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International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 (2009


Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from
selected commercial tubers available in Australia

Aprianita, A., 1Purwandari, U., 2Watson, B. and 1,3*Vasiljevic, T.
School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, 2Food Marketing Research Unit and Institute

for Sustainability and Inovation, 3Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science,Victoria
University, Werribee Campus. PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Abstract: Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches extracted from the tubers, taro, yam, and sweet
potato commercially available in Australia were investigated. Results pointed out that each of the different
tubers might be utilized for specific applications in food processing. In contrast to the sweet potato and yam
flours and starches, with larger particle size distributions from 28.3 and 251 µm, the taro flour with a mean
particle distribution size from 1.067-64.19 µm is better suited in applications where improved binding and
reduced breakability is required. Paste clarity of the sweet potato was above 30% light transmittance whereas
the other two tubers (yam and taro) had less than 10% light transmittance in both cases. All flours and starches
exhibited variable pasting behavior, with starches having a higher viscosity. Among flours, taro had the highest
peak and final viscosity. Yam flour and starch were more stable against heat and mechanical treatment. The
extracted mucilage from these tubers showed apparent shear thinning behavior. Concentration dependant flow
behavior of all mucilage samples was successfully fitted by the Power Law (Ostwald), Hershel Buckley and
Casson models.

Keywords: Physico-chemical properties, taro, yam, sweet potato, flour, starch

Introduction With these benefits in mind an examination of the
physicochemical properties of some representative
Tubers and roots are important sources of tubers and roots was undertaken. The food industry
carbohydrates as an energy source and are used as utilises some tubers and roots for their flour and
staple foods in tropical and sub tropical countries starch products and literature reports on the uses
(Liu et al., 2006). These products have nutritionally of such. However upon examination of available
beneficial components, such as a resistant starch and literature, it is evident that very little physiochemical
mucilage. Resistant starch has been attributed with characterization of these tubers’ starches, flours and
a slow digestion in the lower parts of the human mucilage has been undertaken. Such an examination
gastrointestinal tract which results in the slow may demonstrate further potential uses within the
liberation and absorption of glucose and aids in the food industry for the replacement of more traditional
reduction of the risk of obesity, diabetes and other forms of carbohydrates or to produce entirely new
related diseases (Liu et al., 2006). Whereas mucilage food products. Therefore, the present study was
extracted from various tubers and roots has been aimed to assess the physicochemical and functional
reported to possess angiotensin converting enzyme properties of the main components of some starchy
inhibitory (Lee et al., 2003) and antioxidative tubers commercially produced in Australia, in an
activities (Nagai et al., 2006). Also tubers and roots attempt to broaden what applications they may be
do not contain any gluten, which is an important used for within the food industry. The tubers assessed
factor when considering a carbohydrate source. in this study were sweet potato, yam and taro. These
Using tubers as a source of carbohydrate instead tubers were sourced from Queensland (Australia)
of gluten containing carbohydrates, may aid in a from local producers and harvested in March 2007.
reduction in the incidence of celiac disease (CD) or They have been analyzed in this study with the
other allergic reactions (Rekha and Padmaja, 2002). understanding that they are a representative samples

*Corresponding author.
Tel: +61 3 9919 8062; Fax: +61 3 99198284 © All Rights Reserved

. The resistant and sliced into thick chips (~5mm). 60. Sigma) were used to create a standard curve. μm sieve. Materials and Methods Proximate analysis of extracted components All extracted components were assessed for Materials moisture and protein content in accordance with Matured tubers of taro (Colocasia esculenta var. in a large amount of sodium metabisulfit (0. min and oven dried at 30°C for 40 hours until they Ireland). Dynavac Eng.075%). Beckman. This was followed by addition the properties of these products and that.1 M) was added to the in this report are for a preliminary examination into remaining sediment. Subsequently. (Hoover and Ratnayake. This dispersion was centrifuged (Sorvall agglomerates.5% flour and starch suspensions were filtered using a filter paper (110 mm. 2006). This Swelling volume was followed by pellet dissolution in metabisulfit The swelling volume of flour and starch samples solution and centrifugation under conditions as was measured according to Santacruz et al (2003).508 Aprianita. with constant agitation to avoid sedimentation. Amylopectin content was determined by the established procedure (Alves et al. 2002). The flour sample (100 g) was dispersed in 300 until an obscuration of 18-20% was achieved. The particle size distributions of flour and starch samples were measured using a particle size analyzer Mucilage separation (Coulter LS130. Watson. Subsequently. T.. MN. Melbourne. 70. The mucilage concentrate was prepared following Before the measurement. yam (Dioscorea alata) and sweet potato respectively (AACC. B. The difference. the dried the ratio of non-resistant starch to the total amount of chips were milled into flour and sifted through a 300. Ireland). USA). and Vasiljevic.000 x g for 20 min and the supernatant (mucilage) was collected. washed. The supernatant was decanted the light transmittance (%) according to Craig et al. antiquorum). Total starch was measured using total tubers were peeled. described above. The pure potato amylose (Sigma) and corn amylopectin (0-100% Sample preparation amylase. Beauregard) were assessed in was determined using colorimetric method after this study. FL. from one harvest only and that all results contained and sodium hydroxide (0. Received tubers were harvested in March removal of lipids from flours and starches with hot 2007 and were of a uniform medium size and free 75% n-propanol for 7 hours in a Soxhlet extractor from mechanical or pathological injuries. seasons and sites air oven at ~35°C for 30h. the AACC methods (standards #44-15A and 46-12. U.000 x g. 20 min. The resulting supernatant was Briefly. Coulter Corporation.075%) for ~5 a Megazyme resistant starch assay kit (Megazyme. starch assay kit (Megazyme. sieved using a 250 would need to be examined. cut into 1-2 cm cubes. This ml of sodium metabisulfit (0. International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 . RC 5. 0. 2005).075%) and stored at 4°C was followed by sonication for 5 min to disperse any overnight. Ltd.. resistant and non-resistant starch (Liu et al. the background reading the method as described by Jiang and Ramsden for water was recorded and each sample was added (1999). The flour was then packed into a closed container and stored under dry conditions at room Particle size distribution temperature until used for further applications. USA) at 14. the total amylose content Flour extraction of each sample was inferred from this standard Flour extraction was conducted following an curve. and centrifuged (14. This Paste clarity step was repeated until the supernatant layer was The paste clarity was determined by measuring almost colorless. 80. water bath at 50... These chips were starch and non-resistant starch were determined using then soaked in sodium metabisulfit (0. A. For a more of deionized water to wash the pellets until their pH conclusive study further examination of various was neutral. Advantec) and prepared in 15 mL Falcon tubes and heated in a freeze dried (Dynavac freeze drier. The digestibility was determined based on reached ~13% moisture. Total amylose content (Ipomoea batatas var. 2000). ground. 90 or 100°C for 30 min Pty. μm sieve and stored in an air tight container under dry conditions. The sedimented fraction was The pellets obtained from the centrifugation step weighed and its mass related to the mass of dry starch during the mucilage separation were resuspended was expressed as swelling power (w/w). Purwandari. The recovered starch was dried using an samples from different regions. Australia). Sorvall). This was followed by centrifugation (Sorvall) at 1000 x Starch isolation g for 15 min at 20°C.

81 (Anton Paar). however. CT. Each species examined had different well as gelatinization enthalpy (∆H) were reported compositions. Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from selected commercial tubers available in Australia 509 (1989). From this experiment. held at 95°C for 5 min. then 160 rpm for A randomized block design was applied with the reminder of the experiment. Results were analyzed strength. curves were fitted to several rheological models: International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 . also The total amylose content was very low in the equipped with a temperature and moisture regulating taro samples (5. attached to a CR/CS rheometer (MCR 301. Anton Casson yield stress (σoc) was determined as the square Paar. 1°) of the rheometer (Anton Paar). which then was allowed to stand for 2 h at room temperature before analysis to ensure Proximate analysis the equilibration of sample and water. setback. and held at 50°C for 2 min. respectively). Deionized water (11 µl) was added to 3 mg of sample Physicochemical properties: starch and flour in an aluminum pan. USA). The sample was heated from 20 to 120°C with 10°C/min heating Total starch rate. using a General Linear Model (SAS. is the shear rate (1/s). holding with at least 2 sub samplings. Herschel-Buckley and Casson prepared in a screw cap tube and heated at 100oC for models: 30 min with intermittent mixing. cooled to 50°C at 6°C/min.5. Perkin Elmer. All samples were literature. 80. these were Rheological properties of mucilage significantly (p<0. n and n’ are the flow Pasting properties were determined using a starch behavior index.1% and 78. 5. Norwalk. peak viscosity. Starch analyzer-Anton Paar) σ present yield and shear stress. A sample (7% w/w) was was obtained from linear regression of the square equilibrated at 50°C for 1 min.01 to 100 s-1 in a plate and cone geometry (50 mm Amylose diameter.. Melbourne.60% & system (Anton Paar). All suspensions were kept overnight TS was reanalyzed resulting in values comparable to to allow for complete hydration.05. 2005). peak (Tp). and yam flours was comparable (p>0. Casson models: Australia). 2001). Ltd. and σo and cell (Physica Smart. To monitor Ostwald (Power law) model: the tendency for retrogradation. of each sample were inferred from acquired diagrams This block structure was repeated at least three times including the peak time. The level of significance was present at p<0. These observations were in measurements were analyzed with the supporting agreement with previous reports (Srichuwong et al. Germany) and established methodology of the intercept (Koc) and consistency coefficient (Kc) (Jayakody et al.. Thermal properties of flours and starches The thermal properties of the flours and starches were assessed using differential scanning calorimetry Results and Discussion (DSC-7. The tubes were then cooled down and stored at 4oC for 7 days. from 0. The Statistical analysis speed was 960 rpm for the first 10s.. The flow 2005b. to 95°C at 6°C/min. 1996). In which η is the apparent viscosity (Pa s).05) higher than that of sweet potato Mucilage suspensions were prepared at different flour (65%). Examination of literature revealed TS concentrations (2. and final viscosity.. An empty aluminum pan was used as a reference The chemical composition of flours and starches in each measurement. as in Table 1. Varian Australia Pty. Hung and Morita. or 10% w/w) by adding the contents for all three at higher levels so further appropriate quantity of freeze-dried powder to purification of all samples was conducted and the deionized water. K and Pasting properties K’ are consistency index (Pa sn).05. 2007). software Rheoplus/322 v2. then heated from 50 roots of shear rate–shear stress data.59%) while yam and sweet potato hood.1%.12%) (Table 1). The flour and starch dispersions (1%) were Ostwald (Power Law). the percentage of light transmittance was measured at 650 nm each day Herschel-Buckley model: against the water blank using a spectrophotometer (Cary IE. respectively (Pa). GmbH. The total starch (TS) content of taro (Ratnayake et al. the onset extracted from the samples analysed is presented (To). subjected to a shear rate sweep at 20°C. The pasting properties tubers and replications (block) as the main effects. The temperature was controlled with a Peltier contained comparable concentrations (14. and conclusion (Tc) temperature. The data of all rheological 18.

86a 14.28% whilst concentration of only (0. and mucilage extracted from taro. It has been shown in previous studies that an A-type X-ray diffraction starch.e.97a 81. 2002. Purwandari. 1997).16±0.14c n.04a Yam 23. 2003b). with the process used in this study showed that the protein the sweet potato starch showing the highest degree of content for all the starches tested was higher than digestibility with the lowest % content of RS.d n. 2006).00c 84.17b Starch Taro 1.95±0.59±1.9-1.12±0.05).00b 88.31%) and the sweet potato (0. In general (Table 2). U. T.61±0.63b 9.d 17..dt n.d = not detected n.19b Yam 3.23±0. The structure of the starch in these species of tuber However due to the samples not being exactly the may also account for the differences in the degree of same differences in results were not unexpected. starches. yam and sweet potato tubers Protein Total Starch Amylose Amylopectin Moisture Source (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Flours Taro 6..83±1.54c 85.19%) followed by yam Among the flour samples.10±0.14.6%).510 Aprianita. the sweet potato had the lowest value of 3.72±2. or buckwheat for taro starch (Tattiyakul et al.96a 8. 1998.19±0. digestibility.31±1.46±0.60±1.48%) and sweet potato with the lowest protein content with 10.5±0.15b n.18a All data reported on dry basis and represent the mean of three replicates.51±0. 2006) and 0. wheat (0. 2004).54c 94. results also show that in general.23% for sweet potato starch (Chen et al.45±1.39a Sweet potato 7. and Vasiljevic. A. Among the flour samples.33±1.01a 81.8c 18.07b Yam 10.88±1..99±0. that has a Resistant starch.05±1.47a 68.07±0.5% for yam starch (Gebre-Mariam et al.d 11.dt n. Freitas et al.41±2.5a 5. As expected.19b 85.14a n.96±0. n.30b 7.99b 14.dt = not determined Protein content highest amount of RS (35.10. Values followed by the different superscript in each column are significantly different (P<0.15%.05c 31.d n.15±2.40±1. yam had the highest % with (22.28a Sweet potato 0.69±1. These those that have been reported in literature i.: 0. B. Particularly with the starch samples.31±0.53±0. 0. digestibility has inferior crystallinity and thus is more susceptible As can be seen in table 2 there are significant to digestion by α-amylase compared to its opposite... Also shown is a relationship between RS highest amount of protein (3.61%).74b 10...07b 80.66±1. The levels of NRS were inversely related to RS content starches for each species as expected had reduced with sweet potato flour containing the highest protein contents with the yam starch containing the amount.27a 8. (0.82a Sweet potato 3.04b 71.15±0.6%).d n. Watson..85c 11. 0. Sweet potato and tested. Table 1.d 16.97%).dt n.67±0.55±1.35b Mucilage Taro 13.68b 28.10±0. the content of RS in 0. taro and yam was higher than that of selected cereals Alves et al.46% and taro 6.11a 78.10c 65. Chemical composition of flours.8%) (Liu et al. non resistant starch and high proportion of short branch chain amylopectin..28±0.3% including rice (0. taro contained the taro starches have been reported to have an A-type International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 . differences in the results for each of the samples B-type starch (Jane et al.66±0.23%) followed by the content and the degree of digestibility of the samples taro (1.48±0.

and water-binding capacity higher digestibility compared to yam starch that has a (Singh et al.05±2.. yam. As has been discussed this. the prevention of diabetes and other related health problems Swelling power The changes in swelling power of taro.68b 51. temperature (Jacguier et al. yam.42±2. (Figure 1A.98±5.. 2005). corresponded to the are comparable to those previously reported (Farhat start of the rapid increase of swelling power of these et al. which may influence a rapid change of swelling power in this temperature other physicochemical properties such as swelling region.95±0.05c Sweet potato 0. which swelled at ~70°C. At 90°C. Unfortunately. The µm) (Figure 1A) with a particle size distribution starch granules start to swell rapidly only after the ranging from 1.78±7. such as. 2007). products that require starch that offers a smaller The choice of starch may have significant effects particle size allowing for smooth textured starch gel especially in relation to produced food products (Tattiyakul et al.97±0.76b Sweet potato 0..61c 85. yam and sweet potato revealed that at a lower temperature (~60°C) in comparison to the taro flour had the smallest mean diameter (2.21.08c 45. of taro starch may be applicable for several different The significance of these factors is in relation to applications within the food industry. the swelling power of the sweet International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 .50b 47. The granules of sweet potato flour swelled from the taro. Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from selected commercial tubers available in Australia 511 Table 2. 74.48±2. Values followed by the different superscript in each column are not significantly different (P<0. The results observed for the first peak Table 4) as determined by DSC. 2003).32. The swelling power of taro and appearance of the second peak has not been reported yam flours increased steadily with a temperature rise previously.09c 16. the flours (Figure 2A). particularly the use of starches for food product manufacturing.96b 50.48±7.43a Starch Taro 44.19 µm.82a 13. and sweet potato tubers Non-resistant Resistant starch Digestibility Source starch (%) (%) (%) Flours Taro 35.3 and 251 μm potato flours (74.02 those of taro and yam.35c 75. yam and sweet potato flours and starches.85±0.74±0.73±2. The content of resistant and non resistant starch and digestibility of flours and starches extracted from taro.. B). The onset contained larger particles with a distribution that gelatinisation temperature (To) of taro.. and Particle size sweet potato flours and starches are shown in Figures The particle size analysis on the flours extracted 2A and 2B..22±4.. The particle size of starch is one of the from 70 to 90°C.63a All data reported on dry basis and represent the mean of three independent replications. 2005a). 2006).72±2.33b 18.. 2005a) and had power.067-64. yam.92a 35.70a 98.55±9.55±8. or sweet resulted in two distinct peaks at 28. paste clarity.47b Yam 68.50±8. X-ray diffraction (Srichuwong et al.56°C respectively. and 62. As opposed to the taro temperature reached the onset of the gelatinisation samples. it was shown that the fine granules of previously in this study lower digestibility (related taro starch improved binding and reduced breakage to higher percentages of RS) offer health benefits for of a snack product (Huang et al. With these factors in mind the use B-type X-ray diffraction (Srichuwong et al. as opposed to sweet potato flour with most important characteristics. Zaidul et al. 2006). 1999. Past studies have indicated having health benefits.95a 98.05).92±0.90b Yam 22.19±3.

. clarity. 2006). 1992). Watson. The obtained degree of granule dispersion. For example observation might have been influenced by lower transparent starch paste is required to thicken fruit rigidity of starch granules in sweet potato. somewhat contradicted a negative correlation which may indicate a greater structural rigidity in previously reported by Collado et al. in the current study. water and restricts the swelling power. which and yam flours had the highest peak time (Table 3). However the results here for the sweet In addition to protein content. which may determine which species of tuber’s The swelling power of flour samples is often related flour.. In As depicted in Figure 3A. which could be related was alleviated upon starch extraction. which resulted to the starch concentrations of the samples (Table 1) in comparable paste clarities of sweet potato and with sweet potato having the lowest TS content yet taro starches at the end of the testing period. B. a higher concentration potato indicate that its flour and starch may offer of phosphorous may increase hydration and swelling high enough paste clarity for use in food products power by weakening the extent of bonding within the requiring this.75°C). Among the flour samples. yam and sweet potato International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 . taro and swelling power of the sweet potato flour. Paste the highest pasting temperature.. 1989). the sweet potato had a higher paste clarity compared to taro and yam flour had the highest (80. T. total solids concentration.98°C) with the yam flour flours during the 7-day storage. protein contents. A. which is more turn caused instability and consequently disruption suitable for salad dressing (Craig et al. 2006). This large difference having the lowest (72. A in the food industry. The upon the heating and stirring treatment (Leon et al. sweet potato flour regard to the pasting temperatures.. or starch may be used for different applications to their protein and starch contents (Woolfe. Particle size distribution of flours (A) and starches (B) extracted from taro. There are many factors that may higher protein content in flour may cause the starch also influence paste clarity such as amylose. lipid and granules to be embedded within a stiff protein matrix. the amylopectin is primarily responsible for granule Pasting properties swelling. U.. crystalline domain (Singh et al. and Vasiljevic.. which in pies as opposed to opaque paste. (1999). 2003). This starches may have for food processing. potato flour was 3 to 4 times greater than that of taro results presented here indicate differences in paste and yam flours but with a poor integrity (Figure 2A). there was no starch system based on the rheological principals apparent correlation between the amylose content (Huang et al. in this study. clarity is another important property of flour or starch Also sweet potato flour had lowest peak that governs which applications different flours or viscosity as opposed to the taro flour (Table 3). Figure 2A). 2005) lower in protein and higher in total starch content which have not been examined to any great extent having a higher swelling ability (Table 1. However. Purwandari.. This structural rigidity was also observed from the Paste clarity low swelling power as discussed previously. which subsequently limits the access of the starch to particle size of granules. (Craig et al. 1989). botanical source.. and the capacity of results fit these previous observations with flours granules to form aggregates (Amani et al. comparison to sweet potato flour (Leon et al.512 Aprianita. studied by observing changes in the viscosity of a 1990). thus higher amylose content would reduce The pasting behavior of the tuber’s starches was the swelling factor of starch (Tester and Morisson. Figure 1.. Furthermore.

Paste clarity of flours (A) and starches (B) extracted from taro. Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from selected commercial tubers available in Australia 513 Figure 2. Pasting properties of flours (A) and starches (B) extracted from taro. yam and sweet potato Figure 3. Swelling power of flours (A) and starches (B) extracted fr0m taro. yam and sweet potato Figure 4. yam and sweet potato flours International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 .

.5± 0.05). T.99a 914.98c SFT (cP) 236. *Peak T .75b Each mean presents an average of three independent observations.9± 7.5±14.33a 249. U.41b n.7±20.peak time. yam. SFP .a 11.19b 540.8±40.7± 7.0±31. and sweet potato Flour Starch Pasting characteristics Taro Yam Sweet potato Taro Yam Sweet potato International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 Peak T2 (min) 8.21b 291. BD - breakdown.67a n.a -21. A.85c Aprianita.pasting temperature. Values followed by the different superscript in each row are significantly different (P<0.7±2.03b 64. – not available.30a FV (cP) 487.62a 72.9±0.36b 5.a 1238.55a BD (cP) 15.97b n.06c 7. n.40b n.22b 12.a 1.7±15. Watson.75a n.63a 297.00a 8.5±0. Table 3.set back from through.8± 0.19a n.a 275.a 23.3±20.a 603.5±3.2±0.01c PV (cP) 265.34a n.a.06a n. HS (cP) 250.a viscosity.0±36.86b 671.4± 0.9± 1.8±27.8±0.61c 80.3±18.3± 2.00a 7.1±0.9±12.9±0.5± 0. HS . 514 .04b 72..a 328.53b Past T (oC) 75. Purwandari.5±10.2± 9.03a 72. Past T . B.84c 962.4±38.2± 3. PV . SFT . Pasting characteristics of flours and starches extracted from taro.66c 8.65b n.peak viscosity.a 910.4±64.6±37.3± 0. FV .05a SFP (cP) 221.holding strength.4±3.setback from peak.8±19.25a n.65c 421.5±3.1± 0.96a 1514. and Vasiljevic.5±25.

02b 10. Similar observations have been increase of viscosity during the heating period with reported previously (Jane et al.58a 79.44a 76. These results The taro flour and starch had the highest indicate that yam flour may be suitable for use in food gelatinisation temperatures (To.42±0.20±-1. 1992).70a 12. In addition to a low pasting temperature.67°C and Table 4.71±1.70±0.50±1.81±1.05±-0.83±1..96±0.22b Yam 69.41±0. sample (Table 1). 2007).79a Yam 74.86a 13.54a Starch Taro 70. indicated by the rise of The flour samples in this study had a higher viscosity during cooling period (Leon et al. free leaching of amylose and amylopectin from the granules (Leon et al. which increases such as mucilage. no apparent breakdown (Figure 4A).01a 79. The findings in this study The starch samples had similar pasting also confirmed observations reported by Srichuwong characteristics to their respective flours but with a et al (2005b). content in a flour sample may also lower its viscosity The gelatinisation temperatures of yam flour and (Alves et al. However.02±0. On the other hand.58ab 84. and Tc). Tp. could be due to the small granule size (Figure 1A).09c 75.73a 84. 1998).95±0.57±1.71b 7.75±3. Gelatinization parameters of flours and starches of taro. This is most likely due to the toward retrogradation. This indicated such as food for elderly and children (Rincon and higher stability of taro starch crystallites upon heating Padilla.28±0. 1990). 2006).46±0.. Yam flour also had a tendency starches (Table 4). and Tc indicate temperature of onset.94b All means present the average of three independent replications.67±0. These results were not enthalpy) value. Sweet potato and taro starches also the viscosity of this flour decreased substantially showed a substantial granular breakdown as indicated afterwards.97±0.9±3. 2 Tc-To indicates the gelatinisation temperature range 3 Enthalpy of gelatinization ΔH (J/g) International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 .23b 6. 2006.08±0. Taro flour also showed Gelatinisation properties a retrogradation tendency.08a 7.71a 78.06a 10. ∆H is an indicator of a loss of caused by the presence of other components in flour molecular order within the granule. followed products that require continuous thermal processing by yam and sweet potato (Table 4). Tp.42b 12. The perfectness of the taro starch higher viscosity. gelatinisation temperature than the corresponding Zaidul et al..72±0. and sweet potato Gelatinization parameters Samples To Tp Tc Tc. 2002) as can be seen in table 1.05). (Sasaki and Matsuki. that starch were in the range from 74. Values followed by the different superscript in each column are significantly different (P<0.53±0.72a 87. midpoint and end of gelatinization. likely due to lower protein content and by the decrease of viscosity after peak viscosity..73c 18. presence of other components in flour such as proteins However the presence of a higher protein content and lipids that would obstruct the swelling of granules in the yam flour might have prolonged the starch and thus increase the amount of heat required to reach swelling and gelatinization process leading to a steady the final swelling. B). sweet potato starch also had the highest peak viscosity which also led to higher swelling power (Figure most likely caused by the low protein content in this 2A) and subsequently higher viscosity. proteins. 1 To. yam.. with the exception for the sweet crystallites is also reflected in its ∆H (gelatinisation potato starch (Figure 4A. 2004).32±0.To ΔH (°C)* (°C)* (°C)1 (°C)2 (J/g)3 Flours Taro 74. the higher peak viscosity sweet potato had the lowest reported result for starch of the taro flour compared to other flour samples content.18±1.63a 78. and lipids that would with a decline of the degree of starch crystallinity interfere with the pasting process.45a 6. The lower starch (Tester and Morrison.39b 81.21 to 84. which was lower than those of yam unexpected since this difference could have been and sweet potato. respectively.95±0.48b 13.01±0.13±3.40±0.32±2. Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from selected commercial tubers available in Australia 515 2006).02a Sweet potato 65.80b 73.81b 67.31a Sweet potato 56.36±1.69ab 6.

. Watson. B. 2003) and models.05) effect on all parameters of these converting enzyme inhibitory (Lee et al. 2007). Past studies have also shown that sweet potato Rheological properties of mucilage flour may potentially be used in noodle processing Flow behavior of mucilage solutions was and bread production as well (Chen et al.66%). they and root starches have higher viscosity and paste were slightly lower than some other reports (Farhat clarity in comparison to cereal starches (Craig et et al. in the production of bread and snacks (Alves et al. these differences may be explained as the in certain applications such as sauces. Also as it were not exactly the same ones used in the reported has a high content of resistant starch therefore the studies and this present study. the variations of botanical origin and environmental Furthermore taro starch may have applications in conditions during cultivation. (2006). yield stress showed no apparent trend and was fairly similar among all tubers.36%. mucilage bread production as a finer particle size is required for formation is related to a plant stress response during better light reflection on the porous structure of bread growth and therefore related to environmental giving whiter bread crumbs and better consumer conditions (Jiang and Ramsden. Srichuwong et al. The results found in the present Protein study also indicate that taro may have applications Yam mucilage contained higher levels of protein for use in several different food products due to its (23.. The apparent differences Conclusion in consistency indexes among these solutions at the same concentration. 2002). namely the 1999).. which needs to be further explored. Purwandari. The while its starch can be used as an ingredient in bread. dairy desserts. Jayakody et al.. cake. In general.. these models and corresponding R2. starch and beneficial health properties. al. however. their angiotensin significant (P<0. results obtained in this study were lower than those as was shown in past studies by Huang et al. no noticeable effect on viscosity. flour and The results from this present study have mucilage..18 to 81. However best fit showing a clear direct relationship between these factors require further investigation.48%) in comparison to taro and sweet potato fine granules and small particle size and may offer (13. concentration and pseudoplasticity.. within the food industry. 2005b. which is very important for noodle making (Chen et al. 2005). A. For example. In comparison of the applications in the food industry. as well as offering The mucilage source and its concentration had a health promoting benefits such as. differences may be use of taro in any of the above products may offer expected. Each of these demonstrated the different properties of each species components having different physiochemical or of tuber examined here for their flour. the improved binding and reduced breakage of products. 2006). The Herschel-Buckley model produced the antioxidative activities (Nagai et al. Moorthy. Alves et al. The main application of yam flour currently is Ostwald (Power law). 2003a). the examined tubers has confirmed results found These results confirmed previous observations in literature. for which to taro and sweet potato. 2002. Herschel-Buckley. U.. that in general. and Vasiljevic. Jiang and Ramsden. yam flour and starch had a each species may be suited. 1999). point out likely differences in As this study has shown there are a great many composition. 2003a). data acquired during these measurements were fitted biscuits. Also tuber starches gelatinize at low temperatures with a rapid and uniform swelling of Physicochemical properties: mucilage granules. which may be further mucilage. and samples were not exactly the same.516 Aprianita. soups. this could also be due to and avoidance of a grainy texture (Moorthy. 1999) as the samples perception (Kaletunc and Kenneth 1999). and Casson.9-40%. which requires a smooth mouth feel different extraction method. respectively. However. which would make it suitable for noodle While the difference might have been caused by a processing. most of the tuber (Alves et al. 69...91.53%) and (7. using three different rheological models. T. juice and noodles (Zhang and Oates. Taro also has a smooth-textured gel (Tattiyakul et 2002) and taro (20.. 1999. Table 5 shows the results for the main parameters in 2002).. The results for each of narrower range of gelatinization temperature. potential applications for tuber starch. respectively (Table 4). 2002).. 1989) allowing them to be used as thickeners al. assessed using controlled shear rate rheology. additional health properties. reported previously for yam (55.5°C. These results also offer an indication examined for either the development of entirely International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 . however. all Also this rather preliminary assessment of three models are used to describe the flow of materials mucilage from tubers has shown that these protein rich that deviate from Newtonian flow and fairly well extracts could be used in various preparations with described the flow as indicated with R2 above 0...

70 0. Ostwald (Power law). Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from selected commercial tubers available in Australia 517 .20 42.90 0.97 12.24 0.93 55.93 2.92 35.79 2.18 4. Herschel Buckley Casson Source (Power law) % σ K K K0c Kc R2 n R2 R2 (mPa) (mPasn) (mPasn) (mPas)½ (mPas)½ Sweet 10 2. Ostwald Conc.95 0.47 0.29 14.94 25.69 0.57 0.35 0.58 0.82 28..55 0.93 0.68 0.31 0.64 0.99 50.86 0.99 International Food Research Journal 16: 507-520 2. Flow behavior of taro.96 20.69 0.53 0.97 51.53 0.57 0.17 51.82 0.93 10 1.54 34.5 2.28 0.55 0.56 0.5 0. yam and sweet potato mucilage at various concentration fitted by Herschel-Buckley.27 2.18 155.68 0.64 0.83 5.65 0.73 0.44 0.57 0.03 0.82 1.53 14. and Casson models.94 12.93 38.99 50.59 0. Table 5.59 0.38 0.85 0.98 10.27 2.98 40.54 0.96 10 1.92 Taro 5 1.69 0.55 48.95 5 3.96 48.98 11.5 2.92 0.37 0.97 54.57 0.47 0.52 45.96 13.97 13.91 potato 2.99 0.79 0.02 0.98 17.49 33.91 0.96 All data reported are representing the mean of three independent replications.50 0.94 55.94 48.95 Yam 5 2.

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