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Eusebio Where:

𝝈

IQC, BSIE 4-1 𝝈𝒙̅ =

√𝒏

𝜎𝑥̅ = Standard Deviation of distribution of sample means

CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES 𝜎 = Process standard deviation

(The Mean and Range charts) 𝑛 = Sample size (number of observations)

𝑧 = Standard normal deviate

What is a Control Chart? 𝑥 = Average of sample means

A graphical representation if a sample is within 𝑥̿ = average of the sample means

statistical control limits.

Control charts exist for attributes and variables. Example:

p-charts and c-charts for attributes and Mean A quality inspector took five samples, each with four

and range control charts for variables. observations, of the length of time to process loan

applications at a credit union. The analyst computed the

Two Basic Purposes: mean of each sample and then computed the grand

• To establish the control limits for a process mean. All values are in minutes. Use this information to

• To monitor the process to indicate when it’s out obtain three-sigma (i.e., 𝑧 = 3) control limits for means

of control of future times. It is known from previous experience

that the standard deviation of the process is 0.02

A process is generally considered to be in control if: minute.

1. There are no sample points outside the control Sample

limits.

2. Most points are near the process average (i.e.,

the center line), without too many close to the

Observation

control limits.

3. Approximately equal numbers of sample points

occur above and below the center line.

4. The points appear to be randomly distributed

around the center line (i.e., no discernible

pattern).

12.10 + 12.12 + 12.11 + 12.10 + 12.12

𝑥̿ =

5

̿ = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟏𝟏

𝒙

0.02 0.02

UCL= 12.11 + 3 ( ) LCL = 12.11 − 3 ( )

√4 √4

= 12.14 = 12.08

MEAN CHARTS AND RANGE CHARTS

** Mean Control Chart (𝒙 ̅-chart)
**

- control chart used to monitor the central

tendency of a process

- uses the process average of a sample

- most commonly used variable chart

**MEAN CHART FORMULAS: (1ST approach)
**

Upper Control Limit (UCL): = 𝑥̿ + 𝑧𝜎𝑥̅

Lower Control Limit (LCL): = 𝑥̿ − 𝑧𝜎𝑥̅

Employees have taken 10 samples (during a 10-day period) of 5 slip-ring bearings and measured the diameter of the bearings. the outside diameter of the bearing is measured. The individual observations from each sample (or subgroup) are shown as follows: . At an early stage in the production process for a particular slip- ring bearing. such as drive shafts in machinery or motors. ̅-CHART USING THE SECOND DEVELOPING 𝒙 APPROACH MEAN CHART FORMULAS: (2nd approach) Upper Control Limit (UCL): = 𝑥̿ + 𝐴2 𝑅̅ Lower Control Limit (LCL): = 𝑥̿ − 𝐴2 𝑅̅ where: ∑𝑹 ̅= 𝑹 𝒌 𝑥̿ = average of the sample means 𝑅̅ = average range value 𝐴2 = is a tabular value used to control limits 𝑘 = number of samples Example 2 The Goliath Tool Company produces slip-ring bearings. which look like flat doughnuts or washers. They fit around shafts or rods.

the difference between the largest and smallest value in a sample.243 LCL = 𝐷3 𝑅̅ = (0)(0.reflects the process variability instead of the tendency toward a mean value. RANGE CONTROL CHART FORMULAS: Upper Control Limit (UCL) = 𝐷4 𝑅̅ Lower Control Limit (LCL) = 𝐷3 𝑅̅ Where: ∑𝑹 ̅= 𝑹 𝒌 𝑅̅= average range 𝑅= range of each sample 𝑘 = number of samples (subgroups) 𝐷3 and 𝐷4 are table values like 𝐴2 for determining control limits that have been developed based on range values rather than standard deviations. . Example 3 The Goliath Tool Company from Example 2 wants to develop an R-chart to control process variability. UCL = 𝐷4 𝑅̅ = (2.11)(0.115) =0 .RANGE CHART Range Control Chart (𝑹 ̅ -chart) .115) = 0.

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