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Office: 1022
Location: Outer leaf reinforced

Calculations in accordance with BS5628-1:2005

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in BS5628 Table 8 /│ │/ h
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Masonry details
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Length of wall panel L=4.0 m =13.123 ft
Height of wall panel h=3.0 m =9.8425 ft
Outer leaf density den(1)=20 kN/m3 =0.12732 k/ft3
Thickness of outer leaf t(1)=102.5 mm =4.036"
Inner leaf density den(2)=20 kN/m3 =0.12732 k/ft3
Thickness of inner leaf t(2)=140 mm =5½"
Mortar designation (Table 1) mortar=4
Outer leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=4
Concrete block dimensions
Height hb=215 mm =8.465"
Least horiz dimension lhd=100 mm =3.937"
ratio height/least horiz dim rb=hb/lhd=215/100=2.15
Compressive strength of units po(1)=10.4 N/mm2 =1508.4 psi
Char comp strength - Table 2(d) fk(a)=TABLE 2.4 for mortar=4, po=10.4
=7 N/mm2 =1015.3 psi
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure (Table 3) and leaf
not exceeding 100mm thick fb=TABLE 3.7 for po=10.4, mortar=4
=0.2 N/mm2 =29.008 psi
greater than 250mm thick fb'=TABLE 3.71 for po=10.4, mortar=4
=0.2 N/mm2 =29.008 psi
leaf in range 100-250 mm fb(1)= fb+(fb'-fb)*(t-100)/150
= 0.2+(0.2-0.2)*(102.5-100)/150
=0.2 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure (Table 3) and leaf


not exceeding 100mm thick fp=TABLE 3.8 for po=10.4, mortar=4
=0.6 N/mm2 =87.023 psi
greater than 250mm thck fp'=TABLE 3.81 for po=10.4, mortar=4
=0.6 N/mm2 =87.023 psi
in range 100-250mm thick fp(1)= fp+(fp'-fp)*(t-100)/150
= 0.6+(0.6-0.6)*(102.5-100)/150
=0.6 N/mm2
Inner leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=4
Concrete block dimensions
Height hb=215 mm =8.465"
Least horiz dimension lhd=t(2)=140 mm =5½"
ratio height/least horiz dim rb=hb/lhd=215/140=1.5357
Compressive strength of units po(2)=2.9 N/mm2 =420.61 psi
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Characteristic compressive strength
for ratios of 0.6 - Table 2(c) Fk1=TABLE 2.3 for mortar=4, po=2.9
=1.4 N/mm2 =203.05 psi
for ratios of 2.0 - Table 2(d) Fk2=TABLE 2.4 for mortar=4, po=2.9
=2.8 N/mm2 =406.11 psi
for ratios of 1.5357 fk(2)=Fk1+(Fk2-Fk1)*(rb-0.6)/1.4
=1.4+(2.8-1.4)*(1.5357-0.6)/1.4
=2.3357 N/mm2 =338.77 psi
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure (Table 3) and leaf
not exceeding 100mm thick fb=TABLE 3.7 for po=2.9, mortar=4
=0.2 N/mm2 =29.008 psi
greater than 250mm thick fb'=TABLE 3.71 for po=2.9, mortar=4
=0.1 N/mm2 =14.504 psi
leaf in range 100-250 mm fb(2)= fb+(fb'-fb)*(t-100)/150
= 0.2+(0.1-0.2)*(140-100)/150
=0.17333 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure (Table 3) and leaf


not exceeding 100mm thick fp=TABLE 3.8 for po=2.9, mortar=4
=0.4 N/mm2 =58.015 psi
greater than 250mm thck fp'=TABLE 3.81 for po=2.9, mortar=4
=0.2 N/mm2 =29.008 psi
in range 100-250mm thick fp(2)= fp+(fp'-fp)*(t-100)/150
= 0.4+(0.2-0.4)*(140-100)/150
=0.34667 N/mm2
Partial safety factor materials gammam=2.8

Design parameters
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Effective thickness tef=(2/3)*(t(1)+t(2))
=(2/3)*(102.5+140)
=161.67 mm =6.365"
Ratio h'L=h/L=3/4=0.75

Limiting dimensions
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50 times effective thickness limit=50*tef/1000=50*161.67/1000
=8.0833 m =26.52 ft
Panel height within maximum allowable (Clause 32.3 BS5628-1:2005).
Panel length within maximum allowable (Clause 32.3 BS5628-1:2005).
Area of panel area=h*L=3*4=12 m2 =129.17 ft2
Panel supported on four edges with less than three continuous edges.
Permitted maximum area limit=2025*(tef/1000)^2
=2025*(161.67/1000)^2
=52.926 m2 =569.69 ft2
Panel area within allowable (Clause 32.3 BS5628-1:2005).

Loading details
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Charact wind load per unit area WL=3.1 kN/m2 =0.064745 k/ft2
Removal of panel would affect stability.
Partial safety factor for loads gammaf=1.4
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Outer leaf allowable loads
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Bending:
Enhance orthogonal strength ratio by allowing for the effects of
self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads
applied to the top of the wall.
Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3
=0.9*20*(3/2)/10^3
=0.027 N/mm2 =3.916 psi

Outer leaf:
Additional vert DL on panel w(1)=0.5 kN/m =0.034261 k/ft
Additional vert DL per unit area gaa=0.9*w(a)/t(a)=0.9*0.5/102.5
=0.0043902 N/mmm2
Design vert load /unit area ga=gas+gaa=0.027+0.0043902
=0.03139 N/mm2 =4.5528 psi
Orthogonal strength ratio mu=(fb(a)+gammam*ga)/fp(a)
=(0.2+2.8*0.03139)/0.6
=0.47982
Section modulus Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*102.5^2/6
=1.751E6 mm3/m
Design moment of resistance Md=fp(a)*Z/(gammam*10^6)
=0.6*1.751E6/(2.8*10^6)
=0.37522 kNm/m =0.084354 kft/ft
Bending moment coefficient alpha=TABLE 8.05 for mu=0.47982, h'L
=0.75
=0.045009
Allowable load on wall (bending) L(1)=Md/(alpha*gammaf*L^2)
=0.37522/(0.045009*1.4*4^2)
=0.37217 kN/m2 =0.007773 k/ft2
Shear:
Design load/unit area at found ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.027+0.0043902
=0.05839 N/mm2 =8.4688 psi
Charact shear strength at found fvf=0.15+0.6*ga=0.15+0.6*0.05839
=0.18503 N/mm2 =26.837 psi
Charact shear strength at side fvs=0.35 N/mm2 =50.763 psi
Partial safety factor for shear gammav=2.5
Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.18503/2.5
=0.074014 N/mm2 =10.735 psi
Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav
=0.35/2.5
=0.14 N/mm2 =20.305 psi
Allowable load in shear at found Lf(1)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.074014*4*102.5
=30.346 kN =6.822 kips
Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(1)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.14*3*102.5
=43.05 kN =9.678 kips
Inner leaf allowable loads
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Bending:
Enhance orthogonal strength ratio by allowing for the effects of
self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads
applied to the top of the wall.
Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3
=0.9*20*(3/2)/10^3
=0.027 N/mm2 =3.916 psi

Inner leaf:
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Office: 1022
Additional vert DL on panel w(2)=0.5 kN/m =0.034261 k/ft
Additional vert DL per unit area gaa=0.9*w(a)/t(a)=0.9*0.5/140
=0.0032143 N/mmm2
Design vert load /unit area ga=gas+gaa=0.027+0.0032143
=0.030214 N/mm2 =4.3822 psi
Orthogonal strength ratio mu=(fb(a)+gammam*ga)/fp(a)
=(0.17333+2.8*0.030214)/0.34667
=0.74404
Section modulus Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*140^2/6
=3.2667E6 mm3/m
Design moment of resistance Md=fp(a)*Z/(gammam*10^6)
=0.34667*3.2667E6/(2.8*10^6)
=0.40444 kNm/m =0.090923 kft/ft
Bending moment coefficient alpha=TABLE 8.05 for mu=0.74404, h'L
=0.75
=0.036119
Allowable load on wall (bending) L(2)=Md/(alpha*gammaf*L^2)
=0.40444/(0.036119*1.4*4^2)
=0.49989 kN/m2 =0.01044 k/ft2
Shear:
Design load/unit area at found ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.027+0.0032143
=0.057214 N/mm2 =8.2982 psi
Charact shear strength at found fvf=0.15+0.6*ga=0.15+0.6*0.057214
=0.18433 N/mm2 =26.735 psi
Charact shear strength at side fvs=0.15 N/mm2 =21.756 psi
Partial safety factor for shear gammav=2.5
Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.18433/2.5
=0.073731 N/mm2 =10.694 psi
Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav
=0.15/2.5
=0.06 N/mm2 =8.7023 psi
Allowable load in shear at found Lf(2)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.073731*4*140
=41.29 kN =9.2823 kips
Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(2)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.06*3*140
=25.2 kN =5.6652 kips

Bending check
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Allowable lateral load Lmax=L(1)+L(2)=0.37217+0.49989
=0.87206 kN/m2 =0.018213 k/ft2
Wall unsatisfactory - WL > Lmax ( 3.1 kN/m2 > 0.87206 kN/m2 )
characteristic wind load exceeds allowable.

Bed joint reinforcement to outer leaf


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Method one of BS5628-2, Annex A, will be adopted. With this method
the maximum permitted enhancement of load capacity over that for the
unreinforced wall panel is 50%. When this limit is exceeded the
serviceability check will be carried out by this program.
Stainless steel parallel wire lattice reinforcement will need to be
used for all external walls.
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Office: 1022
Width of the section b=1000 mm =39.37"

Effective depth of reinforcement d1=60 mm =2.363"

Diameter of main reinforcing bars bard1=4.0 mm =0.158"


Spacing of reinforcement spacr1=225 mm =8.859"
Area of reinft to be provided Asp1=3.14*(bard1/2)^2*b/spacr1
=3.14*(4/2)^2*1000/225
=55.822 mm2/m

Reinforcement tensile strength fy=460 N/mm2 =66717 psi

Lever arm z1=d1*(1-0.5*Asp1*fy*gammam/(b*d1*fk(1)*1.15))


=60*(1-0.5*55.822*460*2.8/(1000*60*7*1.15))
=55.534 mm =2.187"

Design moment Md1=Asp1*fy*z1/(1.15*1000000)


=55.822*460*55.534/(1.15*1000000)
=1.24 kNm/m =0.27877 kft/ft

Upper limit for design moment

Md1'=0.4*fk(1)*b*d1^2/(gammam*1E6)
=0.4*7*1000*60^2/(2.8*1E6)
=3.6 kNm/m =0.80931 kft/ft

Bed joint reinforcement to inner leaf


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Method one of BS5628-2, Annex A, will be adopted. With this method
the maximum permitted enhancement of load capacity over that for the
unreinforced wall panel is 50% . When this limit is exceeded the
serviceability check will be carried out by this program.
Stainless steel parallel wire lattice reinforcement will need to be
used for all external walls.

Width of the section b=1000 mm =39.37"

Effective depth of reinforcement d2=100 mm =3.937"

Diameter of main reinforcing bars bard2=5 mm =3/16"


Spacing of reinforcement spacr2=225 mm =8.859"
Area of reinft to be provided Asp2=3.14*(bard2/2)^2*b/spacr2
=3.14*(5/2)^2*1000/225
=87.222 mm2/m

Reinforcement tensile strength fy=460 N/mm2 =66717 psi

Lever arm z2=d2*(1-0.5*Asp2*fy*gammam/(b*d2*fk(2)*1.15))


=100*(1-0.5*87.222*460*2.8/(1000*100*2.3357*1.15))
=79.088 mm =3.114"
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Office: 1022
Design moment Md2=Asp2*fy*z2/(1.15*1000000)
=87.222*460*79.088/(1.15*1000000)
=2.7593 kNm/m =0.62031 kft/ft

Upper limit for design moment

Md2'=0.4*fk(2)*b*d2^2/(gammam*1E6)
=0.4*2.3357*1000*100^2/(2.8*1E6)
=3.3367 kNm/m =0.75013 kft/ft

Factored wind strengths

Outer leaf capacity Wk1=Md1*8/L^2=1.24*8/4^2


=0.62001 kN/m2 =0.012949 k/ft2
Inner leaf capacity Wk2=Md2*8/L^2=2.7593*8/4^2
=1.3796 kN/m2 =0.028815 k/ft2
Capacity of both leaves W12=Wk1+Wk2=0.62001+1.3796
=1.9997 kN/m2 =0.041764 k/ft2

The combined ultimate capacity of both leaves 1.9997 kN/m2 is less


than the applied ultimate load on the wall of 4.34 kN/m2
Consider changes.

No519