d

e

8

h

ENGLISH IN PICTURES

R01\IA KOPER

l

I

ENGLISH IN PICTURES

ROMAKOPER

INOWROCLA W 1993

© COPYRIGHT BY "ARKA" (wszelkie prawa zastrzezone)

Korekta:

I wona Zeiiczak

Redakcja techniczna:

Zbigniew Chmiel

Projekt okladki:

Zbigniew Krygier

Wydanie I

Nakladem Wydawnictwa .Arka'

88-100 Inowroclaw, ul, Boya-Zelenskiego 27, tel.jfax 703-08 Dystrybucja: Zaopatrzenie Szkolne "Belmar"

88-100 Inowroclaw, ul, Nowa 2, tel. 79-097 Wydawnictwo ,.Nowa Era"

01-248 Warszawa, ul. J_ Kazimierza 35/36, tel. 37-00-20 w. 225,226

Sklad komputerowy i druk: Zaklad Poligraficzno-Wydawniczy "POZKAL" 88-100 Inowroctaw, ul, ks. B. Jaskowskiego 3, tel. 76.209, teL/fax 76-219

CONTENTS

46. Can, Can't 6

47. Have to 12

48. Want to 18

49. Like to 22

50. Count/Non - Count Nouns 26

! 51. Should 32

52. Directions 38

53. Must, Mustn't 44

54. Could, Couldn't 48

55. Would like to, Might 52

56. When/While - Clauses 58

57, Be able to 64

58. Health 70

59. Using the telephone 74

60, Review 79

Appendix 96

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF
COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS
Present Past Past Present Past Past
Participle Participle
be was been lend lent lent
become became become let let let
begin began begun lose lost lost
blow blew blown make made made
bring brought brought mean meant meant
build built built meet met met
buy bought bought put put put
come came come read read read
cost cost cost ride rode ridden
cut cut cut rise rose risen
do did done run ran run
draw drew drawn say said said
drink drank drunk see saw seen
drive drove driven sell sold sold
eat ate eaten send sent sent
fall fell fallen set set set
feel felt felt sing sang sung
find found found sit sat sat
forget forgot forgotten sleep slept slept
get got gotten" speak spoke spoken
give gave given spend spent spent
go went gone stand stood stood
grow grew grown swim swam swum
hang hung hung take took taken
have had had teach taught taught
hear heard heard tell told told
hurt hurt hurt think thought thought
keep kept kept understand understood understood
know knew known wear wore worn
leave left left write wrote written * In AE, the past participle of get is gotten in every sense except, when have got means have/possess.

In this case, the correct form is got.

In Bfi, the past participle is always got.

4

MtODY PRZYJAClELU!

Nie musze chyba przekonywac Ciebie, ze znajomosc jezykow obcych to klucz do tajemniczego pojazdu, kt6ry przeniesc Cie moze w kazdy zakatek swiata.

Podroz ta jednak wymagac bedzie od Ciebie starannego przygotowania, bys mogl wszelkie napotkane trudnosci pokonywac bez problemow,

W poczatkowym etapie nauki jezyka angielskiego niech posluza Ci moje notatki. Zgromadzilem je w kilku zeszytach, bogato ilustrowanych, bys mcgl bez trudu przyswajac obee wyrazy i zwroty. Te mini obrazki ulatwia Ci zrozumienie zdan. Pomijajac tlumaczenie na jezyk ojczysty zyskasz na czasie, A przeciez wiesz Jakie to wazne, T ej madrosci nauczyli mnie Indianie, Zdradze Ci tez kilka rad z doswiadczenia starego podroznika.

1. Postaraj sie codziennie zagladac do zeszytu.

2. Powtarzaj glosno poznane zwroty i zdania,

3. Powracaj do utrwalonych zagadnien.

4. Sporzadzaj notatki i zapisuj wlasne spostrzezenia,

5. Redaguj wlasne dialogi,

Jesli rnasz jakies pytania, watpliwosci lub propozycje napisz do mnie, Do zobaczenia na trasie!

5

6

CAN, CAN'T

you

he can Sifllg

she

it

I ( YO~
we } you
you can sing he Can he sing?
they she can't sing she
it it
we
they We use can (+ VERB) to say that something is possible or that someone has the ability to do something. The negative is can't (cannot),

7. Can Arthur play the violin?

Yes, he can.

He plays the violin every day. He's a violinist.

1. Sam can't cook Chinese food.

He can cook French food.

2. Sally can't play football.

She can play baseball.

9. Can Fred and Ginger dance?

Yes, they can.

They dance every day. They're dancers.

3. Lora and Tom can't skate.

They can ski.

4. William can't play the piano.

He can play the guitar.

11. Can Lois bake apple pies?

Yes, she can. .

She bakes apple pies every day. She's a baker.

5. Jeff can't play chess.

He can play checkers.

6. Elizabeth can't sing.

She can dance.

6

7

{we }

Can you sing?

. they

8. Can Anita sing?

Yes, she can.

She sings every day. She's a singer.

10. Can Richard act?

Yes, he can.

He acts every day. He's an actor.

12. Can Eleanor teach?

Yes, she can.

She teaches every day. She's a teacher.

r~,r;~

~ AI"'~ . <J> •

! ,

. ..

---

8. Hans .

German. (speak)

lIe .

Spanish. (speak)

7. Mary (swim)

She, (ski)

1. Harry ..... can't, ...... flll?}! .... , , . the piano. (play)

He r:Wt p!qy .

the guitar. (play)

2. We (skz)

We , (skate)

•*~;~

~ ~

""II

II _'/

3. I , chess. (pLay) 4. Alice , , .. , .. (dance)

I checkers. (play) She .. , , .. , , , , .. (sing)

1, .,.,',. 9~1? she 9(ll\e, .. , ? 2.. , , ?

Yes. she, can. No, he can't.

6. Walter , , , . , , , , .. , .

Italian food. (cook)

He "., , ". Greek

food. (cook)

5. John and Robert, .. , ... , .. , ....

.. , . , the violin. (play)

They ,

the organ. (play)

3, , , '.,., ? 4 , , ?

Yes, they can. Yes, I can,

9

5. " , , ? 6 , , .. "." ?

No, they can't. Yes, he can.

. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . ?

7 .

Yes, they can.

What can you do?

What can't you do?

Llcan .

2 , " .

1. I can't " .

2 .

3 .

4.

3 " .

4.

5 " " " .. " " .

6.

5 .. " " " " ..

6 " " .

10

Sally Nelson" .. "4 an actress. She's young and pretty, but when

she acts, she can look young or old; beautiful or ,

happy or .

Her husband, Bob, " an English .

He teaches students from countries around the world. His students speak

Polish. French, Russian, and Arabic, Bob sometimes .

Polish and French with them, but he can't ",'" .

Russian or Arabic.

Sally is a good athlete. She , .. tennis and golf

very well. When it's cold she skis, add when it's , .

she swims day.

Bob doesn't like sports. He can't " .. tennis

or golf, but he ski. When he isn't busy,

he usually the newspapers or plays chess.

He likes chess because he plays very well,

Sally and Bob both love music. Sally sings popular .

and " the piano. Bob can't play the piano,

but he , ' sing and he can .. " .

the violin.

11

• have to work

"~; } have to work

she has to work it

------------------------------------~

we }

~:; have to work

We use have to (+ VERB) to say that it is necessary to do something.

Herbert is depressed. He's having a party today, but his friends can't go to his party. They're all busy.

2. Michael. has to go to the doctor.

1. George and Martha have to go to the supermarket.

3. Henry has to wash the kitchen floor.

4. Mrs. Johnson has to clean her apartment.

I 5. Ntncy has to fix her car. 6. Ton and Jennifer have to prac-

L lice their violin.

'--~----~~~~-------

12

I don't have to work you don't have to work he '

~ } do","' ba:.IO w:~

7. I don't have to send the parcel today.

I've already sent it.

9. Fred doesn't have to take a bus to work.

He can walk

Do I have to work? Do you have to wO.rk?

Does {,~~ } have to work?

1 L Do they have to study?

No, they don't.

we '1

you JdOJl't have to work they

8. She doesn't have to do her laundry today.

She did it last week.

~~"'.~ 1:'

......... _____..._------ .

-~-~ --.

10. I don't have to run.

I have enough time.

----l

Do { Y:: } have to work? I

they

12. Does he have to fix his car?

Yes, he docs.

13

r Monday Tuesday
Tom: go to the supermarket Tom } : go to the
and dentist
Helen: wash the clothes Helen
f--
Wednesday Thursday
Tom: dean the yard Tom } paint the
I Heien: fix the car and bedroom
Helen 1. What does Tom have to do on Monday?

He has to go to the supermarket.

2. What does Helen have to do on Wednesday?

.... ~.~ , "., ~ .. ' ~~ .

3. What does Helen have to do on Monday?

.............. ~ • • .. ~ I ~ • • • • .. • • .. .. .. • • • • • • .. • • • • • ' • .. • • • • • •••• I ••••

4. What do Tom and Helen have to do on Thursday?

• • .. • • .. • • .. • • • .. • • • • • • I • « " ••• ~ • • • • • • • • • • •• I • • • ." ~ • • • • • • ~ , •

5, What do Tom and Helen have to do on Tuesday?

6. What does Tom have to do on Wednesday?

• • • • 0, .. • • • • • • • • • .. • • • • .. • • • • .. I • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • " , • • • • • '. ~ - '" ~ ..

14

1. John can't go skiing today.

He has to study.

Does he have to study? Yes, he does.

2. Richard and Alice can't play tennis today.

They have to work.

~ ........ ~ • .. .... I .. , _ ... ~ ..... ~ • • • •••••••

......... ".' .. - ~ .

3. Mrs. Smith can't go swimming today.

She has to do the laundry.

o' • • • • ~ > ~ •• 'r , ' ..

..... , ,., ' .

• • " '. • • .. .. .. .. • • • • ~ .. • .. • • • • • .. u ... ~ ••••

5. Paul can't go jogging today.

He has to .go to the dentist.

. . .. . . . . . ~ . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ~ _. . ..

. . . . . . . . . .• .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . .... ~ ... ~ .

~ ,

.

. ~

~-~~:.---

4. I can't go sailing today.

I have to wash the kitchen floor.

. .. ~ ... '" . . . . . . .. . ~ - ... ~ .. . . .. . .. . . . , ...

6. Mrs. Wilson can't go dancing today.

She has to teach.

• 0 • • • • • ~ • _ • • .. • • • ~ • " .

·····~··~.· •• ·.4~ •• 4 •• ~ •••• ~ .....

J.5

7. We can't play cards today.

We have to fix the TV.

" " , •• ti " 9 ~ • " ~ •••••••••••••

" .. " ...... " " , .... " ••• ~ • ~ • ~ " .. R • .. •• " ••

8. Barbara can't stay in bed today.

She has to go to scl 001.

• .... 1 ••• ••• .. ••• .. •• ........ • .. "·,, .... •• ..

• ...... ' • • • • • , ...... ~ • • • ~ • • .. 0; •••• a •••

1. Robert has to go to the dentist tills week.

Does Robert have to go to the

dentist this week? 2. Sally has to study English all day.

Robert doesn't have to go to the .

dentist this week. ~, ' " .

I

.

AO

3. I have to fix my car this afternoon.

• ~ " • • • • • • • • • • ••• , I •••••

.. " " .

4. Mr. and Mrs. Nelson have to paint their bedroom.

•. • ... • ' ••• ' ~ • • • • • • • , ." " • " • • • • • • • • • 0, I •

.. . . . . . . ~ . . .. . ~ - . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

16

5. You have to wash your car. 6. We have to plant flowers this year.

7.

8. You have to visit your barber.

9. We have to go to the library.

10. They have to buy a new car.

11. I have to stop drinking coffee.

12. You have to go home .

17

WANT TO

i want to study you want to study

s:: } wants to study it

L I want to have a pICnIC, but according to the newspaper, it's going to rain.

3. Mr. Smith wants to go to the beach, but according to the newspaper, it's going to be cloudy.

5. I. want to go sailing; but according to the newspaper, it's going to be foggy.

we }

you want to study

they I

2. He wants to go skiing, but according to the newspaper, it's going to be warm.

4. Sara wants to plant flowers in her garden, hut according to the newspaper, it's going to be very hot.

6. We want to go to the zoo, but according to tile newspaper, it's going to be cold.

> 18

Do I want to study? Do you want to study?

Does {s~:}. want to st.dyl , It'

I don't want to study you don't want to study he )

she >- doesn't want to study it J

7., Does she want to stay all day in bed?

No, she doesn't want to stay an day In bed.

She's getting up,

9. D 1 .

- .roes ne want to go out WIth

Susan?

No; he doesn't want to go out with Susan.

He's going out with. Jane.

{we}',

Do you. want to stu.dy?

they

we }

you . dOill't wantto study

they

8. Do they want to be late for the plane?

No, they don't want to be late for the plane.

They're leaving now.

10. Do you want to go to London ' alone?

No, I don't want to go to London alone.

I'm taking John with me.

19

L W11at do Shirley and Patty want to do tomorrow?

They want to go skating. (go skating) What's the forecast?

It's going to he warm. (he warm)

3. What do Gloria and Frank want to do tomorrow?

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (have a picnic) What's the forecast?

· .. , , (be cloudy)

5. What do Anita and Ted want to do tomorrow?

· (go to the park)

What's the forecast?

(be cloudy)

20

2. What does Jeff want to do tomorrow?

(go to a baseball game) What's the forecast?

.. .. . . .. (be cold)

4. What does Lois want to do tomorrow?

· ' (wash the car)

What's the forecast?

· . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. (rain)

6. What does Sam want to do tomorrow?

· (paint the house)

What's the forecast?

................................ (snow)

1. John wants to play chess.

Does he want to play chess?

No, he doesn't want to play chess. (checkers) He wants to play checkers .

2. Mary wants to go to the zoo.

• • • " • • • ~ ... , " '" " ••••• " • , • .. • ~ •• 0 • ~ • • • • • " " •• ~ • • ... ," • " ••

· . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. (to a concert)

• , " • • • , • • .. • • , , • ~ , • • , ,L •• , • • , • • • • • ...... " ...... , ••

3. I want to visit my friend.

.. • • + • t • ~ , • , • • • , ... " L • ~ • .. , • • • • .. • • • • .. • • • • • , •••• ,. • • • ••

· , .. , " . . . . . . .. (my grandmother)

, • ~ , • , L • • • ~ ~ " • " • , + ~ • " , • , ~ • • • • • • .. .. ~ ~ • ~ • • • • " • ,. • • ~ • , ..

4. Mr. and Mrs. Smith want to eat dinner at a restaurant.

" • • ! ~ , ~ & ~ • • • ~ .. • • • " , .. .- • • • .. ~ • • " '" .. r • • • I .. I " • , • ~ , ~ • ,. .. • •

· " , (dinner at home)

• ... " .... ~ ..... 1 , ••• " • ,', ~ •• , • " ~ • ., .... I ., • , ... ~ • • • • • , " " • • ••

5, We want to study Arabic,

& " ~ ~ • " " , • • , • • ~ , 1 ~ , ~ ~ • • • " ~ • • • • " • • • • • • • " • • • , .' • • • • • • •

· , , , , "' , . . . . (mathematics)

•• "'" " •• "., i " •••••• ,'. , ••••••• _." ••• ;

6. Our English cousin wants to drink tea.

• " • " , " • , • ~ .. • • • ~ • • , " , , " • • • • • • • ~ .. - • • • " • • , • I ~ '" I • • • ~ • •

.. , , , , , " (coffee)

' ... , , , ... " . . , . . ... ~ . ' .. " .. , . ~ ...... , . . " . . . - ... ~ " . ~ ....

7. Bob wants to dance with Lois.

· . . . . , , . ,,' . . . . . . , ... " , .. " . '" . . . , . . . .. . .. . " .. ,,_ . . ~ ~ ... '" .

· . , , , , . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. (with his sister)

• '" •• 1 .. ~ • , •• " • , • • ••• " • ~ , • • , .. • • " , •• " • • • • • ... ~ • • • • • • ••

21

49

LIKE TO

I like to dance you like to dance

s:: } likes to dance it

we }

you like to dance

they

YO~ }

we don't like

they to dance

he }

she doesn't like

it to dance

1. Does Alan like to play chess?

Yes, he does.

3. Do Ted and Patty like to eat ice cream?

Yes, they do.

5. Does Susan like to visit her grandparents?

yes'Sh~

7. Do we like to watch TV together?

Yes, we do.

2. Does Mrs.Johnson like to teach?

No, she doesn't.

4. Do Mr. and Mrs. Taylor like to dance?

No, they don't.

6. Does David like to study?

No, he doesn't.

8. Do I like to bake?

No, I don't.

22

9. We like to eat dessert after dinner.

~I

13. Jennifer doesn't like to go to the dentist.

13. They like to go to the beach.

15. We like to go skiing.

17. I like to play baseball.

10. She doesn't like to drive too fast.

12. Tom likes to listen to the music.

14. John doesn't like to write letters.

16. Mona likes to play cards, but Peter doesn't.

18. Mr. Peterson likes to watch TV.

23

1. Alan . {i.k.e..s. /9.P.[CfJ!. chess. (play)

2. Mrs. Johnson Q9f.:P}))i/f.e.l.o. N(fl;~ children. (teach)

4. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor .

............... together. (dan.ce)

6. Mary her

friends. (write to)

3. Ted and Patty .

ice cream. (eat)

5. Susan .

her grandparents. (visit)

7. Mr. Jackson.............. ... ... i the train. (wait for)

24

1. John likes to wash his hair twice a week.

Does John like to wash In:" hair twice a week? No, he doesn't like to wash his hair twice a week.

2. I like to listen to classical music .

.. , .. ' , .

•••••• ,"" ••• ,', •••• I •• ,.' , , ••••••••••••••••••• , •••

3. Ann and lack like to go to the cinema.

" • • • • • • • • ••• ~ ••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I • • • • • .. , " •••

• • • • .. • • ~ • • • • • • • • , •• ~ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I ~ • • .. .. • • .. • • ••••••

4. Robert likes to cook Italian food .

• , •• ,." ,. ¥ .

.............................. '" .

5. We like to work in the evenings .

............ , , , ,," .

, • • • • • • • ••• I I • • • • , • • • • • • • • • • I ••• , • I • • • ••• , • • • • • • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • ...... ~ ....

6. Mrs. Smith Ekes to get up early.

., , , " .

...................................... , .

7. Joanne likes to clean her apartment once a week .

............... , ••• , " I

, . . . , . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

8. Paul and Alice like to study English every day.

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , " . ~ . . . ~ .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ~ .. . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . ..

9. I like to play tennis on Sundays.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. , . ~ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

..................................................................... I ••••

25

50

COUNT INON - COUNT NOUNS

Count Nouns

tomatoes eggs bananas apples pears crackers cookies onions

bread. lettuce. flour.

There isn't any

milk
How much coffee
ice cream
do you want?
cookies
How many french fries
meatballs Non-Count Nouns cheese

milk

ice cream bread

tea

sugar

salt

coffee

There aren't any

much.
Not too

many. apples. eggs. lemons.

a little.
Just

a few. 26

much many

how much? how many?

too much too many

so much that so many that

A. You look terrible! What's the matter?

B. I drank TOO MUCH milk this morning.

A. HOW MUCH milk did you drink?

B. I drank SO MUCH milk that I'm never going to drink milk again!

I

I

L _

A. You look terrible! What's the matter?

B. I ate TOO MANY cookies last night

A. HOW MANY cookies did you eat?

B. I ate" SO MANY cookies that I'm nev~ I going to eat a cookie again!

.. __ .. " __ .,-

a little ar~l
coffee apples
ice cream eggs
butter oranges I A. How do you like the " ?

B. I think (it's/they're) delicious.

A. I'm glad you like (it/them). Would you care for some more?

B. Yes, please. But not (too much/too many). Just (a little/a few).

My doctor says that (too much/too many) ,. (is/are) bad for my

health,

27

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1. There •• 0 .qr:e.I1:t. Ql1Y fggs: ....... ~A~
How about some .. r;(!f~q(~ .....
I'~ _
2. There . , .i,~~l) {l,nY,cNffc.en ....... ~ga~
How about some .............. ?
~~\-:- . _'_-. __ ott.
3. There . . ~ . . , . . . . . . . .. " " . " " . . . .. . ~Q,~;:Q~r
How about some .. , , .......... ?
4. There .......................... Q~~~
How about some .............. ? ( :~( .. ' '~"
5. There I • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ~ • • •• • ~~Il
How about some .. , ........... ?
6. There 46' •••• ' ••••••••• • ••• •••• • ~&
How about some .............. ? ~"~
7. There • ~
......................... . .,:' .
How about some ............... ? . ~.
Ii
8. There ......................... . ~~
How about some. _ .. , ......... ? 28

The Jackson family got back this morning from their vacation. They had a wonderful time, but they aren't feeling very well today. Why not?

What's the matter with Mr. Jackson? Last night he went to an expensive

restaurant with his family, and he ate too J~I dessert, He ate so

ma~

[ m~-chl dessert that he's in bed today with a stomachache. manyJ

Why do Alice and Jane Jackson feel terrible? At the restaurant last

night, Jane ate too [ :~~~ garlic and too [:~;~ onions, And

Alice ate (00 l_;~~~ bread" Alice ate so [;;~~J bread (hat she can't wear the new clothes she bought on vacation. When she put on her new skirt this morning, it was too small.

Mrs. Jackson and her son Robert didn't eat too [muchl food last many

___ r_. _ ___j

night, but they don't feel very well either. Mrs. Jackson is tired because

she visited too I-mu~l;-I churches and monuments yesterday, and she many

went to too rm~ch J stores. Robert is tired because he wrote letters all

L~a~G .

morning and all afternoon on his last day of vacation. He wrote

so [mUCh-, letters that he's never going to write a letter again .

many

- --

GJ'

29

What's the matter with John Jackson? He feels terrible because he

Chi . I much I

drank too coffee last night. He drank so coffee that

fly many

-~-

he has a bad headache today.

Why does Linda Jackson look upset? She's depressed because she

. I much I

bought too expensive presents. She bought so

many

presents that she's going to have to work every day after school this month.

:il:l: Ilii::I::: il::iiiIL im;, :I~. ~i :r~::~ !~~] :i:l ,{" i~ ,:;~ C!"'~!ii~i !I!.~i!!!!:·:!:; :I!~

l. How ~ dessert did Mr. Jackson eat?

He ate so much dessert that he's in bed today with a stomachache.

2. How [much 1 bread did Alice eat? many

---

3. How much I letters did Robert write? many

------

4. How [~UCh coffee did John drink? many

5. How r~~':;-~l; presents did Linda buy? many

A. How do you make your delicious stew, Betty?

I n I' F- I~ .

.D •. t s ver~v easy. _ irst I put a kFJ butter into a pan. Then I chop

~l;]. little

up a l..fu_w J Omans and a few garlic. After that, I cut up some

hi k ~litt~e Uittle I

C IC en, and a f. pepper. Then I cut up a tomatoes and

ew few'

r-----:l-' ~-~

. little

I shce a ~X~w J mushrooms. Then I pour in a cup of wine and a

little few

chicken soup. I cook the stew for an hour.

Betty's Recipe for Stew

1. Put a little

. . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... , .....

butter into a pan. onions and

garlic.

2 .

" • • • • , • '. • • • • " • • • I • • • • • • • • • ••• ~ ..

3 -. .

some chicken.

salt and pepper.

i 4.

•• I •• ~ • .. •• ~ • I • • .. • • • • • •••••••••• r

5. . _ __ ,.. tomatoes.

6 - _ _ ,. _ mushrooms.

7 -. _ - _ _..' d

WIne an _ .

chicken soup.

8. . - - - - - _ _ _ . _ for an hour.

30 31

SHOULD

I , you

he .., should go she

it

we}

you . should go

they

Should

go?

We use should ( + VERB) when we say what we think is a good thing to do or the right thing to do.

1. Should she go out on a date with Roger or Bill?

She should go out on a date with Roger because Roger is more intelligen t.

3. Should I plant flowers or vegetables this spring?

I should plant flowers this spring because flowers are more pretty.

5. Should she buy these earrings or those earrings?

She should buy these earrings because they are more attractive.

2. Should they buy a black-and-white TV or a color* TV?

They should buy a black -and-white TV because it is cheaper.

4. Should he study the piano with Mrs. Wong or Miss Schultz? He should study the piano with Mrs. Wong because she is more talented.

6. Should I hire Miss J ones or Miss Wilson?

I should hire Miss Jones because she is more capable.

* Tn AE (American English) ~ words like: color. IIeigiJbor. [avor ct c., ure spelled with -ur w.lw(cu;

32

in liE (British English) these words are spelled with -uur: colour, neiglrbour. j'lI'O"!

j you

he > shouldn't go

she

it J

7. He shouldn't eat so much.

He is too fat.

9. We shouldn't watch TV now.

We have so many things to do.

11. They shouldn't drink too much.

It's not good for their health.

~<l

13. We shouldn't cook now.

It's too late.

we 1

you t shouldn't go they .J

10. You shouldn't sleep during a day.

You will have a problem sleeping at night.

12. I shouldn't take my father's car.

I don't have a driving-licence.

14, She shouldn't change the light-bulb by herself.

She should ask her husband to help her.

33

1. Should I buy a dog or a cat?

You should buy a dog because dogs are more friendly.

2. Should he buy a used car or a new car?

........... ~ •• ~ ~ ••• , I 0 .. • • "

" ~ ft • • .. .. • • • .. .. • • .. • • •

3. Should I vote for John Black or Peter Smith?

.......................... " .

• • • .. • .. , ~ "' I .

4. Should he go out on a date with Doris or Jane?

.. .. .. • .. • • • ~ " •••• I .. • • ..

............... ,; ...... S 1 .... • ....... ••••••••

5. Should they buy this fan or that fan?

....... 1 " , I •• • .. • I.

I .. ~ .. .. .. • • .. • • .. • .. .. .. • .. • • ........ I • " .. • • •

6. Should she buy fur gloves or leather gloves?

.........................................

1 I.'

............... I .. • ....

7. Should we go to the cafeteria up the street or the cafeteria down the street?

.... _ ..

.............................................. .

8. Should I. fire Mr. Jackson or Mr.

Brown?

. . .. . .. . . .. ~ ... ~ - . . ...............

. . . ., . - . . ~ .. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

34

1. I don't" feel well. (see a doctor) You should see a doctor.

3. I have a toothache. (go to the dentist)

5. I want to buy a new car. (go to a car dealer)

2. I can't lose any weight. (do more exercises)

4. I don't like to sell men's underwear. (switch to another department)

6. My hamburger doesn't taste good. (put some mustard)

7. I'm tired. (take a break)

~ \SdJ

8. I'm always late. (get up earlier)

35

1. Why does Martha look so nervous? (drink too much coffee)

She looks so nervous because she drinks too much coffee.

She shouldn't drink so much coffee.

3. Why does Peggy look so exhausted?

(jog a Litle too much)

• ., ....... I • , ... ~ • " • 0 " • • ~ • • • • • • • I •••

.................................. , .

................... " 1 •••• ' ••• ""

2, Why does Fred look so tired? (work overtime)

••••••• , ••• '.', I'

.... , ... ' .... :. 1······· .. · .. ·······

• •• , I •••• I •••••

4. Why does Peter look so upset? (argue with the boss)

.. " , " .

• • •••••••••• 4 • • • , I • • • • , • • • • • ~ •••

........ , .

5. Why does our cat look so scared? (play with a dog)

., , .

............... _ " .

................................ .

36

6. Why does our English teacher look so angry? (read my homework)

~ - . - - . . . ,', . , . . . , . , . .. . . . . . , . , . . . ..

. - , ' , .

. .

:::::: ~:::::~ :",,:(,:'I{ :\t:::::~~::::' ::~~:,I!j Il::,ik: :,Jlk :~[')::':I~H::)' {Uy;:':'::':: \i j):)

:':::::"j ..• u" :tj~ ·;6!:.'~h::::M • .. , ii:i ·ill~ ~k :'\:~~} ~::: x . .. '. ..:. . ,.}' ;:!::

;;I~ c!1~ ii~ ~i;; ;!r'il'~:~I[!,I!~!jl; ill! :111 J;Jrl;:.i!f;: '1[1.1: .1!1~:i~; II

l. The tap in Walter's bathroom is not working. (call the plumber) Should he call the plumber?

Yes, he should.

2. Mr. and Mrs. Smith like their new apartment building. (move to a new apartment)

Should they move to a new apartment? No, they shouldn't.

3. Mary has a toothache. (go to the dentist)

~ •• , ...... " •• , , • , • • " ••• I • , .. " , • I • • • • • • • • • • .. • • • ,,'. • ••••• I • + ' ••• , • '" • • • R ..... "

4 .. Mr. Jones worked every day this year, and he's very tired. (go on vacation)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ~ • • • • .. • • • • • • • ••• I 9 .

5. I think my hair looks good. (go to the hairdresser)

• • • • • • • •• , a , , • • • • • • , •• ~ • • • • • • • , •• , • • • • •• , • • • • • • • • • • • • .. • • • • , ... - •••••••

6. Jack can fix ,his car himself. (call a mechanic)

, ••• ~ , • • • • • I •• " •• , •• " • , , ••••• , •••••••• , • • • • • • • • • .. .. • • • • • •••••••••••••••

7. A thief stole our cal', (call the police)

8. Billy is much bigger this year. His old clothes are too small. (buy new clothes)

37

52

DIRECTIONS

walk up walk down walk along

[bfr;' II ~I E1~

[Ilbranj I I diN' I

1. shoe store?

2. police station?

3. high school?

on the right on the left

next to across from between

A. Excuse me. Would you please tell me how to get to the laundromat from here?

B. Walk up Main Street and you'11 see the laundromat on the right, across from the drugstore.

I

i

I ! i

laundromat?

A. Excuse me. Would you please tell me how to get to the post office from here?

B. Walk down Main Street and you'll see the post office on tbe left, next to the high school.

post office?

1. Walk up Main Street and you'll see the shoe store on the right, across from the bakery.

2. Walk down Main Street and you'll see the police station on the right, across from the high school.

3. Walk down Main Street and you'll see the high school on the left, next to the clinic.

38

A. Excuse me. Would you please tell me how to get to the hospital from here?

B. Walk along Central Avenue and you'll see the hospital on the left, between the art museum and the park.

hospital?

Take the bus and get off at Main Street.

A. Excuse me. What's the quickest way to get to Peter's Pet Shop?

B. Take the Main Street Bus and get off at First Avenue.

Walk up First Avenue and you'll see Peter's Pet Shop on the right.

A. Thank you for your help.

B. You're welcome.

39

2. A. Excuse me. Can you tell me how to get to the high school from here?

B. Milk Street and

you'll see the high school

........ " .. " , across from

the" " .

HOW DO I GET THERE?

3. A. Excuse me. Can you tell me how to get to the butcher shop from here?

B .. " "." Milk Street and

you'll see the butcher shop

........ " , next to

the " .

across from between next to

on the right on the left. walk down walk up

4. A. Excuse me. Can you tell me how to get to the supermarket from here? .

B " .. Milk Street and

you'll see the supermarket ........ " ..... the shoe store and the police station.

5. A. Excuse me. Can you tell me how to get to the clinic from here?

B Milk Street and

you'll see the clinic. " .

the barber shop.

1. A. Excuse me. Can you tell me how to get to the barber shop from here?

B ..... W(l!!f;.l.<P Milk Street and you'll see the barber shop .... Q'! .t!w riglg . . . . . .. across

from the clinic .

40

41

WHICH WAY?

Mill< ~.

across from between next to

on the left on the right walk along walk up walk down

1. A. Excuse me. Could you please tell me how to get to the library from here?

B. W(l!~.{j{Q1J.g_ Central Avenue and you'll see the library

.. .on .If1.e. right, across from the p!qygrQ1f?l(i, .

2. A. Excuse me. Could you tell me how to get to the museum from here?

B " .. " Central Avenue and you'll see the

museum , across from the .

3. A. Excuse me. Can you please tell me how to get to the parking let from here?

B. Milk Street and you'll see the parking

lot " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. the hospital.

4. A. Excuse me. Can you tell me how to get to the shoe store from here?

B. Milk Street and you'll see the shoe

store , . . . . . . . .. the post office.

S. A. Excuse me. How do I get to the university from here?

B. , "., Central Avenue and you'll see the

university , , , next to the , .. , ,

6. A. Excuse me. Can you tel! me how to get to the playground from here?

.B Central Avenue and you'll see the

playground ,....... the

.... , " ,. and the ,", ,., " ..

42

Mrs. Brown is very busy today. She has to go to several stores, but she doesn't know the city very well. She needs your help.

1. She's at the post office, and she's going to the bakery because she wants to buy fresh bread. Tell her how to get there.

· . Jrq~k. .uP. ... Park Street to Second Avenue and ... turn, rig~~ ..... .WaJf:c. ~!Q~2g. Second Avenue and you'll see the bakery 9!1. !~fi.r.ig_h.t. . . . qql:qs.,~frQlJ!,. the bus station.

2. She's at the bakery, and she wants to go to the hardware store because she has to fix her sink.

0 Second Avenue to Park Street and ..

, , .. , , , Park Street and you'll see the hardware

store , , .. , , , the pet shop

and the laundromat.

3. She's at the hardware store, and she's going to the shopping mall because she needs a raincoat.

· , .. , , .. , .. , , , Park Street to the Third Avenue

and, , Third Avenue

and you'll see the shopping mall ,

...................... , the motel.

4. She's at the shopping mall, and she's very hungry. She wants to go to the Chinese restaurant for lunch.

· , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Third Avenue to Park Street

and , . . .. . Park Street

and you'll see the Chinese restaurant , " , ,

, . , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. the cand y store.

43

53

MUST, MUSTN'T

we }

you must go

they

I}

you

he must go

she

it

We use must (+ VERB) to say we are sure that something is true:

You must be tired. (= I'm sure that you are tired.)

She must like to go to the movies. (= I'm sure she likes to go to the movies.)

must - have to

There is sometimes a difference between must and have to. With must the speaker is expressing personal feelings, saying wha t he or she thinks is necessary.

I must write to Ann. I haven't written to her for ages. (= The speaker personally feels that he or she must write to Ann.)

With have to the speaker is not expressing feelings. The speaker is just giving facts.

I can't meet you on Friday. J have to work.

Karen's eyes are not very good. She has to wear glasses for reading.

We use must to talk only about the present and future. We usc had to to talk about the past.

1. She must stop smoking.

2. I must start doing exercises.

44

3. He must stop drinking liquor.

4. I must take life a little easier.

Mustn't and don't have to are completely different. You mustn't do something means it is necessary that you do not do it.

YO~ )

be . mustn't go

she

it

5. You mustn't tell anyone what I said. (= Don't tell anyone.)

7. I mustn't eat as much as I did before.

[jJ~

9. He In ustn 'r play basket-ball because his back hurts.

we }

you mustn't go

they

6. You mustn't drive a car without a driving-licence.

8. They mustn't park their car on the bridge.

10. She mustn't leave a house without breakfast.

45

1. Henry had his yearly checkup today. The doctor told him he's Little too heavy

and gave him this diet: .

He must eat less bread, fewer cookies, Jess candy, and fewer potato ChIPS and other snack foods.

Also, he must eat more fish, more vegetables, and more fruit.

2. Shirley also had her annual checkup today. Her doctor gave her this diet:

She must eat " " .. " " .

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ~ , ' .

................................................. ..

3.R~~~~· ~~'~t t~' th~' ~~t ';~~t~~d'~y for his yearly checkup. The vet told him be's a little too heavy and gave him this diet:

He must eat/drink .

, ~ ~ ' .. ," ' ' , .

................ .

4. Y ~~ .. ~~~ i' t~' "th'e' 'd~~t~~' t~d'~; . f~; . ~~~r' '~~~'~~1' '~h~~i~~l' examination, The

doctor told you you're a little overweight and said you must go on a diet,

I must eat/drink .

.............................. . ,

••• + •••••••••••••••••••••• ~ •••••••••••••• 0, •• _ •

. . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . .

............................... , .

46

(practice the violin, next door neighbor)

1. You mustn't practice the violin when your next door neighbor is sleeping.

(sing. neighbor across the hall)

2 .

• 1 .

(listen to the stereo, neighbor's

daughter) (dance, upstairs neighbor)

3 ".. 4 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ~ .

(lift weights, downstairs neighbor) (play the piano, next door neighbor)

5. 6 .

. "' " .

. . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . " . . . . .... ~ . . .....

47

54

COULD, COULDN'T

YO~I ) I
we } could see you
he could see you he
she they Could she see?
it we
they We use could (+ VERB) in a number of ways. Sometimes could is the past of can. We usc them especialy with these verbs:

see hear smell taste rem em ber understand

1. She spoke in a low voice, but I could understand what she was saying.

2. When we went into the house, we could smell something burning.

We also use could to say that someone had general ability to do something.

i

_-

.I

.

3. When Marion was 14, she could ride her bicycle very fast.

4. My grandfather could speak two languages.

But jf you mean that someone managed to do something in one particular situation, you have to lise was/were able to (not could). For be able to see Unit 57.

The negative couldn't is possible in all situations:

48

5. My father couldn't swim.

I )

you

he . couldn't see she

it

7. Could J ohn go to the theater" last evening?

No, he couldn't. He had to take out the garbage.

9. Could Ann dean her bedroom this afternoon?

No, she couldn't because she had to fix her car.

• AE - (American English) theater BE - (British English) theatre

6. We couldn't go to the concert because we were doing our laundry.

we}

you couldn't see

they

8. Could they visit their friends yesterday?

No, they couldn't because they had to wash the windows.

10. Could we play tennis after dinner?

No, we couldn't because we had to dean the garage.

49

1. Could Henry go to work yesterday?

(sick)

Henry couldn't go to work yesterday because he was sick.

2. Could Rita go out with her boyfriend last weekend? (busy)

...... " " . " ~ . , .. ' .

3. Could Mr. and Mrs. Jones finish their dinner? (jul£)

. . . . ~ . ~ .. . .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . .

4. Could Billy buy a drink at the bar last Saturday night? (young)

....................................... ,. .......

5. Could you finish yourk homework last night? (tired)

................ , " , ..

6. Could Frank get out of bed the day after his operation? (weak)

.. • • • " ~ ..... '. .. • .. .. " .. .. • • .. • • • I • • • • .....

7. Could Betty tell the policeman about her accident? (upset)

. . ~ .. .. .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. .. ..

8. Could Stewart eat at his wedding? (nervous)

............................................

50

2. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson couldn't go to the theater yesterday evening. (wait for the plumber)

1. Ronald couldn't watch the baseball game yesterday. (go to the dentist) Could Ronald watch the baseball game yesterday?

No, he couldn't because he had to go to the dentist.

3. Fred couldn't go to the party last Friday. (work late at the office)

4. Sally couldn't study last night. (take care of her little brother)

4~~_ GJ~ciJ

I",

6. We couldn't play basket-ball last evening. (study English)

• • • • • •• ~ • • • • + • ~ • • I • • • • • • • • • .. • .. • .. • • • •

51

5. I couldn't get home on time yesterday. (fix a flat tire)

7. Tom couldn't visit his friend last nigh 1. (finish his homework)

WOULD LIKE TO, MIGHT

Would like to is followed by the infinitive:

1 would like to be rich.

Would you like to go to the party?

Notice the difference in meaning between Llike and I would like. I would like to is a polite way of saying 1 want. Compare:

I like to play tennis. (= enjoy it in general)

1 would like to play tennis today, (= I want to play)

1. What would you like for lunch?

I would like to have an omelette. How about a salad?

Please give me a bowl.

3. What would you like for dessert?

I would like to have a piece of cake.

H?w about a piece of apple pie? Please give me a piece.

2. What would you like to drink?

I would like to have some fresh lemonade.

How about some fresh orange juice?

Please give me a glass.

4. What would you like for dinner?

I would like to have some chicken and rice.

How about some french fries and a hamburger?

Please give me a dish.

52

I

You are looking for Jack. Nobody knows for sure where he is, but you get some suggestions:

He may be having lunch. (= perhaps he is having lunch) He might be in a hospital. ( = perhaps he is in a hospital)

Ask Ann. She might know. ( = perhaps she knows)

We use may or might to say that something is possible. The negative is may not and might not.

we they

might move

you he she

it

5. We won't live in an apartment building because we're afraid we might have noisy neighbors.

7. Steven won't wash his clothes today because he's afraid it might rain.

9. Jim won't go dancing with Patty because he's afraid he might step on her feet.

6. Barbara won't go skiing because she's afraid she might break her leg.

8. Sally won't take a ride with me because she's afraid she might get carsick.

10. Fred won't eat any dessert because be's afraid he might get fat.

53

(go skiing, break my leg)

1. Would you like to go skiing with me? I'm afraid I might break my leg.

(go dancing, step on your feet)

3 , .. ,., .

(go to the movies, Jail asleep)

5 .

(go to a fancy restaurant, get sick) .

2 " .. , .

(sit in the sun, get a sunburn)

4 ' .. '. _.

(go sailing, get seasick)

6 ' .

54

(share a bottle a/wine, get drunk)

7 .

~ •• ~ - ~ I .

(take a walk in the park, catch a cold}

9 .

................................. I

(go to a lecture, be bored)

8 , , .

.. . . . . .. . . . ~ .

(go to Jack's party, have a terrible time)

10 .

. . . . . . . .. . ~ .. . . . .

(do exercises. lose some weight)

11.

............. 1 ••••• .. ••••

• • • • • • .. ~ m .

(write this test, be too difficult)

12 , ' , .

I , I ~ f .. • • • .

(go swimming, be cold)

13.

· ' _ .

· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ~ ..

(go to see this movie, cry)

14 , .

• •••••• 4 ....... •••• .. •••••••••••• •

55

1. What would you like for dessert? (a piece of apple pie)

Please give me a piece of apple pie.

2. What would you like for lunch? (a bowl oj chicken soup)

3, What would you like for breakfast? (an order oj pancakes)

4. What would you like to drink? (a cup oj coffee)

5, What would you like for dessert? (a dish of vanilla ice cream)

6. What would you like to drink? (a cup of hot chocolate)

7. What would you like for dessert? (a bowl oj strawberries)

8, What would you like to drink? (a glass of red wine)

56

2. What would you like to do next winter?

1. What would you like to do on Sunday?

I would like to have a picnic.

~ • • • • • • •••• I ~ • .. .. .. • • • • , .. ~ •

3. What would you like to do this summer?

4. What would you like to do during the weekend?

..... ~ . . . ~ , .

• • • • • - • • ~ ~ I

.

- ~-------:::.....---- -.'

~--

-...... - ... _

5. What would you like to do next year?

6. What would you like to do tomorrow?

............. , .

• • • ~ • - ..... I • • .. • • • • • I • • • • • • • • ••••

57

56

WHEN/WHILE - CLAUSES

. Sometimes one action happens during another.

Last night at 8:00 there was a blackout in Centerville. The lights went out all over tOWIl.

A. What was Doris doing last night when the lights went out?

B. She was taking a bath.

A. What were Mr. and Mrs. Green doing last night when the lights went out?

B. They were riding in an elevator.

1. My parent~ were doing laundry when the lights went out.

2. Joe was cooking when the lights went out.

3.1 saw you yesterday when you were getting off a police car.

4. He saw him last evening when he was getting off a merry-go-round.

58

A ~

A. You look upset.

B. Yes. I -had a bad day today.

A. Why?Whathappened?

B. I lost my wallet while I was jogging through the park.

A. I'm sorry to hear that. *

A. Harry looks upset.

B. Yes. He had a bad day today.

A. Why? What happened?

B. He cut himself while he was shaving.

A. That's. too bad.

• Or: How aw ful' That'. terrible! What. shame! What a pity!

5. Nelson saw a few grey* hairs while he was looking at himself in the mirror.

7. Marvin tripped and fell while he was walking to work.

6. Linda cut herself while she was slicing a tomato.

8. Somebody stole their car while they were shopping.

'" Note: AE - grey BE-gray

59

1. What was Janet doing when it started to rain?

(wash her car)

She was washing her car, when it started to rain.

2. What was Mr. Williams doing when it started to rain?

(plant flowers)

3. What were you and Mary doing, when it started to rain?

(play baseball)

\1:' '\'1°\

. ," '\\;:e\" >

, . \ \ ')

- \ '\ ,\, ,\

Ii' '

_'.' ... _................ .

4. What was Michael doing, when it started to rain?

5. What were your friends doing, when it started to rain?

(have a picnic)

6. What was Nancy doing, when it started to rain?

(ride her bicycle)

\'\ A' \'~'

.. \ ,\

~.f~, ~ , ' ,

--:;:y ... ~ -_. \ ....

7. What were Mr. and Mrs. Black doing, when it started to rain? (take a walk)

8. What was your brother doing, when it started to rain?

(swim)

60

Jim was embarrassed

when he arrived at his girlfriend

Mary's house for dinner last night. He got there much too early, and Mary and her family weren't ready.

1. What was Mary doing when Jim arrived?

She was cleaning the living room,

when Jim arrived. '

2. What was Mary'S mother doing when Jim arrived.

• ~ ... i • ~ •• , • .. • • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • I .... n

3. What was Mary's father doing when Jim arrived?

.. • • • • • • •. 0 • ~ • • • • • • ~ • • ..... I • • • .....

4. What were her little brother and sister doing when Jim arrived?

• • ~ •• ~ • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • • • .. .. • • • • I •••

5. What was her older sister Betty doing when Jim arrived?

6. What was her brother Paul doing when Jim arrived?

61

1. Alice hurt herself while

.. ,,;{z.e. }~q.~ ~lc.a.tflJg. . . . . . .. (skate)

2. I met my neighbor while .

......... home from work. (walk)

3. Sally saw her friend while .

. .. . .. . . . . her bicycle along Park Street. (ride)

4. Peter fell asleep while .

............. (study)

5. Bob stepped on Jane's feet while

....................... together.

(dance)

6. I :.: myself while

............... " (cut, shave)

RL® ~

7. ML and Mrs. Brown .

themselves while .

cookies. (burn, bake)

.

c

.

.

8. Tommy a nightmare

while .

at a friend's house. (hal!e, sleep)

62

1. They (wait) . .11'~t?1;V.a..i((ng for the bus when it started to snow.

What were they doing when it started to S71OW?

2. She (wash) her hair when her boyfriend caned.

• • • ••• " •••••• , • ,,_ ••• ~ • .. • • ••• ' I " •••••••• 9 ••••• f • • • • • • • .

3. They (play) cards when their parents got home.

4. I (take) a bath when the plumber arrived.

5. We (leave) " .. " the movie theater when we saw

our English teacher .

• ,~ ~_ ••• e~'~"""9"""""""'.'··"'·I'''''' " ~ •••••

6. She (look for) her purse when the lights went

· ~ ~ .. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

7. My children (make) breakfast when we got up.

• ••••••••••••• ~ • I I •••••• I .. • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • • • , ... " ~ •••• , • .. • • • • • • • • II' • • • ••••

8. He (talk) . _ '.' to his friend when the teacher asked

him a question.

63

BE ABLE TO

can = be able to

we're }

you're I able to do

they're

I'm able to do YOI.I~re able to do

he's }

she's able to do

it's

we }

you' were able to do

they'

I was able to do you were able to do

he }

s.he was able to do

it

Be able to is possible msted of can, but can is more usual. Are you able to speak any foreign languages?

But can has only two fOnDS: can (present) and could (past), So sometimes yon have to use be able to.

Compare could and was able to in this example:

Jack was an excellent tennis player, He could beat anybody. t= He had the ability to beat anybody.)

But once he had a difficult game against Bob. Bob played very well, but in the end Jack levas able to beat him. (= He managed to beat him in this particular game.)

If you mean that someone managed to do something in -one particular situation, you have to use was/were able to (not could)

She was able to clean he!' apartment yesterday because she was alone.

64

.~it~ .... ~e

L Was Frank able to go to the concert last evening?

He wasn't able to go to the concert because he had to study.

3. Was Linda able to find the hotel?

She wasn't able to find the hotel because she didn't know the city.

I ,
you
he
she }>
it I
we
they will be able to do

5. Tommy couldn't play baseball last Saturday, but I'm sure he'll be able to to play on Sunday.

2. Was Waiter able to sleep last

night? . .

He wasn't able to sleep because it

was too noisy ..

4. Were they able to take the picture of a tower?

They weren't able to take the picture of the tower because it was too far away.

I
you
he
sh.e }
it
we
they won't be able to do

6. We couldn't go skiing in February, but I believe we'll be able to go in March.

65

8. Was Willy able to wear his brother's suit to the dance last Saturday night? (small)

7. Were Jeff and Gloria able to see the full moon last night? (cloudy)

........ ~ .

......................................... I

1. Was Louise able to paint her house yesterday afternoon? (windy)

She wasn't able to paint her house because it was too windy.

2. Was Carl able to sit down on the bus this morning? (crowded)

1. I'm afraid I won't be able to help you ," i« t;(e.q1J..y'Qw.gq.rCJg~ .....

tomorrow.

I have to .. g9.(Q.the./J.q;t~ .

( clean your garage, go to the bank)

4. Was Shirley able to finish her order of spaghetti meatballs? (spicy)

3. Were Mr. and Mrs. Johnson able to go swimming in the ocean during their vacation? (cold)

2. I'm afraid I won't be able to help

you tomorrow.

I have to .

(paint your living room. fly to Paris)

3. I'm afraid I won't be able to help

you tomorrow.

I have to , .

(do your homework, practice the piano)

6. Were you able to do the grammar exercises last night? (difficult)

5. Was Tom able to find his wallet last night? (dark)

67

66

4. I'm afraid I won't be able to help

you tomorrow.

I have to .

( cook Christmas dinner, . buy presents for my children)

5. I'm afraid I won't be able to help

you ,. tomorrow.

I have to

• " ~ ~ ~ '. F • • • •

(fix your car, drive my husband to the clinic)

6. I'm afraid I won't be able to help

you tomorrow.

I have to .

(repair your kitchen window, take care of my neighbor's baby)

7. I'm afraid I won't be able to help

you tomorrow.

I have to

. ~ . " . . . . . . . . . .

(take Rover to the vet, visit my mother in the hospital)

I. Peggy .. , .. qQ~441_!:t. .. _ ... fix her car Last night, but

I'm sure JilJ(l! .q€!, ,a}ZZe. !Q .. fix it this morning.

2. Henry .

clean his apartment yesterday,

but I believe .

clean it tomorrow.

1~11U M~

3. I help Linda take

care of her baby last week, but I

think , _ .

hel P her this week.

4. Carl and Tim , .

finish their homework last night,

but I know .

finish it tonight.

l>0~(p~b,'f

..... ~~C'

5. Linda wash

her clothes this morning, but I'm

sure wash

them after work.

6. Ted

go to the bank on Monday, but I

know go there

on Thursday.

8. They go to the

zoo last weekend, but I think

......................... go there

next weekend.

7. We get fresh

fish this morning, but I hope ........... , ..... get it tomorrow morning.

69

5

A. How do you feel today?

B. I. feel great!, I feel fine., I feel Okay,~. .. . .... or So-so., Not so good., I feel terrible. .., .... '

A. I'm glad to hear that. V

or I'm sorry to hear that. ~

'11"/ Ittll.~ Il.f,!-.t.~.

1. Be has a headache.

7. He has a stomachache.

What's the matter with him? He has a headache.

2. She has a toothache.

5. He has a cold,

8. She has a backache.

3, He has an earache.

6. She has a sore throat

9. He has a fever.

70

71

1. What's the matter with you?

My head aches.

You have a . b?{1.{{QC/!L

3, What's the matter with you?

My tooth hurts.

You have a .

5. What's the matter with you?

My ear hurts.

You have a .

7. What's the matter with you?

My back hurts,

You have a , .

9. What's the matter with you'?

OUf throats hurt.

You have., .

2 .. What's the matter with you?

My nose is stuffy.

You havea .

4, What's the matter with you?

I can't talk.

You have .

6 .. What's the matter with you?

My stomach hurts.

You have a .

8. What's the matter with you?

I'm hot and achy.

You have a .

10. What's the matter With you?

Our noses are stuffy.

You have , ..

72

1. Eat nutritious foods. What do you, usually eat?

~",o-~",~"u •• ~~"."'L •• ''''~''"'''·~''~"·

.. ~ '" ... • • • m <> 4 • i. ~ • • • • ~ .. • ~ ~ j. .• • • • • • '. • •

3. Get plenty of sleep. How many hours a night do you usually sleep?

5. Dress properly. What do you wear when it's cold?

'08 ~"" , ~ , .,. ~ ~ ~ ••

.. •••• D · •• ,···"·~~·"'···~~·'·~·

What do yOlJ wear when it's hot?

• , " • '.. • • ~ ! ' •••• T •• ' " •••

.. .. '. ~ • , .. • • • T • ~ •• • -. • • , .... , • •• • " •• " • • •

2. Get plenty of exercise, ~What do you do for exercise?

• • • .. • • • ~ • • ~ '. .. , ~ • • ~ ~ .. ~ ~ • ~ ~ ~ n .. & ., " ..

• , '4 " I." I ..

.. , , ' .

4. Have regular checkups. When and where did you have your last checkup?

• 0 • • " • " " " 10 ~ • .. '. .. ~ -!! " " • • .. ~ • ~ ~ .. ~ • .. .. •

• • ~ •• q ~ • ,. ~ • .. • • " D ~ ,

6. Use drugs wisely. When do you use drugs?

.. • • •• " ...... n .. • • .• • • • .... ~ " ••• to • • , ••

• • • • " • .. , • , • .. • • I • • • ,0 _. ;. •• ~ • ~ ...... ~ "

73

9 USING THE TELEPHONE

Using a Pay Telephone for a Local Call*

1 Read the instructions on the telephone!

2 Take the receiver off the book. 3 Put a dime (10 ¢ ) or two nickels (two 5 ¢) in the slot

4 Wait for the dial tone. (BZZZZZZZZ)

5 Dial the number you want.

1<*****

6 When you finish your call, hang

up the receiver.

7 Check for change in the coin

return.

Practice saying these telephone numbers.

1 555-1212 five five five one two one two

2 435-8300 four three five eight three hundred. (or three oh oh)** 3 326-8000 three two six eight thousand (or eight oh oh oh) 4 927-8200 nine two seven eight two oh oh

5 602-914-2000 six all tvvo nine one four two oh oh oh

6 716-659-8600' seven one six six five nine eight six oh oh

• A local cull is a call to UW same city or. city close to the one you arc calling from.

•• Zero is usually called on on the telephone. except when two or three zeroes tom" together.

Sec numbers 2 and 3 of O~S j.; exercise.

74

Read and practice this conversation.

I

A. Halle, May I please speak to Mr. Armstrong?

B. This is Mr. Armstrong. Can I help you?

A. Yes. There's something wrong with my kitchen sink and I need a good plumber who can come over and fix it as soon as possible .

. B. Where do you live?

A. I live at 156 Grove Street in Centerville.

B. I can come over tomorrow at four o'clock. Is that O.K.?

A. Not really. I'm afraid I won't be home tomorrow at four o'clock. I'm going to visit the dentist. Can you come at any other time?

B. Not this week. I'm really busy.

I won't be able to come over until some time next week.

A. That's too late. I guess I'll have to call somebody else.

Thank you anyway .

B. Good-bye . A. Good-bye.

75

1. What is the telephone number of the police station?

2. When do you call the police station?

3. What do you say to the policeman on the telephone if someone IS breaking into your house?

4. What's the telephone number of the fire station?

5. What do you say to the fireman on the telephone if your house is on fire?

6. What number do you dial if you need the operator?

7. How can the operator help you?

76

1. electrician

2. TV repairman

3. piano tuner

4. plumber

A. Hello. May I please speak to (Mr.jMrs./Miss/Ms.) 1. 2.

3. 4.

.. M.r. .. $!rJ!tft .. ?

B. This is (Mr./Mrs./Miss(Ms.) 1. , Mr: .$f!I:~t/:l Can I help you? i

2 .

3 .

4.

77

A. Yes. There's something wrong with my 1 y{t?1!Ei' ...•. and I need a good

2 .

3 .

4 .

1 electrician ho ca .. . d fi it ibl

. .. : .- w a can come over an . lX 1 as soon as POSS! e.

2 .

3 .

4.

B. Where do you live?

A. I live at L 2. 3. 4.

805 Queen Street in 'I<.o .. r.o.n.to .. ' " .

. . . . .. . . .. , ,' .

B. I can come over tomorrow at 1. .. fl..vf!. 9:{JO.cJ~.. . . . . . . . .. Is that O.K.?

2 , .

3 , .

4.

A. Not really. I'm afraid I won't be home tomorrow at 1. 2, 3. 4.

five '1 k

...... ococ

... visi; .n:zY.J'I:~en4 Can you come at any other time?

I'm going to 1. 2. 3. 4.

• , ••• I ~ • • •• I • • • • • • • • • : •••

B. Not this week. I'm really busy, I won't be able to come until some time

next week.

A. That's too late. I guess I'll have to call somebody else. Thank you anyway.

B. Good-bye. A. Good-bye.

78

Across

1.. She can drive a truck .

She drives a truck every day. She's a truck driver.

6 .. , ,"............... 9 .

She bakes pies. Ana acts on TV.

She's a ~ 0, •• I • • • • • • • • • •••••••••• ' •• ~ ~ .

Down

1. , .. ' .

She teaches in a school.

~ ~

3 , .

She dances every day.

2 " .

He fixes cars every day.

4 , , , .

Arthur plays the violin.

79

7 ~ ~ ~~.

He acts in the theater.

8 ~ .. " " " , " " " .

She sings every day.

80

L Can you swim?

Yes, I rqro " ..

" .

2. Could you swim last summer?

3. Can you sing?

. ? 4. Could you ski last winter.

5. Can you ride a horse?

6. Could you play the piano last summer?

.? 1. Can you play tenms.

. ? 2. Can you go to the movies:

. ? 3. Can you go shopping'

4. Can you play football?

5. Can you help me?

6. Can you go skiing?

............ ........... .

. . . ~ ...

......... .............. .

........ .

•••••• ~ I , ... , • ..... , .....

. .... ~ ..... ..... , ......

....... " ..

. ....... , .. .. , ..... ~ .... "

. ~ . ~ .....

81

Sally is a mechanic, but she wants to be a teacher. She wants to teach English in Mexico City.

1. Jrhp,t 4Q?~ Sally }~(p,l( /9 be?

· $t1f 1YP!V!', to p.e. _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a teacher.

2 .. _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. she __ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. teach?

· ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. English.

3. she work?

· in Mexico City.

Arthur is a teacher, but he wants to be a mechanic. He wants to work in a garage and fix cars.

1. " '," . . . . . . . . . . . .. Arthur _ . . . . . .. be?

· ..................•.............•...•...•...•....... _ . . .. a. mechanic.

2 he , do?

· , , ., , .. fix cars.

3 .. , , '.,.. he , work?

4 ...... " ••••• , ~ .. , • • • • • • • ••••• " • ~ ••••• " • • • .. •. • • • • • • • " ••••. ' ....

m a garage.

82

A. I'm going to make some

for lunch.

B. Sorry, you can't. There isn't any 3MJ there's only some

A. Lets's make an omelette instead. We still have some 4~

B. I like my omelette with some ~ and I don't like any

on it.

left.

How

about

A. We don't IHIVl' any

some 6~ "

It MAlt-I ~T] 1ff1~=(lAA=t:t.=N=5T;;::,rn

~ @
u
Dan lIoUchael fast safe

1. Should I take a plane or a train?

I think .YQ1;t.·~hq~i{{!.t{1l\e. fl. plane because P'~G;n;,e:". ore fester than. ~r.a..i1J.l

fancy

cheap]

2. Should Paul go to Stanley's Restaurant or Jos'e Restaurant? I think

. . . . .. . . . ~ ~ . .. . . .

because

convenient clean

3. Should Bill live on Main Street or Garden Street?

I think .. , .

because, .

__ fr_i_el_ld_I_Y __ i_n_te_ll,igent J

4. Should I go out on a date with Dan or Michael?

I think .

because

1'----

- I

warm attractJve I

5. Should Judy buy mittens or gloves?

I thi nk , .. __ . _ . _ , . '

because

84

John in going to get married. Which of these things does he have to do? Which things should he do?

1. !!f!. ~(l:<;.(q get a marriage licence.

2 , ,. _. have a job .

3. . _ .. _ . _ _ _ be over 21 years old.

4. _ _ . . . . . . . . . .. have some money in the bank.

5 , make arrangments for the wedding ceremony.

6. love his wife.

Mary wants to visit Japan. Which of these things does she have to do? Which things should she do?

1. . ,................. learn some Japanese.

2 have a passport.

3. . get a map of Japan.

4 _ start saving some money.

5. . get a vaccination.

Bill wants to drive a car. Which of these things does he have to do? Which things should he do?

1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . have a licence.

2 _ take lessons.

3 ' _ _, take his licence with him when he drives.

4 _ ' . ' .. ' . _ . _ have his car insured.

85

1. Boris is late for a concert. TeH him the fastest way to the concert hall.

... Tq./f;? .. the Park Avenue bus and ge] .off at First Street.

, .. W.ql!\ !-ip. •• First Street and you 'H see the concert hall . Q'fJ .tb.e. rig/}r

2. Carol's sister is getting married, and Carol is late for the wedding. Ten her the shortest way to St. Michael's Church.

, , , the Park Avenue bus and ,' " .. at Third Street.

..... , . ,. Third Street and you'll see St. Michael's Church .

3. Mr. and Mrs. Peterson are going to Stanley's Restaurant for dinner, and they're very hungry. Tell them the most direct way.

.. . , the Park Avenue bus and at .

.. , ".~o .. ~ .••••.•••••••• , •••• " ~.a~~.'~ •••• "~ •• ,,. •• ~o-.'I- ••••

4. Barbara has a toothache, Tell her the best way to DL Brown's office.

~ , .. ~."~ , " ~ , ~ "~.,~~ ~".~., .

• ~ •••••• " •••••••••••• .,"~ ~~,~ ~.PI ~O •• ~.' " ~ •• ~

86

L you .... ~.a:v.e. f9. {r11J~O . , .. be at the airport early to reserve a seat.

Otherwise, you might not get a seat on the plane.

2. You , check your suitcase. You can't carry it on

the plane.

3. You check your briefcase or purse. You can carry

hand luggage on the plane if you like.

4. You, put your hand luggage under your seat,

5. You , .. " . , , . . . . . leave an. ything in the

aisles.

6. You , '. fasten your seat belt when the plane takes

off and lands.

7. You , get up and walk around when the "fasten your

seat belt" sign is on.

8. You , sit the entire time. You can get up

and walk around after the "fasten your seat belt" sign goes off .

9. You , smoke when the plane takes off and lands.

10. If you want to smoke, you, sit in the smoking section

87

[ -----

could can

couldn't can't

------- ---- ------ -

1. When I first arrived in this country I was embarrassed because

I " - fP!4{i{1.'( , speak English.

Now I'm happy because I can, speak English very well.

2 " Betty read when she was three years old?

Yes, she , _ , . She was very bright.

3. We finish our dinner last night because we were too full.

4. My brother is very talented. He speak three languages.

5. Lois , buy anything at the store because

she didn't have any money.

6. When I was young, I go dancing every night. I was very

energetic.

7. Shirley is upset because her younger sister " sing beautifully,

and she , .

8. _ , , Stuart go to school yesterday?

No, he , _ He was too sick.

9. Mary ,., play on the basketball team when she was

young because she was too short.

But she wasn't upset because she play on the baseball team.

10. Peter is a terrible dancer, but his little brother dance

very well,

11" Gorge was very upset because he , go to the concert

last night.

12. I'm glad you _ go to the movies with us yesterday.

13. I really want to fire Larry but I His father is a

president of the company.

88

miss their train get a backache

get home very late

go to jail

have too much homework look terrible

2. Jennifer won't take English next

year in school because .

4. Frank won't get a haircut because

6. I won't steal cars any more because

1. Tom won't play basketball because

.... h.e:~~.qf):a.irl. bf.'r!igfi.t. , . , ..

. g~~ P. 9PP!c.a_C,I!~ , .. , , .

3. George and his brother won't have lunch with us this afternoon

because .

5. Ronald won't go to Peggy's party this Saturday night because ....

89

1. Mary's friend is going to visit her this afternoom.

-~--------------~,

Mary's Shopping List

a b.o.t!{e .of soda

a cookies

a , , bread

a , butter

a , jam

3. Jack is going to have a party tonight.

Jack's Shopping List

2 , .. , , wine

I 0 , , . . . . . . . .. beer

1 ice cream

2 _ _ , , . _ .. crackers

a , cheese

a _ coffee

3 , .. , bananas

..

90

r.

of

quart

2. Robert's friend is going to have lunch with him.

--------~----~

Robert's Shopping List

a ' , , milk

a ,." , .. , eggs

1/2 " cheese

a , beans

a lettuce

a carrots

4. Eleanor is going to make a big lunch for her friends.

---_--~~-------------------~

Eleanor's Shopping List

a , flour

a , .. eggs

a , , .. sugar

a ,. butter

a " , apples

2 , .. , bread

a , mayonnaise

2 , lettuce

I 2 carrots

3 wine

I could }

I was/were able to

L . ..... --~- _.

S couldn't }

1. When I was young, I was angry because I ..... 1. Jv,a •• w}:t.O,#J.l9 .....

play with my friends after school.

I ..... ~_a.tl. N .... _ . get home early and take care of my little brother and sister.

2. When Janet was young, she wanted to watch TV after school every day, but she

. ' because she , , do her homework.

3. Richard's teachers always gave him a lot of homework, and his parents .............................. help him because they were too busy.

4. Margaret's brother go with her when she went out on

dates because, in her mother's opinion, she was too young to go out by

herself.

5. Nancy was upset because her older brothers go to bed

late, but she.,. , .. " , , She , ., go to bed

at 7 :00 every evening.

6. When William was thirteen years old, his father got ajob in Boston and

the familly moved there. William was sad because he see

his old friends very often.

7. Roger was jealous of his rich friends because they , ,.,. , .

eat at fancy restaurants and they buy

expensive clothes. He was embarrassed because he , ., , ,., ....

wear his brother's old clothes.

8. Andrew was upset because he wanted to have long hair, but he ....

........... He go to the barber every month

because his parents liked short hair.

91

myself

themselves

himself

herself

r couldn't }

1 wasn't/weren't able to

1 I didn't enjoy .. .n}Y:"~lf. ... at the beach yesterday. It was very windy,

and I C;Ql:drj~l). gp swimming. .r.q~) .1P~~S!l:~ able to .gQ .. ~qi.f(l1g .

2. Bobby and his friends didn't enjoy in the park yesterday.

It was raining, and they .

3. Susan didn't enjoy at the movies last night.

She was very nervous about her examination and she .

4. George didn't enjoy at Gloria's party last Friday.

It was very crowded and noisy, and he .

~~:-----------~

~ldn't will be .. ~ble to

1. Martha ,cp.u!1r({ ... find her shoes in the yard last night, but I'm sure

. . . . . . A~e.'l!.b.e. qh,lil /9 find them this morning.

2. We move to our new apartment last month. I hope

......................................................... move there

next month.

3. I help Linda take care of her baby last week,

but I think ,. ' , , help her this week.

4. Harry and Steve go bowling with us last Friday,

but I think , go bowling with us next week.

5. Roger finish his homework last night, but I know

................................................... finish it tonight.

92

• Or, all morning, all afternoon, all evening, all night.

1. Mary

3. you

5. Mrs. Smith B.

A .

B , .

A. B. A.

B .

A .

B. A.

B , .

A .

B .

• 4. .

B .

A.

B .

A.

A. How does John feel?

B. Not so good.

A. What's the matter with him?

B. He has a sore throat.

A. Why?

B. Because he smoked all day."

2. George

4. Fred

6. you

A .

D.

A .

B .

A .

B .

A.

B. A. , B.

A .

B.

A , ..

B. A.

B .

A. B.

93

eat pieces pizza Rita three

1 Rita ., eat

. • •••.•.... 18 gomg to "

.... .tftrff.. .. .. p'i.e.c.e~ .

of ..... pi;q:{l ...........•.......

2 was

. , but we

Green police stealing Street thief

busy children Ginger is office Smith with

~------ ~~=----

4. . sitting in

Doctor Smith's .

...... .. .. her sick .

Doctor is .

3. Call the ........ ! A

is a car

on !

5. The plane to is going

to .. " three

6. My Hilda ..

going to . ". an

apartment .

in a .

and

94

A. Hello. May I speak to Mr. Smith?

B .

A. There's something wrong with my TV, and I need a TV repair person who can come over and fix it.

B , .

A. No. It's a black-and-white TV.

B .

A. I don't know what's wrong. It just doesn't work at all.

B ' .

A. llive at 156 Grove Street in Centerville.

B , .

A. Drive down State Street and turn left. My house is the last one on the right.

B .

A. Not really. I'm afraid I won't be home tomorrow at 2:00. Can you come

down at any other time? .

B, ., , , .

A. That's fine. I'll see you then.

B. Good-bye. A. Good-bye,

95

APPENDIX

TO WALK

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

I walk we walk I walked we walked
you walk you walk you walked you walked
be } b. }
she walks they walk she walked they walked
it it FUTURE TENSE

Contracted Forms

we'll walk you'l] walk

Fun Forms

I will walk we will walk rn walk
yo 11 will walk you will walk. you'll walk
he } he'U }
she will walk they will walk she'D walk
it it'll they'll walk

PRESENT PJ.:RFECf TENSE

Full Forms

Contracted Forms

we have walked you have walked

I've walked you've walked

!:~~s } walked

it's

I have walked yOU! have walked

::}. has walked .it

dley have walked

we've walked you've walked

they've walked

CONTINUOUS PRESENT TENSE

Full Forms

Contracted Forms

1 am walking you are walkmg

sh~ Jt is walking fit

we are walking you are walking

I'm walking

you're walking

he's }

she's wailldng

it's

they are walking

96

we're walking you're walking

they're walking:

, •. ~.

;~ "

(

,

p

,.

t

v

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