Apple Inc.

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Apple Inc.

The Apple logo designed by Rob Janoff. Type Public (NASDAQ: AAPL) S&P 500 Component Industry Computer hardware

Computer software Consumer electronics Digital distribution Predecessor Apple Computer, Inc. (January 9, 2007) Founded Founder(s) Cupertino, California, U.S. (April 1, 1976) Steve Jobs

Steve Wozniak Ronald Wayne[1] Headquarters 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California, U.S. 300 (August 2010)[2]

Number of locations Area served Worldwide

Key people Steve Jobs (Co-founder, Chairman and CEO) Tim Cook (COO) Peter Oppenheimer (CFO) Bob Mansfield (Mac and iPhone Hardware Engineering)

Jonathan Ive (Industrial Design)[3] Products Mac (Pro, Mini · iMac · MacBook, Air, Pro · Xserve) iPod (Shuffle, Nano, Classic, Touch) iPhone (Original · 3G · 3GS · 4), iPad, Apple TV, Cinema Display, AirPort, Time Capsule Mac OS X (Server), iLife, iWork, iOS Services MobileMe Revenue ▲ $42.91 billion (2009)[4] Stores (retail, online, App, iTunes, iBooks)

Operating income ▲ $11.74 billion (2009)[5] Profit ▲ $8.24 billion (2009)[5] Total assets ▲ $47.50 billion (2009)[4] Total equity ▲ $31.64 billion (2009)[4] Employees 34,300 (2009)[6]

Subsidiaries Braeburn Capital, FileMaker Inc. Website

Apple Inc. (NASDAQ: AAPL; previously Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products include the Macintosh computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools and its iOS Mobile Operating System. As of August 2010, the company operates 301 retail stores[7] in ten countries,[8] and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. Established on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, California, and incorporated January 3, 1977,[9] the company was previously named Apple Computer, Inc., for its first 30 years, but removed the word "Computer" on January 9, 2007,[10] to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers.[11] As of September 26, 2009, Apple had 34,300 full time employees and 2,500 temporary full time employees worldwide[12] and had worldwide annual sales of $42.91 billion in its fiscal year ending September 26, 2009.[5]

3 1986–1993: Rise and fall 1.6 2005–2007: The Intel transition 1.5 Apple TV 2.1 Corporate 4.5 1998–2005: Return to profitability 1.[13] Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008.1 Mac and accessories 2. 2009.[17][18] Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 1976–1980: The early years 1. Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand.6 Software 3 Timeline of Apple products 4 Culture 4. and business practices. particularly in the United States.For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns.4 1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention 1.2 iPad 2.2 Users 5 Corporate affairs .3 iPod 2.7 2007–present: Mobile consumer electronics era 2 Products 2.4 iPhone 2. environmental.[14][15][16] The company has also received widespread criticism for its contractors' labor. and 2010.2 1981–1985: Lisa and Macintosh 1. and in the world in 2008.

1977[9] without Wayne.2 Advertising 5.5. it lacked basic features such as a keyboard.[21] The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU. Apple was established on April 1.[22] The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666. monitor. Apple's first product. and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete personal computer. and case.)[23][24][25][26][27][28] Apple was incorporated January 3.1 Logos 5.2.55 thousand in 2010 dollars.3 Commercials 6 Environmental record 7 Labor practices 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links History Main article: History of Apple 1976–1980: The early years The Apple I.66 ($2. RAM. and Ronald Wayne. adjusted for inflation. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case. 1976 by Steve Jobs.2.1 Headquarters 5. who sold his share .[1] to sell the Apple I personal computer kit.2.2 Slogans 5. Sold as an assembled circuit board. They were handbuilt by Wozniak[19][20] and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Steve Wozniak.

The company introduced the ill-fated Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.[32] VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II. Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. [citation needed] 1981–1985: Lisa and Macintosh The heroine from Apple's "1984" ad.[36] Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI). Multi-millionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices. Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along. the TRS-80 and Commodore PET. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100. and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II—compatibility with the office. It differed from its major rivals.000 shares of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share.[29][30] The Apple II was introduced on April 16.000 during the incorporation of Apple. set in a dystopian future modeled after the George Orwell novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.[33][34] By the end of the 1970s. reaping billions in long-term capital gains. because it came with color graphics and an open architecture.[37] In December 1980. and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.[35] Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto.[citation needed] When Apple went public. Several venture capitalists cashed out. 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. the Disk II. they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface.of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history.[32] According to Brian Bagnall. Apple launched the initial public offering of its stock to the investing public. .[31] The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world—the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. set the tone for the introduction of the Macintosh.

and took over Jef Raskin's lowcost-computer project. attributed to an implementation of the LOGO Programming Language by Logo Computer Systems Inc. but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles.5 million television commercial "1984". A turf war broke out between Lisa's "corporate shirts" and Jobs' "pirates" over which product would ship first and save Apple. Apple next launched the Macintosh..[44] In 1985. The success of Apple and LOGO in the education environment provided Apple with a broad base of loyal users around the . In 1984. 1984. The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter. the same year. for the Apple II platform. Sculley found out that Jobs had been attempting to organize a putsch and called a board meeting at which Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley and removed Jobs from his managerial duties. who had been hired two years prior.[43] Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. but follow-up sales were not strong[43] due to its high price and limited range of software titles.[41][42] The Macintosh initially sold well. an early desktop publishing package. released in 1984. (LCSI).Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting. The Mac was particularly powerful in this market due to its advanced graphics capabilities. Rather than submit to Sculley's direction. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market.[38] The first Macintosh. a power struggle developed between Jobs and CEO John Sculley. It was directed by Ridley Scott. the first PostScript laser printer to be offered at a reasonable price point. the Macintosh. Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple.[39] and is now considered a watershed event for Apple's success[40] and a "masterpiece". Its debut was announced by the now famous $1. aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22. which were already necessarily built-in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI. and PageMaker.[46] Apple's sustained growth during the early 1980s was in great part due to its leadership in the education sector. They instructed Sculley to "contain" Jobs and limit his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI.[45] The Apple board of directors felt that products such as the Macintosh had been a failure because of dismal sales[citation needed].

000 units. The intention was that if one package was donated to a school. and sold a billion dollars worth within the first year. The conquest of education became critical to Apple's acceptance in the home. which ignited the acquisition of Apple IIs in schools right across the country. which established the modern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop computer. as parents supported continued learning experience for children after school. establishing a strong and pervasive presence for Apple in all schools throughout California. Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in 1989. agreeing with the donation of one Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school in the State. Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991. The drive into education was accentuated in California by a momentous agreement concluded between Steve Jobs and Jim Baroux of LCSI. was eventually replicated in Texas. this would result in the purchase of thirty more to fill at least one classroom. . Following the success of the Macintosh LC.[citation needed] The Powerbook was 7 pounds and had a 3 hour battery life. it appeared that Apple could do no wrong.[47] The Macintosh Portable was designed to be just as powerful as a desktop Macintosh and turned out 17 pounds with a 12 hour battery life. introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process. Dominance of the education market around the world sustained Apple through the most critical period from the early to mid ‘80s. The magazine MacAddict has named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. a major upgrade to the operating system. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001. 1986–1993: Rise and fall See also: Timeline of Apple II family and Timeline of Macintosh models The Macintosh Portable was Apple's first "portable" Macintosh computer. [45] For some This successful strategy and arrangement between Apple and LCSI. Apple sold fewer than 100. Apple introduced the Centris line. Apple introduced System 7. and additional purchases would also come from parents supporting the technological familiarity and advancement of their children. which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. The success of the PowerBook and other products led to increasing revenue. released in 1989. [citation needed] The same year.

but expensive. and several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware.a low end Quadra offering. while taking away sales from the low end Macintosh. Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh. focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers while Apple was delivering a richly engineered. Apple released the Macintosh LC with a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform. At the same time. Inc. In . Microsoft Corporation. Despite being a financial flop at the time of its release. developed in collaboration with America Online and designed as a Mac-friendly alternative to other online services such as CompuServe. and TV appliances. as well as one of the first in the industry. The result was disastrous for Apple as consumers did not understand the difference between models.[48] In 1990. a series of major product flops and missed deadlines sullied Apple's reputation.[51] The lawsuit dragged on for years before it was thrown out of court. Instead they sued Microsoft for using a graphical user interface similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer.[49] Apple stopped selling the Apple IIe in 1993. the primary dealers for these models. Ultimately. v. Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows.[52] 1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention The Newton was Apple's first foray into the PDA markets. and the ill-fated Performa line that was sold in several confusing configurations and software bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears. and Wal-Mart. portable CD audio players. Apple saw the Apple II series as too expensive to produce. all of this proved too-little-too-late for Apple as their market share and stock prices continued to slide. During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras. experience. By the early 1990s. and Sculley was replaced by Michael Spindler. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts.[50] Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response. Apple had also begun to experiment in providing a Mac-only online portal which they called eWorld. it helped pave the way for the Palm Pilot and Apple's own iPhone and iPad in the future. video consoles. The Macintosh platform itself was becoming outdated since it was not built for multitasking. speakers. such as the A/UX. Price Club.

[65] as well as Emagic for their music productivity . 1998. signaling its expansion into the digital video editing market. first with the Taligent project. The same year. Apple announced the purchase of Macromedia's Final Cut software. In 1998. [56] On July 9. The goal was to create a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform). At the 1997 Macworld Expo. Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system.[55] After multiple failed attempts to improve Mac OS. Gil Amelio made many changes at Apple. 1997. thus countering Microsoft. Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy. Apple introduced the Power Macintosh. the first of many Apple computers to use IBM's PowerPC processor.addition. or reworked to run on more powerful hardware. and Final Cut Pro for professionals. Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance. which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple's software. Apple introduced the Apple Store.[54] In 1996. the latter of which has gone on to be a significant video-editing program. Jobs became the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line. Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers. who would later design the iPod and the iPhone.[62] Through this period.[53] In 1994.[63] The following year.[58][59] 1998–2005: Return to profitability On August 15. then later with Copland and Gershwin. with 800. 1997.000 units in its first five months. Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple as an advisor. Steve Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive.[64] In 2002 Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake.[60][61] The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform. Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors like Sun Microsystems. Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and consumer-oriented digital production software.000 registered users in early 2007. Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. It sold close to 800. The AIM alliance hoped that PReP's performance and Apple's software would leave the PC far behind. and that Microsoft made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock.[57] On November 10. including massive layoffs.

application Logic. with over 5 billion downloads by June 19. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike. At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6.[70] later on July 9 they bought Spruce Technologies. 2001. the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications through Mac OS X's Classic environment. housing a cylindrical elevator and a spiral staircase that leads into the subterranean store. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9. after several years of development. Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player.[71][72] In 2003. 2008. Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California.[66][67] iPhoto's release the same year completed the iLife suite. offering online music downloads for $0.4" widescreen) was Apple's first laptop with an Intel microprocessor. [69] On May 19. 2001. a DVD authoring company. 2005. Apple's iTunes Store was introduced. reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface.99 a song and integration with the iPod.[68] The entrance of the Apple Store on Fifth Avenue in New York City is a glass cube. Mac OS X. The service quickly became the market leader in online music services. It was announced in January 2006 and is aimed at the professional market. The product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years. based on NeXT's OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was released on March 24. which led to the development of their consumer-level GarageBand application. The same year. Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability.[73] Since 2001 Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. This began with the titanium PowerBook and was followed by the white polycarbonate iBook and the flat-panel iMac.[74][75] 2005–2007: The Intel transition Main article: Apple–Intel transition The MacBook Pro (15. Steve Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac .

[83] 2007–present: Mobile consumer electronics era Delivering his keynote at the Macworld Expo on January 9."[82] Although Apple's market share in computers has grown. an all-time high at that point.. Jobs announced that Apple Computer. In January 2006.[87] Other record labels followed later that year. 2007. effective in May. the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to use Intel's Core Duo CPU. iPad. In May. Inc. The Mac. from around $6 per share (split-adjusted) to over $80. . would from that point on be known as Apple Inc. Apple shares hit $97. 2007. and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition.S. 2006 Apple had transitioned the entire Mac product line to Intel chips. MacBook. 2006. iBook. The event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV. the price of Apple's stock increased more than tenfold. Between early 2003 and 2006. and iPhone now form the core of Apple's business.[80] Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price.80. with only about 8% of desktops and laptops in the U. Steve Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without DRM (which would allow tracks to be played on third-party players) if record labels would agree to drop the technology. Apple's share price passed the $100 mark. Apple's market cap surpassed that of Dell.[76] The Power Mac. and MacBook Pro became their respective successors.[79] Apple also introduced Boot Camp to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X.[86] On April 2. Dell's CEO Michael Dell said that if he ran Apple he would "shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders. due to the fact that computers are no longer the singular focus of the company. 2009.[84] The following day.[77][78] On April 29. This change reflects the company's shift of emphasis to mobile electronic devices from personal computers. 2007.computers in 2006.[81] Nine years prior. over 1 year sooner than announced. the Mac Pro. The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was building its own team of engineers to design microchips. Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI's catalog in the iTunes Store. it remains far behind competitors using Microsoft Windows. By August 7.[85] In an article posted on Apple's website on February 6.[76] On January 10.

16 billion and a profit of $1. 2010.[94] In May 2010. The iPad runs the same touch based operating system that the iPhone uses and many of the same iPhone apps are compatible with the iPad. some iPhone 4 users reported a reduction in signal strength when the phone is held in specific ways. refunds to iPhone 4 owners After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks" Apple announced a large screen. Apple recorded its best non-holiday quarter (Q1 FY 2009) during the recession with a revenue of $8. This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch even with very little development time before the release. Apple has offered buyers a free rubber 'bumper' case until September 30. Apple released the fourth generation iPhone.[95] In June 2010. 2009 would be the last year Apple would be attending the Macworld Expo.000 by the end of the first week. an internal Apple memo from Jobs announced that he would be taking a six-month leave of absence. which acts as the phone's antenna.[93] Wikinews has related news: Apple unveils iPhone 4.21 billion.[91] Almost exactly one month later. Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch. iOS 4 at Worldwide Developers Conference 2010 Apple to give free cases. multitasking. and that Phil Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote in lieu of the expected Jobs. the store sold 60 million applications and brought in $1 million daily on average. Because of this antenna implementation. as cases has been proven to solve/improve the signal strength issue. Later that year on April 3. Apple announced that after over 20 years of attending Macworld. Apple's market cap exceeded that of competitor Microsoft for the first time since 1989. the iPad was launched in the US and sold more than 300. 2009. with Jobs speculating that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple. to allow him to better focus on his health and to allow the company to better focus on its products with out having the rampant media speculating about his health. Products . 2010. tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27. and a new uninsulated stainless steel design. 2008. it was announced that Apple had become the third-largest mobile handset supplier in the world due to the popularity of the iPhone. which introduced video calling.[90] On December 16.[88] Within a month.000 units on that day and reaching 500.In July of the following year. [92] Despite Jobs' absence. 2010. on January 14.[89] Three months later. until the end of June 2009.

Wireless Keyboard. Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Mac computers including the AirPort wireless networking products. MacBook. It replaced the iBook. Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet. ebooks. music. Time Capsule. video games. Mac and accessories See also: Timeline of Macintosh models. It offers multitouch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers. introduced in January 2008. It replaced the PowerBook. and List of Macintosh models by case type The Mac mini. consumer all-in-one desktop computer that was first introduced by Apple in 1998. and 17-inch variants. TV shows videos.See also: Timeline of Apple products and List of products discontinued by Apple Inc. introduced in January 2006. professional portable computer alternative to the MacBook. Xserve. textbooks. ultra-portable notebook. workstation-class desktop computer introduced in August 2006. photos. Magic Trackpad. dual processor 1U server. Cinema Display. spreadsheets. Its popularity helped revive the company's fortunes. Magic Mouse. ultra-thin.[62] Mac Pro. MacBook Pro. movies. and most existing iPhone apps. word processing documents. consumer notebook introduced in 2006. iMac. available in 13. consumer sub-desktop computer and server introduced in January 2005. the Apple Battery Charger and the Apple USB Modem. It replaced the Power Macintosh. magazines. dual or quad core. 2010. the iPad running a modified version of iOS. Mac mini. iPad Main article: iPad On January 27. 15.[96] . List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type. rack mounted. MacBook Air.

The latest generation features the Apple A4 processor. currently available in 2 and 4 GB models. 2009. a pedometer. The iPhone features a 3. running scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X (dubbed iOS.It also includes a mobile version of Safari for internet browsing. iPod Touch. Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. iPod Shuffle. first introduced in September 2007 after the iPhone went on sale. iTunes Library. 8.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices. a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod.5-inch (89 mm) touch screen display. a Retina Display and dual cameras on the front and back. iPod Classic (previously named iPod from 2001 to 2007). Apple currently sells four variants of the iPod. currently available in a 160 GB model. iPod Nano. as well as access to the App Store. and Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g"). 4. and notepad. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather.[97] AT&T is currently the sole US provider of 3G wireless access for the iPad. with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. portable media player first introduced in 2005.[98] iPod Main article: iPod On October 23. 32. and 64 GB models. and a new multi-touch interface that replaced the traditional iPod click wheel. Currently available in 8.[99] Apple has partnered with Nike to offer the Nike+iPod Sports Kit enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website. portable media player first introduced in 2001. The newest generation has a FM radio. Bluetooth. The back camera allows video recording at 720p. with more than 220 million units shipped as of September 9. It has evolved to include various models targeting the wants of different users. or 16 GB of memory. 2001.[101] The original iPhone combined a 2. Content is downloadable via WIFI and optional 3G service or synced through the user's computer. iPhone Main article: iPhone At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007. contacts. digital audio player first introduced in 2005. Steve Jobs revealed the long anticipated[100] iPhone. currently available in 8 and 16 GB models. The iPod is the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin. portable media player that runs iOS. formerly iPhone OS). iBooks store.[101] The iPhone first .

Apple TV Main article: Apple TV Apple TV At the 2007 Macworld conference. 2008. 2008. (previously known as the iTV). the iPhone 4 was announced. which Apple says is its "'biggest leap we've taken" since the original iPhone. it was realized by consumers that the new iPhone had reception issues. 5MP camera with LED flash. 2009. the App Store surpassed one billion downloads. Apple's A4 processor used in the iPad.[102] On February 5. and $299 for the 16 GB version. video recording capability. 2009. The software capabilities changed as well.[103] On June 9. Apple updated the original iPhone to have 16 GB of memory. the store provided applications for download that were compatible with the iPhone.[107] a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions.[104] This version added support for 3G networking. Steve Jobs announced that the iPhone 3G would be available on July 11. and large antenna square for a curved glossy black or white back. subject to terms. 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contract. the headphone jack was changed from a recessed jack to a flush jack to be compatible with more styles of headphones. at Apple's annual worldwide developers conference. The current fix for this issue is a "Bumper Case" for the phone distributed for free to all iPhone 4 owners. the iPhone 3GS was announced. at WWDC 2010. 2010. with one computer's iTunes library and streams from an additional four. Following complaints from many people. which also serves as the phones cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna. The new version was visually different from its predecessor in that it eliminated the flat silver back. This is due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device. 2008. On April 24. which was available in both black and white.became available on June 29. with the release of the new iPhone came the release of Apple's App Store. support for faster 3G speeds.[106] The phone includes an all-new design. Shortly after the release of the iPhone 4. and a price cut to $199 for the 8 GB version. at WWDC 2008. 960x640 display. Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV. providing an incremental update to the device including faster internal components. in addition to the 8 GB and 4 GB models. The device links up to a user's TV and syncs. and voice control. On June 7. front-facing VGA camera and FaceTime video calling. a gyroscope for enhanced gaming. includes outputs for .[105] On June 8. either via Wi-Fi or a wired network. The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage. assisted-GPS navigation.

Their range of server software includes the operating system Mac OS X Server. allows iWork users to upload documents for sharing and collaboration. Final Cut Studio. runs quieter. Logic. Apple discontinued the original 40 GB Apple TV and now continues to produce and sell the 160 GB Apple TV. and replaces the need for a hard drive with media streaming from any iTunes library on the network. which includes Keynote. iWork is available. which allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV. Apple also reduced the price of the device to $99. Apple also offers a range of professional software titles. Mac OS X. [110] In September 2009. alongside the release of the new line of iPod devices for the year.6 Snow Leopard. and iWeb. Groups. On September 1. . Pages. and Numbers. For the professional creative market. 2010. a Storage Area Network file system.[108] On May 31. and Learning Center online tutorials. 2008 a software update was released. iTunes. iTunes.Mac) that bundles personal web pages. iPhoto. 2007 a 160 GB drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model[109] and on January 15. Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows (purchasing has been discontinued). iMovie. Safari web browser. and Xsan. Software See also: List of Macintosh software Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs.[111] Announced at MacWorld Expo 2009. including YouTube and Netflix. MobileMe is a subscription-based internet suite that capitalizes on the ability to store personal data on an online server and thereby keep all web-connected devices in sync. Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its Mac OS X operating system. Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers. a comprehensive music toolkit and Shake. and Software Update are available as free downloads for both Mac OS X and Windows. iDisk. For presentation. backup. a video production suite. iWork.HDMI and component video. Java EE Web application server. page layout and word processing. It has HDMI out as the only video out source. streaming from internet video sources. and plays video at a maximum resolution of 720p. a remote systems management application. Apple released a completely redesigned Apple TV. WebObjects. Apple also offers online services with MobileMe (formerly . and media streaming from your iTunes library. Apple Remote Desktop. email. An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package that bundles iDVD. the latest version being Mac OS X v10. QuickTime media player. an advanced effects composition program. iSync. there is Aperture for professional RAWformat photo processing. The new deivce is 1/4 the size.

Originally. Steve Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple was a Fortune 500 company. and Timeline of Macintosh models Products on this timeline indicate introduction dates only and not necessarily discontinued dates.). Apple evangelists were .[115][117] Al Alcorn. To recognize the best of its employees.[112] As the company has grown and been led by a series of chief executives. products. D. At one time.[113] Users According to surveys by J. Other highly successful firms with similar cultural aspects from the same period include Southwest Airlines and Microsoft. some of its original character has arguably been lost.[114] Rod Holt. thanks to the influence of its founders.[citation needed] While this brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product.[113] and Steve Wozniak. Apple created the Apple Fellows program. as new products begin on a contiguous product line. Apple appears not to have gone out of its way to create it.[118] Don Norman. Apple Fellows are those who have made extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to a few individuals including Bill Atkinson. but Apple still has a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably draws talented people into its employ. Timeline of Apple II family. this trait had become a key way the company attempts to differentiate itself from its competitors. etc. [115] Rich Page.[115][116] Guy Kawasaki. Culture Corporate Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of what a corporate culture should look like in organizational hierarchy (flat versus tall. By the time of the "1984" TV ad. especially after Jobs' return. each with his own idea of what Apple should be. Power. Apple has the highest brand and repurchase loyalty of any computer manufacturer. casual versus formal attire.[113] Steve Capps. the company stood in opposition to staid competitors like IBM by default.[113] Alan Kay.Timeline of Apple products See also: Timeline of Apple Inc.

but this was after the phenomenon was already firmly established.actively engaged by the company.[120] The New York City Fifth Avenue "Cube" store had a line as long as half a mile. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon".[121] The Ginza opening in Tokyo was estimated in the thousands with a line exceeding eight city blocks. but Apple was a marketing company. While the conferences continue. the research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc. instead creating their own. Mac developers. in turn. products are more expensive than PC products. Apple does not have official representation there. AGP. a few Mac fans took the opportunity of the setting to propose marriage. HyperTransport."[123] Research by NetRatings indicate that the average Apple consumer is usually more affluent and more well-educated than PC consumers. manufacturing the hardware on which they pre-install their software.[119] Apple has. however. and other industry standards in its computers and was in some cases a leader in the adoption of standards such as USB.[citation needed] During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware. Braeburn Capital.[125] This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. Wi-Fi. It was the marketing company of the decade. [126] FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that has seen widespread . and FileMaker Inc. continue gather at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference. with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event.[122] John Sculley told The Guardian newspaper in 1997: "People talk about technology. Mac users would meet at the European Apple Expo and the San Francisco Macworld Conference & Expo trade shows where Apple traditionally introduced new products each year to the industry and public until Apple pulled out of both events. Apple has since adopted USB. Apple has a history of vertical integration in their products. Apple Store openings can draw crowds of thousands. supported the continuing existence of a network of Mac User Groups in most major and many minor centers of population where Mac computers are available.[124] Corporate affairs See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple.

advertising Further information: Think Different.[127] Ever since the first Apple Store opened.industry adoption after it was standardized as IEEE 1394.000 square feet (79.[130] Headquarters Main article: Infinite Loop (street) Company headquarters on Infinite Loop in Cupertino. Apple announced its intention to build a second campus on 50 acres (200. at 1 Infinite Loop.6 km) east of the current campus. [132] Advertising Main article: Apple Inc.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley. Nikon and Canon to sell their Maccompatible digital cameras and camcorders inside the store. who publishes the For Dummies series of instructional books. Adobe.000 m2) assembled from various contiguous plots.[129] also sells its Mac-compatible software. though its advertising has been criticized for the claims of some more recent campaigns. will be about 1 mile (1. The new campus. Cupertino.[128] This allows. particularly 2005 Power Mac ads[133][134][135] and iPhone ads in Britain. Apple has sold third party accessories. Books from John Wiley & Sons. Logos . California. are a notable exception. one of Apple's oldest software partners. The publisher's line of books were banned from Apple Stores in 2005 because Steve Jobs disagreed with their editorial policy. for instance. Apple has been recognized in the past for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products.000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos. This Apple campus has six buildings that total 850. Get a Mac. California. Apple Inc. as does Microsoft.[131] In 2006. and Apple Switch ad campaign Since the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial to the more modern 'Get a Mac' adverts. who sells Microsoft Office for the Mac. however. also in Cupertino.

designed by Jobs and Wayne. with the roll-out of the new iMac. The colored stripes were conceived to make the logo more accessible. Apple's first logo. he insisted it be in color to humanize the company. "Byte into an Apple". seen as the Apple logo in some fonts.See also: U+F8FF or . and to represent the fact the monitor could reproduce images in color. Apple used the slogan Think Different in advertising . nearly identical in shape to its previous rainbow incarnation. Apple discontinued the rainbow theme and began to use monochromatic themes. While Jobs liked the logo.[142] From 1997–2002. The original Apple logo featuring Isaac Newton under the fabled apple tree. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo. depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. Slogans Main article: List of Apple Inc.[136][137] The Apple logo was designed with a bite so that it would be recognized as an apple rather than a cherry. used from late 1976 until replaced in 1998 by monochrome themes using the same shape.[138] The logo is often erroneously referred to as a tribute to Alan Turing. An Aqua themed version was used from 2001—2003. Almost immediately. though. on various products. this was replaced by Rob Janoff's "rainbow Apple". packaging and advertising. with the bite mark a reference to his method of suicide. The monochrome logo is still used.[139] Both the designer of the logo and the company deny that there is any homage to Turing in the design of the logo. the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it.[140][141] In 1998. slogans Apple's first slogan. The rainbow "bitten" logo. was coined in the late 1970s. and a Glass themed version from 2003. and Jobs immediately took a liking to it.

[147] Apple then used Miss Li's song Bourgeois Shangri-La to advertise the new iPod nano (nano shoots video). but it could have zero and that would make Apple an eco-leader.[154] In Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics that scores electronics manufacturers on their policies regarding toxic chemicals. and music used by Apple Inc. said. the legislative director of Greenpeace's toxics campaign. Rick Hind.[147] First. "iThink. therefore iMac" was used in 1998 to promote the iMac. Apple ranked 5th out of 18 leading electronic makers in May 2010 with a score of 4. recycling and climate change. 2007.[151][152] Apple has eliminated toxic vinyl plastic (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) across its product range.[155] Greenpeace criticises for example that . both of which have serious negative health effects.[147] Then Apple used the song "New Soul" by French-Israeli singer-songwriter Yael Naim to promote the MacBook Air.[146] Commercials See also: 1984 (advertisement). "(The company) is getting greener. Environmental record Greenpeace. the company popularized Canadian singer Feist's "1234" song in its ad campaign."[150] On May 2. Lemmings (advertisement). it is still closely associated with Apple. has confronted Apple on various environmental issues." Hind commented further.[147] The debut single shot to the top of the charts and sold hundreds of thousands of copies in a span of weeks.campaigns.[153] It became the first laptop maker to remove PVC and BFRs. including promoting a global end-of-life take-back plan. Greenpeace presented a critique of Apple. Steve Jobs released a report announcing plans to eliminate PVC and BFRs by the end of 2008. Newton. in particular the inclusion of PVC and BFRs in their products.9/ 10.[145] "Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh. non-recyclable hardware components. "The Macbook Air has less toxic PVC plastic and less toxic BFRs. an environmental organization. and iPod. Apple's product commercials gained fame for launching musicians into stardom as a result of their eye-popping graphics and catchy tunes. Although the slogan has been retired. [148][149] Since 2003 they have campaigned against Apple regarding their chemical policies. iPod advertising.[148] At the 2007 Macworld Expo. The slogan had a lasting impact on their image and revived their popularity with the media and customers. and toxins within the iPhone hardware. iMac ("hello (again)"). but not green enough.[143] Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example.[144] and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements.

[164] In October 2009. Apple has also phased out BFRs and PVCs from various internal components.[157] In May 2008.Apple has yet to make a statement on the need for mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reductions.[160] and has since done this for all notebooks. arsenic-free glass and are without PVC cables.[163] Apple has also begun to advertise how environmentally friendly their new laptops are with television spots and magazine ads along with stating these facts on their website."[18] The Environmental Protection Agency rates Apple highest amongst producers of notebook computers. released in August 2006.[164] Labor practices Further information: Apple labor practices In 2006.[158][159] In June 2007." and the environmental group added that Apple was "a choice to avoid for the climate conscious consumer. which placed the company last among electronics companies. Apple scored 2. gave Apple 11 points out of a possible 100. a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies. arsenic. Climate Counts also labeled Apple with a "stuck icon. replacing the cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlit LCD displays with mercury-free LED backlit LCD displays and arsenic-free glass. operate the factories that produce the iPod.000 workers that lived and worked in the factory. replacing cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlit LCD displays with mercury-free LED backlit LCD displays and arsenic-free glass. the Mail on Sunday reported that sweatshop conditions existed in factories in China.[165] This means all Apple computers have mercury free LED backlit displays. Foxconn and Inventec. and electrical usage of each product.[156] In the first edition.[151][161][162] Apple also offers detailed information about the emissions.[166] The article stated that one complex of factories that assemble the iPod. materials. with workers regularly doing more than 60 hours of labor per week. and fairly well compared to producers of desktop computers and LCD displays. for instance. The article also reported that workers made around $100 per month were required to live on . Climate Counts.7/10. Apple upgraded the MacBook Pro. All Apple computers also have EPEAT Gold status. among other items. where the contract manufacturers. Apple's iPhone 3GS was free of PVC. Apple upgraded the iMac and MacBook. BFR's and had an efficient power adapter.[citation needed] In June 2009. had over 200.

Yearly progress reports have been published since 2008. Apple launched an investigation and worked with their manufacturers to ensure that conditions were acceptable to Apple.[169] In 2007. One worker claimed that they were not informed of possible occupational illnesses.the premises and pay for rent and food from the company. slowly raising standards and pruning suppliers that did not comply. workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens. Apple started yearly audits of all its suppliers regarding worker's rights.[171] . which generally amounted to a little over half of workers' earnings.[170] In 2010.[17][167][168] Immediately after the allegations.