ROBOTICS

Robotics is the engineering science and technology of robots, and their design, manufacture, application, and structural disposition. Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics, mechanics, and software. A person working in this field is known as a roboticist. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term; since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. However, in some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942). The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which premiered in 1921. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be kinematic chain (its functionality became akin to the skeleton of a body). The chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles) and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it. These robots are called serial robots and often resemble the human arm. Some robots such as the Stewart platform use closed parallel kinematic chains. Other structures, such as those mimic the mechanical structure of humans, various animals and insects, are comparatively rare. However, the development and use of such structures in robots is an active area of research (e.g. biomechanics). Robots used as manipulators have an end effector mounted on the last link. This end effector can be anything from a welding device to a mechanical hand used to manipulate environment. The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases – perception, processing and action (robotic paradigms). Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e.g. the position of its joints or its end effector). Using strategies from field of control theory, this information is processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical structure. The control of a robot involves various aspects such as path planning, pattern recognition, obstacle avoidance, etc. More complex and adaptable control strategies can be referred to as artificial intelligence. Any task involves the motion of the robot. The study of motion can be divided into kinematics and dynamics. Direct kinematics refers to the calculation of end effector position, orientation, velocity, and acceleration when the corresponding joint values are known. Inverse kinematics refers to

the opposite case in which required joint values are calculated for given end effector values, as done in path planning. Some special aspects of kinematics include handling of redundancy (different possibilities of performing the same movement), collision avoidance and singularity avoidance. Once all relevant positions, velocities and accelerations have been calculated using kinematics, methods from the field of dynamics are used to study the effect of forces upon these movements. Direct dynamics refers to the calculation of accelerations in the robot. Inverse dynamics refers to the calculation of the actuator forces necessary to create a prescribed end effector acceleration. This information can be used to improve the control algorithms of a robot. In each area mentioned above, researchers strive to develop new concepts and strategies, improve existing ones and improve the interaction between these areas. To do this, criteria for “optimal” performance and ways to optimize design, structure, and control of robots must be developed and implemented.

Three Laws of Robotics

HISTORY TIMELINE OF ROBOTICS
1921 - Czechoslovakian playwright Karel Cpek introduces the word robot in the play R.U.R. – Rossum’s Universal Robots. The word comes from the Czech robota, which means tedious labor. 1938 - The first programmable paint-spraying mechanism is designed by Americans Willard Pollard and Harold Roselund for the DeVilbiss Company.

1962 – General Motors purchases the first individual robot from Unimation and installs it on a production line. 1946 – Emergence of the computer: George Devol patents a general purpose playback device for controlling machines. publishes Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal. 1963 – John McCarthy heads up the new Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Stanford University. 1951 – In France. At MIT. 1954 – George Devol designs the first programmable robot and coins the term Universal Automation. The design is based entirely on mechanical coupling between the master and slave arms (using steel cables and pulleys). 1959 – Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy establish the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in MIT. Raymond Goertz designs the first teleoperated articulated arm for the Atomic Energy Commission. 1964 – C&D Robotics founded. called the Versatran. Derivatives of this design are still seen in places where handling or small nuclear samples is required. using magnetic recording. 1965 – Carnegle Mellon University establishes the Robotics Institute.Isaac Asimov publishes Runaround. Whirlwind. planting the seed for the name of his future company – Unimation. . Stanford University. later known as AMF Corporation. mechanicalm and biological systems. 1964 – Artificial intelligence research laboratories are opened at MIT. markets the first cylindrical robot. American Machine and Foundry. solves its first problem.T. J. a book which describes the concept of communications and control in electronic. in which he defines the Three Laws of Robotics. Stanford Research Institute (SRI). a professor at M. the first digital general purpose computer..1942 . designed by Harry Johnson and Veljko Milenkovic. and the University of Edinburgh. This manipulator is the first of many Unimates to be deployed. 1948 – Norbert Wiener. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly build the ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania – the first electronic computer. This is generally regarded as the major milestone in force feedback technology. 1960 – Unimation is purchased by Condec Corporation and development of Unimate Robot Systems begins.I.

1968 – SRI builds Shakey. 1976 – Robot arms are used in Viking 1 and 2 space probes. 1977 – ASEA. 1978 – Brooks Automation founded 1979 – Sankyo and IBM market the SCARA ( Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) developed at Yamashi University in Japan. 1974 – Professor Victor Scheinman. Today. controlled by a computer the size of a room. a mobile robot with vision capability. forms Vicarm Inc. 1978 – Using technology from Vicarm. the first commercially available minicomputer. offers two sizes of electric powered industrial robots.. founded. 1977 – Unimation purchases Vicarm Inc.1965 – Homogeneous transformations applied to robot kinematics – this remains the foundation of robotics theory today. Unimation develops the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly).CRS Robotics Corp. developer of the Stanford Arm. The PUMA can still be found in many research labs today. its kinematic configuration remains known as the Standard Arm. 1968 – Kawasaki licenses hydraulic robot design from Unimation and starts production in Japan. incorporates a microcomputer into the Vicarm design. . The new arm is controlled by a minicomputer. a European robot company. 1983 – Adept Technology founded. to market a version of the arm for industrial applications. Vicarm Inc. Both robots use a microcomputer controller for programming and operation. 1982 – Fanuc of Japan and General Motors from joint venture in GM Fanuc to market robots in North America. 1970 – Professor Victor Scheinman of Stanford University designs the Stanford Arm. 1967 – Japan imports the Versatran robot from AMF (the first robot imported into Japan). 1973 – Cincinnati Milacron releases the T3. 1981 – Cognex founded 1981.

Kawasaki develops and produces its own line of electric robots. 2001 – Sony releases second generation of its Alto robot dog 2001 – Built by MD Robotics of Canada. 2000 – Honda showcases Asimo. a successful inventor and entrepreneur. the next generation of its series of humanoid robots. a six-legged walking robot. Rob Younge. 1997 – Honda showcases the P3. in 1956. at Robodex. They . a historic meeting occurs between George C. explores the Mt. and John Freud to design and market surgical robot systems. and engineer Joseph F. 1995 – Intuitive Surgical formed by Fred Moll. Spurr volcano in Alaska to sample volcanic gases. 1997 – NASA’s Mars Pathfinder mission captures the eyes and imagination of the world as Pathfinder lands on Mars and the Sojourner rover robot sends back images of its travel on the distant planet. Together they made a serious and commercially successful effort to develop a real. 1986 – With Uninamation license terminated. 1988 – Staubli Group purchases Unimation from Westinghouse. over cocktails the two discuss the writings of Isaac Asimov. the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is successfully launched into orbit and begins operations to complete assembly of International Space Station THE BIRTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS After the technology explosion during World War II. IBM and MIT. Founding technology based on the work at SRI. 2000 – Sony unveils humanoid robots. working robot. the 8th prototype in a humanoid design project started in 1986. later renamed Helpmates. to develop service robots.1984 – Joseph Engelberger starts Transition Robotics. Devol. 1989 – Computer Motion founded 1989 – Barrett Technology founded 1993 – Sensable Techonologies founded 1994 – CMU Robotics Institute’s Dante II. Engelberger. dubbed Sony Dream Robots (SDR).

Robot systems are certainly only one of the many possible means of automating and simplifying the production process. robot patent. Also in 1961.persuaded Norman Schafler of Condec Corporation in Danbury that they had the basis of a commercial success. palletizing. The field of industrial robotics may be more practically defined as the study. Their first robot nicknamed the 'Unimate'. The first Unimate was installed at a General Motors plant to work with heated die-casting machines. and make decision. . design and use of robot systems for manufacturing ( a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot). repetitive.998.S. capability of responding to sensory inputs. speed. to communicate with other machines. An industrial robot is a general purpose reprogrammable machine possessing certain anthromorphic characteristics like mechanical arm. Adept. and precision. Robots are therefore most cost-effective in conditions of frequent product changes and in automation of jobs requiring manual unskilled labor. Epson Robots. or potentially hazardous jobs. Joseph Engelberger is widely considered the “Father of Robotics. ironing. ABB. Manipulating Industrial Robots – Vocabulary) as an automatically controlled. multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. igm Robotersysteme. all accomplished with high endurance. Kawasaki and FANUC Robotics. Manufacturers of industrial robots include: Intelligence Actuator. painting. INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO (Standard 8373: 1994. EPSON-SEIKO. reprogrammable. One of the main advantages of industrial robots is that they can be quickly reprogrammed to undertake tasks that differ in sequence and character of manipulation steps. Industrial robots are being used more and more in many fields of industry where they are replacing human operators engaged in onerous. Devol wrote the necessary patents. They pave the way to a qualitatively new stage of automation.237 was granted to Devol—the first U.” Since 1977. Engelberger started a manufacturing company 'Unimation' which stood for universal automation and so the first commercial company to make robots was formed. pick and place. the Robotic Industries Association has presented the annual Engelberger Robotics Awards to world leaders in both application and leadership in the field of robotics. KUKA. assembly. product inspection. patent number 2. Yaskawa-Motoman. A particular point in favor of robots is that they can be taught to do jobs which are not amenable to automation or mechanization n through conventional approaches. and testing. namely. the development of production systems which would require a minimum human attendance Typical applications of industrial robots include welding.

One of the main causes of the intensive development of robotics is the need to increase productivity in manufacturing. relative to which an arm assembly is moved up and down. In comparison with conventional automatic means. The arm can be moved in and out relative to the axis of the column. first is bodyand-arm assembly and other is wrist assembly. This robot is well suited to round workspaces. Fig (a) Cylindrical configuration. Fig (b) . This configuration is well used when a large workspace must be covered. robots offer greater flexibility in solving technical and organizational problems and shorten the time needed to complete and adjust automatic systems.This robot configuration consist of a vertical column. The robot has a revolute motion about a base. and put them into service. This device is either a gripper for holding a work part or a tool performing some process. a prismatic joint for height.Positioning is done in the workspace with prismatic joints. Basic robot configurations: A robot manipulator is generally divided into two parts. and a prismatic joint for radius. or when consistent accuracy is expected from the robot. Body-and-arm configurations Cartesian or rectilinear configuration. and it is also called end effector.

This robot most resembles the human arm. This is similar to the joint arm or articulated arm configuration except that the shoulder and elbow axes are vertical. Fig (c) Articulated or joint spherical configuration. Generally the work volume is spherical. and then reach out some radial distance.Two revolute joints and one prismatic joint allow the robot to point in many directions. . Fig (d) SCARA configuration.SCARA is the acronym for Selective Compliance Robot Arm. with a waist. which means that the arm is very rigid in vertical direction. but compliant in the horizontal direction. elbow. wrist.The robot uses 3 revolute joints to position the robot. where some side-to-side alignment may be needed to mate the two parts properly. Fig (e) This permits the robot to perform insertion tasks for assembly in vertical direction.Polar or spherical configuration. shoulder.

are used to coordinate operation of the robot with other components in the cell. There are two typesInternal sensors. PITCH and YAW. For example.these include measuring sensors of temperature. They are of following typesTactile sensors. etc. It is also called Range sensor. The objects are usually work parts that are moved from one place to another. There are two typesGrippers Are the end effectors used to grasp and manipulate objects during work cycle. The three joints are defined as ROLL. fluid flow. optical encoders. This usually consists of two or three degrees of freedom wrist assembly.potentiometers. For example.photocells. whereas pitch involves up and rotation and yaw serves the purpose of right and left rotation. These sensors form a feedback control loop with the control system.used for inspection and part identification. External sensors. Proximity sensors. . Also used for proximity detection. End effectors These enable the robot to perform specific tasks and are attached to the wrist of robot. Roll is used to accomplish rotation about the robots arm axis.Wrist configurations The robots wrist is generally for the orientation of the end effector. voltage. tachometers. Machine vision.these indicate the distance of the object from the sensor. Sensors in industrial robots Sensors and actuators are used as control system components in industrial robots. current. pressure.used to determine whether contact is made between the sensor and the other object or not.used to detect presence or absence of objects.are those which are used for controlling position and velocity of various joints. Optical sensor. Other sensors.

magnetized grippers. assembly tool. spray painting gun.mechanical grippers. sizes and weights of parts to be held.In each case. arc welding tool. Tools These are used in applications where the robot must perform some processing operation on the work part. Fig (g) . heating torch.Several sizes of drilling bits applied to the work part. In some applications. sensory multiple fingered grippers are used according to the application. the robot not only controls the relative position of tool with respect to work piece but also controls the operation of tool.Fig (f) There are different types of grippers according to the shapes. For ex. dual. For ex. Therefore the robot manipulates the tool relative to stationery or slowly moving objects: Spot welding gun. vacuum grippers. multiple tools are also used by the robots during the work cycle. water jet cutting tool.

a molding machine and a robot. A large emergency stop button is usually included as well. Teach pendant: Robot positions can be taught via a teach pendant. Lead-by-the-nose: is a technique offered by many robot manufacturers. The common features of such units are the ability to manually send the robot to a desired position. This is a handheld control and programming unit. The purpose of the robot software is to facilitate both these programming tasks. The user then moves the robot by hand to the required positions and/or along a required path while the software logs these positions into memory. Software: The computer is installed with corresponding interface software.Robot programming and interfaces The setup or programming of motions and sequences for an industrial robot is typically taught by linking the robot controller to a laptop. for example a signal to indicate when the screw is in the feeder ready to be picked up. For example in a task to move a screw from a feeder to a hole the positions of the feeder and the hole must first be taught or programmed. They also have a means to change the speed since a low speed is usually required for careful positioning. The various machines are 'integrated' and controlled by a single computer or PLC. both with regard to their positions in the cell and synchronizing with them. one user holds the robot's manipulator. A robot and a collection of machines or peripherals is referred to as a workcell. Specialized robot software is run either in the robot controller or in the computer or both depending on the system design. desktop computer or (internal or Internet) network. A typical cell might contain a parts feeder. How the robot interacts with other machines in the cell must be programmed. There are two basic entities that need to be taught (or programmed): positional data and procedure. The . or "inch" or "jog" to adjust a position. The use of a computer greatly simplifies the programming process. In this method. while another person enters a command which de-energizes the robot causing it to go limp. or while test-running through a new or modified routine. Teaching the robot positions may be achieved a number of ways: Positional commands : The robot can be directed to the required position using a GUI or text based commands in which the required X-Y-Z position may be specified and edited. or cell. Typically once the robot has been programmed there is no more use for the teach pendant. Secondly the procedure to get the screw from the feeder to the hole must be programmed along with any I/O involved.

typically touchscreen units. There are two cases included in this application namely material transfer and machine loading and unloading. conveyor belts. easy assessment of infrequent changeovers in work cycle. These include end effectors. There are some properties of industrial robots which give them the flexibility to work in any environment such as accuracy. The technique has limited value because it relies on accurate measurement of the positions of the associated equipment and also relies on the positional accuracy the robot which may or may not conform to what is programmed Others In addition. safety interlock systems. or to provide additional storage for access to numerous complex paths and routines. bar code printers and an almost infinite array of other industrial devices which are accessed and controlled via the operator control panel. APPLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS As this is the era of automation and computer aided manufacturing. machine operators often use user interface devices. feeders that supply components to the robot. Offline programming :is where the entire cell. repeatability. machine vision systems. which serve as the operator control panel. The operator can switch from program to program. The teach pendant or PC is usually disconnected after programming and the robot then runs on the program that has been installed in its controller. multishift operation. This technique is popular for tasks such as paint spraying. The robot can then be moved on screen and the process simulated. However a computer is often used to 'supervise' the robot and any peripherals. industrial robots play a significant role in every aspect of manufacturing. make adjustments within a program and also operate a host of peripheral devices that may be integrated within the same robotic system. To perform this transfer it is equipped with a gripper type end effector. the robot and all the machines or instruments in the workspace are mapped graphically.program can later run the robot to these positions or along the taught path. The gripper design must be customized as per the requirement. Material transfer- . Material handlingIn this the robot moves material or parts from one place to other. emergency stop controls.

Assembly and inspection. Metal machining operations. insertion. For expalletizing. Assembly. Low technology robots such as pneumatically powered are sufficient. Because of the economic importance of assembly.This application may involve either the handling of material or the manipulation of tool. Same is done in plastic moulding.It involves the addition of two or more parts to form a new entity. . stacking.machine loading in which robot loads parts of the production machine. heat treating and many more. Fig (h) Machine loading and/or unloadingIn this the robot transfers parts into and/or from a production machine.the robot unloads parts from the die casting machine. Second is machine unloading in which the raw materials are fed to the machine without using robot and it is used to unload finished products. above activities are logical candidates for robotic applications.The basic application in this category is pick-and-place operation. press working. This is made secure by fastening two or more parts by different mechanical fastening techniques. While the third case is machine loading and unloading in this both loading of the raw product and unloading of finished work parts is done by robots Industrial robot application of machine loading and/or unloading included in following processes: Die casting. Due to these reasons.here robots are used to load raw work piece material to the machine tool and to unload the finished product. These two are the labor intensive activities traditionally and also boring and highly repetitive. Similar kind of work is done by robots in forging. The three possible cases are.

Identifying defects in raw material and the end products. The repeatability. . Ensuring that the parts have been added in assembly line as specified. the part must be presented at the workstation in the correct position and orientation.Perhaps the most popular applications of robots is in industrial welding. Welding. Processing applications. To perform testing. The robot performs loading and unloading tasks to support an inspection or testing machine. The two basic types of welding are spot welding and arc welding. This performs following functionsMaking sure that the given process is complete. to test the product. Some environmental requirements should be considered for a successful operation.automated methods are often applied. various machining and other rotating spindle processes. as mechanical probe. uniformity quality. Fig (i) Inspection.There is often need in automated plants and assembly systems to inspect the work that is supposed to do. and the robot automatically manipulates the device as required. The most appealing application for industrial robots for assembly is where a mixture of similar products are produced in the same work cell or assembly line. and speed of robotic welding is unmatched.This application includes the use of industrial robots in different categories like different types of welding techniques. spray painting. The robot also manipulates an inspection device. although laser welding is done.

because the feet are quiet small and the balance at all times has to be dynamic. relieving the human operator from a hazardous.Drilling. that is. jumping. LEGGED ROBOTS Walking. riveting are some other processing applications which are performed by the industrial robots in manufacturing plants. Jointed arm robots most commonly used. Spray Coating. with sufficient payload capacity to hold the heavy welding gun. The human stabilizes the movement by integrating signals from: ■ Vision. which includes ground position and estimates of the fi rmness of the ground and the coefficient of friction. ■ Proprioception. laser cutting. while at the same time increasing work quality. and cutting costs. knowledge of the positions of all the interacting muscles. albeit skillful job. Industrial robots are also used to automate the continuous arc welding. and skipping are some of the most sophisticated movements that occur in nature. wire brushing. Five or six axes robots are preferred. Other processing applications. water jet cutting. the forces on them and the rate of movement of the joints. uniformity. . The spray painting applications seems to epitomize the proper applications of robotics. Routing and other machining processes. If one falls asleep on ones feet he falls over.Fig (j) Robots used in spot welding are usually large.It makes use of spray gun directed at the object. The robots used for this application must be capable of continuous path control. Other than these applications there are many purposes served by the industrial robots. grinding. running. even standing still requires sophisticated control.

The necessity for static stability in arthropods has been used as one of. since they do not need a continuous support surface. One possibility is to design and build a walking robot and to develop study based on the prototype. These aspects deserve great interest and. the high usefulness of these machines can discount on some of the cost factors and technical difficulty associated with the making of these systems. for the study. if not the most important. the semicircular canals used for orientation and balance. Moreover. Due to these reasons. and are used. hence. The history of interest in walking machines is quite old. But until recently. Static Balance Methods Traditionally. such as climbing stairs or ladders. Research on . Yet. agricultural operations. for movements in situations designed for human legs. different approaches may be adopted. Some instances are in hauling loads over soft or irregular ground often with obstacles. the motors and power storage system required for these systems are highly expensive. but none is as efficient as those of humans. design. because the high computational speed required by these systems was not available earlier. Various walking machines have been developed to imitate human legs. Even the walking of four-legged animals is also highly complex and quite difficult to reproduce. reason why insects have at least six legs and use two sets of alternating tripods of support during locomotion. few have attempted to quantify static stability as a function of gait or variation in body form. Nevertheless. BALANCE OF LEGGED ROBOTS The greatest challenge in building a legged robot is its balance. This last approach has several advantages. several different simulation models were developed. stability in legged locomotion is taken to refer to static stability. An alternative perspective consists of the development of walking machine simulation models that serve as the basis for the research. In order to study them. but the requirements for leg coordination and control impose diffi culties beyond those encountered in wheeled robots. namely lower development costs and a smaller time for implementing the modifi cations.■ The vesicular apparatus. Walking machines allow locomotion in terrain inaccessible to other type of vehicles. There are two ways to balance a robot body. namely static balance and dynamic balance. they could not be developed extensively. Numerous investigators have discussed the stepping patterns that insects require to maintain static stability during locomotion. A very large number of muscles are used in a coordinated way to swing legs and the muscle in an engine consisting of a power source in series with an elastic connection. various walking machines have been developed and several aspects of these machines are being studied theoretically. and gait analysis and testing of control algorithms for artificial locomotion systems. optimization.

The problem of maintaining a stable platform is considerably more complex with four legs than it is with five.1 (a) the triangle for the fi rst posture is stable because it contains the center of mass. The minimum requirement to attain static stability is a tripod of support. the center of mass moves with respect to the legs. In Figure 7. and the likelihood of falling increases the closer the center of mass comes to the edge of the triangle of support. . In Figure 7. In the quasi-static gait of a robot or animal.1 two successive postures or steps are shown for a four.and six-legged robot. with only four legs a shift in the center of mass is required to take a step. In Figure 7. it is statically unstable and will fall. but for the second posture the center of mass must be shifted in order for the triangle to be stable. since to maintain a statically stable platform there must always be at least three legs on the ground at any given time. as in a stool. for the six-legged robot in Figure 7. on the other hand. Hence.legged walking machines provided an approach to quantify static stability.1 (b) the center of mass can remain the same for successive postures. A six-legged robot.1 static balance is compared between six-legged and four-legged robotic platforms. In contrast. six. or more. If an animal’s center of mass falls outside the triangle of support formed by its three feet on the ground. can always have a stable triangle—one that strictly contains the center of mass.

state variables such as velocities. periodic gait after a perturbation. until at the highest speeds they became statically unstable during certain parts of each stride. is essentially periodic in time. In the horizontal plane. Six. suggest that running at a constant average speed. At the highest speeds. while clearly a dynamical process. and force and velocity measurements on animals. bounce centering the animal from side to side. lateral leg spring. These models. and positions) to return to a steady state.. cockroaches and ants exhibit aerial phases. Robots can prosper from the aspects of animal dynamics in several ways: ■ Robot bodies can be designed to take advantage of potential kinetic energy transformations. and especially forward inertia.and eight-legged animals are best modeled as dynamic.e. spring-load. It was discovered that the degree of static stability decreased as insects ran faster.Dynamic Balance Methods Dynamic stability analysis is required for all but the slowest movements. . angles. We define locomotor stability as the ability of characteristic measurements (i. inverted pendulums in the same way as two. insects and other legged runners are best modeled by a dynamic. ghost crabs.and four-legged runners. even when a support tripod was present.

store. Many designs were proposed. workers viewed the task of building walking machines as the task of designing linkages that would generate suitable stepping motions when driven by a source of power. Stanford had wagered that it never did. and then rerelease the energy of foot impact. including humans. to . then governor of California. ■ Robot legs can be arranged. Milestones in the Development of Legged Robots 1850 Chebyshev Designs linkage used in early walking mechanism. During the 80 or 90 years that followed.The linkage was originally designed by the famous Russian mathematician Chebyshev some years earlier. like in the roach. It used a linkage to move the body along a straight horizontal path while the feet moved up and down to exchange support during stepping. An early walking model appeared in about 1870. which in turn can lessen the complexity of controllers and improve the overall stability of the devices in dynamic situations. By the late 1950s. since they could not adjust to variations in the terrain by placing the feet on the best footholds. Muybridge went on to document the walking and rurming behavior of over 40 mammals. The study of machines that walk also had its origin in Muybridge’s time. it had become clear that linkages providing fixed motion would not suffice and that useful walking machines would need control. His photographic data are still of considerable value and survive as a landmark in locomotion research. commissioned Eadweard Muybridge to find out whether or not a trotting horse left the ground with all four feet at the same time. but the performance of such machines was limited by their fixed patterns of motion. to take advantage of selfstabilizing forces. Uses stop-motion photography document running animals.■ Robot legs can be designed to absorb. After Muybridge proved him wrong with a set of stopmotion photographs that appeared in Scientific American in 1878. RESEARCH ON LEGGED MACHINES The scientific study of legged locomotion began just over a century ago when Leland Stanford.

1980 Hirose and Umetani 1980 Kato .000-ton walking dragline.1893 Rygg Patents human-powered mechanical horse.. Eight-legged kinematic walks in outdoor terrain. Hydraulic biped quasidynamic gait. Big Muskie. Schaefer Higdon balances single. a 15. Hybrid computer controls hexapod walker in USSR. machine 1961 Space General 1963 Cannon. walks with 1968 Mosher GE 1969 Bucyrus-Erie Co. limber inverted 1968 Frank and McGhee Simple digital logic controls walking of Phony Pony. Digital computer coordinates leg motions of hexapod walking machine. Patents hopping tank with reaction wheals that provide stability. and Control system double. The leg mechanism simplifies control. ft moves in soft terrain at a speed of 900 ft. Human runners set new speed records on tuned track at Harvard. 1977 McGhee 1977 Gurfinkel 1977 McMahon and Greene leg. Its compliance is adjusted to mechanics of human Quadruped machine climbs stairs and climbs over obstacles using simple sensors./h. and pendulums. is used for strip mining. Quadruped truck climbs railroad ties under control of human driver.

hydraulics. Self-contained hexapod lifts and moves back end of pickup truck. . consisting of pivots and rigid members. are a simple means of generating patterned motion.1980 Matsuoka Mechanism balances in the plane while hopping on one leg. Two identical linkages are arranged to operate out of phase so at least one provides a straight motion at all times. Computer. the output point M moves along a straight path during one part of the cycle and an arched path during the other part. Linkages of this sort. 1981 Miura and Shimoyama 1983 Gumerland 1983 Odetics Linkage used in early walking machines When input crank AB rotates. Walking biped balances actively in three-dimensional space. The body is always supported by feet connected to the straight-moving linkage. and human share computing task. Hexapod carries human rider.

Rigg. The stirrups double as pedals so the rider can power the stepping motions. . The reins move the head and forelegs from side to side for steering.Mechanical Horse This was patented by Lewis A. Apparently this machine was never built.

Quadruped Machine . The human driver controlled the machine with four handles and pedals that were hydraulically connected to the four legs.Walking Truck This machine was developed by Ralph Mosher at General Electric in about 1968.

Control Resolution . then the control resolution is about 0. Note that coordinates are a combination of both the position of the origin and orientation of the axes. If a rotary joint has an encoder that measures every 0. the maximum distance should be considered the accuracy. This is an effect of a control system that is not necessarily continuous.01).5+0.This is determined by the resolution of the workspace. it will often be off by some amount.5 degrees (the worst case can be 0.5 degrees.The robot can move. If the robot is commanded to travel to a point in space.Design for Three-Dimensional Hopping Machine Basic terms used in Robotics Accuracy . . and a direct drive servo motor is used to drive the joint. with a resolution of 0. or caused by the actuators.01 degree of rotation. whichever is larger. therefore it is necessary to define positions. Coordinates .This is the smallest change that can be measured by the feedback sensors.

6 degrees of freedom are enough to allow the robot to reach all positions and orientations in 3D space. To fully control the orientation of the end of the arm (i. and joints are the movable couplings between them. speed. Some designs (e. pitch and yaw are the common orientation axes used. while the other 2or 3 are used for orientation of the end effector. . the wrist) three more axes are required. 3 of the degrees of freedom allow positioning in 3D space.g. rotary. the orientation determines which direction it can be pointed in. Robots typically have 5 or 6 degrees of freedom.Basically. 5 degrees of freedom robots are commonly used for handling tools such as arc welders. if the tool is held at a fixed position.Degree of Freedom -Each joint on the robot introduces a degree of freedom. and accuracy. Fig(1) There are five types of joints 1) linear joint [type L] 2) 3) 4) 5) orthogonal joints [type O] rotational joint [type R] twisting joint [type T] revolving joint [type V] Orientation Axes .Links are the solid structural members of a robot. Links and Joints . the SCARA robot) trade limitations in motion possibilities for cost. It is usually the same as the number of axes. or other type of actuator. Looking at the figure below it will be obvious that the tool can be positioned at any orientation in space. Numbers of axes – two axes are required to reach any point in a plane. or else it limits orientations.e. 5 degrees of freedom requires a restriction to 2D space. three axes are required to reach any point in space. Each degree of freedom can be a slider. Roll.

or dramatic loss of accuracy. and still have the robot operate. When the robot is accelerating fast. the payload should be less than the maximum mass. as well as the robot structure.The tool.refers either to the maximum velocity that is achievable by the TCP. It is possible to exceed the maximum payload.The payload indicates the maximum mass the robot can lift before either failure of the robots. and slowly approaches. and the actuators. The settling time is the time required for the robot to be within a given distance from the final position. Payload .During a movement. Repeatability is considered to be +/-3 times the standard deviation of the position.5% of all repeatability measurements fall. This means that when the robot is repeatedly instructed to return to the same point. Fig (4) Repeatability. especially near the boundaries of the workspace. but manufacturers will give a single value in specifications. but as the robot approaches the final position is slows down. The end of arm tooling should be considered part of the payload. This figure will vary over the workspace.Fig (2) Position Axes . Speed . This is affected by the ability to firmly grip the part. can be moved to a number of positions in space. or by individual joints. and will vary over the workspace as the geometry of the robot changes (and hence the dynamic effects). the robot moves fast. or where 99. The number will often reflect the maximum safest speed . Various robot geometries are suited to different work geometries. but this is not advised. regardless of orientation. Settling Time . This number is not accurate in most robots. it will not always stop at the same position.The robot mechanism will have some natural variance in it.

the TCP could be at the tip of a welding torch) The TCP can be specified in Cartesian.The robot tends to have a fixed and limited geometry. etc. Fig (4) Fig (3) . as well as the focal point of the tool. The work envelope is the boundary of positions in space that the robot can reach. Tool Centre Point (TCP) . For a Cartesian robot (like an overhead crane) the workspace might be a square. Work envelope/Workspace . spherical.possible. but it should be done with great care. As tools are changed we will often reprogram the robot for the TCP. (E. Typically the TCP is used when referring to the robots position. cylindrical. coordinates depending on the robot. for more sophisticated robots the workspace might be a shape that looks like a `clump of intersecting bubbles.g. or the tool. Some robots allow the maximum rated speed (100%) to be passed.The tool centre point is located either on the robot.

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