing malefactors with began 754; Hºsimedes, 744; Clidicus, 734:
death. The chief among them was called Hippomenes, 724; Leocrates, 714; Apsar
..Archon; the year took its denomination from der, 704; Eryxias, 694; after whom the of:
him ; he determined all causes between man fiee becaume annual, and of these annual ar
and wife, and took care of legacies and wills; chons Creon was the first. Aristoph. in Nub.
he provided for orphans, protected the in & Avib.—Plut. Sympos. 1.-Demost.—Pot
jured, and punished drunkenness with un lur.—Lysias.
common severity. If he suffered himself to ARchytas, a musician of Mitylene, who
be intoxicated during the time of his office, wrote a treatise on Agriculture. Diog.—
the misdemeanor was punished with death. The son of Hestiaeus of Tarentum, was a ſol
The second of the archons was called Basi lower of the Pythagorean philosophy, and an
deus; it was his office to keep good order, able astronomer and geometrician. [He
and to remove all causes of quarrel in the flourished about 400 B.C. Among his dis
families of those who were dedicated to the ciples were Philolaus, Eudoxus, and Plato.
service of the gods. The profane and the In such high estimation did his countrymen
impious were brought before his tribunal; hold him for wisdom and valour, that he was
and he offered public sacrifices for the good chosen seven times general of their armies
of the state. He assisted at the celebration of and governor of. Tarentum, contrary to an
the Eleusinian festivals, and other religious express law. Aristotle is said to have bor
ceremonies. His wife was to be [a citizen of rowed from him the “Ten Categories,”
the whole blood of Athens,] and of a pure and many of his ethical principles and max
and unsullied life. He had a vote among the ims. He invented the screw, crane, various
Areopagites, but was obliged to sit among hydraulic machines, a flying pigeon or a
them without his crown. The Polemarch winged automaton of wood, &c. He perish
was another archon of inferior dignity. He ed in a shipwreck on the coast of Apulia.
had the care of all foreigners, and provided His only remaining work is a treatise on the
a sufficient maintenance, from the public universe, printed in Greek and Latin at
treasury, for the families of those who had Venice, 1571, in 8vo.] Horat. 1, od. 28.-
lost their lives in defence of their country. Cic. 3, de Orat.—Diog. in Pit.
[But because these three magistrates were ARciteNENs, an epithet applied to Apol
often, by reason of their youth, not so well lo, from his bearing a bow, with which, as
skilled in the laws and customs of their coun soon as born, he destroyed the serpent Py
try as might have been wished, that they thon. Virg. JEn. 4, v. 75.
might not be left wholly to themselves, they ARCTINUs, a Milesian poet, said to have
were each accustomed to make choice of been pupil to Homer. Dionys. Hal. 1.
two persons of age, gravity, and reputation, ARctoph YLAx, a star near the great bear,
to sit with them on the bench and assist them called also Bootes. Cic. de JVat. D. 2, c.
with their advice . These they called TIagºd 42.
goi or assessors, and obliged them to under ARctos, a mountain near Propontis, inha
go the same probation as the other magis bited by giants and monsters.--Two celes
trates. The six other archons were called tial constellations near the north pole, com
by one common name, Thesmotheta, and re monly called Ursa Major and Minor, suppos
ceived complaints against persons accused of ed to be Arcas and his mother, who were
impiety, bribery, and ill behaviour... [Indict made constellations. Wirg. G. 1.--Aratus
ments before the Thesmothetae were in writ Ovid. Fast. 3, v. 107.
ing; at the tribunal of the Basileus, they were ARctür Us, a star near the tail of the
by word of mouth.] They settled all dis great bear, whose rising and setting were ge
putes between the citizens, redressed the nerally supposed to portend grear tempests.
wrongs of strangers, and forbade any laws to Horat. 3, od. 1. The name is derived from
be enforced but such as were conducive to its situation, agarot ursus, ovºz cauda.
the safety of the state. These officers of state ARDALUs, a son of Vulcan, said to have
were chosen after the death of king Cod been the first who invented the pipe. He

save it to the muses, who on that accou t murder of Hallirhotius, who had offered vio
have been called Ardalides and ..]rdalotides. lence to his daughter Alcippe. Some say
Patts. 2, c. 31. that the place received the name of Areo
ARDAxists, a small river of Illyricum, pagus, because the Amazons pitched their
near Lissus. Polyb. camp there, and offered sacrifices to their
ARDEA, formerly Ardua, a town of Latium progenitor. Mars, when they besieged
[near the coast, south-east of Lavinium, built, Athens; and others maintain, that the name
according to some, by a son of Ulysses and was given to the place because Mars is the
Circe. It was the capital of the Rutuli. god of bloodshed, war, and murder, which
Tarquin the Proud was pressing it with a were generally punished by that court. The
siege when his son ravished Lucretia. A time in which this celebrated seat of justice
road called. Ardeatina, branched from the Ap. was instituted is unknown. Some suppose
pian road to Ardea. [The Romans establish. that Cecrops, the founder of Athens, first
ed a colony here A.U.C. 311. It is now cal established it, while others give the credit of
led .4, dia.] C. Nep. in Attic. 14.—Liv. 1. it to Cranaus, and others to Solon. The num
c. 57, l. 3, c. 71, l. 4, c. 9, &c.—Virg...En. 7, ber of judges that composed this august as
v. 412-—Ocid. Met. 14. v. 573.-Strab. 5. sembly is not known. They have been li
ARDIAE1, a people [of Dalmatial in Illyri mited by some to 9, to 31, to 51, and some
cum, whose capital was called Ardia. Strab. 7. times to a greater number, The most wor
[ARDiscºs, a river of Thrace, falling into thy and religious of the Athenians were ad
the Hebrus at Adrianopolis. Now the Arda.] mitted as members, and such archons as had
ARDUENNA, Sylva, ſnow.Ardennes, a for discharged their duty with care and faithful
estof Gaul, the longest in that country, reach ness. In the latter ages of the republic, this
ing, according to Caesar, from the Rhenus and observance was often violated, and we find
the territories of the Treveri to those of the some of their members of loose and debauch
Nervii, upwards of 50 miles in length. ed morals. If any of them were convicted
Others make the extent much larger. If it of immorality, if they were seen sitting at a
covered the whole of the intervening space tavern, or had used any indecent language,
between the countries of the Treveri and they were immediately expelled from the as
Nervii it would greatly exceed 50 miles. sembly, and held in the greatest disgrace,
The ground is now in many places cleared, though the dignity of a judge of the Areopa
and cities built upon it. It is divided into gus always was for life. The Areopagites
four districts. Its chief town is Mezieres.] took cognizance of murders, impiety, and im
Tacit. 8.-Ann. c.42.-Cats. bell. Gall. 6, c. moral behaviour, and particularly ofidleness,
29. which they deemed the cause of all vice.
ARDuixE, the goldess of hunting among They watched over the laws, and they had
the Gauls, represented with the same attri the management of the public treasury;
butes as the Diana of the Romans. they had the liberty of rewarding the virtu
ARDys, a son of Gyges, king of Lydia, who ous, and of inflicting severe punishment upon
reigned 49 years, took Priene, and made war such as blasphemed against the gods, or
against Miletus. Herodot. 1, c. 15. slighted the celebration of the holy mysteries.
AREliruni, [a town of the Salyes on the They always sat in the open air, because they
east side of the Rhodanus at the place where took cognizance of murder; and by their
it divides itself into three branches, not ſar laws it was not permitted for the murderer
from its mouth. Strabo speaks of it as a and his accuser to be both under the same
commercial emporium, and, according to roof. This custom also might originate be
Pomponius Mela, it was one of the richest cause the persons of the judges were sacred,
cities in Gallia Narbonensis. It was called and they were afraid of contracting pollution
Arelas Sextanorum, from being built by the by conversing in the same house with men
soldiers of the sixth legion, conducted thi who had been guilty of shedding innocent
ther as colonists by the father of Tiberius. It blood. They always heard causes and pass
is now Arles.] Strab. 4.—Mela, 3, c. 5. ed sentence in the night, that they might not
ARELLIus, a celebrated painter of Rome be prepossessed in favour of the plaintiff or
in the age of Augustus. Plin. 35, c. 10. of the defendant by seeing them. Whatever
ARENE, a city of Messenia, in Pelopon causes were pleaded before them, were to be
nesus. [Stephanus of Byzantium mentious divested of all oratory and fine speaking, lest
two cities of this name, one in Messenia, and eloquence should charm their ears, and cor
the other in Triphylian Elis.} Homer. Il. 2. rupt their judgment. Hence arose the most
Aarsicum, ſa fortified place on the Rhine just and most impartial decisions, and their
in the territories of the Batavi, not far from sentence was deemed sacred and inviolable,
where the river separates to form the Waha and the plaintiff and defendant were equally
lis. It is now, according to D’Anville, .4ert convinced of its justice. The Areopagites
or.ºerth, but Mannert is in favour of JMan generally sat on the 27th, 28th, and 29th day
heim.] Tacit. Hist. 5, c. 20. of every month. [But if any business hap
Aarora Gitae, the judges of the Areopa pened which required despatch, they assem
gus, a seat of justice on a small eminence near bled in the royal portico, Baguaian Xroa.]
Athens, whose name is derived from Agº Their authority continued in its original state,
** **, 3. the hill of Mars, because Mars till Pericles, who was refused admittance
was the first who was tried there, for the among them, resolved to lessen their conse

quence, and destroy their power. From that tant circumstance connected with this ſout
time the morals of the Athenians were cor tain is, that it was the occasion of theisle of
rupted, and the Areopagites were no longer Ortygia becoming inhabited. Its waters were
conspicuous for their virtue and justice; and very sweet, and were protected from the
when they censured the debaucheries of De overflowing of the sea. Now, however, the
metrius, one of the fauily of Phalereus, he latter has access to them, and they have a salt
plainly told them, that if they wished to taste..] Vid. Alpheus.-Ovid. Met. 5, fab. 10.
make a reform in Athens they must begin at —Athen 7–Paus.-A lake of upper Ar
home. menia, near the fountains of the Tigris. [Ac.
AREopious, a hill in the neighbourhood cording to Pliny, it exhaled nitrous vapours,
of Athens. vid. Areopagitae. Plin. 2, c. 103.]
AREsthāNAs, a countryman, whose goat [ARETIN1, a people of Etruria, below the
suckled AEsculapius, when exposed by his Arnus, divided into three classes, Peteres, F
mother. Paws. 2, c. 26. dentes, and Julienses. Their towns were, Ar
AREstonid Es, a patronymic given to the retium Vetus, now ſlrrero, Arretium Fidens,
hundred-eyed Argus, as son of Arestor. now Castigliome-.4retino, and Arretium Juli
Ovid. Met. 1, v. 584. um, now Giovi.]
ARETE, the mother of Aristippus, the phi AREus, a king of Sparta, preferred in the
losopher. Laert.2.—A daughter of Diony succession to Cleonymus, brother of Acrota
sius, who married Dion. She was thrown tus, who made an alliance with Pyrrhus. He
into the sea. Plut. 1n Dion.—A female assisted Athens when Antigonus besieged it,
philosopher of Cyrene, B.C. 37. and died at Corinth. Paus. 3, c. 6.-Plut.-
ARETA, a daughter of Rhexenor, descend A king of Sparta, who succeeded his father
ed from Neptune, who rºarried her uncle, Acrotatus 2d, and was succeeded by his son
Alcinous, by whom she had Nausicaa. Ho Leonidas, son of Cleonymus. A philoso
tner. Od. 7 and 8.-Apollod. 1. pher of Alexandria, intimate with Augustus.
ARETAEus, a physician of Cappadocia. Sueton.
[He practised medicine at Rome, but at what ARGEus, a sou of Perdiccas, who succeed
period is uncertain, probably between the ed his father in the kingdom of Macedonia.
reigns of Vespasian and Adrian. He was a Justin. 7, c. 1.-[A mountain of Cappado:
hold and decisive practitioner. His works cia, covered with perpetual snows, and soloſ
which have come down to us imperfect, are ty, that from its summit, accerding to thean:
held in high estimation. The best edition cient writers, both the Euxine and the Me
is that of Boerhaave, L. Bat. 1735. fol.] diterranean seas might be seen. It is now
ARETAPhil.A, the wife of Melanippus, a called Argeh-Dag, and at its foot stood Ma
priest of Cyrene. Nicocrates murdered her zaca, the capital of Cappadocia, called inthe
husband to marry her. She, however, was time of Tiberius, Caesarea ad Argaeum, and
so attached to Melanippus, that she endea now Kaisarieh.] Claudian.
voured to poison Nicocrates, and at last caus ARGAthonius, a king of Tartessus, who
ed him to be assassinated by his brother Ly according to Plin. 7, c. 48, lived 120 years,
sander, whom she married. Lysander proved and 300 according to Ital. 3, v. 396.
as cruel as his brother, upon which Aretaphi. ARGENNUM, a promontory of Ionia, ſnear
la ordered him to be thrown into the sea. Halonessus, also a promontory of Sicily, on
After this she retired to a private station. the eastern side, now Cape St. Alessio.]
Plut. de Virtut. Mulier.—Polyarn. 8, c. 38. ARGI, (plur. masc.) rid. Argos.
ARETALEs, a Cnidian, who wrote an his ARGIA, daughter of Adrastus, married Po:
tory of Macedonia, besides a treatise on is lynices, whom she loved with uncommon
lands. Plut. tenderness. When he was killed in the war,
AREthiºsA, a nymph of Elis, and one of she buried his body in the night, against the
Diana's attendants. As she returned one day positive orders of Creon, for which pious at'
from hunting, she sat near the Alpheus, and tion she was punished with death. These"
bathed in the stream. The god of the river revenged her death by killing Creon. Hy
was enamoured of her, and he pursued her gin. ſab. 69 and 72.-Štat. Theb.12, vid. An
over the mountains and all the country, when tigone and Creon.—A country of Pelopon:
Arethusa, ready to sink under fatigue, implor nesus, called also Argolis, of which Argos wº
ed Diana, who changed her into a foun the capital.
tain. The Alpheus immediately mingled his Argilus, a town of Thrace at the mº"
streams with hers, and Diana opened a secret of the Strymon, built by a colony of Anº
passage under the earth and under the sea, ans. Thucyd. 4, c. 103-Herodot. 7, c. 15.
where the waters of Arethusa disappeared, ARGINUsa, [small islands below Leº
and rose in the island of Ortygia, near Syra and lying off the promontory of Cana, or *
cuse in Sicily. The river Alpheus followed toni in Åolis. They were rendered ſamº
her also under the sea, and rose also in Orty for the victory gained near them by the A*
gia; so that, as mythologists relate, what. nian fleet under Conon, over that of the L*
ever is thrown into the Alpheus in Elis, rises damonians in the 26th year of the Pelop”.
again, after some time, in the fountain Are. sian war, b. c.406, ofthese three islands.”
thusa near Syracuse. [Strabo takes a great largest had a town called Arginusa. T.
deal of unnecessary trouble in proving the are formed of a white, argillaceous soil.”
impossibility of this story. The most impor from that circumstance took their nam"

ºn trots: shining white, ſeminine agyuvescºra, were civilized, and it became the theatre of
contracted agyºvra.] most of the events recorded in the early an
ARGiphontrºs, a surname given to Mer malsof Greece.]
cury, because he killed the hundred-eyed ARGonAUTAE, anamegiven to those ancient
.irgus, by order of Jupiter. [The Argicide.] heroes who went with Jason on board the ship
ARGIPPEI, a nation among the Sauroma Argo to Colchis, about 79 years before the tak
tians, born bald, and with flat noses. [They ing of Troy, or 1263 B.C. [vid. the end of this
lived upon the fruit of a tree called Ponticus, article.] The causes of this expedition arose
from which, when ripe, they made a thick trom the following circumstance:–Athamas,
black liquor called .4schy, which they drank king of Thebes, had married Ino, the daughter
clear, or mixed with milk. Of the husks of Cadmus, whom he divorced to marry Ne
they prepared a kind of cake.] Herodot. 4, phele, by whom he had two children, Phryxus
c. 23. nº Helle. As Nephele was subject to cer
Angiva, a surname of Juno, worshipped at tain fits of madness, Athamas repudiated
Argos. She had also a tenuple at Sparta, her, and took a second time Ino, by whom
cousecrated to her by Eurydice, the daugh he had soon after two sons, Learchus and
ter of Lacedaemon. Paus. 4, c. 13.-Virg. Melicerta. As the children of Nephele were
-En. 3, v. 547. to succeed to their father by right of birth,
ARGiv1, the inhabitants of the city of Ar lno conceived an immortal hatred against
gos and the neighbouring country. The them, and she caused the city of Thebes to
word is indiscriminately applied by the poets be visited by a pestilence, by poisoning all the
to all the inhabitants of Greece. grain which had been sown in the earth. Up
ARGICs, a steward of Galba, who privately on this the oracle was consulted ; and as it
interred the body of his master in his gardens. had been corrupted by means of Ino, the
Tacit. Hist. 1, e. 49. answer was, that Nephele's children should
Ango, the name of the famous ship which be immolated to the gods. Phryxus was ap
carried Jason and his 54 companions to Col prised of this, and he immediately embarked
chis, when they resolved to recover the golden with his sister Helle, and fled to the court of
fleece. The derivation of the word Argo has AEetes, king of Colchis, one of his near rela
been often disputed. Some derive it from Ar tions. in the voyage Helle died, and Phryx
gos, the person who first proposed the ex us arrived safe at Colchis, and was received
pedition, and who built the ship. Others with kindness by the king. The poets have
maintain that it was built at Argos, whence embellished the flight of Phryxus, by suppos
its name. Cicero, Tusc. 1, c. 20, calls it Ar ing that he and Helle fled through the air on
go, because it carried Grecians, commonly a ram which had a golden fleece and wings,
called Argives. Diod.4, derives the word from and was endowed with faculties of speech.
agyer, which signifies swift. Ptolemy says, This ram, as they say, was the offspring of
but falsely, that Hercules built the ship, and Neptune's amours, un'er the form of a ram,
called it Argo, after a son of Jason, who bore with the nymph Theophane. As they were
the same name. The ship Argo had 50 oars. going to be sacrificed, the ram took them on
[It could not however have been a very large his back, and instantly disappeared in the air.
vessel if the ancient tradition be true, accord On their way Helle was giddy, and ſell into
ing to which, the Argonauts were able to car that part of the sea which from her was call
ry it on their backs from the Danube, to the ed the Hellespont. When Phryxus came
Adriatic.] According to many authors, she to Colchis, he sacrificed the ran, to Jupiter,
had a beam on her prow, cut in the forest of or, according to others, to Mars, to whom he
Dodona by Minerva, which had the power of also dedicated the golden fleece. He soon
giving oracles to the Argonauts. This ship after married Chalciope, the daughter of
was the first that ever sailed on the sea, as AEetes: but his father-in-law envied him the
some report. After the expedition was finish possession of the golden fleece, and therefore
ed, Jason ordered her to be drawn aground to obtain it he murdered him. Sometime after
at the isthmus of Corinth, and consecrated to this event, when Jason, the son of Æson, de
the god of the sea. The poets have made manded of his uncle Pelias the crown which
her a constellation in heaven. Jason was he usurped, (vid. Belias, Jason, Æson.)
killed by a beam which fell from the top, as Pelias said that he would restore it to him,
he slept on the ground near it. Hygin. fab. provided he avenged the death of their com
14, A. P.2, c. 37.-Catull. de Mupt. Pel. & mon relation Phryxus, whom AEetes had
Thet.—Wał. Flac. 1, v. 93, &c.—Phaedr. 4, lately murdered in Colchis. Jason, who was
fab. 6.-Seneca in Medea.—Apollon. Argon. n the vigour of youth, and of an ambitious
—Apollod–Cie. de Nat. D.—Plin. 7, c. 56. soul, cheerfully undertook the expedition,
—Manil. 1. and embarked with all the young princes of
Akcolleus sinus, a bay on the coast of Greece in the ship Argo. [The Argo tºok her
Argolia, (now the Gulf of Napoli.] departure from Aphetae at the entrance of the
Angºlts and Aacia, a country of Pelo Sinus Pagasius or Pelasgicus. The modern
ponnesus between Arcadia and the AEgean name of the place is Fetio.; They stopped at
sea. Its chief city was called Argos. ['i his the island of Lemnos, where they remained
ancient kingdom has not unaptly been term two years, and raised a new race of men from
eithe cradle of the Greeks, since it first re. the Lemnian women, who had murdered
eeived the foreign colonies by whom they their husbands. (vid. Hypsipyle.) After they

had left Lemnos, they visited Samothrace, armed men sprang from the earth, he threw
where they offered sacrifices to the gods, and a stone in the midst of them, and they imme
thence passed to Troas and to Cyzicum. diately turned their weapons one against the
Here they met with a favourable reception other, till they all perished. After this he
from Cyzicus the king of the country. The went to the dragon, and by meaus of enchant
might after their departure, they were driven ed herbs and a draught which Medea had giv
back by a storm again on the coast of Cyzi en him, he lulled the monster to sleep, and ob
cum, and the iuhabitants, supposing them to tained the golden fleece, and immediately set
be their enemies the Pelasgi, furiously attack sail with Medea. He was soon pursued by
ed them. In this nocturual engagement the Absyrtus the king's son, who came up to them,
slaughter was great, and Cyzicus was killed and was seized and murdered by Jason and
by the hand of Jason, who, to expiate the Medea. The mangled limbs of Absyrtus
murder he had ignorantly committed, buried were strewed in the way through which
him in a magnificent manner, and offered a AEetes was to pass, that his further pursuit
sacrifice to the mother of the gods, to whom might be stopped. Aſter the murder of Ab
he built a temple on mount Dyndymus. From syrtus, they entered the Palus Maeotis, and
Cyzicum they visited Bebrycia, otherwise by pursuing their course towards the left, ac
called Bithynia, where Pollux accepted the cording to the foolish account of poets, who
challenge of Amycus king of the country, in were ignorant of geography, they came to the
the combatof the Cestus, and slew him. They island Peucestes, and to that of Circe. [The
were driven from Bebrycia by a storm, to belief for a long time prevailed, that there
Salmydessa, on the coast of Thrace, where was a communication between the Palus
they delivered Phineus, king of the place, Maeotis and the Oceanus, or earth-encom
from the persecution of the harpies. Phineus passing stream. This communication, the
directed their course through the Cyanean old poets made to be a narrow passage or
rocks or the Symplegades, (vid. Cyaneae.) strait, but later writers the river Tanais.
and they safely entered the Euxine sea. They The writer of the Orphic Argonauts makes
visited the country of the Mariandynians, the Argonauts pass up the Phasis into the
where Lycus reigned, and lost two of their Palus Maeotis, thence into the main Oceanus,
companions, Idmon and Tiphys their pilot. and thence directing their course to the west,
After they had left this coast, they were to come to the British isles and the Atlantic,
driven upon the island of Arecia, where they and reach at least the columns of Hercules.]
found the children of Phryxus, whom AEetes Circe informed Jason that the cause of all
their grandfather had sent to Greece to take his calamities arose from the murder of Ab
possession of their father's kingdom. From syrtus, from which she refused to expiate
this island they at last arrived safe in AEa, him. Soon after they entered the Mediter
the capital of Colchis. Jason explained the ranean by the columns of Hercules, and pass
causes of his voyage to Æetes ; but the con ed the straits of Charybdis and Scylla, where
ditions on which he was to recover the golden they must have perished, had not Tethys, the
fleece were so hard, that the Argonauts mistress of Peleus, one of the Argonauts, de
must have perished in the attempt, had not livered them. They were preserved from
Medea, the king's daughter, fallen in love with the Sirens by the eloquence of Orpheus,
their leader. She had a conference with Ja and arrived in the island of the Phaeacians.
'son, and aſter mutual oaths of fidelity in the where they met the enemy's fleet, which had
temple of Hecate, Medea pledged herselſ to continued their pursuit by a different course.
deliver the Argonauts from her father's It was therefore resolved, that Medea should
hard conditions, if Jason married her and be restored, if she had not been actually
carried her with him to Greece. He was married to Jason ; but the wife of Alcinous,
to tame two bulls which had brazen feet the king of the country, being appointed um
and horns, and which vomited clouds of fire pire between the Colchians and Argonauts,
and smoke, and to tie them to a plough made had the marriage privately consummated by
of adamant stone, and to plough a field of night, and declared that the claims of Æetes
two acres of ground never before cultivated. to Medea were now void. From Phaeacia
After this he was to sow in the plain the teeth the Argonauts came to the bay of Ambracia,
of a dragon, from which an armed multitude whence they were driven by a storm upon
were to rise up, and to be all destroyed by the coast of Africa, and after many disasters,
his hands. This done, he was to kill an ever at last came in sight of the promontory of Me
watchful dragon, which was at the bottom lea, in the Peloponnesus, where Jason was pu
of the tree on which the golden fleece was rified from the nurder of Absyrtus, and soon
suspended. All these labours were to be after arrived safe in Thessaly. The imprac
performed in one day; and Medea's assist ticability of such a voyage is well known.
ance, whose knowledge of herbs, magic and Apollonius Rhodius gives another account
potions, was unparalleled, easily extricated equally improbable. He says, that they sail
Jason from all danger, to the astonishment ed'from the Euxine up one of the mouths of the
and terror of his companions, and of Æetes, Danube, and that Absyrtus pursued them by
and the people of Colchis, who had assem entering another mouth of the river. After
bled to be spectators of this wonderful action. they had continued their voyage for some
He tamed the bulls with ease, ploughed the leagues, the waters decreased, and they
field, sowed the dragon's teeth, and when the were obliged to carry the ship Argo across
AR Aft

the country to the Adriatic, upwards of 150 son of Papan, Phlias, Pollux son of Jupiter,
miles. Here they met with Absyrtus, who Polyphemus son of Elates, Poeas son ef Thau.
had pursued the same measures, and con macus, Phanus son of Bacchus, Phalerus son
veyed his ships in like manner over the land. of Alcon, Phocas and Priasus sons of Ceneus
Absyrtus was immediately put to death ; one of the Lapithae, Talaus, Tiphys son of
and soon after the beam of Dodona (vid. Aginus, Staphilus son of Bacchus, two of the
Argo,) gave an oracle, that Jason should name of Iphitus, Theseus son of Ægeus, with
never return home if he was not previously his friend Pirithous. Among these AEscula
purified of the murder. Upon this they sail pius was physician, and Tiphys was pilot.
ed to the island of Æa, where Circe, who [Bryant considers the account of the Argo, a
was the sister of Æetes, expiated him with | manifest tradition from the ark of Noah. Sir
out knowing who he was. There is a third |Isaac Newton thinks that the Argonautic ex
tradition which maintains, that they return pedition was an embassy sent by the Greeks,
ed to Colchis a second time,and visited many during the intestine divisions of Egypt, in the
places of Asia. This famous expedition has reign of Amenophis or Memnon, to persuade
been celebrated in the ancient ages of the the nations upon the coasts of the Mediter
world; it has employed the pen of many ranean and Euxine to revolt from Egypt,
writers, and among others, of Diodorus Sicu and shake off the yoke imposed by Sesostris.
ins, Strabo, Apollodorus, and Justin; and |Many consider it to have been a mere com
the poets, of Onamacritus, more gene |mercial enterprise. Dr. Gillies is of opinion
rally called Orpheus. Apollonius Rhodius, that it was prompted merely by a wish on
Pindar, and Valerius Flaccus, have exten the part of the young chieftains of Greece to
sively given an account of its most remarka visit foreign parts and retort on their inhabit
ble particulars. The number of the Argo ants the injuries which Greece had suffered
nauts is not exactly known. Apollodorus and from strangers. Be the cause, however,
Diodorus say that they were 54. Tzetzes what it may, the beneficial effects of this ex
admits the number of 50, but Apollodorus pedition soon displayed themselves in a more
mentions only 45. The following list is drawn rapid progress towards civilization.
from the various authors who have made Angos, (sing. neut. & Mrgi, masc. plur.)
mention of the Argonautic expedition. Jason, an ancient city, capital of Argolis in Pelopon
son of Æson, as is well known, was the chief nesus, about two miles from the sea, on the
of the rest. His companions were Acastus bay called Argolicus sinus. Juno was the
son of Pelias, Actor son of Hippasus, Adme chief deity of the place. The kingdom of
tus son of Pheres, Esculapius son of Apollo, |Argos was founded by Inachus 1856 years
Ætalides son of Mercury and Eupoleme, Al | before the christian era, and after it had flou
menus son of Mars, Amphiarausson of CEele rished for about 550 years it was united to
us, Amphidamus, son of Aleus, Amphion son the crown of Mycenae. Argos was built, ac
of Hyperasius, Anceus a son of Lycurgus, andcording to Euripides. Iphig. in Aulid. v. 152,
another of the same name, Areus, Argus the 534, by seven cyclops who came from Syria.
builder of the ship Argo, Argus son of Phry These cyclops were not Vulcan's workmen.
xus, Armenus, Ascalaphus son of Mars, Aste The nine first kings of Argos were called
rion soa of Cometes, Asterius son of Neleus, Inachides, in honour of the founder. Their
Augeas son of Sol, Atalanta daughter of Shcoe names were Inachus, Phoroneus, Apis, Ar
neus, disguised in a man's dress, Autolycus gus, Chryasus, Phorbas, Triopas, Stelenus and
son of Mercury, Azorus, Buphagus, Butes Gelanor. Gelanor gave a kind reception to
son of Teleon, Calais son of Boreas, Can Danaus, who drove him from his kingdom in
thus son of Abas, Castor son of Jupiter, Cene return for his hospitality. The descendants
us sou of Elatus, Cepheus son of Aleus, Cius, of Danaus were called Belides. Agamemnon
Clytius, and Iphitus sons of Eurythus, Coro was king of Argos during the Trojan war ;
nus, Deucalion son of Minos, Echion son of and 80 years after the Heraclidae seized the
Mercury and Antianira, Ergynus son of Nep Peleponnesus, and deposed the monarchs.
tune, Euphemus son of Neptune and Macio The inhabitants of Argos were called Argiri
massa,Eribotes, Euryalus son of Cisteus, Eury and Argolici; and this name has been often
damasand Eurythion sons of Iras, Eurytusson applied to all the Greeks without distinction.
of Mercury. Glaucus, Hercules son of Jupi [The term Argos appears to have been an old
ter, Ilas son of Aphareus, Ialmenus son of Pelasgic word, signifying kingdom. Hence
Mars.Idmon son of Ahas,Iolaus son of Iphiclus, the name is met with in different parts of
Iphicius son of Thestius, Iphiclus son of Phi Greece originally occupied by the Pelasgi.]
lacus, Iphis son of Alector, Lynceus, son of Plin. 7, c. 56.-Paus. 2, c. 15, &c.—Horat.
Aphareus, I ritus son of Naubolus, Laertes 1, od. 7.-JElian. V. H. 9, c. 15.-Strab. 8.
son of Arcesius, Laocoon, Leodatus son of .Mela, 1, c. 13, &c. l. 2, c. 3.-Varg. JEn.
Bias, Leitus son of Actor, Meleager, son of 1, v.40, &c. [A city of Acarnania, called
CEaeus, Menoetius son of Actor, Mopsus son Argos Amphilochium, at the south-eastern ex
ºf Amphycus, Nauplius son of Neptune, Ne tremity of the Sinus Ambracius, founded by
lens the brother of Peleus, Nestor son of Ne Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus. Accord
less Oileus the father of Ajax, Orpheus son of ing to others, it was founded by Alcmaeon,
r. Palemon son of Ætolus, Peleus and and called after his brother. The adjacent
Teamon sons of Æacus, Periclimenes son of country bears the name of Filoquin, at the
*leus, Peneleus son of Hipalinus, Philoctetes present day.] rº
Al{ Alt

ARGus, a king of Argos, who reigned 70 clue of thread, by which he extricated himself
years. A son of Arestor, whence he is from the difficult windings of his confinement.
often called Arestorides. He married Isme After he had conquered the Minotaur, he
ne, the daughter of the Asopus. As he had carried her away according to the promise
an hundred eyes, of which only two were he had made, and married her ; but when
asleep at one time, Juno set him to watch Io. he arrived at the island of Naxos he forsook
whom Jupiter had changed into a heifer : her, though she was already pregnant and re
but Mercury, by order of Jupiter, slew him, paid his love with the most endearing tender
by lulling all his eyes asleep with the sound ness. Ariadne was so disconsolate upon being
of his lyre. Juno put the eyes of ºrgus on abandoned by Theseus, that she hung herself,
the tail of the peacock, a bird sacred to her. according to some ; but Plutarch says, that
.Moschus Idyl-Ovid. Met. 1, ſab. 12 and 13. she lived many years after, and had some
—Propert. 1, v. 585, &c. el. 3.-Apollod. 1. children by Onarus, the priest of Bacchus.
c. 9, 1.2, c. 1. A son of Danaus, who built According to some writers, Bacchus loved
the ship Argo. Id. 14. A son of Jupiter her after Theseus had forsaken her, and he
and Niobe, the first child which the father of gave her a crown of seven stars, which, after
the gods had by a mortal. He married Evad her death, was made a constellation. The
me the daughter of Strymon. Id. 145 A Argives showed Ariadne's tomb, and when
dog of Ulysses, who knew his master after one of their temples was repaired, her ashes
an absence of 20 years. Homer. Od. 17, v. were found in an earthen urn. Horner, Od.
300. 11, v. 320, says, that Diana detained Ariadne
ARGYLLA, an ancient name of Caere, in at Naxos Plut. in Thes.—Ovid. Met. 8, fab.
Etruria. Virg. AEn. 7, v. 652, 1.8, v. 478. 2.—Heroid. 10. De Art. Am. 2, Fast. 3, v.
ARGYNNIs, a name of Venus, which she 462.—Catull. de JYupt. Pel. & Thet. ep. 61.
received from Argynnus, a favourite youth —Hygin. fab. 14,43,270.-4pollod. 3. c. 1.
of Agamemnon, who was drowned in the ARIAEus, an officer who succeeded to the
Cephisus. Propert. 3, el. 5, v. 52. command of the surviving army after the
ARGYRA, a nymph greatly heloved by a death of Cyrus the younger, after the battle
shepherd called Selimnus. She was chang of Cunaxa. He made peace with Artaxer
ed into a fountain, and the shepherd into a xes. Xenoph.
river of the same name, whose waters make ARIANTAs, [a king of Scythia, who, in or
lovers forget the object of their affections der to ascertain the number of the Scythians,
vid. Selimnus. Paus. 7, c. 23.--A city of commanded each of his subjects on pain of
Troas.--Also the native place of Diodorus death, to bring him the point of an arrow.
Siculus, in Sicily. The heap thus collected was left as a monu
ARGY RAspides, Macedonian soldiers who ment of the ...]
received this name from their silver bucklers. ARIAMNEs, a king of Cappadocia, son of
[According to Quintus Curtius they formed Ariarathes 3d.
the second corps of Alexander's army, the ARIARăthes, a king of Cappadocia, who
phalanx being the first.] Curt. 4, c. 13. joined Darius Ochus in his expedition against
ARGYRE, [a country of India on the other Egypt, where he acquired much glory—-
side of the Ganges.—Also a town of India, His nephew, the 2d of that name, defended
and the metropolis of the island Jabadios or his kingdom against Perdiccas, the general of
Sumatra. It is called by Ptolemy Argentea, Alexander, but he was defeated and hung on
and its site corresponds, according to D'An a cross in the 81st year of his age, 32i B.C.
ville, with the modern Ashem.] His son, Ariarathes the 3d, escaped the
[ARGY RIPA, a town of Apulia, built by massacre which attended his father and his
Diomedes after the Trojan war, and called followers; and after the death of Perdiccas,
by Polybius Argipana. vid. Arpi.] he recovered Cappadocia, by conquering
ARIA, a country of Asia. [It was properly Amyntas the Macedonian general. He was
a particular province, but the name was given succeeded by his son Ariammes. Ariara
to a country of large extent, answering to thes the 4th, succeeded his father Ariamnes,
the present Khorasin, comprising several pro and married Stratonice, daughter of Antio
vinces, and bounded on the west by Media chus Theos. He died after a reign of twen
on the north by Hyrcania and Parthia, on the ty-eight years, B. C. 220, and was succeeded
east by Bactria, and on the south by Carma by his son Ariarathes the 5th, a prince who
nia and Gedrosia. The capital was Artacoa married Antiochia, the daughter of king An
na, now Herat.] Mela, 1, c. 2, 1, 2, c. 7. tiochus whom he assisted against the Romans.
The wiſe of Pastus Caecinna, of Padua, a Ro Antiochus being defeated, Ariarathes saved
man senator who was accused of conspiracy his kingdom from invasion by paying the Ro
against Claudius, and carried to Rome by sea. mans a large sum of money, remitted at the
She accompanied him, and in the boat she instance of the king of Pergamus. His
stabbed herself, and presented the sword to son, the 6th of that name, called Philopater,
her husband, who followed her example. from his piety, succeeded him 166 B. C. An
Plin. 7.
alliance with the Romansshielded him against
ARIADNE, daughter of Minos 2d, king of the false claims that were laid to his crown
Crete, by Pasiphae, fell in love with The by one of the favourites of Demetrius king
seus, who was shut up in the labyrinth to be of Syria. He was maintained on the throne
devoured by the Minotaur, and gave him a by Attalus, and assisted his friends at Rome

against Aristonicus the usurper of Pergamus;

but he was killed in the war B. C. 130, leav ºc.
§ –Luan. 6, v. 74.—Pirg, .42n. 7, v. 761,
ing six children, five of whom were murder ARicina, a surname of Diana, from her
ed by his surviving wife Laodice. The temple near Aricia. [vid. Aricia.]—The
only one who escaped, Ariarathes 7th, was mother of Octavius. Cic. 3. Phil. c. 6.
proclaimed king, and soon after married Lao ARIL Eus, a companion of Cyrus the young
dice, the sister of Mithridates Eupator, by er. After the death of his friend, he recon
whom he had two sons. He was murdered ciled himself to Artaxerxes, by betraying to
by an illegitimate brother, upon which his him the surviving Greeks in their return.
widow Laodice gave herself and kingdom to Diod.-An illegitimate son of Philip, who,
Nicomedes king of Bithynia. Mithridates after the death of Alexander, was made king
made war against the new king, and raised of Macedonia, till Roxane, who was preg
his nephew to the throne. The young king, nant by Alexander, brought into the world
who was the 8th of the name of Ariarathes, a legitimate male successor. Aridacus had
made war against the tyrannical Mithridates, not the full enjoyment of his senses; and
by whom he was assassinated in the presence therefore Perdiccas, one of Alexander's ge
of both armies, and the murderer's son, a nerals, declared himself his protector, and
child eight years old, was placed on the va even married his sister, to strengthen their
cant throne. The Cappadocians revolted, connection. He was seven years in posses
and made the late monarch's brother, Ariara sion of the soverign power, and was put to
thes 9th, king; but Mithridates expelled him, death, with his wife Eurydice, by Olympias.
and restored his own son. The exiled prince Justin. 9, c. 8–Diod.
died of a broken heart; and Nicomedes of ARIMÁsri, [a people of Scythia, who, ac
Bithynia, dreading the power of the tyrant, cording to Herodotus, had but one eye, and
interested the Romans in the affairs of Cap waged a continual contest with the griſfins
padocia. The arbiters wished to make the who collected the gold, which, according to
country free ; but the Cappadocians demand the same writer, was found in vast quantities
ed a king, and received Ariobarzanes, B. C. in the vicinity of this people. The name is
91. On the death of Ariobarzanes, his bro derived by him from two Scythian words,
ther ascended the throne, under the name of -Arima, oue, and Spu, an eye. It means no
Ariarathes 10th ; but his title was disputed thing more than that these people were ex
by Sisenna, the eldest son of Glaphyra, by pert archers, closing one eye in taking aim.
Archelaus, priest of Comana. M. Antony, ARIMAzEs, a powerful prince of Sogdiana,
who was umpire between the contending par who treated Alexander with much insolence,
ties, decided in favour of Sisenna ; but Aria and even asked whether he could fly to as
rathes recovered it for a while, though he pire to so extensive a dominion. He surren
was soon after obliged to yield in favour of dered, and was exposed on a cross with his
Archelaus, the second son of Glaphyra, B. C. friends and relations. Curt. 7, c. 11.
36. Diod 18–Justin. 13 and 29.-Strab. ARIMINUM, [a city of Umbria in Italy, at
12. the mouth of the river Ariminus, on the coast
AR1cia, an Athenian princess, niece to not far to the south-east of the Rubicon. It
Egeus, whom Hippolytus married after he was founded by the Umbri, and afterwards
hall been raised from the dead by Æsculapius. inhabited partly by them and partly by the
He built a city in Italy, which he called by Pelasgi. It was taken by the Galli Senones.
her name. He had a son by her, called Vir The Romans sent a colony to it A. U.C. 485.
bius. Orid. Met. 15, v. 41.—Virg. JEn. 7, In this place Caesar is said to have harangued
v. 762, &c.—A very ancient town of Italy, his troops, aſter having crossed the Rubicon;
now Riccia, built by Hippolytus, son of The and here the tribunes of the commons, who
seus, after he had been raised from the dead were in his interest, met him. It is now call
by Æsculapius, and transported into Italy by ed Rimini.]
Diana. In a grove, in the neighbourhood of ARIMINUs, a river of Umbria in Italy, ris
Aricia, Orestes built a temple to Diana, ing in the Appennine mountains, [and falling
where he established the same rites as were into the sea at Ariminum.] Plin. 3, c. 15.
in the temple of that goddess in Tauris. The ARIMPhæ1, a people of Scythia, near the
priest of this temple, called Rez, was always Riphaean mountains, who lived chiefly upon
a fugitive, and the murderer of his predeces berries in the woods, and were remarkable for
sar, and went always armed with a dagger, to their innocence and mildness. Plin. 6, c. 7.
prevent whatever attempts might be made ARIoBARzXNEs, a man made king of
upon his life by one who wished to be his Cappadocia by the Romans, after the trou
successor. [According to Strabo, the priest was bles, which the false Ariarathes had raised,
always a runaway slave.] The Arician forest, had subsided. Mithridates drove him from
frequently called memorensis or memoralis his kingdom, but the Romans restored him.
yhea, was very celebrated, and no horses He followed the interest of Pompey, and
wºuld ever enter it, because Hippolytus had fought at Pharsalia against J. Caesar. He
been killed by them. Egeria, the favourite and his kingdom were preserved by means
aymph, and invisible protectress of Numa, of Cicero. Cic. 5, ad Attic. ep. 29.-Horal.
generally resided in this famous grove, which ep. 6, v. 38.—Flor. 3, c. 5–A. satrap of
Phrygia, who, after the death of Mithridates,
was situated on the Appian way, beyond
mount Albanus. Ovid. Met. 15, Fast. 3, v. invaded the kingdom of Pontus, and kept it
M 80

for twenty-six years. He was succeeded by fore, is often called the horse of Adrastus.
the son of Mithridates. Diod. 17. Age Paus. 8, c. 25.-Propert. 2, el. 34, v. 37.—
neral of Darius, who defended the passes of Apollod. 3, c. 6.
Susa with 15,000 foot against Alexander. Aſ ARIovistus, [a king of the Germans, who
ter a bloody encounter with the Macedoni invaded Gaul, conquered a considerable part
ans, he was killed as he attempted to seize of the country, and subjected the inhabitant
the city of Persepolis. Diod. 17.—Curt. 4 to the most cruel and oppressive treatment.
and 5.-A Mede of elegant stature and Caesar marched against him, brought him to
great prudence, whom Tiberius appointed to an action, and gained so complete a victory,
settle the troubles of Armenia. Tacit. Ann. that very few of the army of Ariovistus,
2, c. 4. among whom was the king himself, effected
ARIoMARnus, a son of Darius, in the army their escape. His subsequent history is not
of Xerxes when he went against Greece. known. The name is probably derived from
Herodot. 7, c. 78. the German words, Heer, an army, and Furn,
ARIoMEDEs, a pilot of Xerxes. a leader or prince.j Caes. 1. Bell. Gall—Tacit.
ARío N, a famous lyric poet and musician, 4, Hist.
son of Cyclos, of Methymna, in the island of ARIsbA, a town of Lesbos, destroyed by an
Lesbos. [He was accustomed to spend the earthquake. Plin. 5, c. 31. A colony of
most of his time with Periander king of Co the Mityleneans in Troas, destroyed by the
rinth. On a sudden however, feelingdesirous Trojans before the coming of the Greek.
of visiting ltaly and Sicily, he sailed to those Wirg. AEm.9, v.264.—Homer. Il. 7-The
countries, and amassed there great riches. name of Priam's first wife, divorced that the
He set sail from Tarentum, after this, in or monarch might marry Hecuba.
der to return to Corinth, but the mariners AR istAENétus, [a writer who flourishedin
formed a plot against him, when they were the 5th century. He was a native of Nicæa
at sea, to throw him overboard, and seize his in Bithynia, and the friend of Libanius. He
riches. Arion, discovering the plot, begged perished in the earthquake which destroyed
earnestly for his life to be spared, and gave Nicomedia, A. D. 308, in which city he was
them up all his wealth.] The mariners, how filling at the time an office of magistracy. He
ever, were not to be prevailed upon, and wrote Letters, which are not greatlyesteemed.
Arion, seeing them inflexible in their resolu The major part is little else than a series of
tions, begged that he might be permitted to passages from Plato, Lucian, and some other
play some melodious tune ; and as soon as writers. The best edition is that of Abresch,
he had finished it, he threw himself into the Zwollae. 8vo. 1749, enriched with the emen
sea. A number of Dolphins had been at dations of Tollius, D'Orvine, and Walck
tracted round the ship by the sweetness of enaer.]
his music ; and it is said, that one of them ARIsix:UM, a city of Thrace at the foot of
carried him safe on his back to Tacnarus, mount Haemus. Plin. 4, c. 11.
whence he hastened to the court of Perian Aristãºus, son of Apollo and the nymph
der, who ordered all the sailors to be cruci Cyrene, was born in the deserts of Lybia,
fied at their return. [Some suppose that he and brought up by the Seasons, and fed upon
threw himself from the vessel before it had nectar and ambrosia. His fondness for hunt:
quite left the harbour, and hence that he easi ing procured him the surname of Nomusand
ly swam to land; and that after coming to Agreus. After he had travelled over the
land, he immediately entered on board ano greatest part of the world, Aristaeus came tº
ther vessel which had the figure of a dolphin settle in Greece, where he married Autonº
as an ornament, and this vessel being a swift the daughter of Cadmus, by whom he had"
sailor,arrived atCorinth before the other ship.] son called Actaeon. He feli in love with Eu
Hygin, fab. 194.—Herodot. 1, c. 23 and 24– ridice, the wife of Orpheus, and pursued her
-Elian, de Nat. An-13,c.45–Ital. 11. Propert. in thelayfields.
that She was
in the grass, and died, a serpen.
by which
stungfor the
2, el. 26, v. 17–Plut. in Symp.—A horse,
sprung from Ceres and Neptune. Ceres, gods destroyed all the bees of Aristeus. !"
when she travelled over the world in quest of this calamity he applied to his mother, whº
her daughter Proserpine, had taken the fig directed him to seize the sea-god Proteº
ure of a mare, to avoid the importuning ad and consult him how he might repair tº:
dresses of Neptune. The god changed himself losses he had sustained. Proteus advisº
also into a horse, and from their union arose a him to appease the manes of Eurydice by
daughter called Hera, and the horse Arion, the sacrifice of four bulls and four heiſers:
which had the power of speech, the feet on and as soon as he had done it, and left thº
the right side like those of a man, and the in the air, swarms of bees immediatºr
rest of the body like a horse. Arion was sprang from the rotten carcasses, and rest”
brought up by the Nereides, who often har ed Aristatus to his former prosperity. Soº
nessed him to his father's chariot, which he authors say that Aristaeus had the care."
drew over the sea with uncommon swiftness. Bacchus when young, and that he wasinº .
Neptune gave him to Copreus, who present ed in the mysteries of this god. Arist”
ed him to Hercules. Adrastus, king of Ar went to live on mount Hemus, where *
gos, received him as a present from Hercu died. He was, after death, worshipped as
les, and with this wonderful animal he won demi-god. Aristeus is said to have lear”
the prise atthe Nemaean games. Arion, there from the nymphs the cultivation of olivº

and the management of bees, &c. which he the apparent diameter of the sun at the 720th
afterwards communicated to the rest of man part of the zodiac. He found also that the
kind. Wirg. G.4, v. 317.-Diod. 4.—Justin. diameter of the moon bears a greater pro
13, c. 7.—Orid. Fast. 1, v. 368.-Cic. de JNat. portion to that of the earth, than that of 43 to
D. 3, c. 18.-Paus. 10, c. 17.-Hygin. ſab. i08, but less than that of 19 to 60, so that the
161, 180,247.-Apollod. 3, c. 4.—Herod.4, c. diameter of the moon, according to his state
4, &c.—Polyan. 1, c. 24.—A general who ment, should be somewhat less than a third
commanded the Corinthian forces at the siege part of the earth. The only one of his works
of Potidaea. He was taken by the Athenians, now extant is a treatise on the magnitudes
and put to death. and distances of the sun and moon. The best
ARISTAGöRAs, a writer who composed edition is that of Wallis, Oxon. 1688, in 8vo.]
an history of Egypt. Plin. 36, c. 12. A AR1stEAs, a poet of Proconnesus, who, as
son-in-law of Histiaeus, tyrant of Miletus, fables report, appeared seven years after his
who revolted from Darius, and incited the death to his countrymen, and 540 years after
Athenians against Persia, and burnt Sardis. to the people of Metapontum in Italy, and
This so exasperated the king, that every commanded them to raise him a statue near
evening before supper he ordered his servants the temple of Apollo. He wrote an epic po
to remind him of punishing Aristagoras. He em on the Arimaspi in three books, and some
was killed in battle against the Persians, B. of his verses are quoted by Longinus. Hero
C. 499. Herodot. 5, c. 30, &c. l. 7, c. 8.- dot. 4, c. 13.-Strab. 14.— Mar. Tyr. 22.
Polyen. 1, c. 14.—A man of Cyzicus.- A geometrician, intimate with Euclid.—A
Another of Cumae. Herodot. 4. poet, son of Demochares, in the age of Croe
ARISTANDER, a celebrated soothsayer, sus.—[An officer under Ptolemy Philadel:
greatly esteemed by Alexander. Plut. in phus, to whom is ascribed a Greek work still
..?ler.—Plin. 17, c. 25. extant, entitled “A history of the interpreters
ARusTArche, a matron of Ephesus, who of Scripture,” giving an account of the man
by order of Dianasailed to the coasts of Gaul ner in which the Septuagint was writen. The
with the Phocaeans, and was made priestess. best edition is that printed at Oxford, in 1692.
Strab. 4. in 8vo.]
ARusrarchus, a celebrated grammarian, AR1st ERA, an island [south-east of the
a native of Samothrace, 1 but residing chiefly peninsula of Argolis. It is well known at the
at Alexandria, under Ptolemy Philometor, present day under its modern name of Hydra.]
who intrusted him with the education of his Paws. 2, c. 34.
son. He was famous for his critical powers, ARistides, a celebrated Athenian, son of
and he revised the poems of Homer with such Lysimachus, whose great temperance and vir
severity, that ever after all severe critics tue procured him the surname of Just. He
were called Aristarchi. [He criticised also was rival to Themistocles, by whose influ
the works of Pindar, Aratus, and other poets. ence he , was banished for ten years, B. C.
To him the ancient commentators on Homer 484; but before six years of his exile had
ascribe the division of the Iliad and Odyssey elapsed, he was recalled by the Athenians.
into books, according to the order and num He was at the battle of Salamis, and was ap
Serofthe Greek letters. It was his practice, pointed chief commander with Pausanius
in revising Homer, to mark those verses against Mardonius, who was defeated at Pla
which he thought unworthy of him with an taea. Although he had long managed the
obelisk, and those which he deemed particu common treasury of Greece, yet he died so
larly excellent with an asterisk.] He wrote poor, that the expenses of his funeral were
above 800 commentaries on different authors, defrayed at the public charge, and his two
much esteemed in his age. In his old age he daughters, on account of their father's vir
became dropsical, upon which he starved tues, received a dowry from the public trea
himself, and died in his 72d year, B. C. 157,
sury when they were come to marriageable
[iathe isle of Cyprus.] He left two sons, call
years. Poverty, however, seemed heredi
td Aristarchus and Aristagoras, both famous tary in the family of Aristides, for the grand
ºf their stupidity. Horat. de Art. poet. v. son was seen in the public streets, getting his
ſº-0rid. 3, ez Pont. ep. 9, v. 24.—Cic. livelihood by explaining dreams. The Athe
ad Fam. 3, ep. 11, ad Attic. 1, ep. 14.— nians became more virtuous in imitating their
Quintu. 10, c. 1.-A tragic poet of Tegea great leader; and from the sense of his good
in Arcadia, about 454 years B. C. He com qualities, at the representation of one of the
pºsed 70 tragedies, of which two only were tragedies of Æschylus, on the mentioning of
rewarded with the prize. One of them, call a sentence concerning moral goodness, the
ed Athilles, was translated into Latin verse eyes of the audience were all at once turned
by Ennius. Suidas.-[An astronomer of from the actor to Aristides. When he sat
Samºs, flourished about the middle of the 3d as judge, it is said that the plaintiff, in his
century before Christ. He is well known to accusation, mentioned the injuries his oppo
hire maintained the modern opinion with re nent had done to Aristides, “mention the
= ºrito the motion of the earth round the sun, wrongs you have received,” replied the
salits revolution about its own centre or equitable Athenian, “I sit here as judge,
.. º. He also taught that the annual orbit Nep. and the& law-suit
Plut. inis yours,
Vita-Anand nothistoriº
mine." C.of
ºf the earth is but a point, compared with Miletus, fonder of stories and of anecdotes
he distance of the fixed stars. He estimated

than of truth. He wrote an history of Italy, Euergetes, flourished about 145 B.C. He
of which the 40th volume has been quoted by was an admirer of the Greek philosophy, and
Plut. in Parall. —An Athlete, who obtain united the study of the Aristotelian system
ed a prize at the Olympiad, Nemean, and ||with that of the Mosaic law.]
Pythian games. Paus. 6, c. 16. A pain Aristocles, a peripatetic philosopher of
ter of Thebes in Boeotia, in the age of Alex Messenia, who reviewed, in a treatise on phi
ander the Great. [He is said to have been losophy, the opinions of his predecessors. He
the first who painted mind, and expressed also wrote on rhetoric, and likewise nine
the affections and passions.] A Greek ora books on morals. This name is common -

tor who wrote 50 orations, besides other tracts. to many Greeks, of whom few or no particu
When Smyrna was destroyed by an earth lars are recorded.
quake, he wrote so pathetic a letter to M. Aristoclides, a tyrant of Orchomenus,
Aurelius, that the emperor ordered the city who, because he could not win the affection
immediately to be rebuilt. [The inhabitants of Stymphalis, killed her and her father, upon
honoured Aristides, as the founder of their which all Arcadia took up arms and destroy
new city, with a brazen statue in the forum.] ed the murderer.
IIis works consist of hymns in prose in ho AR1stocrites, a king of Arcadia, put to
mour of the gods, funeral orations, apologues. death by his subjects for offering violence to
panegyrics, and harangues, the best edition of the priestess of Diana. Paus. 3, c. 5. His
which is that of Jebb, 2 volumes 4to. Oxon. grandson of the same name, was stoned to
1722, and that in a smaller size, in 12mo. 3 death for taking bribes, during the second
vols. of Canterus, apud P. Steph. 1604.— Messenian war, and being the cause of the
A philosopher of Mysia, intimate with M. An defeat of his Messenian allies, B. C. 682. Id
toninus. An Athenian, who wrote treatises ibid.
on animals, trees, and agriculture. AristopéMUs, son of Aristomachus, was
AR1stII.LUs, a philosopher of the Alexan one of the Heraclidae. He, with his brothers
drian school, who, about 300 years B. C. at Temenus and Cresphontes, invaded Pelopon
tempted with Timocharis to determine the nesus, conquered it, and divided the country
place of the different stars in the heavens,among themselves, 1 104 years before the
and to trace the course of the planets. christian era. He married Argia, by whom
AR1stippus, the elder, a philosopher of he had the twins Procles and Eurysthenes.
Cyrene, disciple to Socrates, and founder ofHe was killed by a thunderbolt at Naupactus,
the Cyrenaic sect.[flourished about 392 B.C though some say that he died at Delphi in
He was for some time highly esteemed by So Phocis. Paus. 2, c. 18, 1.3, c. 1 and 16.-
crates, but his fondness for eſſeminate and Herodot. 7, c. 204, l. 8, c. 131-A king of
luxurious indulgence gave great offence to Messenia, who maintained a famous war
the philosopher, and at length produced a against Sparta. After some losses, he reco
cessation of intercourse between them. He vered his strength, and greatly weakened the
was the first disciple of the Socratic school power of the enemy. [vid. Partheniae..] Aris
who took money for teaching. He afterwards todemus put his daughter to death for the
was compelled to leave Athens in consequence good of his country; being afterwards perse
of the freedom of his manners, and visited, cuted in a dream by her manes, he killed
among other parts, the island of Sicily. Here himself, after a reign of six years and some
he became one of the flatterers of Dionysius, months, in which he had obtained much mili
and gained a large share of royal favour. He tary glory, B.C. 724. Paus. in JMessen.
left Syracuse before the expulsion of the ty ARIstogºNEs, a physician of Cnidos, who sº
rant, but whether he ever returned to his own obtained great reputation by the cure of De
country, and when and how he died, are cir metrius Gonatas, king of Macedonia-A
cumstances about which nothing certain is Thasian who wrote 24 books on medicine.
known.] . Many of his sayings and maxims ARIstogitox and HARModius, [two Athe ~!
are recorded by Diogenes, in his life. Horat. nians whose names were rendered memorableia **
2, Sat. 3, V. 100,—His grandson, of the same the annals of Athens. An intimate friendship
name, called the younger, was a warm defend subsisted between them, which the tyrant ºt
er of his opinions, and supported that the Hipparchus endeavoured to disturb. Har º
principles of all things were pain and plea modius and Aristogiton thereupon determit
sure. He flourished about 363 years B. C. ed to kill both Hipparchus and his brothers.
—A tyrant of Argos, whose life was one Hippias. On the morning of the Panathe-sº
continued series of apprehension. He was na'a, on which they intended to execute their -
killed by a Cretan in a battle against Aratus, project, Hippias was seen talking to one of: º:
B. C. 242. Diog. the conspirators. As they were afraid that
M. A.Ristius, a satirist, who wrote a poem their plot was discovered, they immediately **
called Cyclops. killed Hipparchus, and Hippias escaped.
ARIsto. vid. Ariston. Aristogiton was put to the torture, in order *
Artistobülus, a name common to some of to force him to declare his accomplices. The
the high-priests and kings of Judaea, &c. Jo most intimate friends of Hippias were named **
seph.-A brother of Epicurus.—One of by him, and immediately put to death. :,
Alexander's attendants, who wrote the king's Though Harmodius and Aristogiton perished,.
life, replete with adulation and untruth. yet their example infused a spirit into the
[An Alexandrian Jew, preceptor of Ptolemy Athenians, which displayed itself in the ba- º
02 *

Such was his reputation, that when Damage

event, about 510 B.C.] They received im. tus, a person of the first rank at Rhodes, con
mortal honours from the Athenians, and had sulted the oracle at Delos whom he should
statues raised to their memory. These sta marry, he was told to espouse the daughter
tues were carried away by Xerxes when he ºf the most worthy of the Greeks, meaning
took Athens. The conspiracy of Aristogiton Aristomenes. On a visit to his son-in-law
was so secretly planned and so wisely carri, u Aristounenes died, and a magnificent tomb
into execution, that it is said a courtezan bit
was erected for him at Rhodes.]
her tongue off not to betray the trust reposed AR1ston, a tyrant of Methymna, who be.
in her. [According to the common opinion, ing ignorant that Chios had surrendred to
Hipparchus possessed the tyranny when he the Macedonians, entered into the harbour,
was killed. This is contradicted by Thucy and was taken and put to death. Curt. 4, c.
dides, 6,54, who proves that Hippias was the 9-A philosopher of Chios, pupil to Zeno
eldest. Plato (in Hipparch.) says that Hip the stoic, and founder of a sect which con
parchus was the eldest. The Athenians pass tinued but a little while. He supported that
ed a law forbidding any man from assuming the nature of the divinty is unintelligible. It
the names of Aristogiton or Harmodius.] is said that he died by the heat of the sun,
Paus. 1, c. 29.—Herodot. 5, c. 55.-Plut. de which fell too powerfully upon his bald head.
10. Oraf. An Athenian orator, surnamed In his old age he was much given to sensuali
Kvaer, for his impudence. He wrote orations, ty. Diog. A lawyer in Trajan's reign,
against Timarchus, Timotheus, Hyperides, whose eulogium has been written by Pliny,
and Thrasyllus. 22 epist. lib. 1.-A peripatetic philosopher
ARIsroxic HE, the wife of Dionysius of of Alexandria, who wrote concerning the
Syracuse. Cic. Tusc. 5, c. 20.-The wife course of the Nile. Strab A native of
of Dion Pella, in the age of Adrian, who wrote on the
ARIsrosińcHus, an Athenian who wrote rebellion of the Jews.
concerning the preparation of wine. Plin. AR1ston Autie, [a small town of Achaia.
14, c. 9. A man so excessively fond of north of Peliene, and at the bottom of a small
bees, that he devoted 58 years of his life in gulph, called by Pausanias, the port of Pel
raising swarms of them. Plin. 11, c. 9.—— lene.] Paus. 2.
The son of Cleodaeus and grandson of Hyl AR1stonicus, son of Eumenes, by a con
lus, whose three sons, Cresphontes, Temenus, cubine of Ephesus, 126 B.C. invaded Asia
and Aristodemus, called Heraclidae, conquer and the kingdom of Pergamus which Atta
ed Peloponnesus. Paus. 2, c. 7, 1.3, c. 15. lus had left by his will to the Roman people.
—Herodot. 6, 7 and 8. A man who laid He was conquered by the consul Perpenna,
aside his sovereign power at Argos, at the and strangled in prison. Justin. 36, c. 4.—
persuasion of Aratus. Paus. 2, c. 8. Flor. 2, c. 20. A grammarian of Alexan
ARIstomſ ENEs, a commander of the fleet dria, who wrote a commentary on Hesiod
of Darius on the Hellespont, conquered by and Homer, besides a treatise on the Musae
the Macedonians. Curt.4, c. 1–A famous um established at Alexandria by the Ptole
general of Messenia, who encouraged his mies.
countrymen to shake off the Lacedaemonian [AR1stoxus, an eminent Grecian sculptor.
yoke, under which they had laboured for He made a statue of Jupiter at Olympia,
above 30 years. [Thus commenced the whose face was turned towards the rising
second Messenian war, B.C. 685, which tersun.] Plin. 34.
minated, B. C. 668. In the first battle, the Aristony Mus, a comic poet under Phila
Messenians obtained the victory through the delphus, keeper of the library of Alexandria.
personal exertions of Aristomenes, and una He died of a retention of urine, in his 77th
nimously saluted him King. He refused, how year. Althen.
ever, to assume the title, and chose that of Aristoph An Es, a celebrated comic poet.
reneral.] He acquired the surname of Just. [The place of his birth is not known; it is
from his equity, to which he joined the true generally supposed, however, that he was not
valour, sagacity and perseverance of a gene a native of Athens, but that he resided there
ral. He once, in the night-time, entered and obtained the rights of citizenship.] He
Sparta without being known, [and to intimi wrote 54 comedies, of which only eleven have
date the Spartans, affixed to the walls of the come down to us. He lived in the age of So
temple of Minerva, a buckler with an in crates, Demosthenes, and Euripides, B. C.
scription, “Aristomenes has dedicated this to 434, and lashed the vices of his age with a
the goddess, from the spoils of the Lacedae masterly hand. The wit and excellence of
monians.”] He was so dexterous in eluding his comedies are well known; but they abound
the vigilance of the Lacedæmonians, who had sometimes too much with obscenity, and his
taken him captive, that he twice escaped attack upon the venerable character of So
from them. [After the conclusion of the se crates has been always censured, and with
cond Messenian war, which, like the first, justice. [cid. Mitchell's Aristophanes, Pre
ended disastrously for his country, he sent the liminary Discourse, in which an attempt is
Messenians under the conduct of his son to made to defend the poet from this charge.]
Sicily, where they founded Messana, while As a reward for his mental greatness, the
he remained in Greece himself, watching an poet received a crown of olive in a public
opportunity to retaliate on the Spartans. assembly; but if he ºn: deserved praise, he me
All AR

rited blame for his licentiousness, which library of Alexandria under Ptolemy Euer
spared not even the gods, and was so offensive getes. [He is said to have been the first who
to his countrymen, that Alcibiades made a introduced the accentual marks into the
law at Athens, which forbade the comic wri Greek language. He is placed by Suidas
ters from mimicking or representing on the in the 145th Olympiad, about 200 years
stage any living character by name. , Aristo B. C. -

phanes has been called the prince of ancient *a painter in the age of So
comedy, as Menander of the new. The play crates. He drew the picture of Alcibiades
called Nubes is pointed against Socrates, and softly reclining on the bosom of the courte
the philosopher is exposed to ridicule, and zan Nemea, and all the people of Athens ran
his precepts placed in a most ludicrous point in crowds to be spectators of the masterly
of view, by the introduction of one of his piece. He also made a painting of Mars lean
pupils in the characters of the piece. It is ing on the arm of Venus. Plut. in .41c.—
said that St. Chrysostom used to keep the .Athen. 13.-Plin. 35, c. 11.-A comic poet
comedies of Aristophanes under his pillow, in the age of Alexander, many of whose frag
on account of the brilliancy of the composi ments are collected in Athenaeus.
sition. Plutarch has made a comparison be AR1stotel EIA, [annual feasts in honour
tween the princes of the new and old come. of Aristotle, celebrated by the inhabitants of
dy, which abounds with many anecdotes con Stagira, in gratitude for his having procured
cerning these original characters. [Aristo from Alexander, the re-building and re-pec
phanes has found a strenuous defender in his pling of that city, which had been demolish
iate able translator Mr. Mitchell. It is main ed by king Philip.]
tained that in his satirical, and even his inde AR1stotel Es, a famous philosopher, son of
cent vein,he acted upon established principles, the physician Nicomachusby Phestias, born at
which, however inconsistent with our notions Stagira, 85 years after the birth of Socrates,
upon such subjects, found a sanction in the and B. C. 384. He lost his parents in early
very religion of the times. His audience, it youth, but inherited from them a large for
is said, came to the exhibition with a pre tune. At the age of 17 he went to Athens,
vious knowledge that they were to consider to hear Plato's lectures, where he soon signa
what they saw merely as harmless carica lized himself by the brightness of his genius.
ture; and as these plays were acted only [Plato often called him the Mind of his school,
once, it became necessary that the impression and when Aristotle happened to be absent, ob
made should be a strong one, especially as served “ Intellectis not here,” and complain
the Athenians were a seeing and hearing, not ed that he lectured to a deaf audience. He
a reading people. Mr. Mitchell, however, is continued to reside with Plato for 20 years,
justly censurable for the overcolouring of even to his master's death, alike regardless
which he is guilty in drawing the character of the honours of a court, to which the rank
of Socrates, and into which he has been led and connections of his family might have open
by the idea that the reputation of Aristopha ed to him the road in Macedonia, and indiſ.
mes was only to be elevated by destro, Ing in ferent to the glory of a name, which his great
some measure that of the Athenian sage abilities might have attained by establishing
The sketch he has given of Socrates is no a separate schoel and founding a new sect.
thing more than a gross and clumsy carica Little credit is due to the story of a quarrel
ture, outraging every notion of correctness between him and Plato, and also to that of his
and propriety. As regards the productions opening a school in opposition to his master
of Aristophanes, the student will find a list during his life. On the death of Plato he
of them, as far as can be correctly given, in left Athens, and some time after was chosen
Brunck's edition of this poet, in which the by Philip, preceptor to his son Alexander,
number is reduced to about 35. As to the which office he discharged with the greatest
comedy of the clouds, it may not be amiss to ability during 8 years, until his pupil’s acces
observe that it failed on its first representa sion to the throne. The letter which Philip
tion. Whether it ever came to a second ex wrote to Aristotle, when he chose him pre t

hibition is very doubtful. The play origi ceptor to his son, was couched in the follow
mally condemned has reached our times, toge terms: “Be informed that I have a son, and
ther with part of an address to the audience that I am thankful to the Gods, not so much
evidently intended for the second perform for his birth, as that he was born in the same
ance. The student will find a defence of A age with you: for if you will undertake the
ristophanes, besides the one mentioned above, charge of his education, I assure myself that
in Porson's Review of Brunck's edition, Mu he will become worthy of his father, and of
seum Criticum, No. 5.] The best editions of the kingdom which he will inherit.” After
the works of Aristophanes are Kuster's, fol. Aristotle had left his pupil, they carried on a
Amst. 1710, and the 12mo. L. Bat. 1670, and friendly correspondence, in which the philo
that of Brunck, 4 vols. 8vo. Argent. 1783, sopher prevailed upon Alexander to employ
which would still be more perfect, did it con his power and wealth in the service of philo
tain the valuable scholia. TThese have sub sophy. Alexander, accordingly, employed
sequently appeared in the edition of Inverniz, several thousand persons in different parts of
Lips. 1794, 3 vols. 8vo.] Quintil 10, c. 1. Europe and Asia, to collect animals of vari
-Paterc. 1, c. 16.—Horat. 1. Sat. 4, v.1.— ous kinds, birds, beasts, and fishes, and sent
^ grammarian of Byzantium, keeper of the them to Aristotle, who, from the information

which this collection afforded him, wrote fiſ. ture, and attributes. His doctrine concern
ty volumes on the history of animated nature, ing fate seems to have been construed by his
only a small portion of which are now ex opponents into a denial of the necessity of
tant. A mutual alienation and jealousy, how. prayers and sacrifices, and was consequently
ever, arose between the philosopher and his deemed inimical to the public institutions of
prince, after the death of Callisthenes, the religion. Most of the subjects which he dis
nephew of the former. Upon his return to cusses are in the highest degree abstruse; but
Athens, Aristotle resolved to ſound a new the obscurity necessarily arising from the na
sect in opposition to the Academy. He chose ture of these subjects is increased by the
for his school a grove in the suburbs of A manner of the Stagyrite. He almost con
thens, called the Lycaeum; and from his walk stantly affects close periods and a concise dic
ing about as he discoursed with his pupils, tion, and leaves much to be supplied by the
his ſollowers were termed Peripatetics. His reader himself. His transitions are frequent
more abstruse discourses were delivered in and abrupt, and his use of new terms in a
the morning to his selectiisciples; this he call technical sense is not unfrequent. Most of
ed his morning walk. He delivered lectures his writings have reached us. They em
to a more promiscuous auditory in the even brace Logical, Physical, Metaphysical, Ma
ings, when the Lycaeum was open to all young thematical, and Moral subjects, besides trea
rnen without distinction : this he termed his tises on Government, Rhetoric, and the Art
evening walk. Both were much frequented. of Poetry, the latter an excellent perform
Aristotle continued his school in the Lycaeum ance. His works and library were left by
for twelve years. After the death of Alex. him to Theophrastus, who, at his death, be
ander, having no longer the power of that queathed them to Neleus of Scepsis. Some
prince to protect him, his adversaries insti of them were sold to Ptolemy, and shared the
gated Eurymedon, a priest, to accuse him of fate of the Alexandrian library. The heirs
holding and propagating impious tenets. In of Neleus, in order to secure the rest from
consequence of this he retired with a few of being seized by the kings of Pergamus, who
his disciples to Chalcis, where he remained were collecting a library, buried them in a
until his death. He died at the age of 63. subterranean cavern, where they lay 130
Many idle tales are related concerning the years, and suffered much injury. They were
manner of his death, (vid. Euripus,) but it is afterwards sold to Apellicon of Teos, who
most likely that it was the effect of prema had the manuscripts transcribed, and within
ture decay, in consequence of excessive judicious industry, supplied from his own
watchfulness and application. His body was eonjectures and those of his copyists, such
interred at Stagyra, where his memory was passages as were become illegible. It is im
honoured with an altar and a tomb. Aristo possible to say how many corruptions were
tle was twice married. By his second wife thus introduced into the text. After the
he had a son named Nicomachus, to whom he death of Apellicon, Sylla, at the taking of
addressed his “Greater Morals.” His per Athens, B. C. 85, seized his library, and had
son was slender, he had small eyes and a it conveyed to Rome. Here Tyrannio, a
shrill voice, and when he was young, hesitat grammarian, obtaining permission to make
edin his speech. He endeavoured to supply use of the manuscripts of Aristotle, employed
the defects of his natural form by an atten ignorant amanuenses to take copies, which he
tion to dress, and commonly appeared in a suffered to pass out of his hands without cor
costly habit, with his beard shaven, his hair rection. These errors have been encreased
cut, and rings on his fingers. Concerning his by the officiousness of later transcribers and
character nothing can be more contradictory commentators. His treatises have been pub
than the accounts of different writers ; some lished separately, but the best edition of his
making him a model of every virtue, others entire works is that of Duval, 2 vols. folio,
the most infamous of human beings. The Paris, 1619. Tyrwhitt's edition of the Po
truth appears to be, that his virtues were nei etics, Oxon. 4to. 1794, and Wilkinson's of the
ther of that exalted kind which command ad Ethics, Oxon. 1715, 8vo. are both excellent.]
miration, nor his faults so highly criminal as Diog. in vita.-Plut. in Alex. and de Alex.
not to admit of some apology. He is certain fort, &c.—Cic. Acad. Quest. 4. de Orat. 3. de
ly entitled to the praise of deep erudition ; 'inib. 5.—Quintil. 1, 2, 5, 10.-4Elian. P.
but, on the other hand, is justly censurable H. 4.—Justin. 12.-Justin. Martyr.—Au
for giving oftentimes a partial and unfair re gust. de Civ. Dei. 8.-Plin. 2, 4, 5, &c.-4-
presentation of the opinions of his predeces then.—Wal. Maw,5, c. 6, &c.—There were
sors. While he deserves, in point of genius besides seven of the same name, A magistrate
and indefatigable industry, to be ranked in of Athens. A commentator on Homer's
the first class of men, his reputation as a phi Iliad.—An orator of Sicily, who answered
losopher is, in some measure, tarnished by a the panegyric of Isocrates. A friend of
too daring spirit of contradiction and innova AEschines.—A man of Cyrene who wrote
tion, and in morals, by an artful conformity on poetry.—A schoolmaster mentioned in
to the manners of the age in which he lived. Plato's life, written by Aristoxenus.--An
In religion he ought not certainly to be re obscure grammarian. , Diog. de Aristot. ..
garded as an atheist, though it must be owned Anistoxenus, a celebrated musician, dis
that it impossible to reconcile his notions of ciple of Aristotle, and born at Tarentum.
Deity with just conceptions of the divine na |He wrote 453 different treatises on philoso.

phy, history, &c. and was disappointed in menia Major. It was a very mountainous
his expectations of succeeding in the school country, and divided by the Romans into
of Aristotle, for which he always spoke with 4 provinces. It is now also held by the Turks.
ingratitude of his learned master. [This is who call it Genech. Armenia Major is the
denied by Aristocles the Peripatetic, in Eu present Turcomania.] Herodot. 1, c. 194, I
sebius, who affirms that he always spoke of 5, c. 49.—Curt. 4, c. 12, l. 5, c.1.-Strate. 1
Aristotle in terms of great respect.] Of all and 11.-Mela, 3, c. 5 and 8.-Plin. 6, c. 4
his works nothing remains but three books &c.—Lucan. 2.
upon music, the most ancient on that subject ARMILustrium, a festival at Rome, on the
extant.—A philosopher of Cyrene. Ath n. 19th of October, [during which they sacri
A physician whose writings are quoted ficed completely armed, and to the sound
by Galen. of trumpets. It was intended for the expia
ARIstus, a Greek historian of Salamis, tion of the armies, and the prosperity of the
who wrote an account of Alexander's expe. arms of the Roman people. It is said to have
dition. Strab. 14.—Arrian. 7. been first observed among the Athenians-I
ARIus, [a river of Aria, on which was sit Varro de L. L. 5, c. 3.-Liv. 27, c. 37.
uate Artacoana, the sapital of the country : ARMINſus, a warlike general of the Ger
It is now the Heri..] A celebrated writer, mans, who supported a bloody war against
the author of the Arian controversy, that de Rome for some time. [His name is rendered
nied the eternal divinity and consubstantiali famous by the defeat of Varus, and the slaugh
ty of the Word. Though he was greatly per ter of three Roman legions. (vid. Varus.)
secuted for his opinions, he gained the favour He was afterwards defeated in two successive
of the emperor Constantine, and triumphed actions by Germanicus. In attempting, after
over his powerful antagonist Athanasius. He the Roman armies were withdrawn from
died the very night he was going to enter the Germany, to grasp at sovereign power, he in
church of Constantinople in triumph. Press volved his country in a civil war, and fell at
ed by nature, he went aside to ease himself; last by the treachery of one of his relations.
but his bowels gushed out, and he expired on His true name seems to have been Hermann
the spot, A. D. 336. [It is very probable or Heeremann, i.e. General, Latinised by the
that his death was occasioned by poison or Romans into Arminius.]
some other violence. His heresy, however, ARMoRicA, [a name originally applied by
did not die with him, but found a protector in the Romans to the entire coast of Gaul, from
Constantius, who succeeded his father in the the Pyrenees to the Rhine; it was afterwards,
empire of the east. It was eventually sup 'pon the conquest of the country, given in
pressed by Theodosius the Great In their particular to that part of the coast which lay
sentiments, the Arians acknowledged one between the Liger and Sequana, and at last
God, the Father; that the Son was a created exclusively confined to Bretagne. The term
being; and that the Holy Ghost was a ray is derived from the Celtic Ar-Mor, i.e. on
or emanation from the Deity.] the sea.]
ARMENIA, a large country of Asia, divided ARNE, a city of Lycia, called afterwards
into Upper and Lower Armenia, called also Xanthus:-A daughter of Æolus, who gave
Major, [was bounded on the south by Meso her name to two towns, one in Thessaly, the
potamia; on the east by Media; on the north other in Boeotia. Strab. 1 and 2–Paws. 9,
by Iberia and Albania; and on the west by c. 40.-Met. 6. fab 4.
Pontus and Armenia Minor; which last was A RNobius, a philosopher in Dioclesian's
separated from it by the Euphrates.] Lower reign, who became a convert to christianity.
Armenia, or Minor, is bounded by Cappado He applied for ordination, but was refused by
cia, Armenia Major, Syria, Cilicia, and the the bishops till he gave them a proof of his
Euphrates. The Armenians were a long sincerity. Upon this he wrote his celebrated
time under the dominion of the viedes and treatise, in which he exposed the absurdity of
Persians, till they were conquered with the *religion, and ridiculed the heathen gods.
rest of Asia, by Alexander and his succes Opinions are various concerning the purity
sors. [Armenia Major was wrested from An of his style, though all agree in praise of his
tiochus the Great, during his minority, by its extensive erudition. The book that he wrote.
governor, Artaxies, and made an indepen de Rhetoricó Institutione, is not extant. The
dent kingdom. In the Mithridatic war, Ti best edition of his treatise.ddrersus Gentes is
granes was their king. Upon his overthrow the 4to, printed L. Bat. 1651. [Ex recens.
by Lucullus and Pompey, the kingdom,though .4nt. Tysil J
continued to his successors, remained in ef ARNus, a river of Etruria. [rising in the
fect under the controul of the Romans, until Umbrian Appenines, and falling into the Me
Trajan reduced it to a province, and made literranean. It is now the Arno. On its
the Tigris the eastern boundary of the “o- banks stood Florentia, the modern Florence,
man empire. It was soon after, however, and at its mouth Pisae, now Pisa.] Liv. 22, c.
governed by its own kings, and having been||2
abandoned by the Romans, was made a Per [AnoMATA, or A RomâTum promontorium,
sian province by Sapor. It was subdued by the most eastern land of the continent of Af
the Saracens, A. D. 687, and by the Turks, rica, now Cape Guardafui,
A. D. 1522.-Armenia Minor, in its manners ARp1, a city of Apulia, built by Diomedcs
and customs, differed in no respect from Ar after the Trojan war. [It is said to have

been called Argyrippe by the inhabitants, and the dignity of his family, but the prosperity
that this was a corruption from Argos Hippi of his subjects. Justin. 31, c. 5. A king
on, a name given to it by Diomedes in re of Pontus and Armenia, in alliance with the
membrance of his native city.] Justin. 20, Romans. He fought long with success
e. 1–Pºirs...En 10, v. 28. against the Persians, till he was deceived by
Aapis wit, a town of Latium, famous for the snares of king Sapor, his enemy, who
giving birth to Cicero and Marius. . [It lay put out his eyes, and soon after deprived him
south-east of Anagnia, and is now Arpino.] of life. Marcellin. The eldest son of Ar
The words. 1rpinae charte are sometimes ap tabanus, appointed over Armenia by his fa
plied to Cicero's works. Mart. 10, ep. 19 ther, after the death of king Artaxias. Ta
—Jur. 8, v. 237.-Cic. Rull. 3.−A town cit. Hist. 6.
of Magna Graecia. ARs Acid E, a name given to some of the
ARRHAB =Us, the king of a nation in the monarchs of Parthia, in honour of Arsaces,
neighbourhood of Macedonia, who greatly dis the founder of the empire. Their power
tressed Archelaus...Aristot. 5. Polit. c. 10. subsisted till the 229th year of the christian
ARR1ANus, a philosopher of Nicomedia, era, when they were conquered by Artaxerxes
priest of Ceres and Proserpine, and disciple king of Persia. {vid. Artabanus.] Justin. 41.
of Epictetus, called a second Xenophon from A RSAMos&t A, a town of Armenia Major,
the elegance and sweetness of his diction, and [in the south-western angle of the district
distinguished for his acquaintance with mili. Sophene. It is now Simsat or Shimsat.] Ta
tary and political life. He wrote seven books eit. .1nn. 15.
on Alexander's expedition, [an “Account of ARs' NEs, the son of Ochus, and father of
the affairs of India,” the periplus of the Eux Codomanus.
ine and Red Sea, four books on the disputa ARSANIAs, [a river of Armenia Major,
tions of Epictetus, [a treatise on hunting, a which D'Anville and Mannert, but especially
work on tactics, &c.] He flourished about the latter, consider as another name for the
the 140th year of Christ, and was rewarded southern arm of the Euphrates. vid. Euphra
with the consulship and government of Cap tes.—There was another of the same name
padocia, by M. Autoninus. The best edition lower down, which flowed from the north
of Arrian's Erpeditio Alerandri, is the fol. west through Sophene, and entered the Eu
Gronovii, L. Bat. 1704, [and that of Schmie phrates below Melitene, on which Arsamo
der, Lips. 1798, 8vo. Of the Historia Indica, sata was situate. This is now the Arsen.]
that of Schmieder, Hal. 1798, 8vo. Of his mo ARSEs, the youngest son of Ochus, whom
ral treatise on the Enchiridion, that of Upton, the Eunuch Bagoas raised to the throne of
Land. 1739, 4to. and of the rest of his works, Persia, and destroyed with his children, after
that of Blanchard, Amst. 1683, 8vo. which a reign of three years. Diod. 17.
contains also his Tactica, moral treatise, &c. ARsia, a wood of Etruria, famous for a
A poet who wrote an epic poem in twenty battle between the Romans and the Veientes.
four books on Alexander; also another poem Plut. in Popl.-A small river between
on Attalus, king of Pergamus. He likewise Illyricum and Histria, falling into the Adri
translated Virgil's Georgics into Greek atic. [The limit of Italy in that quarter, after
verse. Histria was added to Italy by Augustus.]
Ansic Es, a man of obscure origin, [who A river of Italy, flowing through Cam
incited the Parthians to revolt from Anti pania.
ochus Theos. and was elevated to the throne ARsino E, the sister and wife of Ptolemy
on account of his successes. He defeated and Philadelphus, worshipped after death under
made prisoner Seleucus Callinicus, and laid the name of Venus Zephyritis. Dinochare
the foundation of the Parthian empire, about began to build her a temple with loadstones,
250 B.C.] He added the kingdom of the Hyr in which there stood a statue of Arsinoe sus
cani to his newly-acquired possessions, and pended in the air by the power of the mag
spent his time in establishing his power, and net; but the death of the architect prevent
regulating the laws. After death he was ed its being perfected. Plin. 34, c. 14. A
made a god of his nation, and all his succes daughter of Ptolemy Lagus, who married
sors were called, in honour of his name, Arsa Lysimachus, king of Macedonia. After her
cidº. Justin. 41, c. 5 and 6.-Strab. 11 and husband’s death, Ceraunus, her own brother,
12. His son and successor bore the same married her, and ascended the throne of Ma
name. He carried war against Antiochus cedonia. He previously murdered Lysima
the son of Seleucus, who entered the field chus and Philip, the sons of Arsinoe by
with 100,000 foot, and 20,000 horse. He af Lysimachus, in their mother's arms. Arsi
terwards made peace with Antiochus, and noe was some time after banished to Samo
died B. C. 217. Id. 41, c. 5. The third thrace. Justin. 17, c. 1, &c. A younger
king of Parthia, of the family of the Arsaci daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, sister to Cleo
dae, bore the same name, and was also called patra. Antony dispatched her to gain the
Priapatrus. He reigned twelve years, and good graces of her sister. Hirt. Alex. 4.—
leſt two sons, Mithridates and Phraates. Appian. The wife of Magas king of Cy
Phraates succeeded as being the elder, and at rene, who committed adultery with her son
his death he left his kingdom to his brother, in-law. Justin. 26, c. 3. A daughter of
though he had many children; observing Lysimachus. Paus. A town of Egypt, .
that a monarch ought to have in view, not situated near the lake of Moeris, on the west
N q"

ern shore of the Nile, where the inhabitants treated him with much humanity and confi
paid the highest veneration to the crocodiles. dence. Curt. 5, c. 9 and 12, l. 6, c. 5, 1.7, c.
They mourished them in a splendid manner, 3 and 5, 1.8, c. 1.
and embalmed them after death, and buried ARTABRI and ARTABRITAE, a people of
them in the subterraneous cells of the la Lusitania, who received their name ſrom Ar
byrinth. [Hence it was called Crocodilopolis. tabrum, a promontory on the coast of Spain,
It is succeeded by the modern Faioum, built now called Cape Finisterre. Sil. 3, v. 362.
at the distance of about a league north-east ARTAc2:As, an officer in the army of Xer
of its dilapidated walls. vid. Crocodilopolis. xes, the tallest of all the troops, the king ex
Another in Egypt, on the west side of the cepted.
Sinus Arabicus, near its extremity, and not ARtice, a town and seaport near Cyzicus.
far from the modern Suez. From this spot It did not exist in the age of Pliny. There
Ptolemy Philadelphus cut a canal to one of was in its neighbourhood a fountain called
the branches of the Nile.] Strab-A town Artacia. Herodot. 4, c. 14.—Procep. de Bell.
of Cilicia of Æolia of Syria—ofCy Pers. 1, c. 25.-Strab. 13.—Plin. 5, c. 32.
prus of Lycia, &c. —A city of Phrygia.-A fortified place
[ARsissa PALUs, a great lake in the southern of Bithynia.
part of Armenia Major, now the Lake of Van. ARTAcÉNE, a country of Assyria, near Ar
It was on its northern side embellished with bela, where Alexander conquered Darius.
cities which were better known to the Byzan Strab. 16.
tine writers than they had been before, viz. [ARTA coina, the capital of Aria, now
Chaliat or .1thlat, Arzes or Argish, and Herat, situate on the river Arius, now the
Perkri.] Heri.]
ARTABANUs, son of Hystaspes, was brother ARTAGERAs [or ARTAG1cERTA, a town
to Darius the first. He dissuaded his nephew of Armenia Major, north-east of Amida,
Xerxes from making war against the Greeks, where Caius Caesar, a nephew of Augustus,
and at his return, he assassinated him with was dangerously wounded by one Addruus.
the hopes of ascending the throne. Darius, It is now probably Ardis. Well. Patere. 2,
the son of Xerxes, was murdered in a similar 103.] Strab.
manner; and Artaxerxes, his brother, would ARTAGER's Es, a general in the army of Ar
have shared the same fate, had he not disco taxerxes, killed by Cyrus the younger. Plut.
vered the snares of the assassin, and punish in Artdar.
ed him with death. Diod. 11.-Justin. 3, c. ARTANEs, a king of the southern parts of
1, &c.—Herodot. 4, c. 38, 1.7, c. 10, &c.— Armenia. Strab. 11.—A river of Thrace
A king of Parthia after the death of his ne flowing into the Ister. Herodot. 4, c. 49.-
phew Phraates 2d. He undertook a war [A river of Bithynia.]
against a nation of Scythia, in which he pe ARTAPHERNEs, a general whom Darius
rished. His son Mithridates succeeded him. sent into Greece, with Datis. He was con
Justin. 42, c. 2. —A king of Media, and quered at the battle of Marathon, by Miltia
afterwards of Parthia, after the expulsion of des, vid. Datis. C. Mep. in Milt.—Hero
Vonones, whom Tiberius had made king dot. 6.
there. He invaded Armenia, from whence ARTAvAsDEs, a son of Tigranes, king of
he was driven away by one of the generals of Armenia Major, who wrote tragedies, and
Tiberius. He was expelled from his throne, shone as an elegant orator and faithful histo
which Tiridates usurped; and some time rian. He lived in alliance with the Romans,
after, he was restored to his ancient power, but Crassus was defeated partly on account
and died A. D. 48. Tacit. Ann. 5, &c. of his delay. He betrayed M. Antony in his
A king of Parthia, very inimical to the inter expedition against Parthia, for which Antony
ests of Vespasian.--Another king of Parthia. reduced his kingdom, and carried him to
who made war against the emperor Cara Egypt, where he adorned the triumph of the
calla, who had attempted his life on pretence conqueror led in golden chains. He was some
of courting his daughter. [With this Arta time after murdered. Strab. 11. The
banus, who is styled the 4th, and who was crown of Armenia was given by Tiberius to
defeated and stripped of his kingdom by Ar a person of the same name, who was expell
taxerxes, the Parthian empire terminated.] ed.—Augustus had also raised to the throne
Dio.—Herodian. of Armenia a person of the same uame. Tu
ARTABAzāNEs or ARTAMEN Es, the eldest cit. Ann. 2.
son of Darius, when a private person. He ARTAxA and ARTAxIAs, a general of An
attempted to succeed to the Persian throne, tiochus the Great, who erected the province
in perference to Xerxes. Justin. of Armenia into a kingdom, by his reliance
ARTABAzus, a son of Pharmaces, general on the friendship of the Romans. King Ti
in the army of Xerxes. He fled from Greece granes was one of his successors. Strab. 11.
upon the ill success of Mardonius. Herodot. ARTAxiTA, (orum) now Ardesh, a strong.
7, 8, and 9. A general who made war ly fortified town of Upper Armenia, the ca
against Artaxerxes 2d, and was defeated. He pital of the empire, where the kings gene
was afterwards reconciled to his prince, and rally resided.] It was built upon a plain
became the familiar friend of Darius 3d. Af. which Hannibal recommended as a proper
ter the death of this prince, he surrendered site for the capital to king Artaxes. Near it
himself up with his sons to Alexander, who ran the Araxes.] It was burnt by Corbule,

and rebuilt by Tiridates, who called it Nero retreat of the ten thousand. [rid. Xenophon.
nea, in honour of Nero. Strab. 11. After he was delivered from the attacks of
ARTAxeRxEs 1st, succeeded to the king his brother, Artaxerxes stirred up a war
dom of Persia after his father Xerxes. [He among the Greeks against Sparta, and exert
rodotus informs us that the name Artaxerxes ed all his influence to weaken the power of
signified in Persian, “a great warrior.” In the Greeks. He married two of his own
modern Persian the name, it is thought, would daughters, called Atossa and Amestris, and
be, Ardezir Xa, or .Ardschir Scha, i.e. accord named his eldest son Darius to be successor.
ing to Reland, Magnus Leo, Rer. Hence Darius however conspired against his father,
the name Xerxes alone will signify “a war. and was put to death; and Ochus, one of the
rior,” or “a lion.”) He destroyed Artaba younger sons, called also Artaxerxes, made
nus, who had murdered Xerxes, and attempt his way to the throne by causing his elder bro.
ed to destroy the royal family to raise himself thers Ariaspes and Arsames to be assassinat
to the throne. He made war against the el. It is said that Artaxerxes died of a brok
Bactrians, and re-conquered Egypt, that had en heart in consequence of his son's unnatu
revolted with the assistance of the Atheni ral behaviour, in the 94th year of his age,
ans, and was remarkable for his equity and after a reign of 46 years, B. C. 359. Artax
moderation. [He was called Makgºzug (Lon erxes had 150 children by his 350 concubines,
gimanus), from the extraordinary length of and only four legitimate sons. Plut. in vita.
his arms, according to Strabo, which, on his —C. Nep. in Rºg.—Justin. 10, c. 1, &c.—
standing straight, could reach his knees; but, Diod. 13, &c. The 3d, surnamed Ochus,
according to Plutarch, because his right hand succeeded his father Artaxerxes 2d, and es
was longer than his left.] He reigned 39 tablished himself on his throne by murdering
years, and died B. C. 425. C. Nep. in Reg. about 80 of his nearest relations. He puuish
—Plut. in Artar. The second of that ed with death one of his officers who conspir
name, king of Persia, was surnamed Mnemon, ed against him ; and recovered 1.3 ypt which
on account of his extensive memory. He was had revolted, destroyed Sidon, and ravaged
son of Darius the second, by Parysatis the all Syria. He made war against the Cadusii,
daughter of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and had and greatly rewarded a private man called
three brothers, Cyrus, Ostanes, and Oxathres. Codomanus for his uncommon vaiour. But
His name was Arsaces, which he changed into his behaviour in Egypt, and his cruelty to
Artaxerxes when he ascended the throne wards the inhabitants, offended his subjects,
His brother Cyrus was of such an ambitious and Bagoas at last obliged his physician to
disposition, that he resolved to make himself poison him, B. C. 337, and afterwards gave
king, in opposition to Artaxerxes. Parysatis his flesh to be devoured by cats, and made
always favoured Cyrus; and when he had handles for swords with his bones. Codo
attempted the life of Artaxerxes, she obtain manns, on account of his virtues, was soon aſ
ed his pardon by her entreaties and influence. ter made king by the people ; and that he
[Artaxerxes was born before his father's ac might seem to possess as much dignity as
cession to the throne, but Cyrus was born the the house of Artaxerxes, he reigned under
son of a king, hence his mother favoured his the name of Darius the third. Justin. 10, c.
claim. On a similar ground, Xerxes had been 3.—Diod. 17.--JElian. P. J.I. 6, c. 8.
preferred by Darius Hystaspes, to his elder ArtAx ERx Es or ARTAxAREs 1st, a coin
brºther Artabarzanes.] Cyrus, who had been mon soldier of Persia, [who killed Artabanus,
appointed over Lydia and the sea-coasts, as the last of the Arsacidae, an ſounded a new
sembled a large army under various preten dynasty, called the Sassannidae, from his fa
ces, and at last marched against his brother ther's name Sassan, A. J.). 226. As soon as
at the head of 100,000 barbarians and 13,000 his authority was well established, he at
Greeks. He was opposed by Artaxerxes tempted to recover the provinces invaded by
with 900,000 men, and a bloody battle was the Romans. Alexander Severus opposed
ſought at Cunaxa, in which Cyrus was killed, him with three numerous armies. One of
though in fact victorious, for he had routed these was destroyed by the superior force of
with his body-guard, the guards of the king, his opponent, another perished by ſamine and
while the Greeks were in full pursuit of that fatigue, and the third, commanded by the Em
Part of the king's army which had been op peror himself, retired ingloriously to Antioch,
Posed to them. The loss of the battle was greatly diminished by disease. Artaxerxes,
owing partly to the rash impetuosity of Cy however, weakened even by his victories,
Ins, in charging the royal guards, and part was compelled to abandon his project.] He
ly to the circumstance of the Greeks having rodian. 5 —One of his successors, son of
pursued too far the barbarians opposed to Sapor [the 2d.; bore his name, and reigned
them.] It has been reported, that Cyrus was eleven years, during which he distinguished
killed by Artaxerxes, who was so desirous of himself by his cruelties.
the honour, that he put to death two men for ARTAxias, a son of Artavasdes, king of
saying that they had killed him. The Greeks Armenia, was proclaimed king by his father's
who had assisted Cyrus against his brother, troops. He opposed Antony, by whom he
though at the distance of above 600 leagues was defeated, and became so odious that the
from their country, made their way through Romans, at the request of the Armenians,
the territories of the enemy; and nothing is raised Tigranes to the throne. Another,
mºre famous in the Grecian history, than the son of Polemon, whose original name was

Zeno. After the expulsion of Vonones from for its grandeur and magnificence, was callel
Armenia, he was made king by Germanicus, one of the seven wonders of the world. This
Tacit. 6, .4nn. c. 31.--A general of Antio. monument she called Mausoleum, a name
chus. rud. Artaxa. which has been given from that time to all .
ARTAY crks, a Persian appointed gover inonuments of unusual splendour. She invil
nor of Sestos by Xerxes. He was hung on a ed all the literary men of her age, and pre:
cross by the Athenians for his cruelties, [af. posed rewards to him who composed the best
ter his son had been stoned to death in his elegiac panegyric upon her husband. The
presence.] Herod. 7 and 9. prize was adjudged to Theopompus. She
ARTEMinorus, a native of Ephesus, who was so inconsolable for the death of her hus
wrote an history and description of the earth, band, that she died through grief two years
in eleven books. He flourished about iO4 after. Vilruv.–Strab. 14.—Plin. 25, c. 7, 1.
years B. C. A physician in the age of 36, c. 5.
Adrian. A man in the reign of [Antoninus ArtEMisium, a promontory of Euboea, (on
Pius,) who wrote a learned work on the in the north-western side of the island. It had
terpretation of dreams, still extant; the best a temple sacred to Artemis (Diana,) whence
edition of which is that of Rigaltius, Paris, its mame. Off this coast, which was called
4to. 1604, to which is annexed .4chmetis Omet. Artemisium lultus, the Greeks obtained their
rocritica. [An edition of the Oneirocritica first victory over the fleet of Xerxes on the
of Artemidorus was published in 1805, at Le same day with the action at Thermopylae.
ipsic, in 2 vols, 8vo. with the commentaries Herodol. 7, c. 175, &c. A lake near the
of Rigaltius and Reiske, by J. G. Reiff. grove Aricia, with a temple sacred to Arte
A man of Cnidus, son to the historian Theo mis, whence the name. -

pompus. He had a school at Rome, and he ARTEMITA, a city, [according to Strabo,

wrote a book on illustrious men, not extant. 500 stadia east of Seleucia in Assyria.--
[In teaching eloquence he became acquaint Another in Armenia Major, near its southern
cd with some of Brutus's friends, and procur boundary, now Van. It lay at the south
cd intelligence of the conspiracy against Cae eastern extremity of the Arsissa Palus, now
sur. He wrote down an account of it, and Lake of Van.] An island opposite the
gave it to the dictator from among the crowd mouth of the Achelous. Strab.
as he was going to the senate, but Caesar put ARTÉMon, an historian of Pergamus.-
it with other papers which he held in his A native of Clazomenae, who was with Pe.
hand, thinking it to be of no material conse ricles at the siege of Samos, where it is said
quence..] Plut. in Cºps. he invented the battering-ram, the tertude,
ARTEM is, the Greek name of Diana. Her and other equally valuable military engines.
festivals, called Artemisia, were celebrated in A native of Magnesia, who wrote the
several parts of Greece, particularly at Del history of illustrious women.—A Syrian
phi, where they offered to the goddess a mul whose features resembled, in the strongest
let. which, as was supposed, bore some affini
manner, those of Antiochus [Theos.] The
ty to the goddess of hunting, because it is said
queen, after the king's murder, made use ºf
to hunt and kill the sea-hare. There was a Artemon to represent her husband in a lin'
solemnity of the same name at Syracuse ; it gering state, that, by his seeming to die a na:
lasted three days, which were spent in ban tural death, she might conceal her guilt and º
queting and diversions. .1them. 7. effect her wicked purpose. vid. Antiochu:, ºr
ARTEM is A, a daughter of Lygdamis of ARTIMPAsa, a name of Venus among the
Halicarnassus, reigned over Halicarnassus Scythians. Herodot. 4, c. 59. :
and the neighbouring country. She assisted ARtobARzāNEs, a son of Darius, [and brº
Xerxes in his expedition against Greece with ther of Xerxes. The name is more common ºn
a fleet, aud her valour was so great that the ly, however, written Artabarzanes, which ºn
monarch observed that all his men ſought see..] Herodot. 7, c. 2 and 3. **
like women, and all his women like men. Antonius, a physician of Augustus, whº
The Athenians were so ashamed of fighting on the night previous to the battle of Philip' is
against a woman, that they offered a reward pi, saw Minerva in a dream, who told him tº a
of 10,000 drachms for her head. It is said assure Augustus of the victory. Wal. Men
that she was fond of a youth of Abydos, call 1, c. 7. -

ed Dardanus, and that, to punish his disdain. ARvåles or AMBAR v RLEs, a name given º
she put out his eyes while he was asleep, and to twelve priests who celebrated the festinº
afterwards leaped down the promontory of called Ambarvalia. [This order of priests is tº
Leucas. Herodot. 7, c. 99, l. 8, c. 68, &c.— said to have been instituted by Romulus *s
Justin. 2, c. 12––There was also anothe honour of his nurse Acca Laurentia, who bºss
queen of Caria of that name, often confounded | 2 sons, and when one of them died, Romu º
with the daughter of Lygdamis. She was lus, to console her, offered to supply his place
daughter of Hecatomnus king of Caria, or and called himself and the rest of her sº a
Halicarnassus, and was married to her own Fratres Arrales. Their office was for iſ .
brother Mausolus, famous for his personal and continued even in captivity and exile
beauty. She was so fond of her husband. They wore a crown made of the ears of corn º
that at his death she drank in her liquor his and a white woollen wreath around their
ashes aſter his body had been burned, and
erected to his memory a monument, which
temples. (vid. Ambarvalia.) The hymn ºuri
by these priests was discovered in 1778, in
1(m -

opening the foundations of the sacristy of S Ascaliphus, a son of Mars and Astyoche,
Peters, inscribed on astone..] Varro de L. L., who was among the Argonauts, and went to
ARUERIs, a god of the Egyptians, son of the Trojan war at the head of the Orchome
Isis and Osiris. nians, with his brother lalmenus. He was
ARVERs1, a powerful people of Gaul killed by Delphobus. Homer. Il. 2, v. 13, 1.
‘ſ whose territories lay between the sources of 9, v. 82. l. 13, v. 518 A son of Acheron
the Elaver, or .illier, and Duranius, or Dor ºv Gorgyra or Orphne, stationed by Pluto to
dogne, branches of the Liger and Garumma watch over Proserpine in the Elysian fields.
The district is now Auvergne. Their capital When Ceres had obtained from Jupiter her
was Augustunometum, now Clermont. They daughter's freedom and return upon earth,
were a powerful nation, and were only con provided she had eaten nothing in the king
quered after great slaughter.] Caes B. l. dom of Pluto, Ascalaphus discovered that she
Gal. 7.-Strab. 14. had eaten seven pomegranate seeds; upon
ARvisium and Aavisus, a promontory of which Proserpice was ordered by Jupiter to
Chios, famous for its wine. [The true ortho remain six months with Pluto, and the rest
graphy is Ariusius. This wine was esteem of the year with her mother. Proserpine
ed the best of all the Greek wines.) Pirg, was so displeased with Ascalaphus, that she
Ecl. 5. sprinkled water on his head, and immediately
ARuxs, an Etrurian soothsayer in the age turned him into an owl. Apollod. 1, c. 5, 1.
of Marius. Lucan. 1, v. 586.-A brother 2, c. 5.-Ovid. Met. 5, ſab. 8.
of Tarquin the Proud. He married Tullia, AscăLoN, [a maritime town of Palestine,
who murdered him to espouse Tarquin, who 320 furlongs from Jerusalem, been Azotus
had assassinated his wife. A son of Tar to the north, and Gaza to the south. Venus
quin the Proud, who, in the battle that was Urania was worshipped in this city. Her tem
fought between the partizans of his father ple was pillaged, according to Herodºtus, by
and the Romans, attacked Brutus the Roman the Scythians, B. C. 630. Here also was
consul. [The combatants slew each other worshiped the goddess Derceto. In this city
Liv. 2, c. 6.-A son of Porsena king of Herod the Great was born, hence called As
Etruria, sent by his father to take Aricia. calonites. The port was at some distance
Lir. 2, c. 14. from the city. Ascalon is now a small village,
ARUstius, a Roman who ridiculed the alled Scalona.] Joseph. de Bell. Jud. 3, c. 2.
rites of Bacchus, for which the god inebriat —Theophy ast. Il. Pl. 7, c. 4.
ed him to such a degree that he offered vio AscANIA, an island of the AE. ean sea.—
lence to his daughter Medullina, who mur A city of Troas, built by Ascanius.
dered him when she ſound that he acted so AscANIus, son of Æneas by Creusa, was
dishonourably to her virtue. Plut. in Pa saved from the flames of Troy by his father,
rall.—A man who wrote an account of the whom he accompanied in his voyage to italy.
Punic wars in the style of Sallust, in the He was afterwards called lulus. He behav
reign of Augustus. Tacit. Ann. 1.-Senec. ed with great valour in the war which his
ep. 14.—Paterculus, a man who gave father carried on against the Latins, and suc
£mylius Censorinus, tyrant of Ægesta, a ceeded Eneas in the kingdom of Latinus, and
brazen horse to torment criminals. The ty. built Alba, to which he transferred the seat
rant made the first experiment upon the body of his empire from Lavinium, which latter
of the donor. Plut. in Parall.—Stella, a city he resigned to Lavinia and her son Syl
poet descended of a consular family in the vius. The descendants of Ascanius reigned
age of Domitian. in Alba for above 420 years, under 14 kings,
ARuspex. vid. Haruspex. till the age of Numitor. Ascanius reigned 38
ARXita, a [town of Armenia Major, situ. years; 30 at Lavinium, and eight at Alba;
ate on the Araxes east of Artaxata, towards and was succeeded by Sylvius Posthumus,
the confines of Media.] Strab. 11. son of Æneas by Lavinia. Iulus, the son of
ARYANDEs, a Persian, appointed governor A-canius, disputed the crown with him; but
of Egypt by Cambyses. He was put to death the Latins gave it in favour of Sylvius, as he
(by Darius, for issuing a silver coinage in his was descended from the family of Latinus,

own name.] Herodot. 4, c. 166. and Iulus was invested with the office of high
AnyptAºus, a prince of the Molossi, who priest, which remained a long while in his
Privately encouraged the Greeks against Ma. |amily. [Neither Æneas nor any of his race
cedonia, and afterwards embraced the party ever set foot in Italy. wid. Italia, end of the
of the Macedonians. article.] Liv. 1, c.3—Wirg. JEn. 1, &c.
Asanden, a man who separated by a wall, According to Dionys. Hal. 1, c. 15, &c. the
Cheronesus Taurica from the continent. son of AEneas by Lavinia was also called As
Strah. 7. canius. A river of Bithynia, [by which
Asbest-E or AbystAº, a people of Libya the lake Ascanius discharged its waters into
above Cyrene... [Herodotus says that they the sea. On the banks of the lake stood
were remarkable beyond all the Lybians for Nicaea, now Isniek.] Virg. G. 3, v. 270.
their use of chariots drawn by four horses. Ascii. [This is a general term used in
The custom of harnessing four horses to a geography; applied to the inhabitants of
thariot, was confessedly borrowed from the the torrid zone, because the sun is twice a
Airicans by the Greeks.] Herodot. 4, c. 170. year vertical to them, and they have then no
—Ptol. 4, c. 3. -

10 !

shadow. The word comes from a privative, bottle as a reward. This was called awka
and a ziz, a shadow.] at 1&uv, ºraga ºre ºri roy waxcy dax scèau, leap
AscLEPíA, festivals in honour of Ascle. ing upon the bottle, whence the name of the
pius, or Æsculapius, celebrated all over festival is derived. It was also introducedin
Greece, when prizes for poetical and musical Italy, where the people besmeared their face
compositions were honourably distributed. with the dregs of wine, and sang hymns tº
[The people of Epidaurus celebrated them the god. They always hanged some small
with peculiar solemnity.] images of the god on the tallest trees in their
AscLEPIKDEs, a rhetorician in the age vineyards, and these images they called Os
of Eumenes, who wrote an historical account cilla. [What the Oscilla were has never
of Alexander. Arruan.—A disciple of Pla been clearly ascertained. Some commenta
to. A philosopher, disciple to Stilpo, and tors think that they were bunches of flowers,
very intimate with Menedemus. The two others that it was the custom at the feasts of
friends lived together, and that they might Bacchus, to swing on ropes, like children.
not be separated when they married, Ascle Heyne thinks that they were small images of
piades married the daughter, and Menede. bark, hung up from a belief on the part of
mus, though much the younger, the mother. the rustics, that in whatever direction they
When the wife of Asclepiades was dead, turned, under the impulse of the wind, they
Menedemus gave his wife to his friend, and brought fertility.] Virg. G.2, v. 384.—Poi.
married another. He was blind in his old luz. 9, c. 7.
age, and died in Eretria. Plut. A physi Asconius PEDIANus, [a Roman gramma.
cian of Bithynia, B. C. 90, who acquired rian born at Patavium, and lived in the time
great reputation at Rome, and was the found of Augustus. He was the friend of Virgil
er of a sect in physic. He relied so much and the acquaintance of Quintilian and Livy.
on his skill, that he laid a wager he shouldHis notes on Cicero's orations are judicious,
never be sick, and won it, as he died of a and still exist, though in a mutilated state.
fall, in a very advanced age. Nothing of Some additional fragments have been recently
his medical treatises is now extant. An discovered by Mai, in the Ambrosian Libra
Egyptian, who wrote hymns on the gods of ry at Milan.]
his country, and also a treatise on the coinci AscFA, a town of Boeotia, [at the foot of
dence of all religions. A native of Alex mount Helicon. At this place Hesiod was
andria, who gave an history of the Athenian brought up, being carried thither at a very
archons.—— The writer of a treatise on De early age from Cumae in AEolia. Hence it is
metrius Phalereus.--A disciple of Iso. frequently styled his country, and he is often
crates, who wrote six books on those events called the Ascrean bard.] The town receiv
which had been the subject of tragedies.—— ed its name from Ascra, a nymph, mother of
A physician [and friend of Caesar Octavianus, (Eoclus by Neptune.—Strab.9.—Paus. 9, c.
(Augustus), by whose advice the latter left 29.—Paterc. 4. -

his camp the evening belore the battle of AscúLUM, now Ascoli, a town of Picenum.
Philippi, and thereby probably saved his life, [Another in Apulia, north-west of Venu
as that part of the army was cut to pieces by sia, where the Romans first obtained success
Brutus. Asclepiades perished in a shipwreck, against Pyrrhus. Historians, however, differ
and a magnificent tomb was erected to him in their accounts. Plutarch makes Pyrrhus
at Smyrna by the emperor J–—A tragic to have been victorious, but Eutropius af.
poet. Another physician of Bithynia, un firms that he was totally defeated. Diony
der Trajan. He lived 70 years, and was a sius of Halicarnassus states that both sides
great favourite at the emperor's court. claiined the victory.]
AsclepiodóRus, a painter in the age of Asdkūh AL, a Carthaginian, son in-law of
Apelles, 12 of whose pictures of the gods Hamilcar. He distinguished himself in the
were sold for 300 minae each, to an African Numidian war, and was appointed chief ge
prince. Plin. 35. neral on the death of his father-in-law, and
Asclepius, vid. A sculapius. for eight years presided with much prudence
AscLETARIon, an astrologer in the age of and valour over Spain, which submitted to
Domitian, who said that he should be torn his arms with cheerfulness. Here he laid the
by dogs. The emperor ordered him to be foundation of new Carthage, and saw it com
put to death, and his body carefully secured; plete. To stop his progress towards the east,
but as soon as he was set on the burning pile, the Romans, in a treaty with Carthage, for
a sudden storm arose which put out the flames, bade him to pass the Iberus, which was ſaith
and the dogs came and tore to pieces the as fully observed by the general. He was killed
trologer's body. Sueton. in Domit. 15. in the midst of his soldiers, B.C. 230, by a
Ascoli.A., a festival in honour of Bacchus, slave whose master he had murdered. The
celebrated about December, by the Athenian slave was caught and put to death in the
husbandºnem, who generally sacrificed a goat greatest torments, which he bore with pa.
to the god, because that animal is a great tience, and even ridicule. Some say that he
enemy to the vine. They made a bottle with was killed in hunting. Ital. 1, v. 165.—.4p.
the skin of the victim, which they filled with puan. Iberin.—Polyb. 2–Liv. 21, c. 2, &c.
oil and wine, and afterwards leaped upon it —A son of Hamilcar, who came from Spain
with one foot. He who could first fix him with a large reinforcement for his brother
self upon it was victorious, and received the Annibal. He crossed the Alps and entered

Italy; but some of his letters to Annibal hav and abounds with all the necessaries as well
ing fallen into the hands of the Romans, the as luxuries of life. Asia was divided into
consuls M. Livius Saliuator and Claudius many different empires, provinces, and states,
Nero, attacked him suddenly near the Me of which the most conspicuous were the As
taurus, ſin Umbria,] and defeated him, B. C. syrian and Persian monarchies. The Assy
207. He was killed in the battle, and 56,000 rian monarchy, according to Eusebius, last
of his men shared his fate, and 5400 were ed 1240 years, and according to Justin, 1300
taken prisoners; about 8000 Romans were years, down to the year of the world 4380.
killed. The head of Asdrubal was cut off, The empire of Persia existed 228 years, till
and some days after thrown into the camp of the death of Darius the 3d, whom Alexan
Annibal, who, in the moment that he was in lar the Great conquered. The empire of
the greatest expectations for a promised sup the Medes lasted 259 years, according to Eu
ply, exclaimed at the sight, “ I recognise the sebius, or less, according to others, till the
fortune of Carthage,” and then retired, 3. C. reign of Astyages, who was conquered by
203, intº the extremity of Italy. Lir. 21, Cyrus the Great, who destroyed the power
23, 27, &c.—Polyb.—Horat. 4, od. 4.—A of the Medes, and founded the Persian mo
Carthaginian general, surnamed Calvus, ap narchy. It was in Asia that the military va
pointed governor of Sardinia, and taken pri. lour of the Macedonians and the bold re
soner by the Romans. Liv. Another, son treat of the 10,000 Greeks were so conspicu
of Giscon, appointed general of the Car ously displayed. It is in that part of the
thaginian forces in Spain, in the time of the world that we are to look for the more visi
great Annibal. He made head against the ble progress of luxury, despotism, sedition,
Romans in Africa, with the assistance of Sy effeminacy, and dissipation. Asia was gene
Phax, but he was soon after defeated by Sci rally divided into Major and Minor. Asia
pio. He died B.C. 206. [. was the father Major was the most extensive, and compre
of Sophonisba.] Lir. Another, who de hen'ed all the eastern parts; and Asia Minor
fended Carthage in its last siege by Scipio the was a large country in the form of a peninsu
younger, and, foreseeing its fate, surrendere la, whose boundaries may be known by draw
himself to the Romans.] Scipio showed him ing a line from the bay of Issus, in a north
to the Carthaginians, upon which his wife, ern direction, to the eastern part of the Flux
with a thousand imprecations, threw herself ine Sea. Asia Minor has been subject to
ind her two children into the flanes of the many revolutions. It was tributary to the
temple of Æsculapius, which she and others Scythians for upwards of 1500 years, and was
had set on fire. Lir 51.-A Carthaginian a long time in the power of the Lydians,
Feneral conquered by L. Caecilius Metellus in Medes, &c. The western parts of Asia Mi
Sicily, in a battle in which he lost 130 ele nor were the receptacle of all the ancient
Phant'. These animals were led in triumph emigrations from Greece, and was filled with
all overltaly by the conquerors. Grecian colonies. [The term Asia Minor
Asellio (Sempromius,) an historian and was not in use among the ancients. The ge
military tribune, who wrote an account of the neral name for Upper and Lower Asia, was
actions in which he was present [at Numan simply Asia. Lower Asia is now called Atato
tia and elsewhere]. Dionys. Hal. lia, or rather Anadoli, from zyaroxx, oriens. It
Asia, one of the three parts of the ancient comprised the provinces between the Euxine
world, [separated from Europe by the Æge and Mediterranean Seas.] Strab.-Mela
ºn the Euxine, the Palus Maeotis, the Tanais Justin.—Plin.—Tacit, &c. One of the
ºf Dº, and the Dunna; from Africa by the Oceanides, who married Japetus, and gave
Rºd &a and Isthmus of Suez.] It received its her name to one of the three quarters of the
ºne from Asia, the daughter of Oceanus. ancient globe. Apollod. 1, c. 2. One of
The conjecture of Bochart, who derives this the Nereides. Hygin.—A mountain of La
ºne from a Hebrew or Phoenician word sig. conia. Paus. 3, c. 24.
ºffing the middle, has no foundation in histo Asia PALUs, [a marsh in Lydia, through
7. The name of Asia was applied by Ho which the Cayster flowed. [vid. beginning
* Herodotus, and Euripides, to a district of the preceding article.] Virg. Jºn. 7, v.
*Lydia, watered by the Cayster, and in 701.
which the geographers of a later age distin. Asiaticus, a Gaul, in the age of Vitellius.
*hed a tribe called Asiones, and a city Tacit. Hist. 2. The surname of one of the
º Asia. It appears probable that the Scipios and others, for their conquests or
º in proportion as their knowledge was campaigns in Asia.
*:ed, extended this name by little and lit AsiNARIA, a festival in Sicily, in comme
*ºm the district to which it was applied, moration of the victory obtained over Demos
*til it embraced the whole of Asia Minor, thenes a d Nicias, at the river Asinarius.
* ultimately the other extensive coun. Asin ARIus, a river of Sicily where the
* of the east. In a similar manner Athenian generals, Demosthenes and Nicias,
*ica and Italyseem to have obtained their were taken prisoners, [now the Falunera.]
*pective names.) This part of the globe AsíNE, [a town of Årgolis, north-west of
*given birth to many of the greatest mo Hermione, on the Sinus Argolicus, or Gulf of
*ies of the universe; and to the in JNauplia.—Another in Messenia, south
*ants of Asia we are indebted for most west of Messene, founded by the inhabitants
** arts and sciences. The soil is fruitful, of the former place, when driven from their

city by the Argives. —Another in Cyprus, cºnstomary privilege allowed him, asked As
Another in Cilicia.] as a from his father, this female, being al
AsINIU's GALLUs, son of Asinius Pollio the towed to make her election, preferred the
orator, married Vipsania after she had been son, upon which Artaxerxes made her a
divorced by Tiberius. This marriage gave ºriestess of Diana, in order to keep her from
rise to a secret enmity between the emperor his son, who thereupon rebelled. But this
and Asinius, who starved himself to death. story is not generally credited.] She was call
either voluntarily, or by order of his imperial ed Milto, (i. e. Vermilion,) on account of the
enemy. He had six sons by his wife. He beauty of her complexion. JElian. P. H. 12,
wrote a comparison be weep his father and c. 1.—Plut. in Artar. Another woman.
Cicero, in which he gave a decided superiori. daughter of Axiochus, born at Miletus. She
ty to the former. Tacit. 1 and 5. Ann-Dio. came to Athens, where she taught eloquence,
58.-Plin. 7, ep. 4.—Pollio, an excellent and Socrates was proud to be among her
orator, poet, and historian, intimate with scholars. She so captivated Pericles by her
Augustus. He triumphed over the Dalina; mental and personal accomplishments, that
tians, and wrote an account of the wars of he became her pupil, and at last took her for
Caesar and Pompey, in 17 books, besides po his mistress and wife. He was so fond of her.
ems. He refused to answer some verses against that he made war against Samos at her insti
him by Augustus, “ because,” said he, “you gation. The behaviour of Pericles towards
have the power to proscribe me, should my Aspasia greatly corrupted the morals of the
answer prove offensive." He died in the Athenians, and introduced dissipation and las
30th year of his age, A. D. 4. He was con civiousness into the state. She, however, pos
sul with Cn. Domitius Calvinus, A. U.C. 714 sessed the merit of superior excellence in
It is to him that the fourth of Virgil's Buco mind as well as person, and her instructions
lics is inscribed. Quintil –Sueton. in Caes. 30 helped to form the greatest and most elo
and 55.—Dio. 27,49, 55.-Senec de Tranq. quent orators of Greece. Some have con
...Ani. & ep. 10 ...—Plin. 7, c. 30.-Tacit 6– founded the mistress of Pericles with Aspa
Paterc. 2.-Plut. in Caes. sia the daughter of Hermotimus. Plut. in
Asius, a poet of Samos, who wrote about Pericl.—Quintil. 11. The wife of Xeno
the genealogy of ancient heroes and heroines. phon was also called Aspasia, if we follow
Paus. 7, c. 14. the improper interpretation given by some
Asopia, [a district of Sicyonia, near Phli to Cir. de Inv. 1, c. 31.
us.] Paus. 2, c. 1. Aspasius, a peripatetic philosopher in the
Åsóp15 DEs, a patronymic of Æacus, son of 2d century, whose commentaries on different
AEgina, the daughter of Asopus. Ovid. Met. subjects were highly valued.—A sophist,
7, v. 484. who wrote a panegyric on Adrian.
Asöpis, the daughter of the Asopus. AsPASTEs, a satrap of Carmania, suspect
Asopus, a river of Thessaly, [rising in ed of infidelity to his trust while Alexander
Mount Oeta and falling into the Sinus Malia was in the east. Curt. 7, c. 20.
cus.] Strab. 8. A river of Boeotia, [rising As PATHINEs, one of the seven noblemen
in Mount Cithaeron near Plataea, and flowing of Persia who conspired against the usurper
into the Euripus. The plain along its north Smerdis, Herodot. 3, c. 70, &c. A son of
ern bank was called Parasopia-.] Paus. 9, Prexaspes. Id. 7.
c. 4.——A river of Asia, flowing into the Ly AspenDus, a town of Pamphylia, near the
cus near Laodicea. A river of Peloponne mouth of the river Eurymedon. Cic. in Perr.
sus, [rising on the frontiers of Arcadia, near 1, c. 20. The inhabitants sacrificed swine to
Mount Cyllene, and falling into the Sinus Co Venus.
rinthiacus or Gulf of Lepanto, east of Sicyon.] Asphaltites, a lake. vid. Mare Mor
— A son of Neptune, who gave his name to tuum.
a river of Peloponnesus. Three of his daugh Aspis, [a town of Hispania Tarraconeosis,
ters are particularly celebrated, Ægina, Sala north-west of Ilicis, which lay above Car
mis, and Ismene. Apollod. 1, c. 9, l. 3, c. 12. thago-Nova on the coast. It is now Aspe.
—Paus. 2, c. 12. An island on the coast of Ionia, opposite Le
AsPA [or Aspadi N.A.] a town of Parthia, hedus, now Psili-bourum.]
now Ispahan. -
Asplénon, a son of Neptune by the nymph
As PAMITH REs, a favourite eunuch of Xer Midon. He gave his name to a city of Boeo
xes, who conspired with Artabanns to de tia. [north-east of Orchomenus,) whose in
stroy the king and the royal family, &c. Cte habitants went to the Trojan war. Horner.
stas. II. 2, v. 18.-Paus. 9, c. 38.
Aspan AGIUM, [a town of Macedonia, on Asfor ENUs, a [district] of Asia Minor.
the southern bank of the Apsus or Crevasta, near Pergamus, where the mother of the
about 34 miles south from Dyrrachium.] gods was worshipped, and called Asporena.
AspasíA, a daugh'er of Hermotimus of Strab. 13.
Phocaea, famous for her personal charms and Assa, a town ſº
the island of Cephalenia.]
elegance She was priestess of the sun, this Assaricus, a Trojan prince, son of Tros
tress to Cyrus, and afterwards to his brother by Callirhoe. He was father to Capys, the
Artaxerxes. [Plutarch and Justin relate that father of Anchises. The Trojans were fre
when Darius, the son of Artaxerxes, was de quently called the descendants of Assaracus,
clared his successor, and, according to the Gens.Assaraci.-Homer. Il. 20.-Pirg, .Hºn.

1. Two friends of Æneas in the Rutulian with her wings. The Astarte mentioned by
war. Pirg, .ºn. 10, v. 124. Cicero, was exhibited in Phoenicia with a
AssºRigs, a town of Sicily, [north-east of quiver and arrows. Among the Assyrians
Euna.—A town of Macedonia, in Mygdo she was sometimes termed a goddess, and
nia." sometimes a god, on account of the ambiguity
Assos. a town [of Mysia, on the coast, of gender in the oriental languages.] Luci
west of Adramyttium. It is now Asso.] an de Deá Syruff.-Cic. de Nat. D. 3, c. 23.
Assi Ria, [a country originally of small Aster, a dexterous archer of [Methone,
extent, but afterwards greatly enlarged. It who offered his service to Philip king of Ma
was bounded, according to Ptolemy, on the cedonia. Upon being slighted, he retired
north by part of Armenia, and Mount Nipha into the city, and aimed an arrow at Philip,
tes; on the west by the Tigris; on the south who pressed it with a siege. The arrow, on
by Susiana; and on the east by part of Me which was written [Arrng Dixirre Bavari
dia, and the mountains Choatra and Zagros. wow rºw rºt & cº.) struck the king's eye, and
The country within these limits is called by put it out; and Philip, to return the pleasan
some of the ancients Adiabene, and by others try, threw back the same arrow, with [a mes
Aturia or Atyria. Assyria is now called sage appended to it, that if Philip took the
Kurdistan, from the descendants of the an town he would hang Aster. The conquer
cient Carduchi, who occupied the northern or kept his word.]
parts.] The Assyrian empire is the most an: Astéri.A., a daughter of Ceus, one of the
cient in the world. It was founded by Ni Titans, by Phoebe, daughter of Coelus and
nus or Belus, B. C.2059, according to some Terra. She married Perses, son of Crius,
authors, and lasted till the reign of Sardana by whom she had the celebrated Hecate.
palus, the 31st sovereign since Ninus, B.C She enjoyed for a long time the favours of Ju
320. According to Eusebius, it flourished piter, under the form of an eagle; but falling
for 1240 years: according to Justin, 1300 under his displeasure, she was changed into
years; but Herodotus says that its duration a quail, called Ortyr by the Greeks; whence
was not above 5 or 600 years. Among the the name of Ortygia, given to that island in
different monarchs of the Assyrian empire, the Archipelago where she retired. [vid. De
Semiramis greatly distinguished herself, and los.) Ovid. Met. 6, fab. 4.—Hygin. ſab. 58.
extended the boundaries of her dominions as –Apollod. 1, c. 2, &c.—A town of Greece,
far as AEthiopia and Libya. In ancient au whose inhabitants went to the Trojan war.
thors, the Assyrians are often called Syrians, Homer, Il. 2, v. 782.-One of the daugh
and the Syrians Assyrians. The Assyrians ters of Danaus, who married Chaetus, son of
assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and sent Egyptus. Apollod. 2–One of the daugh
him Memnon with an army. The king of ters of Atlas, mother of CEnomaus, king of
Assyria generally styled himself king of kings, Pisa. Hygin. fab. 250.
as a demonstration ofhis power and greatness. Astérion and AstERIus, a river of Pe
rid. Syria. Strab. 16.-Herodot. 1 and 2– loponnesus, which flowed through the coun
Justin. 1.-Phn. 6, c. 13 and 26.—Ptol. 1, c. try of Argolis. This river had three daugh
2–Diod. 2–Mela, 1, c. 2. ters, Euboea, Prosymna, and Acraea, who
[Asraeosas, a river of AEthiopia, fallin nursed the goddess Juno. Paus. 2, c. 17.—
into the Nile. It is now called the Tacazzé.] \ statuary, son of Æschylus. Paue.—A
Asticus, a town of Bithynia, [on the Si son of Minos 2d, king of Crete, by Pasiphae.
nus Astacenus.] built by Astacus, son of Nep He was killed by Theseus, though he was
tune and Olbia, or rather by a colony from thought the strongest of his age. Apollodo
Megara and Athens. Lysimachus destroyed rus supposes him to be the same as the fa
it, and carried the inhabitauts to the town of mous Minotaur. According to some, Aste
Nicomedia, which was then lately built. rion was son of Teutamus, one of the des
Paur. 5, c. 12.-Arrian.-Strab. 17.-A cendants of Æolus, and they say that he was
city of Acarnania. Plin. 5. surnamed Jupiter because he had carried
Asrāra, a town of Hispania Baetica, [east away Europa, by whom he had Minos the
of Hispalis, famed for its vigorous defence 1st. Diod. 4.—Apollod. 3.-Paus. 2, c. 31.
against the Romans A. U. C. 546. It is now AstrikóPE and ASTERoPEA, one of the
Esteps La Vieja.] Lip. 38, c. 20. Pleiades, who were beloved by the gods and
Asrarus, a river of Æthiopia, falling into most illustrious heroes, and made constella
the Nile. [Now the Abawi. It flows through tions after death. A daughter of Pelias,
Nubia, rising in a place called Coloe Palus, king of Iolchos, who assisted her sisters to kill
or Bahr Dembea. This is the river which her father, whom Medea promised to re
Mr. Bruce mistook for the Nile.] store to life. Her grave, [and those of her
AsraaTE, a powerful divinity of Syria. sisters, were seen in Arcadia in the time of
She had a famous temple at Hierapolis in Sy Pausanias, 8, c. 11.
ria, which was served by 300 priests, who AstERUsius, a mountain at the south of
were always employed in offering sacrificas. Crete.—A town of Arabia Felix.
|Cicero and Suidas suppose her to be one of Astióchus, a general of Lacedæmon, who
the ſamr Venuses whom the former enume conquered the Athenians near Cnidus, and
rates. According to Lucian, she was the took Phocaea and Cumae, B. C. 411.
moºn. The Sidonians represented her un Asthäea, a daughter of Astraeus, king of
der the figure of a hea covering her young Arcadia, or, according to others, of Titan,
O 105

74, 75, &c.—A grammarian who wrote a

her daughter of Jupiter and Themis, and commentary on Callimachus.
others consider her the same as Rhea, wife Asty ANAx, a son of Hector and Androme. . .
of Saturn. She was called Justice, of which che. He was very young when the Greek: .
virtue she was the goddess. She lived upon besieged Troy; and when the city was taken
the earth, as the poets mention, during the his mother saved him in her arms from the
golden age, which is often called the age of flames. Ulysses, who was afraid lest the
Astraea; but the wickedness and impiety of young prince should inherit the virtues of his
mankind drove her to heaven in the brazen father, and one day avenge the ruin of his
and iron ages, and she was placed among the country upon the Greeks, seized him, and
constellations of the zodiac, under the name threw him down from the walls of Troy,
of Virgo. She is represented as a virgin, with According to Euripides, he was killed by
a stern but majestic countenance, holding a Menelaus ; and Seneca says, that Pyrrhus,
pair of scales in one hand, and a sword in the the son of Achilles, put him to death. Hec
other. Senec. in Octav.—Ovid. Met. 1, v. tor had given him the name of Scamandrius;
149—1rat. 1. Phaenom. v. 98.—Heriod.— but the Trojans, [out of gratitude to the fl.
Theog. ther, their chief defender, and as a compli.
Astr AEUs, [a river of Macedonia, passing ment to his valour, called the son Astyanax,
by Beroea, and falling into the Erigon above or the prince of the city.] Homer, Il. 6, v.
Pella. It is now the Vistrica.] 400, l. 22, v. 500.-Virg...En. 2, v.457,1.3,
Astu, a Greek word which signifies city, v. 489.-Ovid. Met. 13, w, 415. A writer
generally applied, by way of distinction, to in the age of Gallienus.
Athens, which was the most capital city of Asty DAMAs, an Athenian, pupil to lº:
Greece. The word urbs is applied with the crates. He wrote 240 tragedies, of which
same meaning of superiority to Rome, and only 15 obtained the poetical prize.—A Mi’
roat; to Alexandria, the capital of Egypt, as lesian, three times victorious at Olympia.
also to Troy. He was famous for his strength, as well is
Astúna, a small river and village of La for his voracious appetite. He was once in
tium, [near the coast, below Antium. In the vited to a feast by king Ariobarzanes, and he
neighbourhood was a villa of Cicero, to which ate what had been prepared for nine persºn.
he retired from the proscription of Antony, .1 then. 10. Two tragic writers bore the
and whence he proposed to transport himself same name, one of whom was disciple to Sº
º the reach of his enemies. vid. Cice crates. A comic poet of Athens.
ro. AstydäMia, or Åsty Adamia, daughter
AstúREs, a people of Hispania Tarraco of Amyntor, king of Orchomenos in Boeotia,
nensis, [lying west and south-west of the Can married Acastus son of Pelias, who wº
tabri. They occupied the eastern half of king of Iolchos. She became enamoured."
modern Asturias, the greater part of the king Peleus, son of Æacus, who had visited her
dom of Leon, and the northern half of Palen husband's court; and because he refused”
cia. Their capital was Asturica Augusta, gratify her passion, she accused him of *
now .4storga.] tempting her virtue. Acastus readily bº.
Ast YAGE, a daughter of Hypseus, who lieved his wife's accusation; but as he woºl
married Periphas, by whom she had some not violate the laws of hospitality by punish,
children, among whom was Antion, the fa ing his guest with instant death, he waited
ther of Ixion. for a favourable opportunity, and disemble
Astyº GEs, son of Cyaxares, was the last his resentinent. At last they went in a hun"
king of Media. He was father to Mandane, ing party to mount Pelion, where Peleus"
whom he gave in marriage to Cambyses, an tied to a tree, by order of Acastus, that he
ignoble person of Persia, because he was told might be devoured by wild beasts. Jupit"
by a dream that his daughter’s son would dis was moved at the innocence of Peleus, an
possess him of his crown. From such a mar sent Vulcan to deliver him. When Pekº
riage he hoped that none but mean and igno was set at liberty, he marched with an army
rant children could be raised ; but he was against Acastus, whom he dethroned.”
disappointed, and though he had exposed his punished with death the cruel and false A*
daughter's son by the effects of a second dream, damia. She is called by some Hippºlº”
he was deprived of his crown by his grandson, and by others Cretheis. .4pollod. 3, e. 13
after a reign of 35 years. Astyages was very Pinder. Mem. 4. A daughter of Ormen",
cruel and oppressive ; and Harpagus, one of carried away by Hercules, by whom she hº
his officers, whose son he had wantonly mur Tlepolemus. Ovid. Heroid. 9, v. 50.
dered, encouraged Mandane's son, who was Astylus, one of the centaurs, who had
called Cyrus, to take up arms against his the knowledge of futurity. He advised hº
grandfather, and he conquered him and took brothers not to make war against the L*
him prisoner, 559 B.C. Xenophon, in his Cy that. Ovid. Met. 12, v. 338.
ropaedia, relates a different story, and asserts Astypal EA, [one of the Cyclades, south.
that Cyrus and Astyages lived in the most east of the island of Cos. According to Ciº
undisturbed friendship together. [But Xen ro, divine honours were rendered here " .
ophon's work is a mere historical romance, Achilles. It was called Pyrrha when the Ca
containing far more of fiction than true narra rians possessed it, and afterwards Pyles. "
five..] Justin. 1, c. ºss-liº 1, c. name Astypalaea is said to have been dº"

tº from \hat of a sister of Europa. It was led th e temple of Cybele; and the goddess
was so offended at their impiety, and at the
also calledTheân-trapeza, or, the table of the
Gods, because its soil was fertile, and almost profanation of her house, that she changed
enamelled with flowers. It is now Stanpo them into two lions. Apollodorus says that
Atalanta's father was desirous of raising male
lia.) Pau.7, c. 4.—Strab. 14. issue, and that therefore she was exposed to
[Astika or Asti Rox, a village of Troas,
wild heasts as soon as born. She was, how
near mount Ida, near which was a grove sa
cred to Diana Astyrane. A town of Eo ever, suckled by a she-bear, and preserved by
lis—Another in Phænicia.] shepherds. She dedicated her time to hunt
Asychis, a king of Egypt, who succeeded |ing, and resolved to live in celibacy. She
Mycernius, and made a law, that whoever killed two centaurs, Hyleus and Rhaecus, who
borrowed money must deposit his father's attempted her virtue. She was present at
bºdy in the handsofhiscreditors, as a pledge the hunting of the Calydonian boar, which
of his promise of payment. He built a mag |she first wounded, and she received the head
nificent pyramid. Herodot. 2, c. 136. as a present from Meleager, who was ena
At Abūlts, [a wind which was frequent in |moure d of her. She was also at the games
Apulia, and very destructive to the produc. instituted in honour of Pelias, where she con
tions of the earth, which it scorched or wi |quered Peleus; and when her father, to whom
thered up. It is the same with the modern she had been restored, wished her to marry,
Sirocco.] Horal. 1, Sat. 5, v. 78. she consented to give herself to him who
474 ºf RIs, a mountain in Rhodes, where could overcome her in running, as has been
Jupiter had a temple, whence he was sur |said above. She had a son called Partheno
named Atabyrius. [Ancient fables speak of |paeus, by Hippomenes. Hyginus says that
that son was the fruit of her love with Me
brazen oxen at this place, which by their
bellowings announced approaching calamity. leager: and Apollodorus says, she had him
The meaning of the ſable is said to have |by Milaniom, or, according to others, by the
.. the priests of this temple pretend god Mars. [rid. Meleager.] Apollod. 1, c.
to ºf-ed of the spirit
Straß. I prophecyy..]
of prophec 8, 1.3, c. 9, &c.—Paus. 1, c. 36, 45, &c.—
|Hygin. fab.99, 174, 185,270.-JElian. P. H.
(ATAcini, a people of Gallia Narbonensis, 13.-Diod. 4.—Orid...Met. 8, fab. 4, 1.10, fab.
south and south-east of the Volsca Tectos 11.-Euripid. in Pharmiss. An island near
*ges. They inhabited the banks of the Atax |Euboea and Locris. Paus.
or -jude, whence their name. Their capital || AtARANTEs, a people of Africa, ten days'
was N arbº, now Narbonne.] journey from the Garamantes. There was
Atal-asta, a daughter of Schoeneus king in their country a hill of salt with a fountain
of Scyros. According to some, she was the of sweet water upon it. [Some editions read
laughter of lasus or Iasius, by Clymene; |.Atlantes, among others that of Schweighaeu
but others say that Menalion was her father.| ser; Valckenaer and Larcher, however, are
This uncertainty of not rightly knowing the of opinion, that Herodotus speaks of a nation
name of her father has led the mythologists distinct from the Atlantes. Herodot. 4, c. 184.
into error, and some have maintained that At ARBEchis, [a city of Egypt, sacred to
, there were two persons of that name, though Venus, in one of the small islands of the Del
- their supposition is groundless.
- Atalanta |ta called Prosopitis.]
*born in Arcadia, and, according to Ovid, AtARGAtis, or [At ERG \tis, called also
* determined to live in perpetual celibacy; Derceto, a goddess of the Syrians, supposed
but her beauty gained her many admirers, to be the mother of Semiramis. She was re
and to free herself from their importunities, presented with the face and breasts of a wo
*Proposed to run a race with them. They man, but the rest of her body resembled a
*re to run without arms, and she was to fish. She is supposed to be the same with
any a dart in her hand. Her lovers were Astarte. Some maintain that she was the
to tart first, and whoever arrived at the goal same not only with Astarte, but with Venus,
befºre her, would be made her husband; but Juno, Minerva, and the celestial Venus of the
Althºse whom she overtook, were to be kill. Assyrians.] -

*1 by the dart with which she had armed her. ATARNA, [a town of Mysia, on the coast
*if As the was almost invincible in running. opposite to Lesbos. It was a village in Pli
many of her suitors perished in the attempt. ny's time: D'Anville calls it Atarineus.
till Hippomenes the son of Macareus pro Atas and Athas, a youth of wonderful
Pºtd himself as her admirer. Venus had velocity, who is said to have run 75 miles be
Prºented him with three golden apples from tween noon and the evening. Martial. 4, ep.
º the garden of the Hesperides, or, according to 19.-Plan. 7.
thers,ſrom an orchard in Cyprus; and as Arax, now Aude, a river of Gallia Narbo
from as he had started in the course, he art mensis, rising in the Pyrenean mountains, and
fully threw down the apples at some distance falling into the Mediterranean sea. Mela, 2.
one from the other. While Atalanta, charm Are, the goddess of all evil, and daughter
td at the sight, stopped to gather the apples. of Jupiter. She raised such jealousy and se
Hippomenes hastened on his course, arrived dition in heaven among the gods, that Jupi
frt at the goal, and obtained Atalanta in mar ter dragged her away by the hair, and ba
tige. These two fond lovers, in the impa nished her for ever from heaven, and sent her
to dwell on earth, where she incited man
ºnce of consummating their nuptials, enter 107

kind to wickedness, and sowed commotions Ghost, and an apology to Constantine. The
among them. Homer. Il. 19. She is the same creed which bears his name, is supposed by
as the Discord of the Latins. some not to be his composition. [It is now
At ELLA, a town of Campania, [south generally allowed not to have been his. Dr.
west of Capua,) famous for a splendidam Waterland supposes it was made by Hilary.
phitheatre, where interludes were first ex bishop of Arles. It was first printed in Greek
hibited, and thence called Atellanae Fabulae. in 1540, and several times afterwards, to 1671.
[These were a kind of Latin farces. They It has been questioned whether this creed
became in time so licentious and impudent, was ever received by the Greek and Orien
that the senate was obliged to suppress them. tal churches : in America the Episcopal
vid. Osci.] Juv. 6. church has rejected it. As to its matter, it
AthAMAN Es, an ancient people of Epirus, is given as a summary of the true orthodox
who existed long before the Trojan war, and faith : unhappily, however, it has proved a
still preserved their name and customs in the fruitful source of unprofitable controversy.]
age of Alexander. [Athamania is placed by Athanasius died 2d May, 373 A.D. after fill
l)'Anville between Pindus on the east and a ing the archiepiscopal chair 47 years, and
parallel chain on the west.] Ovid...Met. 15, v. leading alternately a life of exile and of tri
311.-Strab. 7.-Plin. 2, c. 103. – Mela, 2,c.3. umph. The latest [and best] edition of his
Athimas, a king of Thebes in Boeotia, was works is that of the benedictines, 3 vols. fol.
son of AEolus. He married Themisto, whom Paris, 1698. [This is the edition of the learn
some call Nephele, and Pindar, Demotice, ed Montfaucon.]
and by her he had Phryxus and Helle. Some Ath ENE, the name of Minerva among the
time after, on pretence that Nephele was sub Greeks; and also among the Egyptians, be
ject to fits of madness, he married Ino, the fore Cecrops had introduced the worship of
daughter of Cadmus, by whom he had two the goddess into Greece. Paus. 1, c. 2.
sons, Learchus and Melicerta. Ino became At HENAE, a celebrated city of Attica,
jealous of the children of Nephele, because founded about 1556 years before the christian
they were to ascend their father's throne in era by Cecrops and an Egyptain colony. It
preference to her own, therefore she resolved was called Cecropia from its founder, and af.
to destroy them; but they escaped from her terwards.Alhenae in honour of Minerva, who
fury to Colchis, on a golden ram. (rud. Phryx had obtained the right of giving it a name in
us and Argonautae.) According to the Greek preference to Neptune. [It was first called
scholiast on Lycophron, v. 22, Ino attempt Athens in the reign of Erechthonius. The
ed te destroy the corn of the country; and, town was first erected on the summit of a
as if it were the consequence of divine ven high rock, probably as a protectiou against
geance, the soothsayer, at her instigation, told attacks from the sea. Afterwards, when the
Athamas, that before the earth would yield number of inhabitants was increased, the
her usual increase, he must sacrifice one of whole plain was filled with buildings, which
the children of Nephele to the gods. The were called from their situation, º kara, reair,
credulous father led Phryxus to the altar, or, the lower city; and Cecropia was then
where he was saved by Nephele. The pros named n ava royº, or, Akçomoxic, the upper ci
perity of Ino was displeasing to Juno, and ty.] It was governed by 17 kings, in the follow
more particularly because she was descended ing order:-after a reign of 50 years, Cecrops
from Venus. The goddess, therefore, sent was succeeded by Cranaus, who b to
Tisiphone, one of the furies, to the house of reign 1506 B.C.; Amphictyon, 1497; Erich
Athamas, who became inflamed with such thonius, 1487; Pandion, 1437; Erichtheus,
sudden fury, that he took Ino to be a lioness. 1397; Cecrops 2d, 1347; Pandion 2d, 1307;
and her two children to be whelps. In this AEgenus, 1283; Theseus, 1235; Menestheus,
fit of madness he snatched Learchus from her, 1205; Demophoon, 1182; Oxyntes, 1149;
and killed him against a wall; upon which Aphidas, 1137; Thymoetes, 1136; Melan
Ino fled with Melicerta, and with him in her thus, 1128; and Codrus, 1091, who was kill
arms, she threw herself into the sea from a ed after a reign of 21 years. The history of
high rock, and was changed into a sea deity. the twelve first of these monarchs is mostly
After this, Athamas recovered the use of his fabulous. After the death of Codrus, the mo
senses; and as he was without children, he narchical power was abolished, and the state
adopted Coronus and Aliartus, the sons of was governed by 13 perpetual, and, 317 years
Thersander his nephew. Hygin. fab. 1, 2, 5, after, by 7 decennial, and lastly, B. C. 684,
239.-Apollod. 1, c. 7 and 9.-Ovid. Met. 4. after an anarchy of 3 years, by annual ma
v. 467, &c. Fast. 6, v. 489.—Paus. 9, c. 34. gistrates, called archons. [vid. Archontes.]
ATH AMANti iDEs, a patronymic of Meli Under this democracy, the Athenians signa
certa, Phryxus, or Helle, children of Atha. lized themselves by their valour in the field,
mas. Orid. Met. 13, v. 319. Fast. 4, v. 903. their munificence, and the cultivation of the
At HANAsius, a bishop of Alexandria, ce. fine arts. They were deemed so powerful
lebrated for his sufferings, and the determin. by the Persians, that Xerxes, when he invad
ed opposition he maintained against Arius and ed Greece, chiefly directed his arms against
his doctrine. His writings, which were nume Athens, which he took and burnt. Their
rous, and some of which have perished, con military character was chiefly displayed in
tain a defence of the mystery of the Trinity. the battles of Marathon, of Salamis, of Pla
the divinity of the Word and of the Holy taea, and of Mycale. Aſter these immortal vic

tories, they rose in consequence and dignity, thought themselves the most ancient nation
and they demanded the superiority in the af. of Greece, and supposed themselves the ori
fairs of Greece. The town was rebuilt and isinal inhabitants of Attica, for which reason
embellished by Themistocles, and a new and they were called avtox&ors: produced from
magnificent harbour erected. [rid. Piraeus.] the same earth which they inhabited, yº) syst:
Their success made them arrogant, and they sons of the earth, and terti) tº grasshoppers.
raised contentions among the neighbouring They sometimes wore golden grasshoppers in
states, that they inight aggrandize themselves their hair as badges of honour, to distinguish
by their fall. The luxury and intemperance, then from other people of later origin and
which had been long excluded from the city by less noble extraction, because those insects
the salutary laws of their countrymen Draco are supposed to be sprung from the ground.
and Solon,creeped by degrees amoug all ranks The Athenians appear to have called them
of people, and soon after all Greece united to iselves Autocthomes, from the fact of their
destroy that city which claimed a sovereign country having never, with the exception of
power over all the rest. The Peloponnesian the Pelasgi, been held for any length of time
war, though at first a private quarrel, was by a foreign tribe.] The number of men
soon fomented into an universal war; and able to bear arms at Athens in the reign of
the arms of all the states of Peloponnesus, Cecrops was computed at 20,000, and there
(vid. Peloponnesiacum Bellum.) were direct appeared no considerable augmentation in
ed against Athens, which, after 28 years of the more civilized age of Pericles; but in
misfortune and bloodshed, was taken the 24th the time of Demetrius Phalereus there were
April, 404 years before the christian era, by found 21,000 citizens, 10,000 foreigners, and
Lysander. After this, the Athenians were 40,000 slaves Among the numerous tem
oppressed by 30 tyrants, and for a while la ples and public edifices none was more cele
boured under the weight of their own cala brated than that of Minervu, which, after be
mities. [rid. Thrasybulus.] They recover ing burnt by the Persians, was rebuilt by
ed something of their usual spirit in the age Pericles, with the finest marble, and still ex
of Philip, and boldly opposed his ambitious ists a venerable monument of the hero's pa
views; but their short-lived efforts were not triotism, and of the abilities of the archi
of great service to the interests of Greece, tect. Cic ad Attic, in Verr. &c.—Thucyd.
and they fell into the hands of the Romans. 1, &c.—Justin. 2, &c.—Diod. 13, &c.—JE
B. C. 36. The Athenians have been admir lºan. V. H.-Plin. 7, c. 56.-Xenop. Memo
ed in all ages for their love of liberty, and rab-Plut. in riſis, &c.—Strab. 9,8-c.—Paus.
for the great men that were born among 1, &c.—Wal. Maw.—Liv. 31, &c.—C. Nep.
them; but favour here was attended with in Milt. &c.—Polyb.—Patercul.
Athen ÆA, festivals celebrated at Athens
danger; and there are very few instances in
in honour of Minerva. One of them was
the history of Athens, that can prove that the
jealousy and frenzy of the people did not pro called Panathentra, and the other Chalcea;
secute and disturb the peace of the man who for an account of which see those words.
had fought their battles, and exposed his life ATHEN Euxt, a place at Athens, sacred to
in the defence of his country. Perhaps, not Minerva,[or, more properly, set apart for the
one single city in the world can boast in such exercises over which she presided.] where
a short space of time, of such a number of the poets, philosophers, and rhetoricians ge
truly illustrious citizens, equally celebrated nerally declaimed and repeated their compo
for their humanity, their learning, and their sitions. It was public to all the professors of
military abilities. The Romans, in the more the liberal arts. The same thing was adopt
polished ages of their republic, sent their ed at Rome by Adrian, who made a public
youths to finish their education at Athens, building for the same laudable purposes.
and re-pected the learning, while they des. [ The ancient Athenaea were in the form of
pised the military character of the inhabit amphitheatres.].
ants. The reputation the Athenian schools At HENAEus, a Greek cosmographer.——
had acquired under Socrates and Plato, was A peripatetic philosopher of Cilicia in the
maintained by their degenerate and less time of Augustus. Strab. A Spartan sent
learned successors; and they flourished with by his countrymen to Athens, to war. settle the
peace during the Peloponnesian A
diminished lustre, till an edict of the emperor
Justinian suppressed, with the Roman con grammarian of Naucratis, who composed an
sulship, the philosophical meetings of the elegant and miscellaneous work, called Deip
academy. It has been said by Plutarch, that nosophista, replete with very curious and in
the good men whom Athens produced were teresting remarks and anecdotes of the man
the most just and equitable in the world; mers of the ancients, and likewise valuable
but that its bad citizens could not be surpass for the scattered pieces of ancient poetry it
ed in any age or country, for their impiety, preserves. [The fable of the work is as fol
perfidiousness, or cruelties. Their criminals lows: A great number of learned men, among
were always put to death by drinking the whom we find the celebrated Galen, assem
juice of hemlock. The ancients, to distin ble at the table of Larensius, a liberal and
guish Athens in a more peculiar manner. wealthy Roman, where they bestow as large
called it Astu, one of the eyes of Greece, the a portion of erudition upon every part of
learned city, theof
school of the The
world,Athenians the entertainment as the memory or common
the com place
men patroness Greece. book of the author could supply. The

number of theatrical pieces alone which influence of the counsels of Athenodorus.)

Athenaeus appears to have consulted in com |Athenodori's died in his 82d year, much la
piling his work, was probably not less than mented by his countrymen, [for whom he had
2000: the middle Comedy furnished him obtained many favours from Augustus, es
with 800 of these. Athenaeus declares him pecially relief from some of the taxes by
self a little posterior to the poet Oppian, which they were oppressed.] Suet. A
which fixes the time when he flourished at poet who wrote comedy, tragedy, and elegy,
about the beginning of the 3d century of the in the age of Alexander. Plut. in Aler.
christian era. His work has been the prey [A stoic philosopher of Tarsus, a native. as
of successive compilers, furnishing abundant is thought, of Pergamus. He was keeper of
materials to Elian ; the idea and form of the library at Pergamus, and the intimate
his Saturnalia to Macrobius ; and much of friend of Cato of Utica, by whom he was pre
his learning to Eustathius. A single manu vailed upon to take an active part in the war
script is all that remains, exclusive of an which the latter had undertaken for the res
abridgment of the work, whose age is un toration of Roman freedom. He died with
certain. This manuscript was brought from Cato, according to Strabo.]
Greece by Cardinal Bessarion. After his Athºsis, now.1dige, a river of Cisalpine
death it passed to St. Mark's library at We Gaul, [rising in the Rhaetian Alps, and falling
nice, and from thence, during the successes into the Adriatic, north of the Po.] Pirg.
of the French, was carried to Paris. There JEn. 9, v. 680.
are many copies of it in Europe. It wants the Athos, [a mountain in the district Chal
first two books, the beginning of the 3d, a cidice of Macedonia. It is situate on a pe
few leaves of the 11th, and part of 2 leaves of ninsula between the Sinus Strymonicus or
the 15th book. This deficiency has been in Gulf of Contessa, and the Sinus Singiticus or
part supplied by the abridgment: but the Gulf of Monte Santo. It is so high that ac
text, especially the poetical part, still remain cording to Plutarch and Pliny, it projected
in a very unsettled state, owing to the want its shadow, at the summer solstice on the
of more manuscripts.] Athenaeus wrote, market-place of Myrina, the capital city of
besides, an history of Syria and other works, the island of Lemnos, though at the distance
now lost. He died A. D. 194. The best edi of 87 miles. On this account a brazen cow
tions of his works are that of Causaubon, fol. was erected at the termination of the sha
2 vols. Lugd. 1612, by far superior to the edi dow, with this inscription,
tions of 1595 and 1657, [and that of Schweig Ağac waxwºrts, ºratwgz Anarua, 8-or-l
haeuser, Argentorati, 1801-7, in 14 vols. 8vo.] When Xerxes invaded Greece, he made a
A brother of king Eumenes 2d, famous trench of a mile and a half in length at the
for his paternal affection.—[A mathemati foot of the mountain, into which he brought
cian, who flourished B. C. 200; his country the sea-water, and conveyed his fleet over it,
is not known. He wrote a treatise on ma so that two ships could pass one another, thus
chines of war, which is preserved in the desirous either to avoid the danger of sailing
collection of Ancient Mathematicians, pub round the promontory, or to show his vanity
lished at Paris in 1693, in ſol.] A physici and the extent of his power. [This trench is
an of Cilicia, in the age of Pliny, who made said to have been cut in the vicinity of the
heat, cold, wet, dry, and air, the elements, cities Acanthus and Sana. Traces of it were
instead of the four commonly received. to be seen for a long time after. The neck
ATHENAgoras, a christian philosopher, [a of land through which it was cut was seven
native of Athens, and flourished towards the stadia in breadth; according to Herodotus,
close of the second century,) who wrote a twelve. The fleet of Mardonius had previ
treatise on the resurrection, and an apology ously met with a severe loss in doubling this
for the christians, still extant. He died A. D. same promontory.] A sculptor, called Di
177. The best edition of his works is that of mocrates, offered Alexander to cut mount
IDechair, 8vo. Oxon. 1706.--—The romance Athos, and to make with it a statue of the
of Theagenes and Charis is falsely ascribed king holding a town in his left hand, and in
to him. [This romance was the production the right a spacious basin, to receive all the
of a Frenchman named Martin Fumée. It waters which flowed from it. Alexander
was published in 1599 and 1612 in French, greatly admired the plan but objected to the
and purported to be a translation from a place; and he observed that the neighbour
Greek manuscript brought from the east. ing country was not sufficiently fruitful to
No such manuscript ever existed.] produce corn and provisions for the inhabit
Athrºnion, a peripatetic philosopher, 108 ants which were to dwell in the city in the
B. C.—[A Greek historical painter, who hand of the statue. Athos is now called
flourished B. C. 300.] ..Monte Santo, famous for monasteries said to
Athenopónus, a philosopher intimate contain some ancient and valuable manus
with Augustus, [born at Cana near Tarsus cripts. [Dr. Clarke brought away several
in Cilicia.] The emperor often profited by of these, and among the rest, a manuscript of
his lessons, and was advised by him always Plato, which has not, however, answered the
to repeat the 24 letters of the Greek alpha expectations that had been formed of it...]
bet before he gave way to the impulse of Herodot. 6, c. 44, 1.7, c. 21, &c.—Lucan. Q,
anger. [Zosimus attributes the mild plan v. 672.-JElian. de Anim. 13, c. 20, &c.—
of government adopted by Augustus to the Plin. 4, c. 10.—./Eschin, contra Ctesiph.
1 10

ATHYMBRA, a city of Caria, afterwards wards, the sea in that quarter was full of shoals.
called Nyssa. Strab. 14. Admitting that Atlantis was situate in the
ATIA, a law enacted A. U. C. 690, by T. ocean which at present bears its name,the most
Atius Labienus, the tribune of the people. It probable opinion seems to be that it extended
abolished the Cornelian law, and put in full from the Canaries to the Azores, and that these
force the Lex Domitia, by transferring the islands are the remains of it not swallowed up
right of electing priests from the college of by the sea. A diligent examination, however,
priests to the people.—The mother of Au of ancient authorities, seems strongly to coun
gustus. vid. Accia. tenance the opinion that Atlantis was a
ATILIA LEx, gave the praetor and a majo powerful and flourishing region, sudden
rity of the tribunes, power of appointing ly engulphed by some sub-aqueous convul
guardians to those minors who were not pre sion of mature, and not an actual island.
viously provided for by their parents. It Was it the ancient land of Lectonia, which
was enacted about A. U. C. 443.-Amo at present lies buried beneath the waters of
ther, A. U. C. 443, which gave the people the Mediterranean * (vid. Lectonia.) or was
power of electing 16 tribunes of the soldiers it a highly civilized and populous region in
in four legions. Liv. 9, c. 30. the vicinity of the Caspian, and inundated by
Atulius, a freed man, who exhibited com it 2 The central plain of Asia seems to have
bats of gladiators at Fidenae. The amphi. been the cradle of our race, and there, if
theatre, which contained the spectators, fell any where, ought we to look for the first
during the exhibition, and about 50,000 per powerful and flourishing communities. May
sons were killed or mutilated. Tacit. 4, .1nn. not the Atlantic Sea of which the Egyptians
c. 62. made mention to Plato have been the vast sea
Armlı.A, the mother of the poet Lucan. which once covered so much of Asia?]
She was accused of conspiracy by her son, AtLAs, one of the Titans, son of Japetus
who expected to clear himself of the charge. and Clymene, one of the Oceanides. He was
Tacit. Ann. 15, c. 56. brother to Epimetheus, Prometheus, and
ATIN1A lex, was enacted by the tribune Menoetius. His mother's name, according to
Atinius, [A. U. C. 623.} It gave a tribune of Apollodorus, was Asia. He married Pleione,
the commons the privilege of a senator and daughter of Oceanus, or Hesperis, according
the right of sitting in the senate. to others, by whom he had seven daughters,
ATLANTEs, a people of Africa in the neigh called Atlantides. (vid. Atlantides.) He was
bourhood of mount Atlas, who lived on no king of Mauritania, and master of a thou
thing that had life, and were said not to have sand flocks of every kind, as also of beautiful
their sleep at all disturbed by dreams. They gardens, abounding in every species of fruit,
daily cursed the sun at his rising and at his which he had intrusted to the care of a dra
setting, because his excessive heat scorched gon. Perseus, after the conquest of the Gor
and tormented them. Herodot. gons, passed by the palace of Atlas, and de
ATLANTIDEs or ATLANTÉ1, a people of manded hospitality. The king, who was in
Africa, near mount Atlas. They boasted of formed by an oracle of Themis that he should
being in possession of the country in which all be dethroned by one of the descendants of Ju
the gods of antiquity received their birth. piter, refused to receive him, and even offer
Uranus was their first king, whom, on ac led him violence. Perseus, who was unequal
count of his knowledge of astronomy, they in strength, showed him Medusa's head, and
enrolled in the number of their gods. Diod Atlas was instantly changed into a large
3. [This people, of whom Diodorus speaks, nountain. This mountain, which runs across
if they ever existed, must have been distinct the deserts of Africa, east and west, is so high
from the Atlantes of Herodotus.] The that the ancients have imagined that the
daughters of Atlas, seven in number, Maia, heavens rested on its top, and that Atlas sup
Electra, Taygeta, Asterope, Merope, Alcyo ported the world on his shoulders. [The
ne, and Celaeno. They married some of the chain of Atlas is highest and broadest in the
gods and most illustrious heroes, and their kingdom of Morocco, where it rises in some
thildren were founders of many nations and places to the height of 13,000 feet above the
cities. The Atlantides were called nymphs, level of the sea..] Hyginus says that Atlas
and even goddesses, on account of their great assisted the giants in their wars against the
intelligence and knowledge. The name of gods, for which Jupiter compelled him to bear
Hesperides was also given them, on account the heavens on his shoulders. The fable that
of their mother Hesperis. They were made Atlas supported the heavens on his back, ari
constellations after death. vid. Pleiades. ses from his fondness for astronomy, and his of.
ATLANTIs, a celebrated island mentioned ten frequenting elevated places and moun
by the ancients. Its situation is unknown, tains, whence he might observe the heaven
aud even its existence doubted by some wri ly bodies. [It is doubted whether the true
ters. [Plato gives an account of this island Atlas may not have been Mount.Altai in In
in his Timaeus and Critias. According to dependent Tartary, and the fables relating
him, it was a large island in the western to it, together with its name, have been in
ocean, opposite the straits of Gades or Gibral process of time transferred to the African
tºr. He speaks of it as having been in a mountain.] The daughters of Atlas were car
uigh degree fertile and productive. It sunk ried away by Busiris king of Egypt, but re
at last under water, and for a long time after deemed by Hercules, who received as a re
11 |

ward from the father the knowledge of astrono succeeded him on the throne. He marrie.],
my, and a celestial globe. This knowledge Her. a some report, Ærope his predecessor’s
cules communicated to the Greeks; whence daughter, by whom he had Plisthenes. Mene
the fable has further said, that he eased for laus, and Agamemnon. Others affirm that
some time the labour of Atlas, by taking up Frope was the wife of Plisthenes, by whom
on his shoulders the weight of the heavens. she had Agamemnon and Menelaus, who
According to some authors, there were two are the reputed sons of Atreus, because that
other persons of that name, a king of Italy, prince took care of their education. and
father of Electra, and a king of Arcadia, fa brought them up as his own. (vid. Plisthenes.)
ther of Maia, the mother of Mercury. Virg. Thyestes had followed his brother to Argos,
JEn. 4, p. 481, l. 8, v. 186 —Ovid...Met. 4, fab. where he lived with him, and debauched his
17.-Diod. 3.-Lucan. 9, v. 667, &c.—Val wife, by whom he had two, or, according to
Flacc. 5.—Hygin. 83, 125, 155, 157, 192– some, three children. This incestuous com
.4ratus in Astron.—Apollod. 1.-Hesiod. The merce offended Atreus, and Thyestes was ba
og. v. 508, &c.—A river flowing from mished from his court. He was, however,
mount Haemus into the Ister. Herodot. 4, soon after recalled by his brother, who deter
c. 49. mined cruelly to revenge the violence offered
Atossa, a daughter of Cyrus, who was to his bed. To effect this purpose, he invited
one of the wives of Cambyses, Smerdis, and his brother to a sumptuous feast, where Thy
afterwards of Darius, by whom she had Xer estes was served up with the flesh of the chil.
xes. She was cured of a dangerous cancer by dren he had had by his sister-in-law the
Democedes. She is supposed by some to be the queen. After the repast was finished, the
Vashti of Scripture. Herodot. 3, c. 68, &c. arms and heads of the murdered children
Atkäces, a people of Ætolia, who receiv were produced, to convince Thyestes of
ed their names from Atrax, son of AEtolus. what he had feasted upon. This action ap
Their country was called Atracia. peared so cruel and impious, that the sun is
ATRAx, a son of AEtolus, or, according to said to have shrunk back in his course at the
others, of the river Peneus. He was king of bloody sight. Thyestes immediately fled to
Thessaly, and built a town which he called the court of Thesprotus, and thence to Sicy
Atrax or Atracia. This town became so fa on, where he ravished his own daughter Pe
mous, that the word Atracius has been ap lopea, in a grove sacred to Minerva, without
plied to any inhabitant of Thessaly. He was knowing who she was. This incest he com
father to Hippodamia, who married Pirithous, mitted intentionally, as some report, to re
and whom we must not confound with the venge himself on his brother Atreus, accord
wife of Pelops, who bore thesame name. Pro ing to the word of the oracle, which promis
pert. 1. el. 8, v. 25.—Stat. 1, Theb. v. 106. ed him satisfaction for the cruelties he had
—Ovid. Met. 12, v. 209.--A city of Thessa suffered, only from the hand of a son who
ly, whence the epithet of Atracius. A ri should be borne of himself and his own
ver of Ætolia, which falls into the Ionian sea. daughter. Pelopea brought forth a son,
AREBRT E, a people of Britain [south-west whom she called Ægisthus, and soon aftershe
of the Trinobantes. They occupied what is married Atreus, who had lost his wiſe. Atre
now Berkshire, and part of Orfordshire. us adopted AEgisthus, and sent him to mur
Their principal town was Callera, probably der Thyestes, who had been seized at Delphi,
Silchester.] and imprisoned. Thyestes knew his son, and
At REBRTEs, now Artois, a people of Gaul, made himself known to him ; he made him
who, together with the Nervii, opposed J. espouse his cause, and instead of becoming
Caesar with 15,000 men. They were con his father's murderer, he rather avenged his
quered, and Comius, a friend of the general, wrongs, and returned to Atreus, whom he as
was set over them as king. They were sassinated. vid. Thyestes, Ægisthus Pelopea,
reinstated in their former liberty and inde Agamemnon, and Menelaus.-Hygin. fab. 83,
pendence, on account of the services of Co 86, 87, 88, and 258.-Erripid. in Orest. in
mius. [Their chief city was Nemetacum or Iphig. Taur.—Plut. in Parall.—Paus. 9, c.
Nemetocenna, afterwards Atrebates, now Ar 40.-Apollod. 3, c. 10–Senec. in Atr.
ras, or, as the Flemings call it, Atrecht.] Caps. At RidAE, a patronymic given by Homer
Bell. Gall. 2, &c. to Agamemnon and Menelaus, as being the
Athers, son of Pelops by Hippodamia, sons of Atreus. This is false, upon the au
daughter of OEnomaus king of Pisa, was king thority of Hesiod, Lactantius, Dictys of
of Mycenae, and brother to Pittheus, Troe Crete, &c. who maintain that these princes
zen, Thyestes, and Chrysippus. As Chry were not the sons of Atreus, but of Plisthe
sippus was an illegitimate son, and at the same nes, and that they were brought up in the
time a favourite of his father, Hippodamia house and under the eye of their grandfa
resolved to remove him. She persuaded her ther. vid. Plisthenes.
sons Thyestes and Atreus to murder him ; At RopateNE or ATRoPATIA, [a name
but their refusal exasperated her more, and given to the north-western part of Media, be:
she executed it herself. This murder was tween Mount Taurus and the Caspian Sea.
grievous to Pelops; he suspected his two It received this name from Atropates, a satrap
sons, who fled away from his presence. Atre of this province, who, after the death of Alex
us retired to the court of Eurysthenes king ander, rendered himselfindependent, and took
of Argos, his nephew, and upon his death he the title of king which his successors enjoyed

for many ages. It was a cold, barren, and make experiments on the melting of metals.
inhospitable country, and on that account, al He lived in great amity with the Romans;
lotted by Shalmanezar for the residence of and as he died without issue by his wife Bere
many captive Israelites, after the conquest nice, he left in his will the words P. R. meo
of their kingdom. It is now called.Aderbigi rum hares esto, which the Romans interpret
an, from the Persian term.Ader signifying fire; ed as themselves, and therefore took posses
according to the tradition that Zerdust or sion of his kingdom, B C. 123, and made of it
Zoroaster lighted a pyre, or, temple of fire, a Roman province, which they governed by a
in a city, samed Urmiah, of this his native proconsul. From this circumstance, what
country. Its metropolis was Gaza, now Te ever was a valuable acquisition, or an ample
brir, or, as it is more commonly pronounced, fortune, was always called by the epithet of
Tauris.] Strab. .4ttalicus. Attalus, as well as his predeces
ATRøros, one of the Parcae, daughters of Nox sors, made themselves celebrated for the va
and Erebus. According to the derivation of luable libraries which they collected at Per
her name (a men, retra verto,) she is inexora. gamus, and for the patronage which merit
ble and inflexible, and her duty among the and virtue always ſound at their court. Liv.
three sisters, is to cut the thread of life, with 24, &c.—Plin. 7, 8, 33, &c.—Justin. 39.-
ontany regard to sex, age, or quality. She was Horat. 1, od 1 —A philosopher, preceptor
represented by the ancients in a black veil, to Seneca. Senec. ep. 108. An astrono
with a pair of scissors in her hand. vid. Parcae. mer of Rhodes.
T. Q. ATTA, a writer of merit in the Au Attrius Capito, a consul in the age of
gustan age, who seems to have received this Augustus, who wrote treatises on sacerdotal
name from some deformity in his legs or feet. laws, public courts of justice, and the duty of
His compositions, dramatical as well as satiri a senator. vid. Ateius.
cal, were held in universal admiration, though At this, a daughter of Cranaus the 2d,
Horace thinks of them with indifference. king of Athens, who gave her name to Atti
Horat. 2, ep. 1, v. 79. ca, according to Apollod. 3, c. 14.
Atrilia, a city of Pamphylia, [south-west Attic A, [a country of Greece, without the
of Perga.] built by king Attalus. [The site Peloponnesus, forming a kind of triangular
of this city is called Palaia Antalia, while peninsula, and bounded on the north by Boeo
the modern city of Antalia, or, as it is com tia and the Euripus; on the west by Megaris;
Inonly called, Satalia, answers to the ancient on the south by the Sinus Saronicus; and on
Olbia.] Strab. the east by part of the Ægean sea; extend
AT rallicus. vid. Attalus 3d. ing from north-west to south-east about 80
ATTALUs ist, king of Pergamus, succeed miles, with decreasing breadth, but at an
ed Eumenes 1st. He defeated the Gauls who average about 40 miles. It received its
had invaded his dominions, and extended his name from Atthis the daughter of Cranaus,
conquests to mount Taurus. [He formed an according to some The better derivation of
alliance with the Romans, whom he vigorous the name, however, is from Acte, the Greek
ly assisted in their two wars against Philip of term for shore, the country being of a penin
Macedon. In conjunction with the Athenians sular shape.] It was originally called Ionia,
he invaded Macedonia, and recalled Philip from the tonians, [rid. Iones, and Cecro
from his enterprise undertaken against A pia, from Cecrops, the first of its kings, who
thens; on which account the Athenians gave led an Egyptian colony into this country
his name to one of their tribes.] He died at B. C. 1556. The most famous of its cities
Pergamus, after a reign of 44 years, B. C. is called Athens, whose inhabitants some
197. Liv. 26, 27, 28, &c.—Polyb. 5.-Strab. times bear the name of Attici. [The face of
13--The 2d of that name, was sent on an the country was partly level and partly
embassy to Rome by his brother Eumenes mountainous, and the sterility of the soil so
the 2d, and at his return was appointed guar great as to require assiduous industry to pro
diaa to his nephew Attalus the 3d, who was duce the common necessaries of life. Attica
then an infant. Prusias made successful war thus presented little temptation to plunder
against him, and seized his capital; but the ing or conquering invaders, while at the same
onquest was stopped by the interference of time its physical deficiencies operated direct
the Romans, who restored Attalus to his ly to invigorate the intellectual and moral
throne. Attalus, who has received the name energies of the people.] vid. Athenae.
of Philadelphus, from his fraternal love, was a Atticos, (T. Pomponius) a celebrated
runnificent patron eflearning, and the founder Roman knight to whom Cicero wrote a great
of several cities. He was poisoned by his number of letters, which contained the gene
nephew in the 82d year of his age, B.C. 138. ral history of the age. They are now extant,
He had governed the nation with great pru and divided into 17 books. In the time of
dence and moderation for 20 years. Strab. Marius and Sylla, Atticus retired to Athens,
13.-Polyb. 5. The 3d, succeeded to the where he so endeared himself to the citizens,
kingdom of Pergamus by the murder of At that after his departure, they created statues
talus the 2d, and made himself odious by his to him in commemoration of his munificencc
cruelty to his relations and his wanton exer. and liberality. He was such a perfect mas
ºse of power He was son to Eumenes 2d, ter of the Greek writers, and spoke their lam
and surnamed Philopator. He left the cares guage so fluently, that he was surnamed 4t
ºf government to cultivate his garden, and te ticus; and, as a proof f his learning, he fa

voured the world with some of his composi Atys, an ancient king of Lydia, who serir
tions. He behaved in such a disinterested away his son Tyrrhenus with a colony of
manner, that he offended neither of the inimi Lydians, who settled in Italy. Herodot. 1, c.
cal parties of Rome, and both were equally 7. A son of Croesus king of Lydia. He
anxious of courting his approbation. He was forbidden the use of all weapons by his
lived in the greatest intimacy with the illus father, who had dreamt that he had been kill
trious men of his age, as he was such a lover ed. Some time after this, Atys prevailed on
of truth, that he not only abstained from false his father to permit him to go to hunt a wild
hood even in a joke, but treated with the boar which laid waste the country of Mysia,
greatest contempt and indignation a lying and he was killed in the hunt by Adrastus
tongue. It is said that he refused to take all whom Croesus had appointed guardian over
ment when unable to get the better of a his son, and thus the apprehensions of the
[painful disorder of the intestines, and died monarch were realized. Herodot. 1, c. 34, &c.
in his 77th year, B. C. 32, after bearing the —vid. Adrastus.
A Trojan, who came to
amiable character of peace-maker among his Italy with Æneas, and is supposed to be the
friends. Cornelius.Wepos, one of his intimate progenitor of the family of the Attii at Rome.
friends, has written a minute account of his Virg. JEn. 5, v. 568. A son of Limniace,
life. Cie. ad. Attic. &c. Herodes, an the daughter of the river Ganges, who assist
Athenian in the age of the Antonines, descend ed Cepheus in preventing the marriage of
ed from Miltiades, and celebrated for his mu Andromeda, and was killed by Perseus with
niſicence. His son of the same name, was a burning log of wood. Ovid. Met. 5, v. 47.
honoured with the consulship, and he gene A celebrated shepherd of Phrygia, of
rously erected an aqueduct at Troas, of whom the mother of the gods, generally call
which he had been made governor by the ed Cybele, became enamoured. She intrust
emperor Adrian, and raised in other parts of ed him with the care of her temple, and made
the empire several public buildings as useful him promise he always would live in celiba
as they were magnificent.—Philostrat. in. vit. cy. He violated his vow by an amour with
2, p. 548.-4. Gell. noct. Att. the nymph Sangaris, for which the goddess
Attila, a celebrated king of the Huns, a made him so insane and delirious, that he cas
nation in the southern parts of Scythia, who trated himself with a sharp stone. This was
invaded the Roman empire in the reign of afterwards intentionally made by his sacer
Valentinian, with an army of 500,000 men, dotal successors in the service of Cybele, to
and laid waste the rovinces. He took the prevent their breaking their vows of per
town of Aquileia, and marched against Rome; petual chastity. This account is the most
but his retreat and peace were purchased general and most approved. Others say
with a large sum of money by the feeble em that the goddess became fond of Atys, be
peror. Attila, surnamed the scourge of God, cause he had introduced her festivals in the
died A. D. 453, of an uncommon effusion of greatest part of Asia Minor, and that she her
blood the first might of his nuptials. [His bo self mutilated him. Pausanias relates, in
dy was secretly buried, enclosed in three cof .Achaia, c. 17, that Atys was the son of the
fins, the first of gold, the second of silver, and
daughter of Sangar, who became pregnant by
the third of iron. Those who had been employ putting the bow of an almond tree in her
ed about his grave were put to death, lest bosom. Jupiter, as the passage mentions,
they should reveal the place of his interment. once had an amorous dream, and some of the
vid. Bayle Dict. art. Attila, for other particuimpurity of the god fell upon the earth, which
lars respecting this savage conqueror.] He soon after produced a monster of an human
had expressed his wish to extend his conquests form, with the characteristics of the two
over the whole world; and he often feasted Sexes. This monster was called Agdistis,
his barbarity by dragging captive kings in his and was deprived by the gods of those parts
train. Jornand. de Reb. Get. which distinguished themale sex. From the
Attilius, a Roman consul in the first mutilated parts, which were thrown upon the
Punic war. vid. Regulus.-Calatinus, a ground, rose an almond tree, one of whose
Roman consul who ſought the Carthaginian branches a nymph of the Sangar gathered
fleet. Marcus, a poet who translated the and placed in her bosom as mentioned above.
Electra of Sophocles into Latin verse, and Atys, as soon as born, was exposed in a wood,
wrote comedies, whose unintelligible lan but preserved by a she-goat. The genius
guage procured him the appellation of Ferreus. Agdistis saw him in the wood, and was cap
—Regulus, a Roman censor who built a tivated with his beauty. As Atys was going
temple to the goddess of Concord. Lir. 23, to celebrate his nuptials with the daughter of
c. 23, &c.—The name of Attilius was comthe king of Pessinus, Agdistis, who was jea
mon, among the Romans, and many of the lous of his rival, inspired by his enchantments *
public magistrates are called Attilii; their the king and his future son-in-law with such
lives, however, are not famous for any illus an uncommon fury, that they both attacked
trious event, and mutilated one another in the struggle.
At URUS, a river of Gaul, now the Adour, Orid says, JMet. 10, fab. 2, &c. that Cybele
which runs at the ſoot of the Pyrenean moun changed Atys into a pine-tree as he was going
tains into the Bay of Biscay. Lucan. 1, v.420. to lay violent hands upon himself, and ever
3i ATYADAE, the descendants of Atys the Ly after that tree was sacred to the mother of
the gods. After his death, Atys received di.

vine houours, and temples were raised to hisfables, however, met with their overthrow,
memory, particularly at Dindyma. Catull. when Agrippa, in order to render so remark
de ..?ty. § Beree.—Ovid...Met. 10, fab.3, Fast.
able a spot easier of access to the numerous
4, v. 223, &c.—Lucan. in Deá Syria. strangers whom curiosity attracted thither,
- Sylvus, son of Albius Sylvius, was king of cut down the woods and cleared the adjacent
Alba. Lir. 1, c. 3. country. Two roads were cut for this same
Avanicum, [a strong and fortified town of purpose, one through a mountain which se
Gaul, the capital of the Bituriges, now Bour parated the lake from Cumae, and another
ges. It received its former appellation from through a second mountain between Puteoli
the river Avara or Eure, one of the southern and Naples. Remains of each are to be seen
branches of the Liger. It was taken by Cae at the present day, the one being termed the
sar during the Gallic wars, and its inhabit Grotto of Pausilipo, the other the Grotto of
ants massacred.] Cors. Bell. Gall. 7. the Sibyl. vid. Lacus Lucrinus and Julius
Avestinus, a son of Hercules, by Rhea, Portus.] The waters of the Avernus were
who assisted Turnus against Æneas, and dis indispensably necessary in all enchantments
tinguished himself by his valour. Virg. JEn. and magical processes. It may be observed,
7, v. 657.-A king of the Alba, buried that all lakes, whose stagnated waters were
upon mount Aventine. Ovid. Fast. 4, v. putrid and offensive to the smell, were indis
51.-One of the seven hills on which part criminately called Averna. [These are said
of the city of Rome was built. It was [18 to be very frequent in Hungary on account
stadia] in circumference, and was given to of the abundance of mines there.] Virg. .ºn.
the people to build houses upon by king An 4, v. 5–12, &c. l. 6, v. 201, &c.—-Mela, 2, c.
eus Martius. It was not reckoned within the 4.—Strab. 5.-Diod. 4.—Aristot. de Adm.
precincts of the city till the reign of the em. AUFEIA AauA, called afterwards Marcia,
peror Claudius, because the soothsayers look was the sweetest and most wholesome water
ed upon it as a place