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Canadian History: Unit One-Chapter 3

1. Triple Entente/The Allies--> Britain France, and Russia

Triple Alliance/Central Powers--> Germany, Italy, and Austro-Hungarian Empire

2. An attack against one alliance nation would be treated as an attack against all

3. Most European nations felt their way of life was superior and felt they had
legitimate grievances against other nations, and it was their right to promate
international ambissions at the expense of other nations.

4. - Nationalism
- The murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Autro-Hungarian throne,
and his wife Sophie (killed by Serbian Terrorists)
- Racism

5. Canada was once a Britain Colony

6. Cabinet could pass legislation without debate in the House of Commons or

approval from the Senate. The government could also take over ares of provincial
jurisdiction and control any social and economic activities deemed essential to the
war effort.

7. Bitter feelings against German Canadians increased as war casulaties mounted,

and many people jusified their hostility as patriotism.

8. Everywhere, posters and newspapers encouraged young men to enlist and all
citizens to buy victory bonds. Churches, the Red Cross, women's organizations did
everything from buying machine guns to pinning white feathers (a symbol of
cowardice) on ehlthy young civilian men.

9. Farmers did not want to see men taken from the important job of producing food.

10. These groups are pacifists and had been garunteed the right to live according
to their beliefs when they immigrated to Canada. And they made up the largest
number of conscientious objectors during both world wars. (in what way were new
laws in violation of their rights???)

11. From the northern boarder of Switzerland to Nieuport Belgium, is a trench that
was dug out by the Germans and other Allied armies.

12. Men are sleeping in tight corners in positions damaging to the spine and
spinal, as well as on the small ground of the trench. There is very little room for
hundreds to thousands of fully grown men to make a indefinet living space. In "no
man's land" the bodies of about 8 men are found with an abundance of bandaging and

13. There were many quality issues within the supplies Hughes was purchasing.

14. Flavelle acted like a dictator. He broke labour strikes, revoked contracts if
shoddy goods were produced, and stifled any complaints by using the provisions of
the War Measures Act.

15. On average, the war costed Canada more than $1 million a day. The came up with
three primary methodes to raise money. The first was to borrow money by selling
government bonds to investors. The second are "victory bonds". They were offered to
the general public at a return of 5.5 percent. The third source of revenue was
enforcing direct tax. The Income War Tax collected 3 percent of the gross earnings
of a family that earned more than $3,000 a year, and individuals who earn $1,500
per year.

16. Flavelle hired 30,000 women to work in precision jobs in various munitions
factories in order to keep production going.

17.Soldiers' bodies would swell to twice their normal size and they would die in
agony as a result of weaponized chlorine (chemical weapons)

18. In the final years of the war, prices increased rapidly. This is known as
"inflation". Wages did not increase enough to keep up with inflation and working
women were paid less than men to begin with.

19. More men were dying than enlisting.

20. Anti-conscription riots broke out in Montreal, and unions threatened to strike.

21. The number of enlistments decrease as the casualties increase.

22. The Wartime Elections Act extended the federal vote to women for the first
time, but only to nurses in the front and to the wives, sisters, and mothers of
soldiers. They were sure to support conscription- and Borden. The Military Voters
Act allowed soliers at the front cast their votes.

23. After Britain's blocked of Germany, reasources became limited.

24. The Battle of Somme symbolized the futility of WWI(pointlessness). An attack

that should have been called off after the first day continued at a horrible human

25. Four the first time, all four divisions of the Canadian Corps would be fighting
together as a single unit. For all four divisions, the battle would be a test of
courage, purpose, and skill, along with giving the soldiers a sense of nationhood.

26. On the fourth day of the Battle of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Corps broke through
and took the "Ridge" (1919).

27. A temporary ceasefire; a truce.

28. Terms of armistice are:

- Immediately evacuate all territorries captured during the war and surrender all
its overseas colonies
- Withdraw all troops 10 kilometers east of the Rhine River and leave behind all
artillery, machine guns, trucks, and other equipment
- Surrender its navy and all merchant ships
- Compensate the allies for war damages
- Surrender most of its railway rolling stock and locomotives to France and
In addition, the Allied blockade of Germany was to continue until a peace treaty
was signed. As a result, hundreds of thousands of German civilians--including women
and children--starved to death during the winter of 1918-1919. German resentment
towards the Allies would become deep-rooted (resulting in WWII).

29. Prime Minister Borden insisted that Canada's war efforts entitled it to be
represented as a nation, seperate from the British, with a right to vote. The US
feared that if Canada were given a right t vote, so would other dominions of the
British Commonwealth.
30. The Canadian delegation said the terms for Treaty of Versailles were too harsh
on Germany.

31. Although Canada could not vote, Canada signed the Treaty of Versailles as a
seperate nation.