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# INTRODUCTION

## Logic is a branch of Philosophy, dedicated to the study of reasoning. The word

Logic ‘ derives from Greek logike, means “possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical,
argumentative”, from logos equivalent to “word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason,
or principle”. Logic is the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct
reasoning from incorrect reasoning.
The aim of the logic is to provide methods, techniques and devices which help in
differentiating right reasoning from wrong reasoning and good reasoning from bad. But it
does not mean that only those who study logic can reason correctly. However it is true that
those who study logic certainly make less errors while arguing. Knowledge of logic helps
one to face a problem in a more orderly and systematic way and in many cases makes the
solution less difficult and more certain. Like any other active field of study, it too has grown
in many directions.

I. OBJECTIVE/S

II. TITLE

• LOGIC

III. CONTENT

What is Logic?

## ▪ Logic is a branch of Philosophy, dedicated to the study of reasoning

▪ Logic is the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct
reasoning from incorrect reasoning.
▪ Logic came from the Greek term: λογικε ( logike ) which means a “possessed of
reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative”
▪ Aristotle considered Logic as the “organon” or the tool or instrument of the
sciences

## Two types of logical arguments

▪ Deductive – This type of reasoning provides complete evidence of the truth of its
conclusion. It uses a specific and accurate premise that leads to a specific and
accurate conclusion.
▪ Inductive - This type of reasoning is "bottom up," meaning that it takes specific
information and makes a broad generalization that is considered probable,
allowing for the fact that the conclusion may not be accurate.
Example of Deductive and Inductive Logic

Deductive Logic

▪ All squares are rectangles. All rectangles have four sides. Logic, therefore, tells
you that all squares have four sides.

Inductive Logic

▪ An umbrella prevents you from getting wet in the rain. Ashley took her umbrella
and she did not get wet.

Kinds of Logic

▪ Formal Logic - The conceptual patterns or structures needed for a valid and correct
argument or inference. It deals with the correct patterns of argumentation.

## - deals with deductive reasoning and the validity of the inferences

produced. For an argument to work, the conclusion must logically follow the premises and
the premises must be true.

- also known as pure logic. It is responsible for determining what are the
correct and valid ways of thinking and drawing conclusions.

Example:

All men are mortal but Pedro is a man. Therefore Pedro is mortal

▪ Material Logic - the branch of logic that focuses on the content of reasoning.

## - is concerned with the content of argumentation. It deals with the truth of

the terms and the propositions in an argument.

argument

Example:

## Therefore, Pres. GMA is 12-inch

IV. REFENCES

• https://niyamaklogic.wordpress.com/category/nature-of-logic/
• https://www.britannica.com/topic/formal-logic
quiz.html
• http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-logic.html
• http://www.classical-homeschooling.org/dialectic/logic.html

V. QUIZ

1. Kevin's parents had 5 sons total. Their names are Bab, Beb, Bib and Bob. What
was the fifth child's name?
a) Bee
b) Bub
c) Kevin
2. On average, how many birthdays does a man have?
a) 1
b) 72
c) 50
3. Joe is older than Eric, Kevin is older than Joe, Steve is the same age as Eric. Who
is the oldest?
a) Kevin
b) Joe
c) Steve & Eric
4. Tanya is older than Eric.
Cliff is older than Tanya.
Eric is older than Cliff.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is
a) True
b) False
c) Uncertain
5. Blueberries cost more than strawberries.
Blueberries cost less than raspberries.
Raspberries cost more than both strawberries and blueberries.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is
a) True
b) False
c) Uncertain
6. Find the odd pair
a) Tiger – Mammal
b) Alligator – Reptile
c) Salamander – Insect
7. Mara runs faster than Gail.
Lily runs faster than Mara.
Gail runs faster than Lily.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is
a) True
b) False
c) Uncertain
8. Rover weighs less than Fido.
Rover weighs more than Boomer.
Of the three dogs, Boomer weighs the least.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is
a) True
b) False
c) Uncertain
9. Class A has a higher enrollment than Class B.
Class C has a lower enrollment than Class B.
Class A has a lower enrollment than Class C.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is
a) True
b) False
c) Uncertain
10. First coined the word “logic”?
a) Zeno the Stoic
b) Alexander the Great
c) Aristotle
11. _________considered Logic as the “organon” or the tool or instrument of the
sciences.
a) Aristotle
b) Zeno the Stoic
c) Plato
12. Study of science and art of correct inferential reasoning
a) Logic
b) Ethics
c) Morality
13. It deals with the correct patterns of argumentation.
a) Logic
b) Formal Logic
c) Material Logic
14. It deals with the truth of the terms and the propositions in an argument.
a) Logic
b) Formal Logic
c) Material Logic
15. Fact 1: Jessica has four children
Fact 2: Two of the children have blue eyes and two of the children have brown eyes.
Fact 3: Half of the children are girls.
If the first three statements are facts, which of the following statements must also be a
fact?
I: At least one girl has blue eyes.
II: Two of the children are boys.
III: The boys have brown eyes.
a) I only
b) II only
c) II and III only
d) None of the statements is a known fact