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IJPHER

International Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology Research
Vol. 4(2), pp. 054-059, August, 2018. © www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 1406-089X

Analysis

Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consumption
of Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with
Micronutrient Intake
*Yusnina Maisyaroh1, Albiner Siagian2, Evawany Aritonang3
1
Master Student of the Faculty of Public Health University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
2,3
Lecturer of the Faculty of Public Health University of Sumatera Utara, Street University Number 21 Campus USU
Medan, 20155, Indonesia

Among Primary School of SDN 192 located in Singengu Village Kotanopan District, is a school
that has a low student will in consumption of vegetables and fruit. This study aims to know the
direct and indirect relationship of students' nutritional knowledge with micronutrient intake
through vegetable and fruit consumption at primary school students SDN 192 Kotanopan District.
The type of research use with cross sectional design. The sample in this study is determine by
take the entire population to be the subject of research, as many as 93 students. This research
was conducted at Singengu Village in March to April 2018. The results show that the students'
nutritional knowledge does not have a direct relationship with the consumption of vegetables and
fruit of students. Students' nutritional knowledge has a direct relationship with vitamin A intake
of t count = 1.89. Consumption of vegetables and fruits do not have a direct relationship with the
intake of micronutrients. The researcher's suggestion in this research are to create nutritional
awareness among of students about the content of vitamins and minerals in vegetables and fruits.
Conducting counseling in schools about the benefits, content, and importance of vegetable and
fruit consumption and provide healthy canteen that sell cooked vegetables and fruits.
Keywords: Students nutrition knowledge, consumption of vegetables and fruits, intake of micronutrients

INTRODUCTION
Healthy paradigm is one of the pillars of Healthy Indonesia. Data from Research and Development Center of the
The implementation of a healthy paradigm is implemented Ministry of Agriculture (2013) shows Indonesia is the
through two efforts, namely family approach and cross- country with the lowest fruit consumption in Asia region.
sectoral efforts through the Healthy Living Community China became the largest country consuming fruit with the
Movement (PHBS). achievement of more than 250 kilograms per fruit capita
per year followed by Singapore and Vietnam, then
PHBS has 3 main activities namely, checking health in a Kamboja. Indonesia is not up to 50 kilograms per capita
routine manner, physical activity, and consuming per year. Consumption of Indonesian fruits is only 34.55
vegetables and fruit (Ministry of Health, 2018). kilograms per capita per year.

Indonesia has a variety of local vegetables and fruits that
are of good nutritional value for health, ranging from
spinach, kale, sweet potatoes, bananas, guava, apples, *Corresponding author: Yusnina Maisyaroh, Faculty of
and so on. But in reality, the people of Indonesia are Public Health University of North Sumatra, Indonesia.
classified as consuming vegetables and fruits. Email: yusnina.maisyaroh@gmail.com

Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with Micronutrient Intake
Maisyaroh et al. 055

Vegetable consumption of Indonesian people is only 40.35 AIMS
kilograms per capita per year. The Food and Agriculture
Organization of United Nations (2014) states that 1. Knowing the direct relationship of nutritional knowledge
consumption is ideal for fruit of 73 kilograms per capita per of students with the consumption of vegetables and fruit
year and vegetables is 91.25 kilograms per capita per in primary school students SDN 192 Kotanopan District.
year. 2. Knowing the indirect relationship of nutritional
knowledge of students with micronutrients intake
WHO recommends to consume vegetables and fruits as through vegetable and fruit consumption in primary
much as 400 grams per day or as much as 3 to 5 servings school students SDN 192 Kotanopan District.
a day. Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are widely
contained in vegetables and fruits are often overlooked,
but nutrients are important for the body. RESEARCH METHODS
Micronutrientshave a myriad of health benefits that are still
many who do not know it well (Ongko, 2015). Types of research

Consumption of vegetables and fruits that have not been The type of research used in this research is analytic
sufficient to affect the supply of vitamins and minerals observational with cross sectional study design.
needed by the body. The results of Sriwahyuni, et al
(2013), stated that as many as 15 (93.7%) of respondents Location and Time of Study
categorized often consume fruits and vegetables, have
adequate intake of vitamin A, and there are 35 (70%) The research was conducted at SDN 192 Kotanopan Sub-
respondents rarely consume fruits and vegetables that district, Mandailing Natal Regency with research time from
have vitamin A. A total of 21 (80.8%) respondents who January 2018 until April 2018.
frequently consume fruits and vegetables, have adequate
vitamin C intake, and 31 (77.5%) of respondents rarely Population and Sample
consume fruits and vegetables, have less vitamin C intake.
There are 36 (54,5%) respondents who rarely consume 1. Population
vegetables and fruits have iron intake, zinc and calcium
Population in this research is all primary school student of
are less.
SDN 192 Kotanopan District that is 93 people.
State Primary School 192 located in Singengu Village
2. Sample
Kotanopan District, is a school that has a low student will
on consumption of vegetables and fruit. The sample in this study is determined by taking the entire
population to be the subject of research, as many as 93
The results of preliminary survey of 50 primary school students.
students in SDN 192 Kotanopan District, interviewed about
consumption behavior of vegetables and fruits with guide Method of collecting data
questionnaire, found that 20 (40%) students consume
vegetables every day and 30 (60%) students do not Primary data were collected directly through interviews
consume vegetables every day, 18 students (19,36%) and observations including students' nutritional knowledge
consumed fruit every day and 32 students (64%) did not data and micronutrients intake data on primary school
consume fruit every day. The vegetables consumed by the students SDN 192 Kotanopan District.
students are spinach, kangkung and leaves mashed yams a. Data of students' nutritional knowledge were collected
and fruits are consumed by the students are the citrus, using questionnaire.
salak, starfruit, guava and apples. b. Data of intake of micronutrients of students obtained by
conducting interview with food consumption survey
Knowledge is a very important domain to shape one's method that is food recall 2 x 24 hours to responder.
actions, because knowledge-based behaviors will be
better than those not based on knowledge (Ministry of Secondary data was obtained from the report of UPT Head
Health, 2014). of Education Office of Kotanopan Sub-district about the
number of students in SDN 192 Kotanopan District, and
Therefore, this research needs to be done in Kotanopan reference of books and research results related to the
District to analyze the relationship of nutritional knowledge research.
of students with consumption of vegetables and fruits as
well as its relation with micronutrients intake in primary
school students in SDN 192 Kotanopan District Year 2018.

Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with Micronutrient Intake
Int. J. Public Health Epidemiol. Res. 056

Figure 1: Line Modeling Path Analysis
Variables and Operational Definition RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The variables in this study consist of exogenous variable Analysis Results
(nutrition knowledge of students), intervening variable
Direct influence of exogenous variable with intervening
(consumption of vegetables and fruit) and endogenus
variable and intervening variable with variableendogenous
variable (micronutrients).
or indirect influences of exogenous variables with
endogenous variablesthrough the intervening variable, a
The operational definitions of the research variables are as
path analysis test was conducted using LISREL 8.80
follows:
(Student).
1. Nutrition knowledge of students is everything that
students know about nutrition in vegetables and fruits
Correlation Analysis
2. Micronutrients is vitamin (vitamin A, vitamin B6, and
vitamin C) and minerals (magnesium and iron)
Correlation analysis is done to see whether there is
consumed by respondents in one day.
relationship between exogenous variable with intervening
variable, intervening variable with endogen variable and
Measurement Method
exogenous variable with endogen variable.
The method of study in this study is as follows :
Direct Influence of Student Nutrition Knowledge with
Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits
Table 1: Variables, Measurements, Measures, Measure
Results, Measure Scale The calculation result obtained by coefficient value of p54
Variables Measuring How to Measure Measure = 0,09 with tcount = 0,21. The value on the ttable with the
instrument Measure Results Scale significance level of 0.05 and the number of respondents
Nutrition Questionnaire Questionnaire Total Ratio (n) = 93 obtained ttable = 1.67 so that t count is smaller
Student filling Score
Knowledge
than ttable, then there is no direct influence of students
Vitamin A Food Recall Interview Amount Ratio nutritional knowledge with consumption of vegetables and
intake of Intake fruit.
Vitamin B6 Food Recall Interview Amount Ratio
intake of Intake Research shows that students' nutritional knowledge does
Vitamin C Food Recall Interview Amount Ratio not have direct influence with the consumption of
intake of Intake vegetables and fruit of students. The high level of
Magnesium Food Recall Interview Amount Ratio consumption of vegetables and fruits of students is not
intake of Intake influenced by their nutritional knowledge.
Iron Intake Food Recall Interview Amount Ratio
of Intake This research is in line with Putra's (2016) research on
factors related to fruit and vegetable consumption in
Data analysis method used in this research is Path primary school children (case study on SDN Sekaran 1
Analysis (Path Analysis). The modeling of the research and SDN PekundenSemarang), the result of chi square
path can be seen in Figure 1 as follows: statistic test between nutrition knowledge of children with

Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with Micronutrient Intake
Maisyaroh et al. 057

fruit and vegetable consumption at SDN Sekaran 1 students' nutritional knowledge directly affects vitamin A
obtained p value = 0,605 (p value greater 0,05) and in intake by t-count = 1.89. In contrast to the intake of vitamin
Pekunden SDN obtained p value = 1,000 (p value greater B6, and vitamin C. Nutrition knowledge of students does
0.05) it can be concluded that there is no significant not have a direct influence with the intake of vitamin B6
relationship between students' nutritional knowledge with and vitamin C students.
the consumption of fruits and vegetables in students at
SDN Sekaran 1 and SDN Pekunden. Higher level of nutritional knowledge is not necessarily
followed by the better consumption of vegetables and fruit
Researchers assume that the knowledge of fruits and of students. So not necessarily students with high
vegetables, especially about the benefits and knowledge can understand and apply well the knowledge
recommended consumption of fruits and vegetables can in everyday life (Khomsan,2000)
increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables in
children. Knowledge of fruits and vegetables can increase Direct Influence of Student Nutrition Knowledge with
awareness and skill in preparing fruits and vegetables for Mineral Intake
consumption so that it will increase the amount of fruit and
vegetable consumption in children. When the child knows Result of calculation to magnesium intake got coefficient
about the amount of fruits and vegetables that must be value of path p94 = -0,89 with t-count value = 0,87. The
consumed then the child will be aware and interested to try value on the t-table with the significance level of 0.05 and
mengonsumsinya so increase the consumption of fruits the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67
and vegetables. so that t-count is smaller than t-table, hence there is no
direct influence of nutritional knowledge of students with
Direct Influence of Student Nutrition Knowledge with vitamin magnesium intake.
Micronutrients Intake
The calculation result of iron intake obtained coefficient
Micronutrients intake consists of vitamin A, vitamin B6, value of p104 = 0,0 with t-count = 0,04. The value of t-table
vitamin C, magnesium and iron with the significance level of 0.05 and the number of
respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 so that t-count
Direct Influence of Student Nutrition Knowledge with is smaller than t-table, hence there is no direct influence of
Vitamin Intake nutritional knowledge of students with iron intake.

The results of calculation of vitamin A intake obtained Research shows that nutritional knowledge does not have
coefficient value p64 = -1,26 with the value of t-count = a direct effect on the students' magnesium and iron intake.
1.89. The value of t-table with the significance level of 0.05 High and low intake of magnesium and iron students are
and the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = not influenced by students' nutritional knowledge. This
1.67 so that t-count is bigger than t-table, hence there is research is in line with research of ramadhani and hidayati
direct influence of nutrition knowledge of student with (2017) about factors influencing consumption of
vitamin A intake. vegetables and fruits in adolescent girls SMPN 3
Surakarta obtained value p = 0,347, meaning p value
The result of calculation of vitamin B6 intake obtained greater than 0,05, there is no direct influence of student
coefficient value of path p74 = 0,0 with t-count value = 0,0. nutrition knowledge with mineral intake of students from
The value on the t-table with the significance level of 0.05 consumed vegetables and fruits.
and the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table =
1.67 so that t-count is smaller than t-table, hence there is Knowledge is a very important factor for shaping one's
no direct influence of nutritional knowledge of students actions. Knowledge based on a proper understanding of
with vitamin B6 intake. vegetables and fruits, will foster the expected consumption
of vegetables and fruits. If the student's knowledge is
The results of calculations on vitamin C intake obtained lacking in nutrition, then efforts made to maintain the
coefficient coefficient p84 = -0.34 with t-count = 0.21. The balance of food consumed with the required will be
value on the t-table with the significance level of 0.05 and reduced and lead to less nutritional problems or more
the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 nutrients (Notoatmodjo, 2003).
so that t-count smaller than t-table, then there is no direct
influence of nutritional knowledge of students with vitamin Direct Influence of Consumption of Vegetables and
C intake. Fruits with Micronutrients Intake

Research shows that the nutritional knowledge of students Micronutrients intake consists of vitamin A intake, vitamin
has a direct influence with vitamin A. The intake of high B6, vitamin C, magnesium and iron.
intake of vitamin A is influenced by the level of nutritional Direct Influence of Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits
knowledge of students. The amount of influence of with Vitamin Intake

Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with Micronutrient Intake
Int. J. Public Health Epidemiol. Res. 058

The results of calculation of vitamin A intake obtained not influenced by the consumption of vegetables and fruit
coefficient value p32 = -0.33 with tcount = 0.46. The value students.
at t table with the level of significance 0.05 and the number
of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t table = 1.67 so t count Indirect Effect of Student Nutrition Knowledge with
<t table, then there is no direct influence of consumption of Micronutrients Intake
vegetables and fruits with vitamin A.
Micronutrients intake consists of vitamin A, vitamin B6,
The results of calculation of vitamin B6 intake obtained vitamin C, magnesium and iron.
coefficient value path p42 = 0,0 with tcount = 0,0. The
value on the t-table with the significance level of 0.05 and Indirect Effect of Student Nutrition Knowledge with
the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 Vitamin Intake
so that t count is smaller than t-table, then there is no direct
influence of consumption of vegetables and fruits with The results of calculation of vitamin A intake obtained
vitamin B6 intake. coefficient value p64-5 = 0,0 with details X1 to X5 of 0.05
and X5 to X6 of 0.0. Thus the indirect effect X1 to X6
The result of calculation of vitamin C intake obtained through X5 p71-5 = 0,0 with t-count = 0,15. The value of t-
coefficient value of path p52 = -0.02 with t-count = 0,05. table with significance level of 0.05 and the number of
The value of t-table with the significance level of 0.05 and respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 so that t-count
the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 is smaller than t-table, hence there is no indirect influence
so t-count is smaller than t-table, then there is no direct of nutrition knowledge of students with vitamin A intake.
influence of consumption of vegetables and fruits with
vitamin C intake. The result of calculation of vitamin B6 intake obtained
coefficient value of path p74-5 = 0,0 with details X1 to X5
Research shows that consumption of vegetables and fruits of 0,05 and X5 to X7 equal to 0,0. Thus the indirect effect
does not have a direct influence with the intake of vitamin X1 to X7 through X5 p74-5 = 0,0 with t-count = 0,0. The
A, vitamin B6, and vitamin C students. This research is in value of t-table with significance level of 0.05 and the
line with the research of Endrika (2015) about the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 so
adequacy of vegetable and fruit consumption in students that t-count is smaller than t-table, hence there is no
of SMAN 1 Kuantan Hilir, the results obtained that indirect effect of nutrition knowledge of student with
consumption of vegetables and fruits do not have a direct vitamin B6 intake.
influence with vitamin A.
The result of calculation of vitamin C intake obtained
Factors that affect the adequacy of vitamin A intake from coefficient value of path p84-5 = 0,0 with details X1 to X5
fruits and vegetables are family income. Research of 0.05 and X5 to X8 of 0.0. Thus the indirect effect X1 to
conducted by Aswatini, et al (2008) in Lampung mentioned X8 through X5 p84-5 = 0,0 with t-count = 0,01. The value
that to consume the fruit obtained by buying, the type of of t-table with significance level of 0.05 and the number of
fruit is only in consumption if you have excessive money respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 so that t-count
because the price for fruits is quite expensive. is smaller than t-table, hence there is no indirect influence
of nutritional knowledge of students with vitamin C intake
Direct Influence of Consumption of Vegetables and
Research shows that students' nutritional knowledge does
Fruits with Mineral Intake
not have an indirect effect with the intake of vitamin A,
vitamin B6 and vitamin C students. High intake of vitamin
The calculation result of magnesium intake obtained
intake is not influenced by students' nutritional knowledge.
coefficient value of path p62 = 0.11 with t-count = 0,21.
This research is in line with Arbie (2015) study which states
The value on the t-table with the significance level of 0.05
that students' nutritional knowledge does not have an
and the number of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table =
indirect influence with the intake of vitamins from
1.67 so that t-count is smaller than t-table, then there is no
vegetables and fruits.
direct influence of consumption of vegetables and fruits
with magnesium intake. This shows that the higher level of nutritional knowledge is
not necessarily followed by the better consumption of
The calculation result of iron intake obtained coefficient vegetables and fruit of students. So not necessarily
value of path p72 = 0,0 with t-count value = 0,01. The value students with high knowledge can understand and apply
of t-table with the significance level of 0.05 and the number well the knowledge in everyday life.
of respondents (n) = 93 obtained t-table = 1.67 so t-count
is smaller than t-table, so there is no direct influence of Indirect Effect of Student Nutrition Knowledge with
consumption of vegetables and fruits with iron intake. This Mineral Intake
research shows that consumption of vegetables and fruits
does not have a direct effect on the students' magnesium Calculation result of magnesium intake obtained by
and iron intake. High and low mineral intake of students is coefficient value of p94-5 = 0,0 with X1 to X5 0,05 and X5

Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with Micronutrient Intake
Maisyaroh et al. 059

to X9 0,0. Thus the influence is not direct X1 to X9 via X5 REFERENCES
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direct relationship with the intake of Accepted 3 July 2018
micronutrientsstudents. This is because the students of
SDN 192 Kotanopan Subdistrict have low consumption Citation: Maisyaroh Y, Siagian A, Aritonang EY (2018).
of vegetables and fruits, so the intake of micronutrients Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consuption of
is more obtained from heavy food intake such as rice, Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with
fish, noodles, meatballs, eggs, tempeh and tofu. Micronutrient Intake. International Journal of Public Health
and Epidemiology Research, 4(2): 054-059.
RECOMMENDATIONS

The researcher's suggestion in this research are:
Counseling about the benefits, content, and importance of Copyright: © 2018 Maisyaroh et al. This is an open-
vegetable and fruit consumption in primary schools to access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
improve students' nutritional knowledge about vegetables Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
and fruits and provide a healthy canteen that sells use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
vegetables and fruits. provided the original author and source are cited.

Nutritional Knowledge of Students on Consumption of Vegetables and Fruits and their Relationship with Micronutrient Intake