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Summary

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK summary
**

‘It is curious that with the advent of the automobile and the airplane, the bicycle is still with us. Perhaps people like the world they can see from a bike, or the air they breathe when they’re out on a bike. Or they like the bicycle’s simplicity and the precision with which it is made. Or because they like the feeling of being able to hurtle through air one minute, and saunter through a park the next, without leaving behind clouds of choking exhaust, without leaving behind so much as a footstep.’

Gurdon S. Leete

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

‘This is not Disneyland, or Hollywood. I’ll give you an example: I’ve read that I flew up the hills and mountains of France. But you don’t fly up a hill. You struggle slowly and painfully up a hill, and maybe, if you work very hard, you get to the top ahead of everybody else.’

Lance Armstrong

Looking Beyond the UK is a project that combines a number of highly relevant educational issues and Key Stage 3 (KS3) mathematical content:

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Mathematical conclusions about the urban transport issues facing cities today, particularly focused on London in comparison with similar cities or developing countries A wide range of mathematical skills and KS3 coverage of investigative work and processes, as well as use of communication and interpretative skills A practical and real use of mathematics within the context of today’s society and international and environmental issues A wide range of whole-school and cross-curricular coverage, shown by the teaching delivery map, School Travel Plan (STP) and all five objectives of Every Child Matters (ECM)

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Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.2

Summary

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK summary
**

Looking Beyond the UK challenges students to think and act within a cycling context. The project is based on a comprehensive set of data concerning cycling in London and other parts of the world. The data are flexible enough for students to be able to follow their own ideas and test their own hypotheses. It also gives students a grounding in manipulating statistics to prove their arguments in today’s communication-rich society. There is enough data supplied for students to immediately investigate, but this can be enhanced by students collecting their own data or accessing other sources via the internet. The Looking Beyond the UK project is flexible and consists of many parts, which are composed of a number of lessons. Each section can be taught within one day, or over consecutive days, or over a number of weeks. The approximate time for this to be delivered is three to five hours, depending on the route taken through the project. This activity’s other focus is cycling. Given that cycling has so many positive impacts, for example on health, on the environment and on economics, it is perhaps a concern that cycling is not a more significant part of urban life.

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.3

Teaching delivery map

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK teaching delivery map
**

Mathematical context

The following sections have been taken from the National Curriculum for Mathematics on the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority’s (QCA’s) website.

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

**New focus on aims and skills; the curriculum should enable all young people to become:
**

• • •

Successful learners who enjoy learning, make progress and achieve Confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives Responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society

These aims, which incorporate the five outcomes of Every Child Matters (ECM), have been the starting point for all the changes to the secondary curriculum. The new curriculum continues to recognise the importance of subjects while at the same time placing emphasis on the development of skills for life and work. 1. Key concepts of mathematics There are a number of key concepts that underpin the study of mathematics. Students need to understand these concepts in order to deepen and broaden their knowledge, skills and understanding. Unit no. 1.1 Key concepts Competence Project summary Applying suitable mathematics accurately within the classroom and beyond • Communicating mathematics effectively • Selecting appropriate mathematical tools and methods, including information and communication technology (ICT)

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1.2

Creativity

Combining understanding, experiences, imagination and reasoning to construct new knowledge • Using existing mathematical knowledge to create solutions to unfamiliar problems • Posing questions and developing convincing arguments

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Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.4

Teaching delivery map

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK teaching delivery map
**

Key concepts of mathematics (continued) Unit no. 1.3 Key concepts Applications and implications of mathematics Project summary

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Knowing that mathematics is a rigorous, coherent discipline • Understanding that mathematics is used as a tool in a wide range of contexts • Recognising the rich historical and cultural roots of mathematics • Engaging in mathematics as an interesting and worthwhile activity

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1.4

Critical understanding

Knowing that mathematics is essentially abstract and can be used to model, interpret or represent situations • Recognising the limitations and scope of a model or representation

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2. Key processes These are the essential skills and processes in mathematics that students need to learn to make progress. Unit no. 2.1 Key processes Representing Project summary Students should be able to: Identify the mathematical aspects of a situation or problem • Choose between representations • Simplify the situation or problem in order to represent it mathematically, using appropriate variables, symbols, diagrams and models • Select mathematical information, methods and tools to use

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Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.5

Teaching delivery map

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK teaching delivery map
**

Key processes (continued) Unit no. 2.2

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Key processes Analysing

Project summary Students should be able to: Make connections within mathematics Use knowledge of related problems Visualise and work with dynamic images Identify and classify patterns Make and begin to justify conjectures and generalisations, considering special cases and counter-examples • Explore the effects of varying values and look for invariance and co-variance • Take account of feedback and learn from mistakes • Work logically towards results and solutions, recognising the impact of constraints and assumptions • Appreciate that there are a number of different techniques that can be used to analyse a situation • Reason inductively and deduce • Make accurate mathematical diagrams, graphs and constructions on paper and on screen • Calculate accurately, selecting mental methods or calculating devices, as appropriate • Manipulate numbers, algebraic expressions and equations and apply routine algorithms • Use accurate notation, including correct syntax, when using ICT • Record methods, solutions and conclusions • Estimate, approximate and check working

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Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.6

Teaching delivery map

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK teaching delivery map
**

Key processes (continued) Unit no. 2.3 Key processes Interpreting and evaluating Project summary Students should be able to: Form convincing arguments based on findings and make general statements • Consider the assumptions made and the appropriateness and accuracy of results and conclusions • Be aware of the strength of empirical evidence and appreciate the difference between evidence and proof • Look at data to find patterns and exceptions • Relate findings to the original context, identifying whether they support or refute conjectures • Engage with someone else’s mathematical reasoning in the context of a problem or particular situation • Consider the effectiveness of alternative strategies

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Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

2.4

Communicating and reflecting

Students should be able to: Communicate findings effectively Engage in mathematical discussion of results Consider the elegance and efficiency of alternative solutions • Look for equivalence in relation to both the different approaches to the problem and different problems with similar structures • Make connections between the current situation and outcomes, and situations and outcomes they have already encountered

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Teaching delivery map

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK teaching delivery map
**

3. Range and content This section outlines the breadth of the subject on which teachers should draw when teaching the key concepts and key processes. The study of mathematics should enable students to apply their knowledge, skills and understanding to relevant real-world situations.

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

The study of mathematics should include: Unit no. 3.1 3.2 3.3 Range and content Number and algebra Geometry and measures Statistics Project summary (not relevant in this section) (not relevant in this section) The data-handling cycle Presentation and analysis of grouped and ungrouped data, including time series and lines of best fit • Measures of central tendency and spread

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4. Curriculum opportunities During the key stage students should be offered the following opportunities that are integral to their learning and enhance their engagement with the concepts, processes and content of the subject. The curriculum should provide opportunities for students to:

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Develop confidence in an increasing range of methods and techniques Work on sequences of tasks that involve using the same mathematics in increasingly difficult or unfamiliar contexts, or increasingly demanding mathematics in similar contexts Work on open and closed tasks in a variety of real and abstract contexts that allow them to select the mathematics to use Work on problems that arise in other subjects and in contexts beyond the school Work on tasks that bring together different aspects of concepts, processes and mathematical content Work collaboratively as well as independently in a range of contexts Become familiar with a range of resources, including ICT, so that they can select appropriately

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.8

Teaching delivery map

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK teaching delivery map
**

Assessment criteria Attainment target 4: Handling data Level 4

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Students collect discrete data and record them using a frequency table. They understand and use the mode and range to describe sets of data. They group data in equal class intervals where appropriate, represent collected data in frequency diagrams and interpret such diagrams. They construct and interpret simple line graphs. Students understand and use the mean of discrete data. They compare two simple distributions using the range and one of the mode, median or mean. They interpret graphs and diagrams, including pie charts, and draw conclusions. Students collect and record continuous data, choosing appropriate equal class intervals over a sensible range to create frequency tables. They construct and interpret frequency diagrams. They construct pie charts. They draw conclusions from scatter diagrams, and have a basic understanding of correlation. Students specify hypotheses and test them by designing and using appropriate methods that take account of variability or bias. They determine the modal class and estimate the mean, median and range of sets of grouped data, selecting the statistic most appropriate to their line of enquiry. They use measures of average and range, with associated frequency polygons, as appropriate, to compare distributions and make inferences. Students interpret and construct cumulative frequency tables and diagrams. They estimate the median and interquartile range and use these to compare distributions and make inferences. Students interpret and construct histograms. They understand how different methods of sampling and different sample sizes may affect the reliability of conclusions drawn. They select and justify a sample and method to investigate a population.

Level 5

Level 6

Level 7

Level 8

Exceptional performance

Source: www.dcsf.gov.uk/ © Crown copyright 2007

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.9

Teaching delivery map

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK teaching delivery map
**

Areas within a School Travel Plan (STP) This project addresses all five aims of the STP Significantly reduce the number of car trips on journeys to and from school Remove the barriers, both perceived and actual, to walking, cycling and using public transport for school journeys • Increase the number of young people and adults choosing ‘active’ travel options over that of the car • Increase understanding among whole-school communities of the travel options that are open to them • Provide information to allow school communities to understand the benefits of active, sustainable transport and to use this information to inform how they choose to travel

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Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

**Areas within Every Child Matters The aims of ECM
**

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Be healthy Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well-being

It could easily be argued that this project covers all aims of the ECM agenda but specifically addresses the elements of a healthy lifestyle and making a positive contribution to society as well as the economics of sustainable travel. Areas within other central government initiatives/programmes Initiative/programme Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Explain the project’s link to this initiative/programme Although SEAL is aimed at KS1 and 2, the Looking Beyond the UK project links in well through its emphasis on group work and self-awareness as well as increased motivation towards learning in mathematics.

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.10

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson plans – introduction
**

Specify the problem and plan Interpret and discuss data – evaluate results Process and represent data Collect data from a variety of sources

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Handling data is illustrated by the cycle shown in the diagram.1 Data handling is best taught in a coherent way in the context of real statistical enquiries so that teaching objectives arise naturally from the whole cycle. As an enquiry develops, you will need to reinforce and develop certain skills by direct teaching of particular objectives. This project enables you to address both the statistical enquiry and the specific skill objectives.2 Young Dragons, Local Community, Local Discovery, The Big Debate and Looking Beyond the UK all address the four key elements in the cycle above and outlined below: Specify the problem and plan – Students need to be specific about how they intend to address the data to substantiate their arguments to a wider audience. This is best learnt when students have choices and control over their choice of data. All these projects need discussion either in controlled small-group work or in general class discussion led by the teacher to formulate the purpose and process of data collection. Collect data from a variety of sources – Enclosed is a substantial set of electronic data as well as hard copy, but also listed are up-to-date websites to support the data-collection process. These data sets are designed to be easy enough to be accessible but substantial enough to have to use elements of sampling, which is important to students.

1, 2

Source: www.dcsf.gov.uk/ © Crown copyright 2007

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.11

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson plans – introduction
**

Process and represent data – Students need to consider carefully the best way to present their data rather than simply answer a question in a textbook. To this end, a series of student handouts are available either for teaching purposes or as reminder prompts when completing the bigger projects. Interpret and discuss data – This is a key element of handling data and conclusions must be drawn in response to the initial specification of the problem. If teachers are using up-to-date relevant data, then these conclusions should have a wider audience than the students in the classroom or the teacher. This could be in the form of a letter or electronic presentation to a specific group (governors, press, Sustrans, etc), which will make the whole process real for the students. As students move through Key Stage 3, the cross-curricular aspects of data handling become more important. It is usually best for a cross-curricular enquiry to be defined in the other subject, but good preparation is needed to check that the mathematical skills, techniques and representations that students need to learn next are likely to arise. In Year 7, much of the work may take place in mathematics lessons, with small sets of data that students can generate readily from simple experiments and easily accessible secondary sources. In Year 9, students should engage with large sets of real data from a much wider range of sources and contexts. After all, their GCSE coursework in Key Stage 4 may require them to undertake a major statistical investigation, with supporting information and communication technology (ICT). The experience of working with real data in Key Stage 3 is an important preparation. Primary and secondary sources Give students experience of collecting and using primary data from, for example, questionnaires or results of an experiment, and secondary data from published sources, including reference materials, ICT databases and the internet. Plan carefully how to balance and use the various sources across the key stage.

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.12

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson plans – introduction
**

Real data present problems that ‘textbook’ or contrived data can skirt around, such as the accuracy of recording, or how to deal with data that are ambiguous. The sizes of numbers can be problematic, either because they are large or, in the case of a pie chart, because they are not factors of 360. The time needed to process and represent real data is likely to be greater than with textbook examples, but by using it students will have gained useful skills that can be transferred to other investigations. Features of handling data in Key Stage 3 To summarise, the distinctive features of handling data in Key Stage 3 are:

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Basing work on purposeful enquiry, using situations of interest and relevance to students and making appropriate links to other subjects Placing an emphasis on making inferences from data, drawing on a range of secondary sources to ensure that samples are sufficiently large Using ICT as a powerful source of data, and as a means of processing data and simulating situations

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Lesson plans Enclosed are a variety of lesson plans, but the best way of using this resource is for students to use the data for their own enquiry in the form best suited to you (the teacher), them (the students) and the current educational situation you are in.

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.13

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson 1/2 – structure
**

Collecting data

Lesson 1/2 of 6 (40 minutes. This timing allows the teacher to complete a starter and plenary in a standard lesson of 60 minutes.)

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Starter: Use additional resource: Cycling survey of USA. Display the source on the board or give out the resource sheet for the class to discuss:

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Discuss which countries you think cycle most. Why is that? (China/India/ Asia: cars too expensive; Europe, Holland, France, Germany, Italy: good weather; Africa: too expensive to buy cars and roads in poor condition; Canada: too cold; USA: petrol is cheap and people are too used to cars) What do you think ‘Middleweight/Cruiser’ means? (It is an American term for cycles that are built for roads but are similar to mountain bikes.) What word do the British use instead of ‘sidewalk’? (pavement) What is an ‘unpaved’ road? (a dirt track)

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Main task: Decide which of the tasks would be best for the class or differentiate by group or individual): 1. Draw a bar chart of the types of bicycle that Americans use. Then draw a second bar chart with the types of bicycle that British people use (use data from the supplied cycling database). Write one or two sentences explaining the differences. If possible, draw both bar charts using the same axes. 2. As above, but represent your information in pie charts. In this case, say whether bar charts or pie charts would be best to compare the data. 3. Calculate the percentage of people in the UK that have a bell or horn using a sample from the cycling database, and compare this with the USA data. Do the same for a helmet. 4. Collate all the data together and write conclusions.

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.14

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson 1/2 – structure
**

Collecting data (continued)

Plenary: Get students to say whether it was better to use bar charts or pie charts to compare the data. Also, what were the differences in the data between the two countries? Can they suggest a reason for the differences? Resources: Worksheet 1 Additional resource Additional resource Data collection sheet Cycling survey of USA Cycling database

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson1/2 – worksheet 1
**

These questions are designed for use with whole classes.

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Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Doing a show of hands is quick but some students might ‘copy’ friends or be too embarrassed to give an honest answer. You might want to give a sheet to each student On the last question you might want to list the ‘other’ reasons You might consider boys and girls separately, but you would have to collect this data individually When you ask the group, give them all the options before you ask for their responses

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Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK

**Looking Beyond the UK...
**

Handouts and worksheets for photocopying Lesson 1/2

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.19

Lesson 1/2 Worksheet 1 Page 1 of 1

Name Class

Date

Data collection sheet

Date

Year group

Total number in class

**Q1. How did you travel to school this morning?
**

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Car Other:

Cycle

Walk

Bus

Train/Underground

Q2. Do you think the school should do more to support walking and cycling to school? Yes No Don’t know

Q3. What stops you walking or cycling to school? I don’t have a bike Too dangerous Too lazy Too dark and wet Too far My bike is broken Nowhere safe to leave bike Other:

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.21

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson 3/4 – structure
**

Process and represent data

Lesson 3/4 of 6 (40 minutes) Starter: Use additional resource: Cycling in Holland. Display the source on the board or give out the resource sheet for the class to discuss:

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Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

How big is 14bn kilometres? (Approximately 350,000 times round the equator; 15,000 return trips to the moon; everybody in London going on a mass cycle ride for 30km.) Do you think that in the UK we cycle an average of 2.5km per person per day? (The average daily journey distance for the UK is 2.4km per day but this is for cyclists, not for the whole population.) Why do people in Holland cycle a lot? (Flat countryside; people live near to towns and cities; good facilities; more environmentally aware, etc)

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Main task: 1. In the UK, do men cycle more than women and by how much? Use a sample from the cycling database for this analysis. Compare the results for the UK with those for Holland by writing some sentences indicating the differences. (Try to include averages and percentages.) 2. Take a sample of the 12-18 age group from the cycling database and calculate how far they travel on average. Compare this with the data for Holland. 3. By choosing suitable age groups from the cycling database, find out which age range cycles the most in the UK. (Represent your findings in tables and graphs, etc.)

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.22

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson 3/4 – structure
**

Process and represent data (continued)

Plenary: Class discussion on what they have found out about the differences between Holland and the UK. Can they suggest reasons for this or make suggestions for encouraging more use of cycling in the UK? Resources: Handout 1 Handout 2 Handout 3 Handout 4 Handout 5 Additional resource Bar charts Pictograms Line graphs Two-way tables Pie charts Cycling in Holland

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK

**Looking Beyond the UK...
**

Handouts and worksheets for photocopying Lesson 3/4

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.25

Lesson 3/4 Handout 1 Page 1 of 1

Bar charts

Data collection for use in producing bar charts Age of bike (in years) 0-2 3-5 6-8 9-11 12-14 15-19 20+ In the example below you are reminded of some of the key features that make a good bar chart.

Even scale for the frequency Keep tallies neat and aligned

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Tally

Frequency 15 26 13 9 3 1 7

Total amount of bikes per category

Age of bicycles

Title for the graph

30 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 0-2

Lables for the axes

3-5

6-8

9-11 Age

12-14

15-19

20+

Equally spaced bars

Simple shading or colouring

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Lesson 3/4 Handout 2 Page 1 of 1

Pictograms

Pictograms are a special type of bar chart where, instead of simple bars, a series of basic pictures is used. There are some differences, which are noted below in the example. Pictogram showing people’s favourite fruit

A key is vital. The picture can represent any number

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

= 2 people

No scale on vertical axis

All pictures must be same size and aligned

Labels are not needed if the pictures are obvious

Parts of pictures are allowed

Pictograms are used for simple data showing a quick overview. They should not be overcomplicated.

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Lesson 3/4 Handout 3 Page 1 of 1

Line graphs

Line graphs can be used when the data you are using are a measure. This means they have two characteristics:

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Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

They are numbers They are continuous. (They can take any value between a range of numbers.)

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Examples – age, height, weight, time, price, etc. Examples you cannot use – favourite colour, type of transport, etc. To draw a line chart, set it out like a bar chart but put a small point instead of a bar and then join up the points. Example These data show the age that people first learnt to ride a bicycle: Age Frequency 5 3 6 9 7 12 8 20 9 34 10 17 >10 4

Line graph plotted from the above data 40 30 Frequency 20 10 0 5 6 7 8 Age 9 10 >10

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Lesson 3/4 Handout 4 Page 1 of 1

**Two-way tables
**

This is a good way to compare the relationship between two sets of data. Example 1 In this case you are looking at whether left- or right-handed people kick with their left or right foot: L/R footed R R Both L R R R R R L R R R R L R R L R

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

L/R handed

R

R

R

L

R

L

R

R

L

R

R

R

R

R

L

R

R

L

R

The two-way table looks like this: Right-footed Right-handed Left-handed Example 2 This example looks at whether more boys or girls play tennis: Gender Tennis or not B B G B G G G B G B G B Y N N N Y N Y B G G B B B G N N Y Y N Y Y N Y N N Y 12 2 Left-footed 1 3 Both 1 0

The two-way table looks like this: Tennis Boy Girl Example 3 This shows sports played in different years of school: Cricket Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 11 Total 14 26 34 19 21 114 Athletics 35 26 22 18 15 116 Tennis 52 48 25 19 34 178 Swimming 18 21 32 24 17 112 Total 119 121 113 80 87 520 5 4 Not tennis 5 5

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Lesson 3/4 Handout 5 Page 1 of 3

Pie charts

Before drawing your circle for the pie chart you must draw out the frequency chart. The key elements here are the total frequency and the multiplier column. Type of cycle Racing Mountain BMX Touring Child’s Folding Total

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Tally

Frequency Multiplier 17 13 11 17 7 2 67

Angle(o)

360

To calculate the multiplier you divide 360 by the total frequency. In this case, 360 ÷ 67 = 5.373134 = 5.4 (to one decimal place). Type of cycle Racing Mountain BMX Touring Child’s Folding Total Tally Frequency Multiplier 17 13 11 17 7 2 67 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 360 Angle(o)

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Lesson 3/4 Handout 5 Page 2 of 3

Pie charts

17 x 5.4 = 91.8 = approx 92 (rounded to nearest whole number). Do the same for all other values.

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Type of cycle Racing Mountain BMX Touring Child’s Folding Total

Tally

Frequency Multiplier 17 13 11 17 7 2 67 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4

Angle(o) 92 70 59 92 38 11 362

Note that the total comes to 362 (not 360) due to rounding, but it is customary to shave off 1 from each of the two biggest sectors.

Draw your circle and start with a straight line from the centre to the edge. This is where you start measuring from.

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Lesson 3/4 Handout 5 Page 3 of 3

Pie charts

91º

Racing cycle

17

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Start measuring the next sector from the end of the previous one. Child’s cycle Folding cycle Racing cycle Touring cycle Mountain cycle BMX cycle Fully labelled pie chart 7 2 17 17 13 11

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

**Looking Beyond the UK lesson 5/6 – structure
**

Interpret and discuss data (handling data cycle)

Lesson 5/6 of 6 (40 minutes) Starter: Use additional resource: World bicycle production. Display the source on the board or give out the resource sheet for the class to discuss:

• •

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

How many cycles did India produce in 1991? Who produces the most each year? Why do you think this is? Who produced the least in the table in 1998? What does ‘N/A’ mean?

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Main task: 1. Choose the UK, China and one other country to draw a line graph of the number of million cycles produced each year. Write one or two sentences saying what your graph shows. 2. Draw two pie charts for 1990 and 2000 showing the distribution of cycle production, and say what the differences are. Plenary: Discuss what the class found out about production trends. Ask if production influences trends in the use of bicycles, ie more cycles = more use. Do they think different countries produce different types of cycle? Resources: Handout 1 Handout 2 Handout 3 Handout 4 Handout 5 Additional resource Mode, median and mean Scatter diagrams Cumulative frequency Box and whisker plot Random sampling World bicycle production

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK

**Looking Beyond the UK...
**

Handouts and worksheets for photocopying Lesson 5/6

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.37

Lesson 5/6 Handout 1 Page 1 of 5

**Mode, median and mean
**

These are three types of average. An average is a way of giving a single value that represents a whole set of data. The mode is the value that occurs most often in a set of data. The median is the middle number when the data are in order. The mean is all the data added together and divided by the number of pieces of data. Example 1 A survey of the number of pieces of homework completed last night gave this data: 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4

Mathematics. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

There are more 1s than anything else, so mode = 1 The middle number in the list is 2, so median = 2 Mean = 0 + 0 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4 = 26 26 ÷ 15 = 1.73 Example 2 The number of vehicles in each family is surveyed, giving this data: 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4

Here there are equal number of 2s and 3s so we say the mode = 2 and 3 For the median there is no exact middle as it lies between 2 and 3 We say the median = 21⁄2 or 2.5 Mean = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4 = 20 20 ÷ 8 = 2.5

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 1 Page 2 of 5

**Which average do you use?
**

The mean uses good mathematics but sometimes gives a value that does not make real sense (in the example above, what does 1.73 pieces of homework look like?). It can also be influenced by one extreme piece of data. The mode is very simplistic and just gives you the number written down the most. It can be useful for non-numerical data. The median can be good if you have extreme values at the top or bottom of your data list. The best average to use will always depend on your data and what you are trying to show. If you calculate all three you should say which is the best average and why.

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 1 Page 3 of 5

**Mean, median and mode from grouped data
**

This frequency table looks at how much pocket money children get each week. Money (£)

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£≤1 4

1≤ £<2 3

2≤ £<3 5

3≤ £<4 7

4≤ £<5 4

5≤ £ 2

Frequency

Mode = £3 to £4 (this is often described as the modal group) as it has the highest frequency. There are 4 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 4 + 2 = 25 pieces of data so the middle piece of data is the 13th. If you count along the median then the 13th piece of data is the first one in the 3 ≤ £ < 4 group. Median group = 3 ≤ £ < 4 The mean is difficult as there are no exact values to add up. Here we have to assume that each amount will be, on average, near the central value of the group. We now need a new table. Money (£) Central value Frequency Total (Cv x F) £≤1 £0.50 4 £2.00 1≤ £<2 £1.50 3 £4.50 2≤ £<3 £2.50 5 £12.50 3≤ £<4 £3.50 7 £24.50 4≤ £<5 £4.50 4 £18.00 5≤ £ £6.00 2 £12.00

Total = 2 + 4.5 + 12.5 + 24.5 + 18 + 12 = £73.50 Number of pieces of data = 25 Mean = £73.50 ÷ 25 = £2.94 Note – The central value in the last group (over £5) is a best guess as there is no way of knowing what the values are. We could easily have taken £5.50 or higher.

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 1 Page 4 of 5

Range

The range is a measure of how spread out the data are. It is often used alongside one of the three averages to describe a set of data. To calculate the range, subtract the lowest value from the highest. Example 1 These data are about the number of millimetres of rain falling in a period of 10 days: 1 3 1 0 0 1 5 0 0 1

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Range = 5 – 0 = 5 Example 2 These data are about the price of second-hand cars: Price (£) Frequency 500≤ £<1000 1000 ≤ £<2000 2000≤ £<3000 3000≤ £<4000 3 4 3 1

Highest possible price = £4000 Lowest possible price = £500 Range = 4000 – 500 = 3500

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 1 Page 5 of 5

Range

**Why range is useful Maths Group 1 results: 67 72 71 65 74 72 69
**

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Mean = 70 Range = 74 – 65 = 9 Maths Group 2 results: 50 53 90 85 63 79

Mean = 70 Range = 90 – 50 = 40 Both maths groups have the same mean, so it could be said they are equal. But Group 2 has a much bigger range, so is spread out more, as the data show. There are also some very high and very low marks. Group 1 is much more grouped together, as can be seen from its low range. Therefore, we can say that the students in maths Group 1 are all of a similar standard, whereas maths Group 2 has some higher and lower ability students, but on average they are the same.

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 2 Page 1 of 3

Scatter diagrams

For a scatter diagram you need two sets of numerical data. For example: Height (cm) Weight (g) 12 15 12 13 17 9 11 13 14 12 15 17 16 13 12 11 10 11

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67 65 62 69 68 59 62 68 67 63 63 72 68 63 60 64 65 64

Choose the scales for your axes so that the values are spread out evenly. Choose Height from 0 to 20 and Weight from 40 to 80 – Note: you do not have to start at 0, if you go from 0 to 80 then the values will be too bunched up. Scatter diagram plotted from the above data 80

70 Weight (g)

60

50

40 0 5 10 Height (cm) 15 20

Mark each pair of values with a small x using a sharp pencil.

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 2 Page 2 of 3

Scatter diagrams

Outcomes Diagram 1. Shows strong positive correlation Diagram 2. Shows strong negative correlation

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Diagram 3. Shows weak positive correlation

Diagram 4. Shows weak negative correlation

Diagram 5. Shows no correlation

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 2 Page 3 of 3

Scatter diagrams

Line of best fit 80

70

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Weight (g)

60

50

40 0 5 10 Height (cm) 15 20

If your scatter diagram shows correlation then draw a straight line through your data which best fits the data. You can now calculate the gradient (m) and Y-intercept (c) to calculate a formula linking weight with height. In the case above the Y-intercept is approximately 45 (where the line of best fit crosses the Y axis). The gradient is found from the triangle on the line of best fit. This could be any size but the bigger the better. The gradient is the vertical divided by the horizontal distances. In this case Gradient = (68-52) ÷ (15-5) = 16 ÷ 10 = 1.6 So (using Y = mx + c): Weight = 1.6 x Height + 45 This formula can now calculate the weight if you know the height (approximately, as the line of best fit is only approximate). For example, if height is 18, we can substitute this in the formula: W = (1.6 x 18) + 45 = 28.8 + 45 = 73.8

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 3 Page 1 of 1

Cumulative frequency

This is used to calculate the median and interquartile range for a set of grouped data. Length (l) Frequency

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0≤ l<10 3

11≤ l<20 21≤ l<30 31≤ l<40 41≤ l<50 51≤ l<60 6 12 15 13 6

A new table needs to be drawn. The groups of continuous data are called class intervals. Class interval width Cumulative frequency 0 0 10 3 20 9 30 21 40 36 50 49 60 55

This means there are 9 values less than 20

Points are plotted at the end of each class interval. Cumulative frequency graph plotted from the above data 55 50 Cumulative frequency 45 40 35 30

Upper quartile

Median

25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 Width 40 50 60

Lower quartile

Total frequency = 55 so median value is at 27.5 ( 1⁄2 of 55) Lower quartile = 13.75 ( 1⁄4 of 55). Upper quartile = 41.25 ( 3⁄4 of 55)

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 4 Page 1 of 1

**Box and whisker plot
**

To show this you need to calculate the median and upper and lower quartiles (see separate sheet). If your values are:

20

10

40

30

50

Lower quartile = 26 Upper quartile = 42 Lowest value = 0 Highest value = 60 The box and whisker plot would look like this: Interquartile range

LQ 0 10 20 30

M

UQ 40 50 60

This is a pictorial way of showing the median as well as the range and interquartile range. It does not matter how high the middle rectangle is. The interquartile range contains half of the values. A box and whisker plot is a good way of comparing two different distributions using the same single-number scale.

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Median = 32

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 5 Page 1 of 2

Random sampling

When working with a large amount of data you need a balance between not using everything (as this would take too long) and using enough data to represent the whole group (or population). This is called a sample. Examples:

•

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If you have 100 people your sample size should be about 20, but you could use all 100 If your group size is 1,000 then your sample size should be at least 50 If your group size is 1,000 from two different types then you would have to take at least 25 from each to avoid bias If your group size is 1,000 (700 from one group and 300 from another) then your sample of 50 would have to be 35 from Group 1 and 15 from Group 2 – keeping the sample in the same proportion as the group

• •

•

Remember: the bigger your sample, the more accurate your results. You need to pick this sample carefully to avoid bias, and we try to use a random sample. Closing your eyes and waving your pencil around before selecting is not a good mathematical method. Scientific calculators normally carry a random button (see calculator instructions), which gives a decimal number to three decimal places between 0 and 1. Multiply this decimal by the number of pieces of data and round to the nearest whole number to get the piece of data required.

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Lesson 5/6 Handout 5 Page 2 of 2

Random sampling

Example – You have 1,156 pieces of data Random (RND) number 0.638 0.123 0.003 0.943 0.124 x 1156 737.528 142.818 3.468 1090.109 143.344 Data number 143 3 1090 143

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738

Discard the last selection, as it has already been used. Continue until you have the required sample size.

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.1
Summary
Teachers only
Looking Beyond the UK summary
‘It is curious that with the advent of the automobile and ...

Mathematics KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project four – Looking Beyond the UK Page 4.1

Summary

Teachers only

Looking Beyond the UK summary

‘It is curious that with the advent of the automobile and the airplane, the bicycle is still with us. Perhaps people like the world they can see from a bike, or the air they breathe when they’re out on a bike. Or they like the bicycle’s simplicity and the precision with which it is made. Or because they like the feeling of being able to hurtle through air one

Summary

Teachers only

Looking Beyond the UK summary

‘It is curious that with the advent of the automobile and the airplane, the bicycle is still with us. Perhaps people like the world they can see from a bike, or the air they breathe when they’re out on a bike. Or they like the bicycle’s simplicity and the precision with which it is made. Or because they like the feeling of being able to hurtle through air one

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