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TABLE OF CONTENTS

3
CHAPTER 1

Set Language & Notation

3
CHAPTER 2

Functions

3
CHAPTER 3

Quadratic Functions

4
CHAPTER 4

Indices & Surds

4
CHAPTER 5

Factors of Polynomials

4
CHAPTER 6

Simultaneous Equations

4
CHAPTER 7

Logarithmic & Exponential Functions

5
CHAPTER 8

Straight Line Graphs

5
CHAPTER 9

Circular Measure

5
CHAPTER 10

Trigonometry
6
CHAPTER 11

Permutations & Combinations

6
CHAPTER 12

Binomial Expansions

6
CHAPTER 13

Vectors in 2 Dimensions

6
CHAPTER 14

Matrices

9
CHAPTER 15

Differentiation & Integration


CIE IGCSE ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS//0606
 One-to-many functions do not exist
1. SET LANGUAGE & NOTATION  Domain of 𝑔(𝑥) = Range of 𝑔−1 (𝑥)
 A well-defined collection of objects is called a set and  Solving functions:
each object is called a member or element of the set o 𝑓(2): substitute 𝑥 = 2 and solve for 𝑓(𝑥)
 A set is denoted by a capital letter and is expressed by: o 𝑓𝑔(𝑥): substitute 𝑥 = 𝑔(𝑥)
−1 (𝑥):
o Listing its elements, e.g. 𝑉 = {𝑎, 𝑒, 𝑖, 𝑜, 𝑢} o𝑓 let 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) and make 𝑥 the subject
o A set builder notation  Transformation of graphs:
𝑅 set of real numbers o 𝑓(−𝑥): reflection in the 𝑦-axis
𝑅 +
set of positive real numbers o −𝑓(𝑥): reflection in the 𝑥-axis
𝑁 set of natural numbers o 𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑎: translation of 𝑎 units parallel to 𝑦-axis
𝑍 set of integers o 𝑓(𝑥 + 𝑎): translation of – 𝑎 units parallel to 𝑥-axis
+ 1
𝑍 set of positive integers o 𝑓(𝑎𝑥): stretch, scale factor 𝑎 parallel to 𝑥-axis
o e.g. {𝑥: 𝑥 is a prime number and 𝑥 < 30} o 𝑎𝑓(𝑥): stretch, scale factor 𝑎 parallel to 𝑦-axis
 For any finite set 𝑃, 𝑛(𝑃) denotes the number of  Modulus function:
elements in 𝑃 o Denoted by |𝑓(𝑥)|
 A null or empty set is denote by { } or ∅ o Modulus of a number is its absolute value
 For any two sets 𝑃 and 𝑄: o Never goes below 𝑥-axis
o 𝑃 = 𝑄 if they have the same elements o Makes negative graph into positive by reflecting
o 𝑃 ⊆ 𝑄 if 𝑥 ∈ 𝑃 ⟹ 𝑥 ∈ 𝑄 negative part into 𝑥-axis
o 𝑃 ∩ 𝑄 = {𝑥: 𝑥 ∈ 𝑃 and 𝑥 ∈ 𝑄}  Solving modulus function:
o 𝑃 ∩ 𝑄 = ∅ then 𝑃 and 𝑄 are disjoint sets o Sketch graphs and find points of intersection
o 𝑃 ∪ 𝑄 = {𝑥: 𝑥 ∈ 𝑃 or 𝑥 ∈ 𝑄} o Square the equation and solve quadratic
 For any set 𝑃 and universal set 𝜉  Relationship of a function and its inverse:
o 𝑃 ⊆ 𝜉 and 0 ≤ 𝑛(𝑃) ≤ 𝑛(𝜉) o The graph of the inverse of a function is the reflection
o 𝑃′ = {𝑥: 𝑥 ∈ 𝜉 and 𝑥 ∉ 𝑃} of a graph of the function in 𝑦=𝑥
o 𝑃 ∩ 𝑃′ = ∅
o 𝑃 ∪ 𝑃′ = 𝜉 3. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
 To sketch 𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 𝑎 ≠ 0
2. FUNCTIONS o Use the turning point:
 One-to-one functions: each 𝑥 value maps to one distinct Express 𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 as 𝑦 = 𝑎(𝑥 − ℎ)2 + 𝑘 by
𝑦 value completing the square
e.g. 𝑓(𝑥) = 3𝑥 − 1 𝑛 2 𝑛 2
 Many-to-one functions: there are some 𝑓(𝑥) values 𝑥 2 + 𝑛𝑥 ⟺ (𝑥 + ) − ( )
2 2
which are generated by more than one 𝑥 value 𝑎(𝑥 + 𝑛)2 + 𝑘
e.g. 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 3 Where the vertex is (−𝑛, 𝑘)
Domain = 𝑥 values Range = 𝑦 values 𝑎 > 0 – u-shaped ∴ minimum point
 Notation: 𝑓(𝑥) can also be written as 𝑓: 𝑥 ↦ 𝑎 < 0 – n-shaped ∴ maximum point
 To find range:  Find the 𝒙-intercept:
o Complete the square o Factorize or use formula
𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 3 ⇒ (𝑥 − 1)2 + 2  Type of root by calculating discriminant 𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐
o Work out min/max point o If 𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 = 0, real and equal roots
Minimum point = (1,2) o If 𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 > 0, real and distinct roots
∴ all 𝑦 values are greater than or equal to 2. 𝑓(𝑥) ≥ 2 o If 𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 < 0, no real roots

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CIE IGCSE ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS//0606
 Intersections of a line and a curve: if the simultaneous 7. LOGARITHMIC & EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
equations of the line and curve leads to a simultaneous  Definition
equation then: o for 𝑎 > 0 and 𝑎 ≠ 1
o If 𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 = 0, line is tangent to the curve 𝑦 = 𝑎 𝑥 ⇔ 𝑥 = log 𝑎 𝑦
o If 𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 > 0, line meets curve in two points  For log 𝑎 𝑦 to be defined
o If 𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 < 0, line does not meet curve 𝑦 > 0 and 𝑎 > 0, 𝑎 ≠ 1
 Quadratic inequality:  When the logarithms are defined
o (𝑥 − 𝑑)(𝑥 − 𝛽) < 0 ⟹ 𝑑 < 𝑥 < 𝛽 log 𝑎 1 = 0 log 𝑎 𝑏 + log 𝑎 𝑐 ≡ log 𝑎 𝑏𝑐
o (𝑥 − 𝑑)(𝑥 − 𝛽) > 0 ⟹ 𝑥 < 𝑑 or 𝑥 > 𝛽 log 𝑎 𝑎 = 1
𝑏
log 𝑎 𝑏 − log 𝑎 𝑐 ≡ log 𝑎 𝑐
log 𝑏
4. INDICES & SURDS log 𝑎 𝑏 ≡ log 𝑎 log 𝑎 𝑏 𝑛 ≡ 𝑛 log 𝑎 𝑏
 Definitions:  When solving logarithmic equations, check solution with
o for 𝑎 > 0 and positive integers 𝑝 and 𝑞 original equation and discard any solutions that causes
1 logarithm to be undefined
𝑎0 = 1 𝑎−𝑝 =
𝑝
𝑎𝑝  Solution of 𝑎 𝑥 = 𝑏 where 𝑎 ≠ −1, 0, 1
1 𝑞
 If 𝑏 can be easily written as 𝑎𝑛 , then
𝑝 𝑝
𝑎𝑝 = √𝑎 𝑎𝑞 = ( √𝑎)
 Rules: 𝑎 𝑥 = 𝑎𝑛 ⇒ 𝑥 = 𝑛
o for 𝑎 > 0, 𝑏 > 0 and rational numbers 𝑚 and 𝑛  Otherwise take logarithms on both sides,
log 𝑏
𝑎𝑚 × 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎𝑚+𝑛 𝑎𝑛 × 𝑏 𝑛 = (𝑎𝑏)𝑛 i.e. log 𝑎 𝑥 = log 𝑏 and so 𝑥 = log 𝑎
𝑚
𝑎 𝑎𝑛 𝑎 𝑛
𝑛
= 𝑎 𝑚−𝑛
𝑛
=( )  log ⇒ log10
𝑎 𝑏 𝑏
(𝑎𝑚 )𝑛 = 𝑎𝑚𝑛  ln ⇒ log 𝑒
Logarithmic & Exponential Graphs
5. FACTORS OF POLYNOMIALS
 To find unknowns in a given identity
o Substitute suitable values of 𝑥
OR
o Equalize the given coefficients of like powers of x
Factor Theorem:
 If (𝑥 − 𝑡) is a factor of the function 𝑝(𝑥) then 𝑝(𝑡) = 0
Remainder Theorem:
 If a function 𝑓(𝑥) is divided by (𝑥 − 𝑡) then:
𝑅𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 = 𝑓(𝑡)
 The formula for remainder theorem:
𝐷𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑑 = 𝐷𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑟 × 𝑄𝑢𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 + 𝑅𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟
8. STRAIGHT LINE GRAPHS
6. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS  Equation of a straight line:
 Simultaneous linear equations can be solved either by 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐
substitution or elimination 𝑦 − 𝑦1 = 𝑚(𝑥 − 𝑥1 )
 Simultaneous linear and non-linear equations are  Gradient:
generally solved by substitution as follows: 𝑦2 − 𝑦1
𝑚=
o Step 1: obtain an equation in one unknown & solve it 𝑥2 − 𝑥1
o Step 2: substitute the results from step 1 into the  Length of a line segment:
linear equation to find the other unknown Length = √(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )2 + (𝑦2 − 𝑦1 )2
 The points of intersection of two graphs are given by the
solution of their simultaneous equations

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CIE IGCSE ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS//0606
 Midpoint of a line segment: TANGENT CURVE CAST DIAGRAM
𝑥1 + 𝑥2 𝑦1 + 𝑦2
( , )
2 2
 Parallelogram:
o ABCD is a parallelogram ⟺ diagonals AC and BD have
a common midpoint
o Special parallelograms = rhombuses, squares,
rectangles
 Special gradients:
o Parallel lines: 𝑚1 = 𝑚2
o Perpendicular lines: 𝑚1 𝑚2 = −1
 Perpendicular bisector: line passes through midpoint
 To work out point of intersection of two lines/curves,  Trigonometric ratios:
solve equations simultaneously 1 1 1
sec 𝜃 = cosec 𝜃 = cot 𝜃 =
cos 𝜃 sin 𝜃 tan 𝜃
9. CIRCULAR MEASURE  Trigonometric identities:
 Radian measure: sin 𝜃
tan 𝜃 = sin2 𝜃 + cos 2 𝜃 = 1
𝜋 = 180° 2𝜋 = 360° cos 𝜃
𝜋 180 cot 2 𝜃 + 1 = cosec 2 𝜃 tan2 𝜃 + 1 = sec 2 𝜃
Degree to Rad =× Rad to Degree =×
180 𝜋  Sketching trigonometric graphs:
 Arc length:
𝑠 = 𝑟𝜃
 Area of a sector:
1
𝐴 = 𝑟2𝜃
2

10. TRIGONOMETRY
 Trigonometric ratio of special angles:
11. PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS
 Basic Counting Principle: to find the number of ways of
performing several tasks in succession, multiply the
number of ways in which each task can be performed:
e.g. 5 × 4 × 3 × 2
 Factorial: 𝑛! = 𝑛 × (𝑛 − 1) × (𝑛 − 2) … × 3 × 2 × 1
o NOTE: 0! = 1
 Permutations:
o The number of ordered arrangements of r objects
taken from n unlike objects is:
𝑛 𝑛!
𝑃𝑟 =
SINE CURVE COSINE CURVE (𝑛 − 𝑟)!
o Order matters
 Combinations:
o The number of ways of selecting 𝑟 objects from 𝑛
unlike objects is:
𝑛 𝑛!
𝐶𝑟 =
(𝑛
𝑟! − 𝑟)!
 Order does not matter

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CIE IGCSE ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS//0606
12. BINOMIAL EXPANSIONS 14. MATRICES
 The binomial theorem allows expansion of any  Order of a matrix: a matrix with 𝑚 rows and 𝑛 columns,
expression in the form (𝑎 + 𝑏)𝑛 Order = 𝑚 × 𝑛
(𝑥 + 𝑦)𝑛 = 𝑛𝐶0 𝑥 𝑛 + 𝑛𝐶1 𝑥 𝑛−1 𝑦 + 𝑛𝐶2 𝑥 𝑛−2 𝑦 2 + ⋯ + 𝑛𝐶𝑛 𝑦 𝑛  Adding/subtracting matrices: add/subtract each
 e.g. Expand (2𝑥 − 1)4 corresponding element
(2𝑥 − 1)4 = 4𝐶0 (2𝑥)4 + 4𝐶1 (2𝑥)3 (−1)  Scalar multiplication: to multiply a matrix by 𝑘, multiply
each element by 𝑘
+ 4𝐶2 (2𝑥)2 (−1)2 + 4𝐶3 (2𝑥) (−1)3 + 4𝐶4 (−1)4
 Multiplying matrices: multiply row by column
= 1(2𝑥)4 + 4(2𝑥)3 (−1) +6(2𝑥)2 (−1)2 +  Identity matric:
4(2𝑥) (−1)3 + 1(−1)4 1 0
𝐼=( ) 𝐼𝐴 = 𝐴 and 𝐴𝐼 = 𝐼
= 16𝑥 4 − 32𝑥 3 + 24𝑥 2 − 8𝑥 + 1 0 1
 The powers of 𝑥 are in descending order  Calculating the determinant:
𝑎 𝑏 |𝐴|
𝐴=( ) = (𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐)
𝑐 𝑑
13. VECTORS IN 2 DIMENSIONS
 Position vector: position of point relative to origin, 𝑂𝑃
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
 Inverse of a 2 by 2 matrix:
 Forms of vector: o Switch leading diagonal, negate secondary diagonal
𝑎 1
( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐴𝐵 𝑝 𝑎i − 𝑏j o Multiply by |𝐴|
𝑏
 Parallel vectors: same direction but different magnitude 𝑎 𝑏
𝐴=( )
 Generally, ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐴𝐵 = ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝐵 − ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑂𝐴 𝑐 𝑑
1 𝑑 −𝑏
 Magnitude = √i2 + j2 𝐴−1 = ( ) 𝐴−1 𝐴 = 𝐴𝐴−1 = 𝐼
𝑎𝑑−𝑏𝑐 −𝑐 𝑎
 Unit vectors: vectors of magnitude 1  Solving simultaneous linear equations by a matrix
o Examples: consider vector 𝐴𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ method:
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 2i + 3j
𝐴𝐵 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | = √13
|𝐴𝐵 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 = ℎ 𝑐𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑘
1  Equation can be written as:
∴ 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = (2𝑖 + 3𝑗) 𝑎 𝑏 𝑥 ℎ
√13 ( )( ) = ( )
 Collinear vectors: vectors on the same line 𝑐 𝑑 𝑦 𝑘
 Rearrange it and solve:
 Dot product: 𝑥 1 𝑑 −𝑏 ℎ
(𝑎𝒊 + 𝑏𝒋). (𝑐𝒊 + 𝑑𝒋) = (𝑎𝑐𝒊 + 𝑏𝑑𝒋) (𝑦) = ( )( )
𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐 −𝑐 𝑎 𝑘
 Angle between two diverging vectors:  For a matrix to give unique solutions:
𝑎. 𝑏 𝑎 𝑏
cos 𝐴 = ( )≠0
|𝑎||𝑏| 𝑐 𝑑

Relative Velocity 15. DIFFERENTIATION & INTEGRATION


 Motion in the water:
𝑉𝑤 = 𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 15.1 Differentiation
FUNCTION 1ST DERIVATIVE 2ND DERIVATIVE
𝑉𝑃/𝑊 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑃 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑊 – 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑦 = 𝑥𝑛 𝑑𝑦 2
𝑑 𝑦
= 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 = 𝑛(𝑛 − 1)𝑥 𝑛−2
 Course taken by 𝑃 is direction of 𝑉𝑃/𝑊 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 2
 Motion in the air:
𝑉𝑤 = 𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑖𝑟
INCREASING FUNCTION DECREASING FUNCTION
𝑉𝑃/𝑊 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑃 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑊 – 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑/𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
>0 <0
 Course take by 𝑃 is direction of 𝑉𝑃/𝑊 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑉𝑃/𝑄 = 𝑉𝑃 − 𝑉𝑄  Stationary point: equate first derivative to zero
𝑑𝑦
=0
𝑑𝑥
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CIE IGCSE ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS//0606
 2 Derivative: finds nature of the stationary point
nd
Logs Algebra Trig 𝒆
o If value +ve, min. point  negative stationary point
o If value –ve, max. point  positive stationary point  To find area under the graph (curve and 𝒙-axis):
 Chain rule: o Integrate curve
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢 o Substitute boundaries of 𝑥
= ×
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥 o Subtract one from another (ignore c)
 Product rule: 𝑑
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑢 ∫ 𝑦 𝑑𝑥
=𝑢 +𝑣 𝑐
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥  To find volume under the graph (curve and 𝒙-axis):
 Quotient rule:
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑣 o Square the function
𝑑𝑦 𝑣 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑢 𝑑𝑥 o Integrate and substitute
=
𝑑𝑥 𝑣2 o Multiply by 𝜋
Special Differentials 𝑑
𝑑𝑦 ∫ 𝜋𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥
𝑜𝑓 sin 𝑎𝑥 = 𝑎 cos 𝑎𝑥 𝑐
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦  To find area/volume between curve and 𝒚-axis:
𝑜𝑓 cos 𝑎𝑥 = −𝑎 sin 𝑎𝑥 o Make 𝑥 subject of the formula
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 o Follow above method using 𝑦-values instead of 𝑥-
𝑜𝑓 tan 𝑎𝑥 = 𝑎 sec 2 𝑎𝑥 values
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 Special Integrals
𝑜𝑓 𝑒 𝑎𝑥+𝑏 = 𝑎𝑒 𝑎𝑥+𝑏 1
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 1 ∫ sin(𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏) = − cos(𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏) + 𝑐
𝑎
𝑜𝑓 ln 𝑥 =
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 1
𝑑𝑦 𝑓 ′ (𝑥) ∫ cos(𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏) = sin(𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏) + 𝑐
𝑜𝑓 ln(𝑓(𝑥)) = 𝑎
𝑑𝑥 𝑓(𝑥) 1
∫ sec 2 (𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏) = tan(𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏) + 𝑐
𝑎
 Related rates of change: 1 1
∫ = ln|𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏| + 𝑐
o If 𝑥 and 𝑦 are related by the equation 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), then 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 𝑎
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 1
the rates of change 𝑑𝑡 and 𝑑𝑡 are related by: ∫ 𝑒 𝑎𝑥+𝑏 = 𝑒 𝑎𝑥+𝑏 + 𝑐
𝑎
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
= ×
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡 15.3 Kinematics
 Small changes:
o If 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) and small change 𝛿𝑥 in 𝑥 causes a small
change 𝛿𝑦 in 𝑦, then
𝑑𝑦
𝛿𝑦 ≈ ( ) × 𝛿𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑥=𝑘

15.2 Integration
𝑥 𝑛+1
∫ 𝑎𝑥 𝑛 = 𝑎 +𝑐
(𝑛 + 1)  Particle at instantaneous rest, 𝑣 = 0
(𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏)𝑛+1  Maximum displacement from origin, 𝑣 = 0
∫(𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏)𝑛 = +𝑐
𝑎(𝑛 + 1)  Maximum velocity, 𝑎 = 0
 Definite integral: substitute coordinates/values & find 𝑐
 Integrating by parts:
𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑢
∫𝑢 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑢𝑣 − ∫ 𝑣 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
o What to make 𝑢: LATE

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