You are on page 1of 51

Technical Note - TN 029: 2016

For queries regarding this document


standards@transport.nsw.gov.au
www.asa.transport.nsw.gov.au

Technical Note - TN 029: 2016


Issued date: 03 May 2016

Effective date: 03 May 2016

Subject: Update to SPC 301 - Use of glass fibre reinforced


plastic (GRP) soil nails in permanent
applications
This technical note is issued by the Asset Standards Authority (ASA) to notify the amendment to
SPC 301 Structures Construction.

TN 029: 2016 now replaces TN 010: 2015 and is extended to 29 August 2016 pending the
release of a revised standard.

This technical note supplements the requirements of RailCorp specification SPC 301 Structures
Construction, Version 1.0 and shall be read in conjunction with that document.

1. Background
Glass fibre reinforced plastic soil nails, sometimes referred to as ‘GRP soil nails’, are a relatively
new product, whereas steel soil nails are a commonly used product. GRP soil nails are not an
approved product for permanent applications in the TfNSW rail network. This is currently subject
to a type approval process.

2. Notification
This technical note is issued to advise that, pending the results of the type approval process,
GRP soil nails shall not be used for permanent applications in the TfNSW rail network.

© State of NSW through Transport for NSW Page 1 of 2


Technical Note - TN 029: 2016

Authorisation:
Technical content Checked and Interdisciplinary Authorised for
prepared by approved by coordination release
checked by
Signature

Date
Name Dorothy Koukari Richard Hitch John Paff Graham Bradshaw
Position Senior Engineer Lead Civil Engineer A/Chief Engineer Director
Standards Network Standards
and Services

© State of NSW through Transport for NSW Page 2 of 2


Engineering Specification
Structures

Engineering Specification
SPC 301

STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTION

Version 1.0

Issued July 2010

Owner: Chief Engineer Civil

Approved by: John Stapleton Authorised by: Richard Hitch


A/Principal Engineer Chief Engineer Civil
Technology & Standards

Disclaimer
This document was prepared for use on the RailCorp Network only.
RailCorp makes no warranties, express or implied, that compliance with the contents of this document shall be
sufficient to ensure safe systems or work or operation. It is the document user’s sole responsibility to ensure that the
copy of the document it is viewing is the current version of the document as in use by RailCorp.
RailCorp accepts no liability whatsoever in relation to the use of this document by any party, and RailCorp excludes
any liability which arises in any manner by the use of this document.
Copyright
The information in this document is protected by Copyright and no part of this document may be reproduced, altered,
stored or transmitted by any person without the prior consent of RailCorp

UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Page 1 of 49


RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Document control
Revision Date of Approval Summary of change
1.0 July, 2010 First issue as a RailCorp document

Summary of changes from previous version


Section Summary of change
Document First issue as a RailCorp document
Control
All Previously published as Structures Construction Technical Specifications in TMC 304
All Minor editing throughout for consistency and clarity
8 Added requirement to comply with RailCorp Environmental Management System
17 Editing and formatting of S20 for clarity of requirements
21 S25 only applies to bridge girders; miscellaneous steelwork to comply with RTA specification
29 Change “rock anchors” to “ground anchors” to be consistent with the revised RTA Specification
31 Section on gabions replaced by requirement to comply with RTA Specification
32 S45 reference to design of reinforced soil retaining walls deleted and included in ESC 350
34 Section on soil nailing replaced by requirement to comply with RTA Specification

Contents
1 Scope and application ............................................................................................................................. 4
2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Australian and International Standards ......................................................................................... 4
2.2 RailCorp documents ...................................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Other references............................................................................................................................ 6
3 Approved design ...................................................................................................................................... 6
4 Competency requirements ...................................................................................................................... 6
5 Technical specifications.......................................................................................................................... 6
6 S01 Quality assurance & control ............................................................................................................ 6
6.1 Quality assurance specifications ................................................................................................... 6
6.2 Quality control specifications ......................................................................................................... 7
7 S03 Miscellaneous earthworks ............................................................................................................... 7
8 S04 Excavation and foundations for structures ................................................................................... 8
9 S07 Post-tensioning of concrete ............................................................................................................ 8
10 S08 Steel piles .......................................................................................................................................... 8
11 S10 Concrete works ................................................................................................................................. 9
12 S11 Driven concrete piles........................................................................................................................ 9
13 S12 Cast-in-place concrete piles ............................................................................................................ 9
14 S13 Precast reinforced concrete members ......................................................................................... 10
15 S14 Precast prestressed concrete members ...................................................................................... 10
16 S16 Erection of precast concrete members ........................................................................................ 10

© Rail Corporation Page 2 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

17 S20 Structural steelwork fabrication for underbridges...................................................................... 10


17.1 Scope and Application................................................................................................................. 10
17.2 Fabrication Requirements ........................................................................................................... 11
17.3 Welding Requirements ................................................................................................................ 23
17.4 Specification For Ultrasonic Testing............................................................................................ 33
18 S21 Structural steelwork fabrication for overbridges ........................................................................ 36
19 S22 Miscellaneous steelwork................................................................................................................ 36
20 S24 Protective paint coating of steelwork – System P....................................................................... 37
21 S25 Protective galvanised coating of steelwork – System G ............................................................ 38
21.1 Scope........................................................................................................................................... 38
21.2 General ........................................................................................................................................ 38
21.3 Bolts............................................................................................................................................. 38
21.4 Surface preparation ..................................................................................................................... 38
21.5 Hot-dip galvanizing ...................................................................................................................... 39
21.6 Testing and acceptance .............................................................................................................. 39
21.7 Repairs to galvanizing coating..................................................................................................... 40
21.8 Surface preparation for repairs.................................................................................................... 40
21.9 Priming paint patch coating ......................................................................................................... 41
21.10 Change of camber due to galvanizing......................................................................................... 41
21.11 Protective coating system identification ...................................................................................... 41
22 S26 Erection of structural steelwork.................................................................................................... 41
23 S27 Erection of minor steelwork........................................................................................................... 42
24 S30 Pot bearings .................................................................................................................................... 42
25 S31 Elastomeric bearings...................................................................................................................... 42
26 S32 Installation of bearings................................................................................................................... 43
27 S36 Concrete work – Minor work.......................................................................................................... 43
28 S38 Ground anchors .............................................................................................................................. 43
29 S39 Shotcrete batter protection............................................................................................................ 43
30 S40 Scour protection ............................................................................................................................. 44
30.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 44
30.2 Rock Filled Gabions and Mattresses........................................................................................... 44
30.3 Grouted Fabric Mattresses .......................................................................................................... 44
30.4 Dumped Stone Riprap ................................................................................................................. 44
30.5 Stone or Concrete Pitching.......................................................................................................... 45
30.6 Soil-Cement Bagging................................................................................................................... 45
31 S41 Demolition of existing structures.................................................................................................. 46
32 S45 Reinforced soil retaining walls...................................................................................................... 47
33 S46 Soil nailing ....................................................................................................................................... 47
34 S48 Bridge deck waterproofing ............................................................................................................ 47
Appendix 1 NVR Specification ................................................................................................................... 48

© Rail Corporation Page 3 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

1 Scope and application


This specification details the requirements for the construction of new structures and the upgrading
of existing structures.

The requirements in this Specification are applicable to structures construction works on the
RailCorp network. Structures include bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, platforms, overhead wiring
structures and lighting and communications towers.

The construction or upgrading of structures may typically include some or all of the following
activities:
− excavation and backfilling for foundations;
− piling (e.g. driven piles, bored piles and special pile types);
− in-situ concrete works (e.g. footings, pile caps, abutments, piers, walls and aprons);
− precast concrete components, either reinforced or prestressed (e.g. girders, slabs, culverts,
wall panels);
− steel components (e.g. fabricated components such as girders, walkways, handrailing and
decking, or miscellaneous components such as bolts and proprietary fasteners etc.);
− brickwork and masonry construction;
− general earthworks (embankment widening and strengthening, ground contouring, backfilling
etc.);
− specialised earthworks (e.g. reinforced earth construction, soil nailing, rock anchors, gabion
walls, sprayed concrete etc.);
− scour protection works (e.g. revetment mattresses, stone pitching);
− demolition works.

In the existing rail environment, it is common for the above activities to be undertaken under live
rail traffic conditions. Special track possessions and isolation of the overhead traction power supply
are generally necessary for the new works to be commissioned and completed.

RailCorp has generally adopted RTA Specifications for use in the construction of it’s structures.

The construction requirements in this document are in a format to suit contract documentation.
They form part of the “Technical Specifications” section of tender documents.

This Specification should be used by personnel:


− responsible for specifying the technical requirements for the construction and upgrading of
structures;
− responsible for the implementation of construction and upgrading works including in-house
labour, supervisors, quality control personnel and contract administrators.

The specifications may be used for either quality control (QC) or quality assurance (QA) type
works.

2 References
2.1 Australian and International Standards
AS 1012 Methods of testing concrete
AS 1100 Technical drawing
AS 1110 ISO metric hexagon bolts and screws – Product grades A and B
AS 1111 ISO metric hexagon bolts and screws – Product grade C

© Rail Corporation Page 4 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

AS 1112 ISO metric hexagon nuts


AS 1163 Structural steel hollow sections
AS 1214 Hot-dip galvanised coatings on threaded fastenings (ISO metric coarse thread
series)
AS 1237 Plain washers for metric bolts, screws and nuts for general purposes
AS 1252 High strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural
engineering
AS 4671 Steel reinforcing materials
AS 1365 Tolerances for flat-rolled steel products
AS 1553 Covered electrodes for welding
AS 1554.1 Structural steel welding - Welding of steel structures
AS 1554.5 Structural steel welding - Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of
fatigue loading
AS 1580 Paints and related materials – Methods of test
AS 1594 Hot-rolled steel flat products
AS 1627 Metal finishing – Preparation and pre-treatment of surfaces
AS 1710 Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing of carbon and low alloy steel plate and
universal sections – Test methods and quality classification
AS 1796 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
AS 1858 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding – carbon steels and carbon-
manganese steels
AS 1966 Electric arc welding equipment (superseded by ????)
AS 2159 Piling – Design and installation
AS 2214 Certification of welding supervisors – Structural steel welding
AS 2312 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the
use of protective coatings
AS 2436 Guide to noise control on construction, maintenance and demolition sites
AS 2601 The demolition of structures
AS 3012 Electrical installations – Construction and demolition
AS 3610 Formwork for concrete
AS 3678 Structural steel – Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
AS 3679 Structural steel – Hot-rolled bars and sections
AS 4100 Steel structures
AS 4680 Hot-dip galvanised (zinc) coatings on fabricated ferrous articles
AS 5100 Bridge design
ASTM A123 Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanised) Coatings on Iron and Steel
Products

2.2 RailCorp documents


SPC 411 - Earthwork Materials

TMC 001 - Civil Technical Competencies and Engineering Authority

TMC 411 - Earthworks

© Rail Corporation Page 5 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

TMC 421 - Track Drainage

Environmental Management System

2.3 Other references


RTA QA Specifications as posted on the RTA website www.rta.nsw.gov.au

APAS Specification Number 0014/1 – One pack organic binder zinc rich preconstruction primer

APAS Specification Number 2908 – Inorganic zinc coating for the protection of steel

APAS Specification Number 2916/1 - Organic zinc rich coating for protection of steel – primers

APAS Specification Number 2916/2 - Organic zinc rich coating for protection of steel – durable one
coat single pack

APAS Specification Number 2973 - Medium build two-pack epoxy coating for the long term
protection of steel in atmosphere.

ANSI/AWS (American Welding Society) D1.1 - Structural Welding Code – Steel

WTIA (Welding Technology Institute of Australia) - Technical Note 1 – Weldability of Steels

3 Approved design
All structures shall be constructed to an approved design

Structures shall be constructed to meet the requirements of RailCorp’s Engineering Standards for
the specified structure type.

4 Competency requirements
Structures shall be constructed and inspected by persons with competencies for work activities as
detailed in RailCorp Engineering Manual TMC 001 – Civil Technical Competencies and
Engineering Authority.

5 Technical specifications
The following sections contain the Technical Specifications for structures construction work. The
historical specification reference number, e.g. S01, has been retained.

6 S01 Quality assurance & control


This Specification provides instructions on the use of the RTA QA Specifications and adaptation for
use on quality control projects.

Most construction projects are now implemented under quality assurance procedures. This is
reflected in the contents of the Technical Specifications.
For some minor works, quality control procedures may be considered to be adequate in preference
to full quality assurance procedures. The QA specifications however can still be utilised as detailed
in Section 7.2.

6.1 Quality assurance specifications


The Technical Specifications in this document are in Quality Assurance (QA) format.

The various RTA QA Specifications referred to within these Technical Specifications are prepared
and maintained by the Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW (RTA). RTA's latest QA Specifications

© Rail Corporation Page 6 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

are available from the RTA's web site www.rta.nsw.gov.au/doingbusinesswithus/specifications/ .


The applicable version of the relevant RTA QA Specification is the version available from the RTA
web site on the closing date for tenders.

Where the RTA Specification refers to the "Superintendent" this shall mean the "Principal" or the
"RailCorp Representative" as defined elsewhere in the tender document.

6.2 Quality control specifications


Where the contract is a Quality Control (QC) contract, then the following shall apply:

− 'Hold Point' and 'Witness Point' shall be interpreted as 'Inspection Point' or "Submission Point".
Where a submission is required the Contractor shall provide this to the RailCorp
Representative at least two working days prior to the date of commencement of the process
that is the subject of the Hold Point or Witness Point. Where an inspection is required the
Contractor shall give the Railcorp Representative at least two working days notice prior to the
date of commencement of the process that is the subject of the Hold Point or Witness Point
and arrange for the inspection to be undertaken.
− The requirement for the submission of a 'Quality Plan' shall mean that the Contractor shall
submit a detailed 'Project Plan' using MS Project or other acceptable software. The Plan shall
include all major milestones, resources, subcontractors, sampling and testing regimes as
applicable.
− Where the RTA QA Specifications reference other RTA QA Specifications and Test Methods,
this shall mean the relevant RailCorp Technical Specification or RailCorp Standards, or
relevant Australian Standards wherever applicable.
− Where the RTA QA Specifications include clauses on measurement and payment, direction
from the RailCorp Representative on the applicability of these clauses shall be obtained by the
Contractor.
− Where the RTA QA specification includes clauses on collection of material samples and
delivering them to RTA laboratory, this shall mean that the contractor shall submit test results
of test undertaken by a NATA accredited laboratory.

7 S03 Miscellaneous earthworks


This Specification sets out the requirements for:

− site clearing,
− construction of embankments,
− excavation of cuttings and
− installation of capping layers
− earthworks near structures
− drainage
in conjunction with the upgrading or construction of structures.

The preparation and clearing of sites for the construction of structural works shall in accordance
with good engineering and environmentally-friendly practice and as specified in TMC 411 -
Earthworks.

Railway embankments may be required to be constructed, extended, widened or strengthened in


association with structural works, e.g. the construction of underbridges or retaining walls. The
embankments are to be constructed to the dimensions and extent shown on the Drawings and in
accordance with the requirements of TMC 411 and SPC 411 - Earthwork Materials.

Railway cuttings may need to be widened or modified in association with the construction of
structures such as overbridges and retaining walls. Excavation shall be carried out to the lines,
levels, dimensions and slopes shown on the Drawings, and in accordance with the requirements of
TMC 411.

© Rail Corporation Page 7 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

The supply of material for and the installation of the capping layer to railway formations shall be in
accordance with SPC 411and TMC 411.

The construction of structural works may require excavation or compaction works adjacent to
existing structures. These structures may include bridge abutments, piers and wingwalls, retaining
walls, station platform walls, overhead wiring structures and signal gantries. Particular care is to be
exercised in these circumstances to ensure that no damage is caused to the existing structures.
The precautions and requirements detailed in TMC 411 are to be followed.

Drainage works are to be constructed to the detail and extent shown on the Drawings. Cess drains,
sub-surface drains and top drains are to comply with the requirements of TMC 421 - Track
Drainage.

8 S04 Excavation and foundations for structures


This Specification sets out the requirements for shoring, excavation, placement of unreinforced
concrete blinding layers and backfilling of excavations (up to adjacent ground levels) and disposal
of surplus materials for structures.

All aspects of the shoring, excavation and backfilling of excavations for structures shall comply with
the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B30 “Excavation and Backfill for Bridgeworks”.

Environmental protection of the site shall be in accordance with the RailCorp Environmental
Management System.

Where backfilling above adjacent ground levels is required, the requirements of RailCorp Technical
Specification S03 shall apply.

9 S07 Post-tensioning of concrete


This Specification sets out the requirements for the;

− Supply and installation of post-tensioning tendons (including ducts, anchorages and other
components) for post tensioned concrete members, and
− Post-tensioning and grouting of tendons.
This specification shall not be applied to post-tensioning with un-bonded tendons or with tendons
which are located externally to the concrete to be prestressed.

All aspects of the post tensioning of concrete members shall comply with the requirements of the
RTA QA Specifications B113 “Post-Tensioning of Concrete” and B119 “Approval of Post –
Tensioning Systems”.

Associated concrete works shall comply with the requirements of RailCorp Technical Specification
S10 “Concrete Works for Structures.”

Not withstanding the requirement shown in RTA B113, the Contractor shall request the RailCorp
Representative to nominate a Post-Tensioning Supervisor at least one week before the
commencement of the post-tensioning works.

10 S08 Steel piles


This Specification sets out the requirements for supply and installation by driving of:

− H section steel piles


− Tubular steel piles (with or without concrete plug at the toe with reinforcement concrete infill)
− Sheet piles
which are driven to nominal refusal in rock or are driven to a resistance in other than rock.

© Rail Corporation Page 8 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

All aspects of the supply and driving of steel H piles shall comply with the requirements of the RTA
QA Specification B53 “Driven H Section Steel Piles”.

All aspects of the supply and driving of tubular steel piles shall comply with the requirements of the
RTA QA Specification B54 “Driven Tubular Steel Piles”.

11 S10 Concrete works


This specification sets out the requirements for concrete work for all structures for:

− the supply and delivery of all concrete, cement mortar, and grout for in-situ and precast
concrete elements used in the Works
− the design, construction, erection and removal of formwork
− the supply, fabrication and fixing of the reinforcing steel, and other embedded items
− the placing, compacting, finishing and curing of the concrete, cement mortar and grout
All aspects of concrete work shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B80,
"Concrete Work for Bridges".

Concrete test panels and colour control of concrete where required shall be provided in accordance
with AS 3610, to suit the class of finish defined in RTA QA Specification B80.

12 S11 Driven concrete piles


This Specification sets out the requirements for the manufacture and driving of:

− reinforced concrete piles


− prestressed concrete piles
− composite piles
All aspects of the manufacture and driving of reinforced concrete piles shall comply with the
requirements of the RTA QA Specification B50 “Driven Reinforced Concrete Piles”.

All aspects of the manufacture and driving of prestressed concrete piles shall comply with the
requirements of the RTA QA Specification B51 “Driven Prestressed Concrete Piles”.

All aspects of the manufacture and driving of composite concrete piles shall comply with the
requirements of the RTA QA Specification B61 “Driven Composite Piles”.

13 S12 Cast-in-place concrete piles


This Specification sets out the requirements for the:

− Design, testing and installation of piles classified, in accordance with AS 2159 – Piling –
Design and installation, as driven cast in place displacement piles
− Installation of reinforced concrete piles which are constructed by progressively driving or
sinking non-structural steel casings (which form part of the Works) into the ground, excavating
all material from inside the casings, placing reinforcement and then filling the casings with
concrete.
− Construction of reinforced concrete piles which are formed and cast in place without the use of
permanent casing.
All aspects of the construction of reinforced concrete cast in place piles (with permanent or
temporary casings) shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B57 “Driven
Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles”.

© Rail Corporation Page 9 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

All aspects of the construction of reinforced concrete cast in place piles (with permanent casings)
shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B58 “Permanently Cased Cast-in-
Place Reinforced Concrete Piles”.

All aspects of the construction of reinforced concrete cast in place piles (without permanent
casings) shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B59 “Bored Cast-in-Place
Reinforced Concrete Piles (without permanent casing)”.

Concrete work shall comply with the requirements of RailCorp Technical Specification S10
“Concrete Works for Structures”.

The Contractor shall give advance notice of at least 1 day of its intention to place the reinforcement
cage into the pile hole.

14 S13 Precast reinforced concrete members


This Specification sets out the requirements for the manufacture and supply of precast reinforced
concrete members that are not pretensioned, including precast concrete members that are to be
post tensioned.

All aspects of the manufacture and supply of precast reinforced concrete members shall comply
with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B115 “Precast Concrete Members (Not
Pretensioned)”.

Concrete work shall comply with the requirements of RailCorp Technical Specification S10
“Concrete Works for Structures“.

15 S14 Precast prestressed concrete members


This Specification sets out the requirements for the manufacture and supply of pretensioned
precast concrete members.

All aspects of the manufacture and supply of pretensioned precast concrete members shall comply
with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B110 “Manufacture of Pretensioned Precast
Concrete Members”.

Concrete work shall comply with the requirements of RailCorp Technical Specification S10
“Concrete Works for Structures”.

16 S16 Erection of precast concrete members


This Specification sets out the requirements for the erection of precast concrete girders and planks
in bridges. This Specification does not apply to piles.

All aspects of the erection of pretensioned precast concrete members shall comply with the
requirements of the RTA QA Specification B150 “Erection of Pretensioned Precast Concrete
Members”.

All aspects of the erection of precast concrete members shall comply with the requirements of the
RTA QA Specification B153 “Erection of Precast Concrete Members (Not Pretensioned)”.

17 S20 Structural steelwork fabrication for underbridges


17.1 Scope and Application
This Specification sets out the requirements for the fabrication of new steel girders for rail
underbridges.

© Rail Corporation Page 10 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

The fabrication of steel underbridge girders is to comply with the various Australian Standards and
other reference documents as prescibed in the following technical specification. All work is to be
undertaken in accordance with the Project Drawings.

Reference should also be made where applicable to the following Technical Specifications for
associated works:

− S22: fabrication of miscellaneous steelwork for underbridges, e.g. safety walkways;


− S24: protective paint coating
− S25: protective galvanised coating
− S26: erection of structural steelwork
− S27: erection of minor steelwork
− S30: pot-style bearings
− S31: elastomeric bearings
− S32: installation of bearings

17.2 Fabrication Requirements


17.2.1 General
Work covered by this Section includes the supply of all labour, equipment, and materials to
fabricate, shop assemble, protective coat, transport and deliver main girders, cross girders and
other steelwork for railway underbridges.

17.2.2 Materials
17.2.2.1 Standards
Materials, shall be new, free from defects and shall conform with the Standards specified
hereunder:

Materials Specification
Rolled Sections: AS/NZS 3679.1
Flange and Web Plates: NVR Specification
Other Plate and Flats: AS/NZS 3678, AS/NZS 1594
Hollow Sections: AS 1163
High-Strength Structural Bolts, AS/NZS 1252 for manufacture
Nuts and Washers:
AS 1214 for galvanizing
AS 4100 for assembly
Product Grade C Bolts, Nuts and AS 1112.3, AS 1111.1 & AS 1237 for manufacture
Washers:
AS 1214 for galvanizing
AS 4100 for assembly
17.2.2.2 Steel grades
Applicable steel grades are:

Hot Rolled Sections: Grade 300 PLUS


Hollow Sections: Grade C350
Flange and Web Plates: Grade 250L15 (minimum)
Other Plate and Flats: Grade 250

© Rail Corporation Page 11 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Steel plates not manufactured by BlueScope Steel Australia shall be fully tested in accordance with
AS/NZS 3678 and all other associated Australian Standards to prove its equivalence to the quality
offered by BlueScope Steel.

17.2.3 Ultrasonic testing of plates


Prior to fabrication, all plates that are thicker than 16mm for girder flanges, webs and bearing
stiffeners shall be ultrasonically tested continuously along the cut edge of the plate and along all
lines away from the cut edge of the plate where welding will be carried out, to establish that the
plates are free of laminations. Ultrasonic inspection of plates before welding shall be in accordance
with the Specification for Ultrasonic Testing as detailed in Section 18.4 of this specification. The
Contractor shall arrange and pay for an independent NATA testing laboratory to carry out this work.

A written report on each line tested shall be forwarded direct from the testing laboratory to the
RailCorp Representative within 24 hours of the test. The location and extent of inclusions and/or
laminations shall be detailed and sketched in the report. Where discontinuities extend for a length
of 100 mm along any weld line the extent of discontinuities in the area shall be assessed to verify
that the plate conforms to AS 1710, Level 2E.

The RailCorp Representative shall have the sole right to decide whether a suspect plate may be
used in the work or be rejected. If a plate suspected of containing discontinuities is accepted by the
RailCorp Representative, the position in which it may be used in the structure will be designated by
the RailCorp Representative.

If a plate is rejected by the RailCorp Representative, it shall be replaced by the Principal at the
Contractor's works without cost to the Contractor, in the case of NVR steel plate originally supplied
by the Principal. It shall be replaced by the Contractor at his cost in all other cases.

17.2.3.1 Welding
Welding shall conform to the standards specified in Section 18.3.1.

17.2.4 Recording of steel plates and fabrication details


A register shall be kept for each steel plate built into flanges, webs, bearing stiffeners and bearing
plates. The register shall be kept up-to-date and be available at the Contractor's works for
inspection and shall be forwarded to the RailCorp Representative on completion of the Contract.

Information to be recorded in the register shall include the following items:

− The mill heat and plate number obtainable from the as-rolled plate.
− Each fabrication process carried out to the plate.
− Production welds and weld repair.
− A means of identifying welds.
− A diagram showing the location of each plate and location of each butt weld in a finished
girder.
To simplify shop marking and records, each plate shall be allotted a "shop serial number" which
shall be recorded for plate identification. When an as-rolled plate is to be cut into a number of
pieces, each piece shall be given a separate shop serial number. Butt weld splices shall be
identified by the shop serial numbers of the two plates spliced, that is for splicing of two plates
having shop serial numbers 2 and 6, the butt weld would be identified as 2-6.

17.2.5 Shop drawings


The Contractor is required to produce shop drawings for all steel fabricated under this Contract. At
least one week prior to commencement of fabrication of any portion of the work, the Contractor
shall submit two copies of the relevant shop drawings to the RailCorp Representative for review
and approval. Drawings shall comply with AS 1100.

© Rail Corporation Page 12 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

One set shall be returned and the others retained by the RailCorp Representative. The checking
shall be for general compliance only with the design drawings and the correctness of all
dimensions and other details shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor.

Shop drawings shall indicate clearly splice locations, the various types of welds, corresponding
edge preparation required and the order in which welds at a truss joint are to be carried out.

17.2.6 Storage of materials


All structural steel stock or fabricated steelwork shall be stored above the ground on platforms,
skids or other supports, and adequately protected against corrosion. Steel which has been bent,
damaged or excessively rusted will be rejected.

Fasteners and other small steel components shall be stored in a weatherproof building or sealed
weatherproof containers.

17.2.7 Marking and Inspection


Identification markings, match-marking or marking the mass of members shall be by stamping or
stamped metal discs wired through holes.

The RailCorp Representative shall be permitted at all reasonable times to enter the Contractor's
premises for the purpose of inspecting work, and no work shall be taken down or packed until it has
been inspected and passed. The Contractor shall supply all labour, tools and falsework required to
permit convenient access for inspection of the work.

17.2.8 Dimensional tolerances


Members and parts of members shall be true to dimension and line, either straight or curved as
shown on the Drawings, and free of undetailed twists and bends. Acceptability of steelwork shall
depend on proper fitting together on erection and compliance with the tolerances stated hereunder.
If closer tolerances are called for on the Drawings, such closer tolerances shall govern.

17.2.8.1 Cross sections


Tolerances on any cross-section of a rolled section or plate shall comply with the requirements of
AS 3678, AS 3679.1 or AS 3679.2 as appropriate.

For built-up sections the deviations from the specified dimensions shall not exceed the following:

Dimension Application Tolerance


Width of flange For all values of flange width + 10 mm, - 0 mm
(see Figure 1)
Eccentricity Offset between centrelines of + 2 mm
web and flange
(see Figure 1)

© Rail Corporation Page 13 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

17.2.8.2 Girders

CLFLANGE

OFFSET + 2 (MAX)

CLWEB

Figure 1: Flange width and eccentricity

Deviation from the detailed length shall not exceed the following:

Dimension Application Tolerance


Length For members with ends + 1 mm
milled for bearing
For framed members, ends
not milled or faced:
Up to 9 metres + 2 mm
Over 9 metres + 3 mm
For other members + 6 mm
For single span girders + 6 mm
Straightness Deviation from detailed the measured length between
straightness (plan and the points/2000 mm, but not
(see Figure 2)
elevation), curvature (plan), more than 3 millimetres
or camber (elevation), maximum.
between any two points on
the member centreline

© Rail Corporation Page 14 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Length L2
Curvature
Deviation D2
Deviation D1

DETAILED CL

AC T U
AL CL

Length L1

LENGTH L

PLAN
LE N G
TH L3
CAMBER
DE VIA
T ION D
3

ELEVATION

STRAIGHT MEMBER

CURVATURE
DEVIATION

DE TAIL
ED C L
AC T U A
L CL

PLAN

CAMBER
DEVIATION

DETAILED CAMBER

ELEVATION

CURVED MEMBER

FIGURE 2: STRAIGHTNESS

Dimension Application Tolerance


Twist Deviation from parallelism to not greater than
longitudinal axis, of line LD/4,000,000
(see Figure 3)
joining corresponding points
on two similar cross-sections
along the length of the
member for I-section girders
of depth D millimetres, where
L is the distance in metres
between cross sections.
Depth and width Deviation from detailed depth not greater than + (D/500 +
D at a web centreline or span 3mm) or + (W/500 + 3mm)
(see Figure 4)

© Rail Corporation Page 15 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

width W between web respectively.


centrelines
Warpage & tilt Offset at the toe of flange This offset shall not exceed
from a line normal to the 1/100 of total width of flange
(Combined effect of warpage,
plane of the web through the or 6 millimetres, whichever
tilt of flange and "pull" due to
intersection of the web the lesser, at any point along
welding at any cross-section
centreline with the outside a member, or 3 millimetres at
of welded I-shaped girders)
face of the flange any bearing, as welded.
(see Figure 5)
Top and bottom flanges the flange is not permitted to
slope upwards away from the
web thereby creating a
ponding area.
For box girders the offset shall not exceed
1/40 of outstand length.

(Metres)
D
Figure 3: Twist

DEPTH
D

CL WEB SPAN WIDTH W CL WEB

Figure 4: Girder flange depth and width

DEVIATION

POTENTIAL WATER
PONDING AREA

DEVIATION NOT PERMITTED


IN UPWARD DIRECTION

Figure 5: Warpage & tilt in section

© Rail Corporation Page 16 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

17.2.8.3 Alignment at splice joints


Where two plates are spliced by butt welding together ends with the same cross-section, the plate
centrelines in the immediate vicinity of the joint shall coincide, with the following tolerances on
alignment:

Dimension Application Tolerance


Butt welded plates Maximum offset between the 1/10 of thickness of the
plate centrelines in the thinner plate joined, but not
(see Figure 6)
immediate vicinity of the joint more than 2 millimetres.
in the direction of the plate
width or in the direction of the
plate thickness
Maximum angular deviation 1 in 25
between these centrelines in
the “direction” of the plate
width or in the “direction” of
the plate thickness

T
N T
I
O N
J I
O
X J
A m
M m
0
1 2
±/ t g
n H
i
d T 25
e
e D +1 MAX
c WI
x
e
t
o
X n
A t
Bu
T M T
T T
BU
BU 0
1 S
±/ t S 25
E
N
K
+1 MAX
C
IH
T

OFFSET ANGULAR DEVIATION

Figure 6: Plate Misalignment

17.2.8.4 Bearing seat


Flatness of bearing seat shall not exceed the following:

Dimension Application Tolerance


Out- of-flatness Bearing seat 0.25 mm maximum
(see Figure 7)

Max 25 mm Max 25
. mm

Figure 7: Bearing seat flatness

17.2.8.5 Plate flatness


Deviation from flatness or detailed curvature of panels of plate elements shall be determined by
measuring offsets perpendicular to a template edge having the detailed straightness or curvature

© Rail Corporation Page 17 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

and a length not less than the smaller of d1 or d2 as defined below, and not more than 1.5 times
the smaller of d1 or d2 – refer to Figure 8.

The measurement shall be taken between points of contact of the template edge with the plate.
The template edge may be placed anywhere within the panel of plate. The maximum offset in
millimetres shall not exceed the values computed as follows:

Dimension Application Tolerance


Plate flatness For girder webs without d/50t, but not greater than
intermediate stiffeners 0.5t.
(see Figure 8)
For all stiffened plate d/30t, but not greater than
elements 0.8t.
In the above expressions, d is
the least dimension in
millimetres of:
d1 the transverse distance
between longitudinal flanges,
edges or stiffeners,
d2 the longitudinal distance
between transverse edges or
stiffeners, or
d3 the clear distance between
points of contact of the
template with the plate or
web.
T is the minimum thickness of
the plate within the panel in
millimetres

© Rail Corporation Page 18 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

TEMPLATE MAX OFFSET

PLATE d3

SECTION

d1
d1

d1

d2 d2

ELEVATIONS

FIGURE 8: PLATE FLATNESS

17.2.8.6 Secondary members


Deviation from detailed position of secondary parts and connections, the detailed position being the
detailed distance from the member, connection, centreline of bearing or other primary working point
or line.

Dimension Application Tolerance


Deviation from detailed For bearing stiffeners and for + 3 millimetres.
position of secondary parts each secondary part used for
& connections the connection of secondary
members (that is, a part used
for connections in which, if
the connections were bolted,
holes would be permitted to
be drilled full size)
For all secondary parts not + 6 millimetres.
included above (that is, a part
such as a plain stiffener plate
or bar)

17.2.9 Cambering

© Rail Corporation Page 19 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Girders shall be cambered, at a uniform radius if so detailed, to the shape shown on the Drawings.
Camber shall be measured with the girder on its side, as the offset of the bottom flange, from a
wire stretched tightly between the points of intersections of the web centreline with the outer face of
the bottom flange at the two ends of the girder. If the girder cannot be placed on its side to
measure camber, it shall be supported upright at the ends, and an allowance shall be made for
deflection due to its own mass.

Built-up girders shall have the camber formed by cutting the web plates to suit, making allowances
for shrinkage due to cutting and welding. Cambering of rolled sections and adjustment to the
camber in built-up sections shall be done by methods approved by the RailCorp Representative.
Moderate deviations from the specified camber may be corrected by a carefully supervised
application of heat but in no case shall the tension flange be heated above 300 degrees Celsius.

Where girders are to be galvanized, the camber is to be within the specified tolerances shown on
the drawing, after galvanizing. To ensure this is achieved, the Contractor shall contact the
galvanizer to determine what, if any, change in camber will occur during galvanizing, before
deciding how much camber is to be provided during fabrication. The Contractor and the Galvanizer
shall decide at the start of the contract what methods are to be used for rectification, if the camber
after galvanizing is not as specified, these methods are to be advised to the RailCorp
Representative.

As far as possible, adjacent girders in the same span should be within 5mm of the same camber.

17.2.10 Plates and flats


Plates and flats shall be aligned in such a manner that the main stresses will be in the direction of
rolling unless otherwise approved by the RailCorp Representative.

Plates shall be stripped by flame cutting and shall be finished square, straight or true to designed
curvature, and plane without burrs or imperfections that are in excess of the specified tolerances.

Flats with reasonably square and true rolled edges may, at the discretion of the RailCorp
Representative, be accepted as a substitute for plates or flats with flame cut or machined edges.
Such flats shall not be used if in service they are subjected to main stresses other than in the
direction of rolling. The radius at the edge of the flat that is to be fillet welded along the edge shall
not exceed 25 percent of the nominal fillet weld size.

17.2.11 Cutting
Steelwork may be cut by flame cutting, sawing or shearing unless specified otherwise below.
Surfaces produced by such cutting shall be finished square (unless a bevelled edge is called for),
true and smooth to the required dimensions.

All exposed cut edges shall be cut to a standard comparable to Class 1 oxy cutting in accordance
with a standard sample supplied by Australian Welding Institute. Where the finish is not to this
standard cut edges shall be ground until the required standard is achieved. All corners on exposed
edges shall be rounded to a radius or bevel of not less than 2 mm.

Flame cutting using a template-guided machine approved by the RailCorp Representative may be
used, provided the Class 1 finish referred to above is obtained. Cutting equipment shall be
maintained in good working order. Suitable regulators shall afford the operator complete control
over the pressure and rate of flow of gas. Torches and nozzles shall be of proper size and type for
the work in hand. Flame cutting by hand shall not be used except where specifically approved by
the RailCorp Representative. Re-entrant corners shall be smoothly rounded to a radius of not less
than 20 mm.

Striations and gouges from flame cutting, which are less than 3 mm in depth, shall be removed by
grinding so that the resulting depression, which shall not exceed 3 mm, is tapered out smoothly for
a distance of 25 times depth of defect on both sides of the defect. The finished plate size shall be
within the specified tolerances. Striations and gouges having a depth greater than 3 mm shall be
repaired using methods approved by the RailCorp Representative, but severe gouging or notching
or frequent striations may be cause for rejection of the plate.

© Rail Corporation Page 20 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

17.2.12 Flange plates


Plates, after stripping, shall not be handled using any equipment which can cause notching or
marking the edges in excess of the tolerances specified for cutting above. Any plate exhibiting
damage beyond these tolerances shall be rejected and replaced at the Contractor's expense.

Both compression and tension flanges shall be straightened to the specific tolerances prior to
assembly into girders. If flame straightening is used, the plate shall not be heated beyond that
required by the Australian Standard for the particular plate size. The cooling medium shall be dry
compressed air. In no circumstances shall water be used to cool the plates.

Bottom (tension) flange plates shall be pre-set prior to welding to web plates so that the finished
flange of the girder is flat or nearly so. On no account shall the bottom flange distort upwards so
that dirt or water can accumulate on its upper surface. A pre-heat, in accordance with the sub-
clause 2.23 "Preheating" shall be applied along the centre line of the flange plate before pressing
for pre-set.

Flange plates shall be inspected and built into the girder so that any surface rectification by
grinding will be on the underside of such plates. In the event of both surfaces of plates having
been rectified by grinding, the grinding on the top side shall be brought out to the edge of the flange
plate.

17.2.13 Grinding
Any defects, score marks or bruises found in steel plates during fabrication shall be ground out to
the satisfaction of the RailCorp Representative so that:

− The grinding does not reduce the thickness of the as-rolled plates below the minimum
thickness specified in Table 3.1, AS/NZS 1365.
− The direction of grinding is in the direction of applied stress, that is along the length of the
plate, in such a manner as to avoid over-heating, flow, unnecessary deep scores or grooves.
The area to be conditioned shall be uniformly flared so that the ratio Flare Distance/Maximum
Depth of Imperfection is greater than 50.
Plates which are damaged and reduced by grinding below the minimum thickness specified in
Table 3.1, AS/NZS 1365, will be rejected and replacements obtained at the Contractor's cost.

17.2.14 Holes
The Contractor shall be responsible for the accuracy of all holes regardless of variations in
dimensions of rolled sections or tolerances allowed in fabrication. Holes in plates thicker than
16mm may be either drilled full-size or reamed to full size after sub-drilling or sub-punching. Holes
in plates of 12mm or lesser thickness may be punched full size and deburred by grinding.
Punching may only be carried out using numerically controlled equipment.

The finished diameter of a bolt hole shall be 2 mm greater than the diameter of the bolt shown in
the Drawings unless otherwise noted. Sub-punched and sub-drilled holes shall be smaller in
diameter than the nominal diameter of the bolt, by 5 mm for a bolt greater than 20 mm in diameter
and 3 mm for a bolt 20 mm in diameter or smaller.

The diameter of the hole in the die used for sub-punching shall not exceed the diameter of the
punch by more than 2 mm. All sub-punched or sub-drilled holes shall be clean cut, without torn or
ragged edges and shall be located with an accuracy such that after the steel is assembled and
before any reaming is done, a cylindrical pin 3 mm smaller in diameter than the nominal diameter
of the hole may be entered perpendicular to the face of the member, without drifting, in at least 75
percent of the holes in close groups in the same plane. If this requirement is not fulfilled, the badly
punched or drilled pieces will be rejected. If any hole will not pass a pin 4 mm smaller in diameter
than the nominal size of the hole, this will be cause for rejection. Drifting to enlarge holes will not
be allowed.

Reamed or drilled holes shall be cylindrical and perpendicular to the face of the member. Reaming
and drilling shall be done by mechanical means. Connecting parts shall be assembled and held

© Rail Corporation Page 21 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

securely while being reamed or drilled and shall be match-marked before separating. Burrs on all
surfaces shall be removed. Assembled parts shall be taken apart for removal of burrs caused by
drilling and reaming. All reamed or drilled holes shall be located to an accuracy such that, after the
holes have been reamed or drilled, 85 percent of the holes in any close group shall show no offset
greater than one millimetre between adjacent thickness of metal. If this requirement is not fulfilled
the badly drilled or reamed pieces will be rejected. Where major members are rejected, the
Contractor may submit a proposal for repair. Acceptance of both the proposal and the repaired
work, if applicable, will be at the discretion of the RailCorp Representative.

Holes for field connections shall be reamed or drilled with the members assembled in the shop in
their correct relative positions. Holes for field connections of minor members may alternatively be
reamed or drilled from the solid to a hardened steel template not less than 25 mm thick, and all
corresponding holes in the members to which they connect shall be reamed of drilled to the same
template.

Each main member shall be assembled full length before reaming or drilling is commenced. The
assembly, including camber, alignment, and accuracy of sub-punched or sub-drilled holes shall be
approved by the RailCorp Representative before reaming or drilling is commenced. All joints shall
be match-marked before the structure is dismantled.

17.2.15 High strength structural bolts


High-strength structural steel bolts, nuts and washers shall conform to the requirements of AS/NZS
1252 for manufacture and supply.

High-strength bolts, nuts and washers shall be hot-dip galvanized in accordance with AS 1214.
Threaded elements shall be centrifuged on withdrawal from the molten zinc bath. Nuts that are not
of a manufactured internal diameter to accommodate hot dip galvanizing shall be re-tapped and
their threads oiled for corrosion protection. Galvanized fasteners shall be test-assembled as
specified in AS 1214, and then lubricated by the manufacturer ready for assembly, using an
approved anti-corrosion coating.

The lengths of the bolts shall be so chosen that, after final tightening, the bolt will protrude through
the nut by not less than 10 mm.

High-strength structural bolts shall be installed in accordance with the procedure for the installation
of high-strength bolts using the part-turn method of tightening in AS 4100.

High-strength bolts shall not be used to correct bad fitting of connecting parts. Contact surfaces
shall be brought into solid seating by grinding or machining before high-strength bolts are installed.

17.2.16 Shop assembly of steelwork


On completion of fabrication and before dispatch to the site, all steel components except the
walkway shall be assembled in the shop into complete spans for checking of dimensions, levels,
squareness and fit.

Each span is to be shop assembled complete with cross girders and stringers. The shop assembly
is a trial assembly only and shall be made using service bolts. However, new bolts, nuts and
washer complying with the Drawings and this Specification shall be used in the final assembly and
a sufficient supply of these including 5 percent surplus shall accompany the components to the
site.

No steelwork shall be dispatched to the site unless and until the RailCorp Representative has
inspected and passed the shop assembly. Before dismantling a successful trial assembly the
components shall be match-marked to assist subsequent erection.

Alternatively, full assembly of steel bridge span shall be carried out in the workshop after the
steelwork protective treatment, if the transportation of the bridge span from the workshop to the site
is feasible. Inspection approval shall be sought from the RailCorp Representative prior to the
dispatch of the fully assembled steel span to site.

© Rail Corporation Page 22 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

17.2.17 Protective coating


Before dispatch to site, steelwork shall be given the protective coating as described on the
Drawings.

17.2.18 Handling and transport


The fabricated steelwork shall be braced and handled for transport and erection in such a manner
as to prevent distortion and to ensure protection from damage. The method of transporting and
handling shall be subject to the approval of the RailCorp Representative.

Specially prepared slings, lifting points, timber dunnage, edge protectors and rubber or other
covering for lashings shall be provided by the Contractor to minimise damage to the steelwork and
its protective coatings.

Where so instructed by the RailCorp Representative, long girders or spans shall be loaded and
marked so that they may be delivered at the bridge site correctly positioned for erection without
turning.

Delivery instructions will be issued by the RailCorp Representative as appropriate to the on-site
construction program.

The Contractor is to supply lifting crane to unload and stack the nominated fully assembled steel
spans at the two designated locations near the bridge ends as directed by the RailCorp
Representative.

17.2.19 Name plates


The name plate shall comprise of a 200mm X 350mm brass plate with the following information
engraved on a raised surface. Each letter or number of the text on the first or second line shall be
20mm high and suitably wide. The information to be shown on the name plate is shown below.

The raised portion and the edges of the name plate shall be polished. The name plate shall be
fixed on at approximately 500mm from the edges of the external steel main girder’s webs at
Sydney abutment end.

The fixing shall be by 4 off 10mm diameter countersunk brass screws. The Contractor shall submit
details of the name plate including the size and location of attachment to the RailCorp
Representative for approval prior to commencement.

17.3 Welding Requirements


17.3.1 Standards
Welding shall conform to the standards specified hereunder:

Structural steel welding of plates and sections for the main steel girders, cross girders, lateral
restraint bar, restraint bracket, restraint angle and bearing assembles: AS/NZS 1554.5.

Where there is a conflict between the Standard and this Specification, the Specification shall take
precedence. Wherever special welding requirements subjected to fatigue are not covered by
AS/NZS 1554.5, specific reference shall be made to American Structural Welding Code,
ANSI/AWS D1.1 – 96. Special welding conditions as described in Clause 2.9 shall be met.

Particular requirements of AS/NZS 1554.5:

− The nominal tensile strength of the welds that are required to comply with AS/NZS 1554.5 is to
be 480 MPa.
− The Charpy V-notch impact test for the heat affected zone is only required to qualify welding
procedures where the preheat temperatures do not comply with clause 5.3 of AS/NZS 1554.5.
− The preparation of special test pieces as described in AS/NZS 1554.5 clause 4.7.2 will be
required for a number of welds (e.g. all full penetration butt welds in the areas where apply to

© Rail Corporation Page 23 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

flange to flange, web to flange, stiffeners to flanges and gusset plate to flange) as instructed
by the RailCorp Representative. A Provisional Item may be included for the preparation and
testing of test pieces. The cost of re-submission and re-testing failed procedures will be at the
Contractor’s cost and will not be measured for payment.
The hardness of the heat affected zone is not to exceed 350HV10.

17.3.2 Welding equipment and methods


In assembling and joining parts of a structure or of built-up members, and in welding reinforcing
parts to members, the procedure and sequence shall be such as will minimise distortion and
shrinkage. Before the start of fabrication the Contractor shall be required to submit for the RailCorp
Representative’s approval proposed fabrication and welding procedures. These proposals shall
include:

− methods of plate preparation


− temperature and method of preheating (for plate preparation and welding)
− weld joint geometry
− welding processes
− types and sizes of electrodes and other consumables
− sequence of welding
− methods for minimising distortion, residual stresses and stress concentrations.
In making welds under conditions of severe external shrinkage restraint the welding shall be carried
continuously to completion or to a point that will ensure freedom from cracking before the joint is
allowed to cool below the minimum specified preheat and interpass temperature.

The parts to be joined by fillet welds shall be brought into a close contact as practicable.

Flange-to-web welds of fabricated girders shall be made by the submerged arc automatic process.

Transverse tack welds on tension flanges of flexural members are prohibited. Tack welds shall be
subject to the same quality requirements as the final welds except that:

− Preheat is not mandatory for single pass welds which are re-melted and incorporated into
welds made by the submerged arc or gas metal-arc process.
− Defects such as undercut, unfilled craters and porosity need not be removed before final
welds when final welds are made by the submerged arc or gas metal-arc process.
Tack welds which are not incorporated into final weld shall be removed. Tack welds which are
incorporated into the final weld shall be cleaned thoroughly.

Backings, extension bars and run-off plates used for groove welds shall be of steel of at least equal
strength and weldability. Backings shall be removed from all members carrying live load stress,
and from other members where the backings are exposed. Backings shall be removed by a
procedure that does not injure the base metal or the weld metal, and the weld metal surface shall
be left flush or slightly convex with the full throat thickness. Extension bars and run-off plates shall
be removed upon completion of the weld and the ends of the weld made smooth and flush with the
abutting parts.

All welding shall be carried out completely under cover and the fabrication factory or plant shall be
sufficiently large to accommodate the steelwork to achieve this requirement.

Welding shall be carried out by an electric arc process and wherever possible, by automatic or
manually-guided machine. In the event that the welding is carried out by electroslag or
consumable electrode process, normalising or other approved supplementary process shall be
included to ensure refinement of grain size and satisfactory physical properties in both the
deposited metal and the heat affected zone. The flange-to-web welds shall be carried out by the
automatic submerged arc process.

© Rail Corporation Page 24 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Equipment and electrodes for welding shall be of approved types and shall be used in the
circumstances and manner recommended by the manufacturer and specified herein. In the event
of inconsistencies between these requirements, this Specification shall prevail. Sizes of
electrodes, currents, voltages, polarity, arc lengths, speeds of travel, number of passes, sequence
of passes, position of welding, edge preparation, fixtures and jigs shall be as recommended for the
particular class of work and shall not be varied without written approval of the RailCorp
Representative. Where a machine or a method is not of a conventional type, adequate
demonstration of its satisfactory performance may be required by the RailCorp Representative
before approval for its use will be given.

Electric arc welding equipment and plant shall conform to AS 1966 and shall be maintained in good
condition at all times. Adequate safety precautions shall be taken during welding operations to
protect operators and persons in the vicinity of such operations from electric shocks and the effects
of radiations.

17.3.3 Electrodes for welding


Electrodes shall comply with the relevant requirements of AS/NZS 1553. Types of electrodes to be
used for the various parts of the Work shall be subject to the approval of the RailCorp
Representative and shall give physical properties in the weld metal and heat affected zone not less
than those of the higher grade of parent metal being joined. Electrodes shall be stored and
protected during use so that characteristics and welding properties are not affected. Electrodes
which have been wet or subject to conditions which the RailCorp Representative may deem to be
detrimental shall be liable to rejection.

All manual welding shall be performed with low hydrogen (Class 3) electrodes. All low hydrogen
electrodes shall be dried in an approved drying oven at a temperature of not less than 260 degrees
Celsius for not less than one hour, and shall subsequently be maintained at a temperature of at
least 120 degrees Celsius in an approved holding oven. Any low hydrogen electrode which is
allowed to cool below 120 degrees Celsius for a period exceeding one hour shall be reheated for
not less than one hour at a temperature not less than 260 degrees Celsius. Immediately before
use a low hydrogen electrode shall be allowed to cool so that at the time of use its temperature
shall be in the range of 50 degrees Celsius to 100 degrees Celsius.

For submerged arc welding the wire electrode and flux used in combination shall conform to AS
1858. The flux shall be dry, warm and free of contamination from dirt, mill scale, or other foreign
material. Flux shall be baked and then kept heated before use as specified for electrodes in the
preceding clause. Methods of recovery, cleaning and drying flux for re-use shall be subject to the
approval of the RailCorp Representative. Flux fused in welding shall not be re-used.

Test requirements may be fully or partially waived for electrodes that are of a type generally
approved and subject to periodic tests by Lloyds' Register or other approved competent authority.
Where the Contractor wishes such waiving of tests he shall make written application to the
RailCorp Representative giving adequate guarantee that the electrodes conform to the approved
type.

17.3.4 Qualification of welding operators


Welding shall be carried out by welding operators authorised by the RailCorp Representative, and
who have had suitable training and practical experience in the execution of this form of
construction. An "A" Grade Welding Operator's Certificate for Electric Welding of the Australian
Welding Institute shall be deemed satisfactory proof of a welder's training and experience. Welding
operators not holding this qualification will be tested as prescribed in AS 1796. If the RailCorp
Representative considers the quality of an operator's work to be below the required standard, he
may require the operator to undergo re-qualification tests which shall be carried out in the presence
of the RailCorp Representative. All tests of welding operators are to be undertaken at the
Contractor's cost.

Where a method or process of manual welding is not of conventional type the RailCorp
Representative will require that the operator be subject to tests of generally similar type and

© Rail Corporation Page 25 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

standard to those stated above, using the process in the manner intended and under the
circumstances likely to pertain to the Work.

All welding shall be carried out under the immediate and continuous supervision of a welding
supervisor employed by the Contractor and who is acceptable to the RailCorp Representative. The
qualifications of welding supervisors shall conform with AS 2214. In addition they shall have
adequate training and experience in the type of welding required for the Contract.

17.3.5 Procedure qualifications for welds


Welding shall not commence until the procedure is approved in writing by the RailCorp
Representative. Before approval is given, the Contractor will be required to submit such test
assemblies as the RailCorp Representative requires for examination and testing. These test
assemblies shall duplicate as far as practicable the actual conditions in the work, particularly with
regard to plate thicknesses and geometric arrangements. After the procedure has been approved,
it shall not be altered except within the limits approved by the RailCorp Representative.

Test assemblies will be required for all main welds, which are defined as web-flange welds, flange
splices, web splices, bearing stiffeners, and any other welds nominated by the RailCorp
Representative.

The size of test assemblies shall be of size adequate to carry out testing of welds as specified in
AS/NZS 1554.5. The cost of supply, welding and testing of test pieces shall be borne by the
Contractor.

Welding of test assemblies shall be done in the presence of the RailCorp Representative who will
record the information listed below:

− Operator's name
− Type and make of equipment
− Weld preparation
− Type and size of wire or electrode
− Type of flux
− Preheat temperature
− Welding speed (automatic and semi-automatic)
− Welding current
− Welding voltage
− Welding size and number and sequence of passes.
Testing of test pieces will be carried out by the Contractor at an approved NATA registered
laboratory at his cost. Test results are to be provided to the RailCorp Representative within 7 days
after dispatch of a test piece for testing.

Additional payment will not be made to the Contractor for test pieces that fail and require new test
pieces.

The cost of preparation and submission of weld procedures for the various types of welds required
for the project is to be included by the Contractor in his scope of work.

17.3.6 Preparation of material for welding


Surfaces and edges to be welded shall be smooth, uniform and free from fins, tears, cracks and
other defects which would adversely affect the quality or strength of the weld. These surfaces shall
also be free from loose scale, slag, rust, grease, moisture or other material that will prevent proper
welding. Mill scale that withstands vigorous wire brushing may generally remain but all mill scale
shall be removed from the surfaces on which fillet welds are to be made by submerged arc welding
or by manual metal-arc welding with low hydrogen electrodes. Surfaces within 50 mm of any weld

© Rail Corporation Page 26 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

location shall be free from any paint or other material that may prevent proper welding or produce
objectionable fumes while welding.

17.3.7 Assembly of parts for welding


Members to be welded shall be brought into correct alignment and held in position by bolts,
clamps, wedges, struts and other suitable devices, or by tack welds, until welding has been
completed. In the design of holding devices suitable allowances shall be made for warping and
shrinkage. Joints that are not sealed by welds throughout their length shall be a sufficiently close
fit to exclude water after painting. The use of joint fillers is prohibited except where called for in the
Drawings or approved by the RailCorp Representative.

Parts to be joined by fillet welds shall be brought into as close contact as practicable and in no
event shall be separated by more than 2 mm. The legs of fillet welds shall be increased by the
amount of the separation.

Parts to be joined by butt welds shall be carefully aligned. The misalignment of parts to be joined
shall not exceed 10 percent of the thickness of the thinner part joined, nor 2mm, whichever is the
lesser. In correcting misalignment in such cases, the parts shall not be drawn into an angle greater
than 1 in 25.

Tack welds shall be subject to the same quality and procedure (including preheat) requirements as
the final welds. Tack welds shall be cleaned of all slag and shall then be fused thoroughly with the
final weld. Only tack welds which are wholly consumed by subsequent final welding will be
permitted. Defective, cracked or broken tack welds shall be removed before final welding, except
where specifically allowed to remain by the RailCorp Representative.

Improperly fitted and misaligned parts may be cut apart and rewelded subject to the approval of the
RailCorp Representative.

17.3.8 Distortion and shrinkage


In assembling and joining parts of a structure or built-up members, and in welding reinforcing parts
to members, the welding procedure and sequence shall be such as will minimise distortion and
shrinkage. All welds shall be deposited in a sequence that will balance the heat applied to the
assembly while the welding progresses.

The direction of the general progression in welding on a member shall be from points where the
parts are relatively fixed in position with respect to each other towards points where they have a
greater relative freedom of movement. Joints which are expected to have the largest shrinkage
shall be welded first with as little restraint as possible. All shop splices in each component part of a
built-up member shall be made before such part is welded to other parts of the member.

Subject to the prior approval of the RailCorp Representative, members distorted by the heat of
welding may be straightened by mechanical means or by the carefully supervised application of
heat, but in no case shall the steel be heated above 300 degrees Celsius.

17.3.9 Preheating
Welding shall not be performed when the surfaces are moist, during periods of strong wind, or in
showery weather unless the work and the welding operators are adequately protected from the
elements.

Immediately before welding, all weldments shall be flame scavenged to remove mill scale,
moisture, paint and other foreign material from the assembled joint for a minimum distance from
the point of welding of 75 mm. The parent metal within a distance of at least 75 mm from the point
of welding and measured on the opposite side of the work to which the heat is applied, shall be
then brought to the minimum temperature of 10\degrees Celsius or as specified in the Table below,
whichever is the greater. The preheat temperature may be achieved by flame or electrical methods
and shall be maintained as a minimum interpass temperature throughout the welding process.
Preheat and interpass temperatures shall be sufficient to prevent crack formation. Temperature
above the minimum shown may be required for highly restrained welds.

© Rail Corporation Page 27 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Minimum Preheat and Interpass Temperature


Shielded metal-arc welding
Shielded metal-arc welding with
with other than low-hydrogen
Thickness of thickest low - hydrogen electrodes,
electrodes,
part at the point of
Submerged arc welding
welding. Cored arc welding
or flux
Gas metal arc welding
Up to 20 mm 10 oC 10 oC
Over 20 to 40 mm 65 oC 21 oC
Over 40 to 65 mm 105 oC 65 oC
Over 65 mm 150 oC 105 oC

Alternatively, preheat may be calculated to the requirements of the Australian Welding Research
Association Technical Note No. 1 (1972) for the size, joint configuration and type of material. Full
details of such calculations shall be submitted to the RailCorp Representative and approval in
writing obtained before being adopted.

17.3.10 Welding technique


Butt welds in any part of a member shall be completed by the Contractor and approved by the
RailCorp Representative before that part is welded to any other part.

Run-on and run-off tabs shall be used for all flange, web and flange-web butt welds. Each run-on
or run-off tab shall consist of two plates each minimum 100mm long and 100mm wide, cut from the
same plates as the joint being welded. These tabs shall have the same weld preparation and the
same thickness as the thinner plate, with the direction of rolling parallel to that of the plates being
welded.

Root runs of butt welds shall be back-gouged by flame, grinding or other approved means to
expose sound metal and then checked with dye penetrant to ensure an absence of cracks. Where
back-gouging is performed using the air/carbon arc process, adequate care shall be exercised to
ensure water is not introduced to the weldment from the compressed air line. The groove formed
by back-gouging shall be filled with weld metal fused completely to the adjacent metal. Roots of
submerged arc butt welds may be sealed with a root pass made by manual shielded metal-arc
welding with low hydrogen electrodes when such sealing is necessary to prevent burn-through of
the initial submerged arc welding pass.

Before welding over previously deposited metal, the slag shall be removed and the weld and
adjacent parent metal shall be brushed clean. This requirement shall apply not only to successive
layers but also to successive beads and to the crater area when welding is resumed after any
interruption.

Stray arc strikes shall be avoided. Scratch plates shall be provided and used to strike the arc.
Accidental arc strikes which occur shall be inspected by the RailCorp Representative before any
attempt is made to rectify the blemish.

Each time the arc is started, either to begin a weld or to continue a partly completed weld, the arc
shall be manipulated to obtain complete fusion of the deposited weld metal with the parent metal,
and with any previously deposited weld metal, before any progression of the arc along the joint. At
the completion of a weld pass, the arc shall be manipulated so as to fill the crater with sound metal.

The following list of restrictions and limitations shall be observed for manual welding.

− The maximum size of electrode for downhand position welding, excepting root runs of multiple
pass welds, shall be 6mm unless the work is in the flat (natural-vee) position where 8mm
electrodes may be used. For welds made in all other positions and the root runs of multiple
pass weld, the maximum size shall be 5 mm.

© Rail Corporation Page 28 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

− The maximum size of fillet weld which may be made in one pass shall be 8mm, except that
10mm fillet welds may be made in the flat (natural-vee) position subject to the approval of the
RailCorp Representative.
− A single layer of weld metal, whether deposited in one pass or made up of several parallel
bands, shall not exceed 3mm in thickness except that the bead at the root may be 6mm in
thickness if the position of welding and viscosity of the weld metal are such that it does not
overflow onto unfused parent metal.
− When welding in the vertical position the direction of welding for all passes shall be upward.
The following list of restrictions and limitations shall be observed for submerged arc welding.

− Fillet welds may be made in either the flat or horizontal-vertical positions subject to single-pass
fillet welds made in the horizontal-vertical position not exceeding 8 mm.
− The maximum size of electrode shall be 6 mm.
− The thickness of weld layers, except root and surface layers shall not exceed 10 mm. The
split layer technique shall be used in making multiple-pass welds when the width of the layer
exceeds 16 mm.
− Neither the depth of fusion nor the total width of fusion at any point in a single weld or weld
pass shall exceed the width of the face of the weld or weld pass.
− The welding current, arc voltage and speed of travel for submerged arc welding shall be such
that each pass will have complete fusion with the adjacent parent metal and weld metal and
there will be no overlap or undercutting. The limits within which these parameters can vary will
be established as part of the procedure tests, but as a general guide they would be +5 percent
for welding current; +7 percent for arc voltage; and + 10 percent for speed of travel.

17.3.11 Welding and weld repair records


A record shall be kept of all production flange butt weld splices and flange to web Tee-butt welds
as specified in the Clause "Recording of Steel Plates and Fabrication Details". The records shall
include all important welding parameters and full details of any repairs found necessary.

Before application of the protective coating system a diagram of each span shall be prepared and
forwarded to the RailCorp Representative, showing the location of the centre line of each flange
and web splice accurately in relation to the ends of the girders. The plate identification number,
recorded in the Plate Register, shall be permanently stamped on the end face of each girder flange
plate.

Run-on and Run-off tabs for each weld shall be permanently stamped on the "top" surface, that is
the side welded first, with the shop serial numbers of the plates being joined and whether it is a
Run-on or Run-off tab. The run-on tab shall be the tab where the first run commenced.

Run-on and Run-off tabs shall not be removed from the plates welded until non-destructive testing
procedures specified (radiographic and/or ultrasonic) have established that the weld is satisfactory.

17.3.12 Appearance and finish of welds


Exposed faces of welds shall be made reasonably smooth and regular, shall conform as closely as
practicable to specified dimensions and shall not at any place be less than the specified
dimensions. The acceptance of welds with dimension s in excess of design requirements shall be
at the discretion of the RailCorp Representative. Acceptable and non-acceptable weld profiles are
illustrated in Figure 9.

The surface of fillet welds shall junction as smoothly as practicable with the parent metal. Butt
welds shall be finished smooth and flush with abutting surfaces on the exterior faces of steelwork
which will remain exposed to view, where required for assembly, where specified in the Drawings
or where the welds are to be X-rayed.

Run-on and Run-off tabs shall be removed to no closer than 2 mm of the member after the joint
has cooled and the ends of all welds shall be finished smooth and flush with the faces of the
abutting parts. All weld spatter shall be removed from the surface of the weld and the parent metal.

© Rail Corporation Page 29 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Tabs shall be stamped to identify them with the joint and delivered to the RailCorp Representative

for testing as specified in the Clause "Welding and Weld Repair Records". The splice shall then be
dye-checked to ensure no defect remains at the plate/Run-on or plate/Run-off interfaces.

45 deg
SIZE SIZE SIZE SIZE

C C C
SIZE SIZE SIZE SIZE

NOTE: Convexity C shall not exceed 0.1 times actual leg size, or the longer leg
in the case of an unequal legfillet weld, plus 1.5mm

(A) Desireable fillet weld profiles (B) Acceptable fillet weld profiles

SIZE SIZE SIZE SIZE SIZE SIZE

Insufficient Inadequate
Insufficient Excessive Excessive Overlap
Undercut Leg Penetration
Throat Convexity

(C) Unacceptable fillet weld profiles

R
R

NOTE: Reinforcement R shall not exceed 3 mm.

(D) Acceptable butt weld profile

Excessive Insufficient Excessive Overlap


Convexity Throat Undercut

(E) Unacceptable Butt weld profiles

FIGURE 9: ACCEPTABLE AND UNACCEPTABLE WELD PROFILES

17.3.13 Weld defects and correction

© Rail Corporation Page 30 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

The presence of any of the following defects in excess of the limits specified will result in rejection
of the weld:

− Incomplete fusion or penetration between weld metal and base metal, and between
successive passes in the weld.
− Craters.
− Overlap of weld on base metal.
− Undercut in welds transverse to the longitudinal axis of a primary member.
− Undercut in excess of 0.25 mm in welds other than (iv) above.
− Cracks, regardless of length or location
− Internal porosity or fusion type discontinuities less than 1.5mm greatest dimension may be
allowed only if dispersed evenly, and provided that the sum of the greatest dimensions does
not exceed 10mm per linear 25mm of weld. Porosity includes gas pockets and other similar
globular type voids. Fusion discontinuities include slag inclusions, incomplete fusion,
inadequate penetration and similar defects.
− Internal porosity or fusion type discontinuities (as defined above) 1.5 mm or larger may be
allowed provided such discontinuities are smoothly rounded. Porosity or fusion type
discontinuities with any dimension greater than 12 mm will not be accepted.
− No porosity that extends to the surface of a weld as such will adversely affect the performance
of the protective coating system to be applied to the finished steelwork. Nevertheless, surface
porosity within the limits specified in sub-clauses (vii) and (viii) may be corrected with the
approval of the RailCorp Representative.
− Web-to-flange tee-butt welds having a heat affected zone or weld metal hardness exceeding
280 Vickers.
Consideration may be given to correcting rejected defective welds but the specific approval of the
RailCorp Represntative shall be required of the proposed methods and procedures before making
each correction. Caulking of welds will not be permitted. Where the approval of the RailCorp
Representative is obtained, defective welds shall be corrected as specified below.

Defect Corrective Measure


Excess convexity or Reinforcement Reduce to specified size by removal or
excess weld metal.
Craters, excessive porosity, slag Remove defective portions and deposit
inclusions, overlapping and lack of fusion. additional weld metal.
Undercut, undersize welds, excessive Clean and deposit additional weld metal.
concavity, removal of adjacent parent
metal during welding.
Cracks in parent or weld metal. As directed by the RailCorp
Representative.
Where the removal of part or all of the weld or a portion of the parent metal is prescribed above,
such removal shall be effected by gouging with flame, grinding or other approved means. Gouging
shall not extend into the parent metal by any substantial amount beyond the depth of the weld
penetration unless cracks or other defects exist in the parent metal. The weld or parent metal shall
not be nicked or undercut in gouging. A weld which is cracked shall be removed for the full extent
of the crack and then checked with dye penetrant to ensure that the crack has been removed
completely.

Where corrections require the deposition of additional weld metal, the electrode used shall
preferably be smaller than the electrode used in making the weld and shall be to the approval of
the RailCorp Representative. Before adding weld metal or re-welding, the surfaces to be welded
shall be cleaned thoroughly and checked with dye penetrant.

Where work performed after making a defective weld has made the weld inaccessible or has
caused new conditions which would make the correction of the deficiency hazardous, detrimental

© Rail Corporation Page 31 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

or ineffective, the original conditions shall be restored by removal of welds or members, or both,
before making the necessary corrections. Alternatively, the deficiency may be remedied by
additional work as specified by the RailCorp Representative.

17.3.14 Inspection of welds


17.3.14.1 Welding supervision
All welding on the Project including Qualification of Welding Operators shall be carried out under
the immediate and continuous supervision of welding supervisor employed by the Contractor and
who is acceptable to the RailCorp Representative. The qualifications of Welding Supervisors shall
conform to AS 2214. In addition they shall have adequate training and experience in the type of
welding required for the Contract.

All material and workmanship shall be subject to inspection by the RailCorp Representative during
and after fabrication. Methods of inspection which may be used will include visual inspection, using
penetrant dyes, magnetic particle inspection, radiographic inspection and ultrasonic inspection. No
work shall be dispatched from the shop until it has been inspected and approved by the RailCorp
Representative.

The Contractor shall lay out and arrange the individual members or units to be inspected so that
identification marks on each may be readily distinguished and so that each member or unit is
accessible for such inspection as the RailCorp Representative may deem necessary. The
Contractor shall assist the RailCorp Representative by turning the members or parts to permit
examination on all sides. The Contractor shall supply free of charge all labour and equipment for
handling the work during inspection.

Radiographs will be made either by x-ray or gamma ray. The RailCorp Representative will select
the portion of welds to be subjected to radiographic inspection. The reinforcement on the weld that
is to be radiographed shall be prepared to the RailCorp Representative’s instructions. The extent
of radiographic inspection will be as listed below and the Contractor is to allow for this cost in his
tendered rates.

Location of Weld Minimum Length of Weld to be


Radiographed
All full penetration butt welds 100 % of total length

All fillet welds shall be 100 percent Magnetic Particle tested and all defects as defined in the
Clause above shall be identified. The Contractor is to allow for the cost of this testing in his Lump
Sum Tender Price.

All ultrasonic and radiographic inspection shall be performed by an approved NATA registered
testing laboratory at the Contractor's expense.

Where repairs are required the weld is to be reinspected using the same inspection technique after
completion of repairs at the Contractor's cost.

All single-run fillet welds on intermediate web stiffeners shall be checked with Dye Penetrant for
cracks after both sides of the stiffeners have been welded.

17.3.15 Special requirements for welding subjected to fatigue loadings


17.3.15.1 Butt welds
17.3.15.1.1 Flange butt welds
Flange butt welds shall be ground flat and smooth in the direction of applied stress with
overgrinding of 0.5mm below the deepest undercut at the fusion line. Where a very good weld
profile is achieved, close to flat and smooth, this will be acceptable provided all four fusion lines are
TIG dressed in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1-96 Section 8.4.1 Fatigue Life Enhancement, and

© Rail Corporation Page 32 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Commentary C8.4 (4) TIG dressing. The RailCorp Representative shall decide where the second
option can apply.

17.3.15.1.2 Web butt welds


Web butt welds shall be treated as for flange butt welds, for 200mm from and above the bottom
flange (for negative moment areas, “from and below the top flange”).

17.3.15.2 Base of stiffeners


17.3.15.2.1 Stiffeners connected to cross girders, sway bracing or diaphragms
The bottom 100mm of all fusion lines of these welds, including across the bottom of the stiffeners,
shall have fatigue life enhancement in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1-96 Section 8.4.1 and
Commentary C8.4.1, as follows:

− Profile improvement in accordance with C8.4.1 (1) as required by the RailCorp Representative
and

− Toe grinding of fusion line to a minimum of 0.5 mm and a maximum of 2mm, in accordance
with C8.4.1(2)
or

− TIG dressing of the fusion line in accordance with C8.4.1(4)

17.3.15.3 Bearing stiffeners


Welding bearing stiffeners shall be continuos, including welding to the bottom flange. Where bad
bridge ends exist or are likely, at sharp curves and high speed curves, fatigue life enhancement of
highly stressed welds to flanges and the adjacent 200mm of web will substantially postpone fatigue
cracking. In negative moment areas, over intermediate supports, the bearing stiffeners should be
bolted to the top flange and the weld to web fatigue life enhancement to 200mm below the top
flange.

17.3.15.4 Cross girder end connection


All cross girder end connections, including end cross girders, should bolt to the bottom flange of
through girders. For end cross girders it may be necessary to use the bearing bolt to provide this
connection. Stainless steel packers should be used between cross girder and through girder
bottom flanges to ensure good fit up.

Where geometrically, it is not possible to connect cross girder bottom flanges to the bottom flange
of through girders, the base of stiffeners shall be bolted to the bottom flange, except for bearing
stiffeners which are welded (see Section 18.3.15.3 above).

Wherever cross girder flanges are not bolted to through girder flanges the end of the cross girder
flange to web weld shall be fatigue life enhanced, including across the end, to Section 18.3.15.2.1.

17.4 Specification For Ultrasonic Testing


17.4.1 Scope
This section specifies the method for the ultrasonic testing of carbon and low alloy steel plate of
thickness 12 to 100mm inclusive, prior to welding for use in railway bridge fabrication, but does not
include the examination of welds.

17.4.2 Test equipment


The test equipment shall be as described in Section 2 of Australian Standard AS 1710, except that
the sensitivity of the equipment is thus: -

© Rail Corporation Page 33 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

“The gain or sensitivity of the equipment shall be such that, on a discontinuity-free portion of the
plate under test, the second back echo scan be consistently maintained at full speed height of +6
dB with a grass level not exceeding 5% of the full screen height.”

17.4.3 Ultrasonic testing procedure


17.4.3.1 General
The operating characteristics of the equipment shall be checked at the beginning and at intervals
not exceeding 1 hour while tests are in progress to establish that the ultrasonic equipment is
operating under conditions of reproducible sensitivity throughout the test.

The instrument shall be adjusted at a plate location free from ultrasonic interference so as to
produce a suitable number if back echoes. A minimum of 2 back echoes shall be displayed.

The gain shall be adjusted so that the grass level is approximately 10% of full screen height.
Where a defect is indicated the area shall be examined and the discontinuity sized and classified in
accordance with Section 18.4.4.

17.4.3.2 Surface preparation


The condition of both the testing and reflecting surfaces of the plate shall be that there is no
significant interference with the test.

17.4.3.3 Scanning
Scanning shall be carried out along either:-

− A strip 50 mm wide from the edge of the plate to be welded along it’s edge;
or

− A strip 50 mm wide either side of the centre-line of the proposed weld line.
The scanning pattern shall be of zig-zag or similar form covering the entire 50 or 100 mm strip with
a maximum pitch of 50 mm at the weld line. Alternatively, longitudinal scanning is permissible
provided that there is overlap between successive scan-lines.

17.4.3.4 Measurement of defects


17.4.3.4.1 Examination of discontinuities
All discontinuities shall be examined, classified and recorded where the discontinuity indication has
been:-

− An energy ratio of more than –12dB [see Section 18.4.4.3] and


− An area greater than 300mm2 and/or
− A length exceeding 25mm
The examination shall include the assessment of:-

− Size, i.e.: length & width [where discontinuity extends beyond the area defined in Section
18.4.3.3 the entire discontinuity area shall be examined];
− Depth; and
− Energy ratio.

17.4.3.4.2 Determination of energy ratio


The energy ratio of defect indication amplitude to back echo shall be determined either by:-

− Adjusting the back wall echo to the top of the screen and noting the level of gain then
adjusting the gain until the discontinuity indication reaches the top of the screen and noting
level of gain – the ratio is the difference between the 2 readings; or

© Rail Corporation Page 34 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

− Where both signals can be simultaneously displayed on the linear potion of the screen the
ratio may be determined by scaling off the screen.
Note: that the energy ratio is negative [-] where the back echo is greater than the discontinuity
indication.

17.4.3.4.3 Evaluation of discontinuities


The discontinuities shall, as far as possible, be evaluated by using either:-

− The discontinuity indication between the first and the second back echoes, and the second
back echo, or
− The discontinuity indication between the initial pulse and the first back echo, and the first back
echo.

17.4.4 Classification of discontinuities


17.4.4.1 General
The discontinuities shall, be classified by their ultrasonic response as described below, as one or
more of the following:-

− Laminar
− Inclusion cluster
− Inclusion stringer

17.4.4.2 Laminar discontinuity


Laminar discontinuity is an area of discontinuity located parallel to the rolled surface which totally
reflects acoustic energy or which has a reflectivity equal to or greater than the back echo.:-

NOTE:

1. A laminar discontinuity will produce a single repeating reflection whereas an inclusion cluster
type defect will often produce a multiple echo cluster.

2. A shallow lamination will also produce multiple echoes which should not be confused with the
multiple echo cluster which indicates inclusion type defects.

17.4.4.3 Inclusion cluster discontinuity


Inclusion cluster discontinuity is a discontinuity producing an indication with an energy ratio greater
than –12dB but which is not a laminar type defect. If, however, movement of the probe in
transverse direction causes loss of discontinuity indication the discontinuity shall be classified as an
inclusion stringer discontinuity.

17.4.4.4 Inclusion stringer discontinuity


Inclusion stringer discontinuity is a discontinuity producing a linear indication of the inclusion cluster
type for which any movement of the probe transverse to the direction of rolling causes a loss of
indication.

17.4.5 Record of results


The record of results shall provide the following information:-

− Identification of the testing authority


− Identity of the testing officer
− Description of test equipment and settings used
− Identification of the plate under examination
− Reference number of this Specification

© Rail Corporation Page 35 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

− Surface condition of the plate at the time of test


− A plan showing location, outline, area, depth and classification [including energy difference]
of all discontinuities of area exceeding 300mm2
− Date of examination.

18 S21 Structural steelwork fabrication for overbridges


This Specification sets out the requirements for the fabrication of steel girders for overbridges. This
Specification does not apply to the fabrication of steel girders for rail underbridges (refer to
Specification S20).

All aspects of the fabrication of steel girders for overbridges shall comply with the requirements of
the RTA QA Specifications B200 “Fabrication of Major Steel Structural Members” and B204
”Welding of Bridges and other Road Structures”.

The supply of fastenings shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B240
“Supply of Bolts, Nuts, Screws and Washers”, current version.

19 S22 Miscellaneous steelwork


This Specification shall apply to the fabrication, protective treatment, supply and delivery of:

− over head wiring structures (OHWS)


− steel walkways, refuges, working platforms, access stairs and ladders to OHWS
− safety cages, walkways on signal gantries, switch platforms and mounting platforms
− supports for cable trays and service bridges
− handrails, anti-throw barriers, pedestrian balustrades and safety screens
− crash beams and warning frames
− other minor steel items.
All steel components and fasteners shall conform with the requirements of RTA QA Specification
B241 "Manufacture and Supply of Minor Steel Items" and RTA QA Specification B240 “Supply of
Bolts, Nuts, Screws and Washers”.

Protective Coating:

− For paint coating, requirement of Section 21 “S24 Protective Paint Coating of Steelwork” shall
apply.
− For galvanised coating, requirement of Section 22 “S25 Protective Galvanised Coating of
Steelwork” shall apply.
Bolts in bearing shall be of such lengths that no threaded portion shall be within the thickness of
the parts joined. At least one washer shall be used, placed under the bolt head or nut whichever is
to be rotated. Tapered washers shall be used where the surfaces under the bolt head or nut is not
perpendicular to the centre line of the bolt.

Dimensions and tolerances of the bolt and nut shall comply with AS1110 and AS1112. Diameter of
holes shall be equal to the nominal diameter of the bolt shank with tolerance of plus 2 mm and
minus 0 mm unless otherwise specified on the drawing.

High strength bolts shall be class 8.8 in accordance with AS1252.

High strength lock pin and collar fastening system and high strength one-piece blind bolt fastening
system (for one-sided blind fastening applications) shall comply with ASTM A490. Unless
nominated otherwise on the Drawings or elsewhere in the Project Documents, the finish for these
fasteners shall be mechanically galvanised to the manufacturer’s standard.

© Rail Corporation Page 36 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Welding shall conform to AS/NZS 1554.1 Structural steel welding - Welding of steel structures.

Welded splices shall be full penetration butt weld of SP category. Ultrasonic examination shall be
carried out for all full penetration butt welds, in accordance with the recommendations of
AS 1554.1. All welding procedures and test results are to be submitted to the Railcorp
Representative.

20 S24 Protective paint coating of steelwork – System P


This Specification sets out the details of paint coating systems, surface preparation and paint
application requirements for the paint protective treatment of new structural steelwork elements.

This Specification does not apply to the protective treatment of fasteners (bolts, nuts and washers
etc.), which shall be protected by hot-dip galvanizing in accordance with the requirements specified
for System G (Specification S25).

The protective paint coating of steelwork shall comply with the requirements of RTA QA
Specification B220 “Protective Treatment of Steelwork”, except for the paint coating system.

The paint coating system shall consist of a priming coat and one finishing coat as follows:

Priming Coat

(a) The priming coat shall be an organic zinc rich epoxy primer approved under APAS Specification
Number 2916, applied to achieve a minimum dry film thickness of 75 micrometres;

(b) For primers, no liquid constituents manufactured earlier than 6 months prior to application shall
be used;

(c) The priming coat shall be applied before discolouration occurs and in all cases not later than 4
hours after abrasive blast cleaning.

Finishing Coat

(a) After the priming coat has been allowed to dry, it shall be over-coated with a two-pack medium
build epoxy micaceous iron oxide finish, approved under APAS Specification Number 2973,
employing a 'mist' coat on the initial pass;

(b) For epoxy MIO coatings no material manufactured earlier than 12 months prior to application
shall be used on the steelwork;

(c) The finishing coat shall be applied to a minimum dry film thickness of 200 micrometres. The
total dry film thickness of the system shall be 275 micrometres.

Paint Plaques

(a) For each bridge span or crash beam included in the Contract, one plaque shall be provided and
fixed to that span by the Contractor to record the protective coating system used on that span;

(b) Each plaque shall be of metal, manufactured by casting or other approved method, have a
minimum size of 300 mm x 150 mm, be hot-dip galvanized to a minimum zinc thickness of 105
micrometres and be fastened to a vertical surface of the steelwork in a non-highly stressed and
readily visible position, approved by the Superintendent. Four brass bolts of minimum diameter 5
mm, with nuts, shall be used for the fastening, each bolt passing through a plaque corner area
which has been locally thickened on the back so that most of the attached plaque's back face will
stand clear of the surface of the steelwork;

(c) Each plaque shall record, in raised letters and numerals, which are clear and at least 12 mm
high, the following information:

− Paint Manufacturer's Name

© Rail Corporation Page 37 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

− Trade Name of Primer


− Trade Name and Colour of Finishing Coat
− Year of Painting.

21 S25 Protective galvanised coating of steelwork – System G


21.1 Scope
This Specification sets out details of galvanised coating systems, surface preparation and
galvanising application requirements for the protective treatment of structural steelwork elements.

Protective galvanised coating of steel bridge girders is to comply with the requirements specified in
this Section.

Protective galvanised coating of miscellaneous steelwork is to comply with the requirements of


RTA QA Specification B220 “Protective Treatment of Bridge Steelwork“ and AS 4680 - Hot-dipped
galvanized (zinc) coatings on fabricated ferrous articles.

Fasteners such as high strength and commercial bolts, nuts and washers shall be hot-dip
galvanized in accordance with the requirements of AS 1214 - Hot-dipped galvanized coatings on
threaded fasteners (ISO metric coarse thread series). For bolts to be fastened to steel bridge
girders, the additional requirements in Section 22.3 also apply.

21.2 General
Hot-dip galvanizing of steel bridge girders shall be executed generally in accordance with the
recommendations of:

− Australian Standard AS/NZS 2312, "Guide to the Protection of Structural Steel Against
Atmospheric Corrosion by the use of Protective Coatings.", Section 4, "Surface Preparation
Treatments" and Section 5, "Metallic Coatings for Corrosion Protection".

− Australian Standards AS/NZS 4680, "Hot-dip Galvanized (Zinc) Coatings on Fabricated Ferrous
Articles" and

− AS 1627, "Metal Finishing – Preparation and Pretreatment of Surfaces."

Prior to the commencement of galvanizing of bridge girders a site conference shall be arranged
between the Contractor, the galvanizer and the RailCorp Representative, to ensure that all parties
are familiar with the requirements of the Specification. Minutes of this conference shall be taken by
the RailCorp Representative and distributed to all parties concerned prior to commencement of the
work.

21.3 Bolts
Threaded elements shall be centrifuged on withdrawal from the molten zinc bath and nuts shall be
retapped and their threads oiled for corrosion protection.

Galvanized fasteners shall be test assembled as specified in AS 1214, then lubricated by the
manufacturer ready for use using an approved anti-corrosion coating.

21.4 Surface preparation


Prior to galvanizing, all surfaces of steelwork shall be prepared by either of the following
procedures:

− Abrasive blast cleaning, in accordance with AS 1627.4, to Class 2 ½, with a profile height not
less than 30 nor more than 60 micrometers followed by removal of dust and debris by
vacuuming or other means

© Rail Corporation Page 38 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

− Pickling, in accordance with AS 1627.5, followed by draining, thoroughly rinsing and drying the
steelwork
If pickling is proposed, the Contractor shall submit to the RailCorp Representative for approval full
details of the process, such as the composition of the pickling liquid and inhibitor.

(Whichever surface preparation is used, a preliminary cleaning shall be carried out by washing with
fresh water or solvent cleaning and mechanical removal to remove all dirt, oil and grease, existing
paint, salt deposits, weld slag and dags and weld spatter, and any foreign matter which is not
readily removable by the surface preparation proper or which may contaminate the treating agent
or have a detrimental effect on the galvanizing coat.

21.5 Hot-dip galvanizing


(a) For hot-dip galvanizing fabricated steelwork the size of the galvanizing bath shall, preferably,
allow the steelwork assembly or sub-assembly units to be fully immersed in a single dip, avoiding
the necessity for double-end dipping.

(b) The material used for galvanizing shall be zinc metal specially manufactured for this purpose
and shall be at least 99.5 percent pure.

(c) The temperature of the galvanizing bath before dipping shall not fall below the range 470
degrees Celsius to 480 degrees Celsius, subject to adjustment to suit the size of the fabricated unit
to be dipped as approved by the RailCorp Representative.

(d) As well as safety precautions, the Contractor shall take all precautions to avoid distortion of the
fabricated units during galvanizing. He shall be liable to rectify or bear the rectification cost for any
avoidable distortions resulting from incorrect procedure. The Contractor shall draw attention to any
design features which may lead to difficulties during galvanizing before galvanizing commences.

(e) After hot-dip galvanizing the mass of covering zinc on all steelwork surfaces shall average not
less than 900gm/square metre (130 micrometers thickness) and at no point shall the mass fall
below 750gm/square metre (105 micrometers thickness).

21.6 Testing and acceptance


(a) Measurement of zinc coating shall be carried out using an approved thickness gauge in the
manner described in AS 1580 - Paints and related materials - Methods of test, Method 108.1 -
Determination of dry film thickness on metallic substrates - Non-destructive methods. Pencil type
instruments are not acceptable. Readings shall be taken peripherally 100 mm from each end, in
the approximate centre of the member, and at other points agreed on beforehand with the RailCorp
Representative at the site conference and averaged to give a single figure.

(b) Where a single measurement is below 105 micrometers a square of 100 mm sides shall be
drawn around the point. Ten measurements shall be carried out in this square area. If the average
value of the ten measurements is not less than 105 micrometers the work is acceptable on that
area. If "deficient" areas, showing an average value of less than 105 micrometers when examined
as specified, total 5 percent or more, of the total surface of the member, the member shall be liable
to rejection by the RailCorp Representative. On flame cut edges a thickness of 84 micrometers will
be acceptable, in place of 105 micrometers.

(c) Adhesion shall be checked in accordance with the method described in AS 1580.408.2 Method
408.2: Adhesion - Knife test. If the coating flakes off in the form of a layer or skin to expose the
base metal in advance of the knife, the member shall be rejected.

(d) The finish shall be uniform in appearance and colour. Surfaces shall have a smooth, even finish
free of blisters, flux spots, inclusions, dross and acid or black spots. Lumps, globules and deposits
of zinc which will interfere with the intended use of the member shall not be permitted.

(e) Galvanized surfaces which will have faying surfaces in friction-grip type bolted joints shall either
be sufficiently rough to have a minimum co-efficient of friction of 0.35 or they shall be made so by
grit blasting, wire brushing or needle gunning. The Contractor shall provide adequate and

© Rail Corporation Page 39 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

representative test results to show, to the RailCorp Representative's satisfaction, that the minimum
co-efficient of friction requirement has been met.

(f) If galvanized bearing surfaces should be unsatisfactory for their function, due to warping or
uneven coating, the RailCorp Representative may direct that they be remachined. Where the
remachining removes all the galvanizing from any areas, such areas shall be cleaned by abrasive
blasting followed by a priming protective coat comprising an Inorganic Zinc Silicate paint, APAS
2908, with a minimum dry film thickness of 75 micrometers, applied in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations. The priming coat shall be applied before discolouration occurs
and in all cases not later than 4 hours after abrasive blast cleaning.

21.7 Repairs to galvanizing coating


(a) Where any part of a galvanizing coat has been damaged during handling, welding operations,
transport or erection, such part of the coating shall be repaired after the assembly or erection of the
steelwork in accordance with the procedure given below. The extent of the Contractor's
responsibility to carry out galvanizing coat repairs shall depend on the requirements of the
particular Contract.

(b) If the Contract includes the delivery by the Contractor of the fabricated steelwork to and its
erection at the site, the whole of the galvanizing coat repairs shall be performed by the Contractor.
Otherwise, the Contractor shall carry out only such repairs as will remedy all damage and complete
his work to the point of handing over to the Principal, to the satisfaction of the RailCorp
Representative, and remedy any faults which subsequently appear until expiry of the Defects
Liability Period. Any repairs required to remedy damage resulting from work performed after the
handing over shall be carried out by the Principal.

(c) Damaged galvanizing coatings shall be repaired by surface preparation and the application of
priming paint patch coats which shall cover the whole of the affected areas and overlap some way
into the surrounding sound galvanized areas as specified below.

21.8 Surface preparation for repairs


(a) The areas to be patch coated shall be cleaned of all dirt, oil and grease, existing paint, salt
deposits, weld slag and dags and weld spatter, and any foreign matter which may contaminate the
surface or have a detrimental effect on the repair coating. In addition, any zinc corrosion products
shall be scrubbed off using nylon pads and hot clean water. Burrs and sharp edges shall be
removed by grinding.

(b) After cleaning, the preferred method of preparation of galvanized surfaces and bare steel
surfaces to be patch-painted, is abrasive blast cleaning, as detailed in (i) below. For small areas up
to and including 200 sq cm abrasive blast cleaning, as detailed in (i) below, or mechanical cleaning,
as detailed in (ii) below, shall be used. For all areas above 200 sq cm and where Inorganic Zinc
Silicate Primer is used, abrasive blast cleaning, as detailed in (i) below shall be used.

(i) Abrasive blast cleaning shall be carried out in accordance with AS1627.4, "Abrasive Blast
Cleaning of Steel Surfaces", to a minimum of Class 2½ so that the profile height shall be not less
than 30 and not more than 60 micrometers. In addition, a strip 75 mm wide of sound galvanized
coating immediately surrounding the damaged coating shall be given a light "brush" or "matt"
blasting to form a feathered edge. Dust and debris produced shall be removed by vacuuming or
other means.

(ii) Mechanical cleaning shall be carried out with a flailing tool or by grinder, then finishing with a
flailing tool. All corrosion product and millscale shall be removed to expose bright steel or
galvanizing over the whole surface. Maximum profile height on the prepared surface is to be
achieved with the flailing tool, by frequently grinding the ends of the flailing wires perpendicular to
the longitudinal axis of the wires. In addition, a strip 30 mm wide of sound galvanized coating
immediately surrounding the damaged coating shall be mechanically cleaned with the flailing tool to
form a feathered edge. Dust and debris produced shall be removed by vacuuming or other means.

© Rail Corporation Page 40 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

(c) Priming paint patch coating shall be applied before discolouration of the surface occurs and in
no instance later than 4 hours after abrasive blast cleaning.

21.9 Priming paint patch coating


Patch coating shall not be carried out if the relative humidity is greater than 85 percent, the
temperature is below 10 degrees Celsius, or in unsuitable weather conditions, such as extremely
high winds, heavy rain or high temperatures.

Coatings shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions as to mixing


procedures, recoat times, pot life, thinning rates and application techniques. Paint shall be applied
by spray except that brushing will be permitted for some patching work only, as specified below.
Thickness shall be measured by an approved type thickness gauge.

The priming paint shall be either of the systems specified hereunder.

− A two-pack epoxy resin-based zinc-rich primer, APAS 0014/1 and APAS 2916, applied by
brush or spray to a minimum 125 micrometre total dry film thickness (including the thickness of
the galvanizing coat remaining in the case of the feathered edges), and shall be allowed to dry
not less than 16 hours. This system is suitable for patching small areas. No single area shall
be over 200 sq. cm. Total of all areas shall not be over 500 sq. cm.
− An Inorganic Zinc Silicate primer, APAS 2908, applied by spray to a minimum 125 micrometre
total dry film thickness (including the thickness of the galvanizing coat remaining in the case of
the feathered edges), and shall be allowed to dry overnight. This system is suitable for large
areas or for numerous medium-sized areas. Preparation shall be in accordance with clause
21.7 (b)(i).

21.10 Change of camber due to galvanizing


The potential effect of the galvanising on the design camber in structural members is to be taken
into account during fabrication

21.11 Protective coating system identification


For each bridge span included in the Contract, one plaque shall be provided and fixed to that span
by the Contractor to record the protective coating system used on that span.

Each plaque shall be of metal, manufactured by casting or other approved method, have a
minimum size of 300 mm x 150 mm, be hot-dip galvanized to a minimum zinc thickness of 105
micrometers and be fastened to a vertical surface of the steelwork in a non-highly stressed and
readily visible position, approved by the RailCorp Representative. Four brass bolts of minimum
diameter 5 mm, with nuts, shall be used for the fastening, each bolt passing through a plaque
corner area which has been locally thickened on the back so that most of the attached plaque's
back face will stand clear of the surface of the steelwork.

Each plaque shall record, in raised letters and numerals, which are clear and at least 12 mm high,
the following information:

− Galvanizer's Name
− Year of Galvanizing.

22 S26 Erection of structural steelwork


This Specification sets out the requirements for the erection of structural steelwork in bridges or
associated structures.

Erection of steelwork shall conform with the requirements of RTA QA Specification B260 "Erection
of Structural Steelwork”.

© Rail Corporation Page 41 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

23 S27 Erection of minor steelwork


This Specification sets out the requirements for the erection of steel and aluminium barrier railing,
light standards and nameplates and other minor steelwork items.

All aspects of the erection of minor steelwork shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA
Specification B264 “Erection of Barrier Railing and Minor Components”.

24 S30 Pot bearings


This Specification applies to the design, fabrication, testing, protective treatment, supply and
installation of structural steel and stainless steel pot bearings and associated attachment plates.

All aspects of the design, fabrication, testing, protective treatment, supply and installation of
structural steel pot bearings and attachment plates shall comply with the requirements of the RTA
QA Specification B282 “Pot Bearings – Structural Steel”;

All aspects of the design, fabrication, testing, protective treatment, supply and installation of
structural steel pot bearings and attachment plates shall comply with the requirements of the RTA
QA Specification B283 “Pot Bearings – Stainless Steel”.

Installation of pot bearings shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B284
“Installation of Bridge Bearings”.

25 S31 Elastomeric bearings


This Specification sets out the requirements for the supply of;

− unreinforced elastomeric bearing pads and strips


− laminated elastomeric bearings.
All aspects of the supply of unreinforced elastomeric bearing pads and strips shall comply with the
requirements of the RTA QA Specification B280 “Unreinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pads and
Strips”.

All aspects of the supply of laminated elastomeric bearings shall comply with the requirements of
the RTA QA Specification B281 “Laminated Elastomeric Bearings”.

The following test data shall be used for strips where applicable:

Size (mm) 400x300x25 400x250x25 400x200x25


Shape Factor 1.905 1.709 1.481

Nominal design
411 308 213
compressive load (kN)

Compressive stiffness*
164,571 123,077 85,333
(kN/m)

Nominal design shear


17 17 17
deflection (mm)

Shear stiffness* (kN/m) 4320 3600 2880

Table S31: 1.1 Test Data for Strips

© Rail Corporation Page 42 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

26 S32 Installation of bearings


This Specification sets out the requirements for the installation of bearings for bridges and other
structures.

All aspects of the installation of bearings shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA
Specification B284 “Installation of Bridge Bearings”.

Notwithstanding the requirement shown in Clause 5.3 and 5.4 of RTA B284, the installation of
bearing pads and strips for underbridges shall be in accordance with the details shown on the
drawings.

27 S36 Concrete work – Minor work


This Specification sets out the requirements for the;

− Supply, placing and curing of concrete for drainage structures, footings and plinths, footways
and any other concrete work not specified elsewhere and;
− Supply and placing of mortar for filling gaps and distributing loads between components, and
grout for grout filled revetment mattresses.
All aspects of the supply, placing and curing of minor concrete works shall comply with the
requirements of the RTA QA Specification R53 “Concrete (for General Use) Mortar and Grout”.

28 S38 Ground anchors


This Specification sets out the requirements for the supply and installation of ground anchors.

The supply and installation of ground rock anchors shall conform to the requirements of RTA QA
Specification B114 “Ground Anchors”.

Concrete works associated with the installation of ground anchors shall conform to the
requirements of Section S10 “Concrete Works”.

Ground anchors shall have a design life of 100 years.

The design of ground anchors shall include mitigation against the effects of stray currents.

Ground anchors shall not extend under private property without the approval of the Chief Engineer
Civil.

Where the anchors are applied directly to rock, the exposed rock face shall be inspected by a
qualified and experienced geotechnical engineer, prior to the setting out of the rock anchors. The
number and distribution of the anchors may be varied to suit the geological conditions.

Anchor heads shall be protected so as not to be an obstruction. They shall be recessed or


protected by a continuous smooth surface of shotcrete or concrete.

The designer shall specify requirements for testing.

The designer shall specify requirements for long term monitoring, if any.

All testing of anchorage components shall be undertaken at a laboratory NATA registered for the
relevant tests.

29 S39 Shotcrete batter protection


This Specification sets out the requirements for the supply and application of structural shotcrete
for permanent works, excluding linings for tunnels and shafts.

© Rail Corporation Page 43 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

All aspects of shotcreting shall comply with the requirements of the RTA QA Specification B82
“Shotcrete Work”.

30 S40 Scour protection


30.1 General
This Specification covers the supply of materials, preparation of base and construction of structures
and surfaces required for creek bed and bank scour protection including inlet and outlet of culverts.

Slope and scour protection shall conform to the principles and details shown on the Drawings
prepared for the particular installation.

Alternative protection systems include the following:

− rock filled gabions and mattresses


− grouted fabric mattresses
− dumped stone riprap
− grouted or ungrouted stone or concrete pitching
− soil - cement bagging.

30.2 Rock Filled Gabions and Mattresses


The supply and installation of rock filled gabions and mattresses shall be in accordance with RTA
QA Specification R55 “Rock Filled Gabions and Mattressess”.

30.3 Grouted Fabric Mattresses


Grouted fabric mattress shall consist of "Fabriform" proprietary multiple panels of double-layer,
open selvedge fabric joined in a mat configuration. The two fabric layers shall each be no lighter
than 8 x 8 count/centimetre (20 x 20 count/inch), 840 denier tire cord nylon, of which at least 50
percent by weight shall be bulked continuous multifilament tire cord nylon. The fabric shall have a
tensile strength of not less than 35 kN per metre. The double-layer fabric shall be woven together
on spaced centres in such a manner as to provide Filter Points for the relief of hydro-static uplift
pressure. Filter Points shall be spaced at 200 millimetres nominal.

Individual mill width panels shall be cut to suitable length and the two layers of fabric separately
joined edge to edge by means of nylon thread. The tensile strength of stitched joints shall be not
less than 18 kilonewtons per metre.

Grout shall consist of a mixture of Portland cement, fine aggregate, and water so proportioned and
mixed as to provide a pumpable slurry. Pozzolan and grout fluidifier conforming to these
specifications may be used at the option of the Contractor. The mix shall exhibit a compressive
strength of 15 MPa at 28 days.

The surfaces to be protected shall be prepared and graded to such an extent that they are normally
stable in the absence of erosive forces. A fabric envelope in a mat configuration shall be positioned
over these surfaces in its design location and anchored at the top and bottom of the slope as
shown on the Drawings. Grout shall be pumped into the space between the layers of fabric and the
mattress filled to form a stable mat of suitable weight and configuration.

30.4 Dumped Stone Riprap


Dumped stone riprap shall consist of hard, dense, durable stone placed on the bed or banks in
such a manner as to ensure that the completed layer is stable, has a reasonably uniform surface
and has the larger rock fragments uniformly distributed within the riprap.

Bedding material consisting of sandy gravel shall be placed beneath the riprap where existing
materials are finer than the bedding grade specified in the table below.

© Rail Corporation Page 44 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Sizing of dumped stone riprap and bedding shall comply with the gradation by weight or size
specified in the following table:

Velocity through 1.5 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0


opening to to to to to
(m/sec) 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
RIPRAP
Over 90% larger kg - 2 5 10 20
Over 50% larger kg 5 10 20 40 80
Thickness mm 300 300 400 500 600
BEDDING
Over 10% ret'd mm 19 19 37.5 37.5 53
Under 50% pass mm 9.5 9.5 19 19 19
Over 10% pass mm 2.36 2.36 4.75 4.75 4.75
Thickness mm 200 200 200 200 200

30.5 Stone or Concrete Pitching


Before any stone pitching or concrete block pitching is placed the bed or bank shall be neatly
shaped and compacted to the satisfaction of the RailCorp Representative.

Pitching shall be laid on a sand bed 75 millimetres thick with non-woven polyester geotextile
between the sand bed and the pitching. Filter fabric shall be lapped 300 millimetres at all joints.

Stone pitching shall consist of approximately rectangular blocks of sound durable stone, having a
minimum dimension of at least 250 millimetres and a volume of at least 0.03 cubic metres. As an
alternative, blocks conforming to the above dimensions may be precast from 20MPa concrete.

The stone or concrete blocks shall be placed in courses and bedded normal to the slope with the
larger blocks at the bottom of the slope, firmly bedded against the bed pitching or trench cut at
least 500 millimetres into natural ground or 150 millimetres into rock. The blocks shall be laid with
staggered joints, so that the distance between blocks is not more than 20 millimetres and so that
each block is supported by the embankment and not by adjacent blocks.

The finished pitching shall present an even, tight and reasonably smooth surface of the required
contour, care being taken to keep earth from filling the spaces between the stones.

Where grouted pitching is specified the spaces between the stones shall be completely filled with
grout from bottom to top and the surface swept with a stiff broom. Grout shall consist of one part of
Portland cement and three parts of sand, thoroughly mixed with water to produce uniform grout
having a thick, creamy consistency.

Tapered wood blocks or other means shall be used to form weep holes in end joints between
stones on a grid one metre by one metre. The wood blocks shall be removed after the mortar has
set and the holes trimmed. Weep holes shall continue for the full thickness of the wall through to
the filter fabric.

Pitching shall not be grouted at temperatures below 5 degrees Celsius. In hot, dry weather the
grouted work shall be protected from the sun and kept moist for at least three days after grouting.

30.6 Soil-Cement Bagging


Materials for bagged soil-cement bank protection shall be thoroughly mixed dry in the proportion of
1 part cement to 4 parts sand or loam by volume unless other proportions are specified on the
Drawings. The sand or loam shall be subject to the approval of the RailCorp Representative, but
generally shall be granular or finely divided friable material capable of being easily and intimately
mixed with Portland cement.

© Rail Corporation Page 45 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Hessian bags, having internal seams, or only one external side seam, and having dimensions
approximately 600 x 300 x 100 millimetres shall be filled with dry mixture to about 80 percent of
their volume and tied about 75 millimetres from the top. After laying, the tied end of each bag shall
be folded under the bag to provide a neat vertical joint with the adjacent bag. If bags having an
external side seam are used, the seam shall be placed against the embankment.

The bottom layers of bags shall be bedded in a trench cut at least 500 millimetres into natural
ground, or 150 millimetres into rock. The bags shall be placed close together on the prepared slope
of the embankment, the joints between successive courses being staggered. During placing of the
bags the slope shall be checked with a guide line stretched from the top to the bottom of the
embankment. As each row of bags is placed any backfill necessary to make good any irregularities
in the embankment behind the bags shall be well tamped. The bags shall then be thoroughly
wetted and compacted by methods approved by the RailCorp Representative. Minor irregularities
in the finished surface shall be removed by tamping the face of the bags. At each end of the
bagged area, alternate bags shall be keyed into the embankment by placing them at right angles to
the face of the embankment. The above procedure shall be repeated until the bagging of the
embankment is completed. Prior to ceasing work each day, the finished surface of the bagged area
completed that day shall be well watered again to assist the hydration process.

The finished bagging shall present an even and reasonably smooth surface of the required contour.

31 S41 Demolition of existing structures


This Specification sets out the requirements for the demolition of an existing structure and the
disposal of resulting materials and components which may or may not be contaminated.

All aspects of the demolition of an existing structure shall comply with the requirements of the RTA
QA Specification B341 “Demolition of Existing Structure”.

Other relevant documents are:

− AS 2601 – Demolition of Structures


− AS 2436 – Guide to Noise Control on Construction, Maintenance and Demolition Sites
− AS/NZS 3012 - Electrical Installation: Construction and Demolition Sites
All demolition work is to be undertaken and supervised by appropriately qualified and certified
personnel in accordance with Workcover NSW requirements.

Prior to commencing demolition, the Contractor will be required to submit a demolition plan,
outlining:

− the proposed methodology;


− proposed measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel (including where applicable,
public safety) and protection of the environment;
− the proposed means of disposal of all released materials.
Where nominated in the scope of work, the Contractor is to engage at his cost an appropriately
qualified archivist or archaeologist to undertake archival recording. This may include excavations,
photographs and the preparation of a report.

Hearing protection and noise control are to be implemented and to conform to AS 2436.

Where required by the relevant Authorities, all mechanical equipment is to be fitted with appropriate
silencing or noise suppressing accessories. Equipment operators are to be supervised to ensure
that such accessories are correctly and consistently used.

Dust emission shall be minimised during the demolition work. If necessary, the Contractor is to
provide dust-proof screens and covers and spray surfaces with water as required.

© Rail Corporation Page 46 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Unless otherwise specified in the Scope of Work, the Contractor is to remove all released and
demolished materials from the RailCorp property and dispose in accordance with relevant
environmental and other regulations.

The Contractor is to meet the costs for all transport from site and tipping fees.

32 S45 Reinforced soil retaining walls


This Specification sets out the requirements for the construction of Reinforced Soil Walls (RSWs).

All aspects of the construction of Reinforced Soil Walls shall comply with the requirements of the
RTA QA Specification R58 “Construction of Reinforced Soil Walls”.

Concrete test panels and colour control of concrete where required shall be provided in accordance
with AS3610, to suit the class of finish defined in RTA QA Specification B80.

33 S46 Soil nailing


The supply and installation of soil nails shall be in accordance with RTA QA Specification R64 “Soil
Nailing”.

34 S48 Bridge deck waterproofing


Work covered by this Section includes the supply and installation of waterproofing to bridge decks.

Materials to be used are as shown on the Drawings. The Contractor shall submit details of any
alternative materials to the RailCorp Representative for approval, 14 days prior to the proposed
commencement of construction of the waterproofing. Submission of details of alternative materials
shall constitute a “Hold Point”.

The Contractor shall submit full details to the RailCorp Representative for approval for fixing of the
prescribed waterproofing materials to the bridge deck. This approval shall constitute a “Hold Point”.

Where proprietary membranes are prescribed, they are to be installed in accordance with the
Manufacturer’s instructions.

Membranes should be folded up over the inner face of the kerbs and suitably fastened to the kerbs,
to provide a continuous waterproofing over the deck.

Upon completion of the works, the Contractor shall supply an original copy of Warranty certificates
for waterproofing membranes and materials used in the construction.

© Rail Corporation Page 47 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

Appendix 1 NVR Specification

BLUESCOPE STEEL INTEGRATED MARKETS

PORT KEMBLA

NVR STEEL SPECIFICATION

REVISION 5

APRIL 2004

© Rail Corporation Page 48 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0
RailCorp Engineering Specification — Structures
Structures Construction SPC 301

SCOPE

This specification specifies the production and supply requirements of hot rolled structural steel
plate for use in bridges and special structures.

Unless otherwise specified herein the relevant sections of the latest edition amendment or
suppression AS / NZS 3678 shall apply.

DESIGNATION

Grades shall be designated in accordance with AS / NZS 3678 except that the Australian Standard
designation (ie. AS / NZS 3678) shall be replaced with the NVR designation (ie NVR). Grade /
Thickness availability shall be as shown in Table 1, with the respective mechanical and chemical
property requirements as detailed in AS / NZS 3678, for the corresponding grades, as applicable.

Grade Thickness
NRV 250 10 - 150
NVR 250L15 10 - 150
NVR 350 10 – 80
NVR350L15 10 – 80
NVR400L15 10 – 50
Table 1

FREEDOM FROM DEFECTS

General

The plate shall be free from defects detrimental to its use for the applications specified in Clause 1.

Notwithstanding that plate has been accepted previously, if subsequent processing reveals that it
contains defects found to be detrimental, the plate shall be deemed not to comply with this
specification provided that it has not been improved improperly treated after delivery.

Removal of Surface Defects

Injurious surface imperfections shall be removed by mechanical means provided that no region of
the plate thickness is reduced below the specified thickness of the plate and the direction of any
final grinding is in longitudinal direction of the plate.

Welding shall not be used in the repair of surface defects

ULTRASONIC TESTING

All impact tested grades shall be ordered ultrasonically tested in accordance with AS1710 Level 2.

On request, all NVR grades may be ordered with ultrasonic inspection to AS1710 as per BSL – IM
Price Schedule.

PLATE SURFACE INSPECTION / QUALITY

All NVR grades shall be off-line inspected by BSL - Plate Finishing Department to ensure critical
surface suitable for the stated end use (Clause 1).

Off-line inspection shall only be conducted on plates that have been abrasively cleaned to a
suitable class of blast. Plates shall be repaired as required.

On request, all NVR grades may be ordered in the blasted and primed condition as per BSL – ISD
Price schedule.

© Rail Corporation Page 49 of 49


Issued July 2010 UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED Version 1.0