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# 4/19/2018

##  Is the process of controlling the properties of

moist air (includes noise control), to suit
specific purpose at the expense of energy.

 Classification of Purposes:
1. Thermal Comfort
2. Industrial Application (textile, printing,
manufacturing of semi-conductors, etc)
3. Space crafts (special)

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## Thermodynamic properties of air:

Enthalpy, Humidity, Temperature, Pressure,
Specific volume, etc.

## Includes the study of exchange of heat and mass of

occupants.
Heat:
1. Sensible – heat dissipated with the
change in temp.
2. Latent – heat transferred without
any change in temp.
Air-con units – dehumidifying or condensing
the unwanted moisture content in air.

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## Graph or chart of the heat load or cooling load of a

certain place with respect to time.

## Load (Sensible, Latent) – coming from lightings,

heat transmission from equipment, occupants,
solar, etc.

PSYCHROMETRICS CHARTS:
Two types:
1. Carrier Type – the chart has a coordinates humidity ratio (W)
v.s. dry bulb temp. (t), and they are orthogonal (at right angles)

t
2. Mollier Type – has the basic coordinates as humidity ratio v.s.
specific enthalpy (h), and they are in oblique position

Q h
W

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## • Mollier type of charts can be easily used because most

processes are represented by a straight line for exact
solutions. Also, in this chart, we can make some
sketches of the process lines and the basic coordinates
are used for energy balances. The mollier charts are
more accurate.

## Two reasons why we should be concerned with the

development of the chart.
1. To become aware on the basis of the chart.
2. To be able to calculate properties at new set of
conditions (non-standard barometric pressure)

## • First consider the chart to represent

water alone
 Coordinates chosen: temp. t (abscissa)
and temporarily the water-vapor
Water–
vapor press.(ordinate)
Pressure
A Pw  If superheat vapor, it is cooled at
B
constant pressure and eventually reach
the saturation line where it begins to
condense.
 No air has been present with the water
vapor. What is the effect on the figure, if
air is present?

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## The water vapor continues to behave the same as

though no air were present. At a given water-
vapor pressure (which is now a partial pressure),
condensation occurs at the same temp. as if no air
were present.
There is slight interaction between the molecules
of air and water vapor.
Table A-2 presents the properties of air saturated
with water vapor and Table A-1 for pure water, the
two table reveals practically no difference in
pressure at a given temp.

MOIST AIR
WATER-
DRY AIR
M= Mα + Mw VAPOR

V = total volume Mw
MW= 28.986
T= temp. MW= 18.016
Vα = V
P= barometric Vw = V
Tα = T
press. Tw = T
Pα < P
Pw << P

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sat.
Pw
Water-vapor
Press.

## Pα V = Mα Rα T (1) PwV = MwRwT (2)

where:
R = Ṝ = Universal gas constant
MW Molecular weight
for air: Rα = Ṝ
28.966
for Water-Vapor: Rw = Ṝ
18.016
By Dalton’s rule of partial pressures:
P α + Pw = P (3)

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Moist Air
(1)
AIRCON (2)

Mα = Mα1 = Mα2
Mw1 ≠ Mw2

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##  To define the state of moist air a minimum of 3

independent properties are required ( Ex: if tα & tα*
are the only given items, we assume P as standard,
14.696 psia or 101.325 Kpa)
• At sea level : P = 1 atm = 760 mmHg (Torr) = 14.696
psia = 1.0332 kg/cm2 = 101.325 KPa = 29.92 in Hg
h  In the Philippines (w/c is a few meters above sea
t dp level) can use the standard P atm, unless otherwise
specified.
h T= dry- bulb temp, the actual or correct temp.
of air
t*
t t*= wet-bulb temp, it is a measure of what
water can do to change the properties of the
air.
For ordinary condition: t > t*
For saturated air : t = t*

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t
t*
Stream Wetted surface
of air

h2
Insulation
Equilibrium of temp.
Air t1 ,  & vapor pressure
(1) W1 Make-up water
h1 (W2 – W1) hf

## Thermometer indicates thermodynamic

wet-bulb temp at equilibrium condition

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Humidification
Cooling & Humidification Heating & Humidification

Dehumidification

## MIXING OF AIR STREAMS

(1) h
(3) 1
W
3
2
(2)
t

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2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

HVAC SYSTEMS
Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning
Provides comfort for people
Allows humans to exist

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2KENS

## Basic Refrigeration Cycle

Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

System Types
Packaged Rooftop Unit
Split System
Heat Pump System
VAV System
Under Floor Air Distribution System
Hydronic (Chilled Water Systems)
PTAC / PTHP (Window types)
Air Distribution Systems
Other Equipment (Heat
Exchangers/Heat Recovery Equipment)

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2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

Split System

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2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy

## Heat Pump (Air to Air)

Services

• Operate on simple
refrigeration cycle
• Reversing the cycle
provides heating
• Temperature
limitations
• Air to air
• Water source
• Geothermal
• Lake coupled

2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

## VAV Terminal Units

Variable volume: Constant volume:
Parallel Series

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2KENS
Engineering &

## Under Floor Air Distribution (UFAD)

Consultancy
Services

 Individual Controllability
 Re-Configurability
 2 Extra LEED Points
 More Expensive (\$8/SF
for raised floor)
 Flexible for Change
 2 Extra LEED Points
Inland Power &
Light

2KENS

Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

Chillers

Boilers

Cooling Towers

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2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy
Services

## Chilled Water System

2KENS
Engineering &

Air Distribution
Consultancy
Services

Grilles, Registers
 Many options
 GU Russell Theatre
Return Grille
Return Plenum
 Extra cost for plenum
rated cable is less than
cost of return ductwork
 No Combustables

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2KENS
Engineering &

Consultancy
Services

## Outside Air Louvers

provide an opening in a
building wall to push air
out, or pull air in.
Provide clean outdoor air,
avoid:
 exhaust vents
 plumbing stacks
 waste collection
 stagnant water

2KENS
Engineering &

Metal Ducts
Consultancy
Services

Square Ductwork
 Most common
 Low height
Round Ductwork
 Less Expensive
 Easy to Install
 Lower static pressure
 Taller than Rectangular
 Higher pressure
 Less Sound
Oval Ductwork
 Height similar to rectangular
 More expensive than rectangular

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2KENS
Engineering &

Fabric Ducts
Consultancy
Services

## Great for certain

applications
 Gyms
 Pools
 Manufacturing
 Spokane Science
Museum
Saved \$300,000 in
 Great Diffusion school. Lowered
chilled water temp,
 Easily Cleaned
& air temperatures
 Fun
 Same cost as
metal

2KENS
Engineering &
Consultancy

Services

Heat Exchangers
Humidifiers
Silencers

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## 1. OPEN CYCLE (ALL OUSIDE AIR SYSTEM)

2. CLOSED CYCLE (100% RETURN SYSTEM)
3. RE-CIRCULATED SYSTEMS

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space
Return Air
Aircon Unit
Fan
(4) Outside/
Ventilating Air
Cooling Filter
Coil

## Usually Known Parameters:

Qs = Total Sensible Heat Load (Cooling Load Calculations) = 100 kW
QL = Total Latent Heat Load = 15 kW
Room/Space Conditions (Design Conditions): dry-bulb temp = 20°C, 50%RH
Outside Air Conditions: dry-bulb temp = 35°C, wet-bulb temp = 26°C
Supply Air Temperature (within CADP): 2°C

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SHR=Qs/(Qs+QL)=0.87

SHR
W5=(m2W2+m4W4)/(m2+m4)