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Methods Used In the production Of Crops

Integrated Science Assignment

Group Members:
Dalicia Taharally
Lakshmi Narine
Abdul Subhan
 Strip Planting

Strip farming is the growing of crops in narrow, systematic strips or bands to reduce soil erosion
from wind and water and otherwise improve agricultural production. The most common crop choices
for strip cropping are closely sown crops such as hay, wheat, or other forages which are alternated
with strips of row crops, such as corn, soybeans, cotton, or sugar beets.

 Strip farming saves topsoil by reducing the wind's speed and distance of travel across
summer fallow.

 The best time to implement a strip farming design is during the summer fallow year.

 Strips should be arranged north and south for maximum erosion prevention.

 Strip widths are dependent on soil type, wider for loams and narrower for clays and sands.

 Consider machinery sizes when establishing strip widths for maximum convenience.
 Contour Ploughing

Contour ploughing is the farming practice of ploughing and/or planting across a slope following
its elevation contour lines. These contour lines create a water break which reduces the
formation of rills and gullies during times of heavy water run-off; which is a major cause of soil
erosion. The water break also allows more time for the water to settle into the soil. In contour
plowing, the ruts made by the plow run perpendicular rather than parallel to slopes, generally
resulting in furrows that curve around the land and are level. This method is also known for
preventing tillage erosion. Tillage erosion is the soil movement and erosion by tilling a given plot
of land, best practiced on slopes between 15-20 degrees. Contour Farming is done across the
slope and is one of the best methods for small scale as well as large scale farmers. It serves the
following benefits:

As it is done across the slope the water which is flowing down takes more time to travel, more
infiltration occurs hence there is more retention of water in soil.

As the water retention is more we have to give less irrigation, which is a boon for dryland

As it is done across the slope it significantly reduces soil erosion.

If it rains more we can curb the loss by draining out excess water easily.
 Terracing

Terrace cultivation, method of growing crops on sides of hills or mountains by

planting on graduated terraces built into the slope. Though labour-intensive, the
method has been employed effectively to maximize arable land area in variable
terrains and to reduce soil erosion and water loss. In most systems the terrace is a
low, flat ridge of earth built across the slope, with a channel for runoff water just
above the ridge. Usually terraces are built on a slight grade so that the water
caught in the channel moves slowly toward the terrace outlet. In areas where soils
are able to take in water readily and rainfall is relatively low, level terraces may be

One of the principal advantages of terrace cultivation is that it can protect the
terraced area's soil from overly rapid erosion. Erosion happens when moving water
strips away soil from the area over which it is flowing. Terracing, by reducing the
length of the slope the water has to run over (i.e. by creating a level terrace on an
otherwise sloped face), slows the flow of water. This protects the soil in the area
from being carried away in a deluge. Terrace can also trap and hold rainwater. This
allows for the cultivation of water-intensive crops, such as rice, in these areas.
Terracing creates flat spaces for crops and canals for water to flow between these
areas. Water collected in the terraces can then be absorbed into the soil (if the soil is
suitably permeable) and sustain crops. Terrace cultivation has been practiced in
China, Japan, the Philippines, and other areas of Oceania and Southeast Asia;
around the Mediterranean; in parts of Africa; and in the Andes of South America for
 Crop Rotation

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types

of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons. It is done so that the soil of
farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. It helps in reducing soil erosion
and increases soil fertility and crop yield. Growing the same crop in the same
place for many years in a row (Mono cropping) disproportionately depletes
the soil of certain nutrients. With rotation, a crop that leaches the soil of one
kind of nutrient is followed during the next growing season by a dissimilar
crop that returns that nutrient to the soil or draws a different ratio of
nutrients. In addition, crop rotation mitigates the buildup of pathogens and
pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped, and can
also improve soil structure and fertility by increasing biomass from varied
root structures. Crop rotation gives various nutrients to the soil. A traditional
element of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of
green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. Crop rotation also
mitigates the build-up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one
species is continuously cropped, and can also improve soil structure and
fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. Rotations also
help with a reduction in nematodes, weeds and diseases. Northern Leaf Blight
is a good example of a disease that has increased over the last several years,
and can be reduced by rotating corn and soybeans.
 Greenhouse Farming

A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of
transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are
grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings. The interior of
a greenhouse exposed to sunlight becomes significantly warmer than the external ambient
temperature, protecting its contents in cold weather.

Advantages include:

Longer Growing Season -Plants grown within a greenhouse aren’t subject to the same degree of
temperature variation as plants grown in an outdoor garden. According to TLC Home, greenhouses
work by trapping radiation from the sun inside the enclosure, which results in heat retainment in
the structure. The new microclimate the greenhouse creates allows gardeners to extend the
growing season of plants that would not thrive in the colder climate outside of the greenhouse. This
allows consumers to purchase locally grown fruits, vegetables and flowers out of season.

Protection From the Elements -The weather is unpredictable. Even the best meteorological
equipment isn’t correct 100 percent of the time. For gardeners, a drastic and unforeseen change in
weather patterns can mean death even for carefully tended plants in an outdoor garden. Plants
grown in a greenhouse, however, are protected from blizzards, dust storms, and high winds. In
addition, greenhouse plants aren’t at the mercy of soil erosion due to torrential rain or flash floods.
This gives gardeners the comfort of knowing that they don’t have to race home from work to cover
their gardens or simply hope that their plants survive during periods of inclement weather.

Plant Isolation -Many varieties of plants are prone to damage from insects. A greenhouse keeps
plants in isolation, locked safely away from the outside world where insects, rodents and other
animals could damage crops. The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University states that
gardeners should isolate their plants within a greenhouse that is caulked and sealed. A greenhouse
in complete isolation that is tightly sealed with properly controlled air flow can provide protection
not only from insects and rodents but from diseases as well.
 Hydroponics

Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, which is the growing of plants in a soil less

medium, or an aquatic based environment. Hydroponic growing uses mineral nutrient
solutions to feed the plants in water, without soil. With hydroponics the plants are grown
in an inert growing medium and a perfectly balanced, pH adjusted nutrient solution is
delivered to the roots in a highly soluble form. This allows the plant to uptake its food with
very little effort as opposed to soil where the roots must search out the nutrients and
extract them. This is true even when using rich, organic soil and top of the line nutrients.
The energy expended by the roots in this process is energy better spent on vegetative
growth and fruit and flower production.

If you grow two genetically identical plants using soil for one and hydroponics for the
other, you will almost immediately see the difference this factor makes. Faster, better
growth and much greater yields are just some of the many reasons that hydroponics is
being adapted around the world for commercial food production as well as a growing
number of homes, hobby gardeners.

Through hydroponic gardening; plants can be grown anywhere as long as their growth
requirements are met.

It uses only 1/20th of water compared to traditional (soil based) gardening.

It provides a sterile environment for plant production. This technique does not require
pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals, as there’s no chance of damage due to soil-borne
diseases or pests.

Crops grow two times faster in hydroponic gardening. It provides controlled environment,
and yield is doubled leading to more production from same amount of space.

It needs 20% of less space in comparison to soil based gardens, as plants with small roots
can be grown closer to each other.
 Tissue Culture

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or
organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. Plant tissue
culture is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micro propagation.
Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods
of propagation, including:

The production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers, fruits, or have
other desirable traits.

To quickly produce mature plants.

The production of multiples of plants in the absence of seeds or necessary pollinators to produce

The regeneration of whole plants from plant cells that have been genetically modified.

The production of plants in sterile containers that allows them to be moved with greatly reduced
chances of transmitting diseases, pests, and pathogens.

The production of plants from seeds that otherwise have very low chances of germinating and
growing, i.e.: orchids and Nepenthes.

To clear particular plants of viral and other infections and to quickly multiply these plants as
'cleaned stock' for horticulture and agriculture.
 Roof Top Farming

A roof garden is a garden on the roof of a building. Besides the decorative benefit, roof
plantings may provide food, temperature control, hydrological benefits, architectural
enhancement, habitats or corridors for wildlife, recreational opportunities, and in large
scale it may even have ecological benefits. The practice of cultivating food on the rooftop of
buildings is sometimes referred to as rooftop farming. Rooftop farming is usually done
using green roof, hydroponics, aeroponics or air-dynaponics systems or container gardens.
Roof gardens are most often found in urban environments. Plants have the ability to reduce
the overall heat absorption of the building which then reduces energy consumption. "The
primary cause of heat build-up in cities is insolation, the absorption of solar radiation by
roads and buildings in the city and the storage of this heat in the building material and its
subsequent re-radiation. Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise
more than 4–5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler."]This then translates into a
cooling of the environment between 3.6 and 11.3 degrees Celsius, depending on the area on
earth (in hotter areas, the environmental temperature will cool more).

Roof farms benefit the community in many ways.

Urban heat island effect. Black roofs absorb heat during the day and then radiate the heat
out during the night. This makes cities hotter than surrounding areas (a heat island),
increasing cooling costs and energy usage. A roof farm can lower the temperature of roofs
and the surrounding air. CO2 & Air Quality. By reducing a building’s energy usage roof
farms can reduce carbon emissions. Furthermore, city-produced food can decrease the
energy required for transporting food to eaters, and add carbon breathing plants to the city

Increase access to fresh, healthy food. As a local farm, the food we grow will make it to
our customer’s plates at its peak of freshness. We will access a diversity of markets
including restaurants, corner stores, and farmers markets.
 Indoor Farming

Indoor farming is a method of growing crops or plants, usually on a large

scale, entirely indoors. This method of farming often implements growing
methods such as hydroponics and utilizes artificial lights to provide plants
with the nutrients and light levels required for growth. A wide variety of
plants can be grown indoors, but fruits, vegetables, and herbs are the most
popular. Indoor farming, often referred to as indoor gardening, can be used on
both small and large scales, in home and commercially. However, indoor
farming has a particular popularity in large cities where plots of land, in any
size, are not readily available for growing and farming. Most indoor farming
uses a combination of hydroponics and artificial lighting to provide plants
with the nutrients and light they would only receive when grown outdoors.
However, some indoor farming methods, like those implemented in
greenhouses, can use a combination of natural and artificial resources. When
growing indoors, many indoor farmers appreciate having more control over
the environment than they do when they are using traditional farming
methods. Light amounts, nutrition levels, and moisture levels can all be
controlled by the farmer when they are growing crops solely indoors. Some of
the most popular plants grown indoors are usually crop plants like lettuce,
tomatoes, peppers, and herbs.
 Organic Farming

Organic farming is a method of crop and livestock production that involves much more
than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics
and growth hormones. Organic production is a holistic system designed to optimize the
productivity and fitness of diverse communities within the agro-ecosystem, including soil
organisms, plants, livestock and people. The principal goal of organic production is to
develop enterprises that are sustainable and harmonious with the environment.

Advantages Includes:

Water conservation and protection.

Reduced use of inputs, such as diesel and fertilizer that may harm the earth.

Improved and protected biodiversity.

Minimized or eliminated use of toxic substances that harm the planet.

Decreased risk of global warming triggers.

 Container Gardening

Container gardening or pot gardening is the practice of growing plants, including

edible plants, exclusively in containers instead of planting them in the ground. A
container gardening is a small, enclosed and usually portable object used for
displaying live flowers or plants. It may take the form of a pot, box, tub, pot,
basket, tin, barrel or hanging basket.

Many types of plants are suitable for the container, including decorative flowers,
herbs, cacti, vegetables, and small trees. There are many advantages to growing
plants in containers, namely:

Less risk of soil-borne disease

Virtually eliminate weed problems

Mobile plants give more control over moisture, sunlight & temperature

Pest control is easier

Harvesting is a breeze

Save on water