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Electrical Installation Works

specialized construction work that is performed during the erection or reconstruction of buildings
or structures intended forvarious purposes and that entails the installation of electric wiring and
electrical equipment. The electric wiring may beoverhead power lines, cable lines, current leads,
or interior wiring. Examples of electrical equipment include electricmachinery, distribution cente
rs, and control consoles. In the USSR, electrical installation work is usually carried out in twosta
The first stage, which coincides in time with general construction work, includes the installation
of fasteners or inserts instructural elements for the subsequent attachment of electrical equipment
and structures for the installation of electric wiring.It also includes the installation of conduits fo
r electric wiring in the foundations and floors of buildings or structures and theinstallation of wal
l sockets for outlets and switches. In the first stage, the preassembly of electrical equipment and
wiringstructures, the fabrication of conduit sections, and the board lacing of wires and cables for
lighting and other circuits arecarried out away from the construction site in specially equipped el
ectrical-installation prefabrication shops.
In the second stage, the electrical equipment and the structures for the installation of wiring are tr
ansported to theconstruction site, installed in the planned locations, and assembled. In addition, c
ables and wires are laid and are connectedto the installed electrical equipment. Electrical installat
ion work is completed when the installed equipment is actuated andadjusted. The most complicat
ed work in this respect is the adjustment of relay protection and automatic control systems forele
ctric drives.
Electrical installation work is mechanized through the use of general-
purpose construction machinery—for example, lifttrucks, hoists, and truck cranes—
and of specialized electrical-installation machinery, devices, and tools.
The time required for electrical installation work is reduced and the productivity of labor in such
work is raised primarilythrough the use of industrial methods of installing electrical equipment a
nd through the delivery to construction sites ofstructures for the installation of wiring and elemen
ts of electric wiring in consolidated subassemblies and units, which arefabricated and assembled
in electrical-
installation prefabrication shops. The level of industrialization of electrical installationwork is du
e in large part to the output by industry of complete sets of electrical equipment and of electric w
iring that can beeasily installed and adjusted.
One of the main trends in the further industrialization of electrical installation work is the use of l
arge-scale electricalengineering facilities, for example, the rooms of electric-
drive control stations and of urban transformer substations. Suchfacilities are delivered by indust
ry with the electrical equipment completely installed and adjusted. In this case, electricalinstallati
on work is reduced to the installation of such facilities and the connection of the facilities to exte
rnal power networks.
Electrical work installation work intended for various purposes that use electrical
cabling and electrical equipment. examples include electrical machines, distribution centers and
control consoles. there are two stages: stage 1 which coincides with the time of general
construction work and stage 2 is electrical equipment and the structure for wiring is moved to a
construction site. the most complicated work is the adjustment of relay protection and automatic
control system for electric drive. the level of industrialization of installation work is largely due
to the output of the industry
Electric power, energy generated through the conversion of other forms of energy, such as
mechanical, thermal, or chemical energy. Electric energy is unrivaled for many uses, as for
lighting, computer operation, motive power, and entertainment applications. For other uses it is
competitive, as for many industrial heating applications, cooking, space heating, and railway
Electric power is characterized by current or the flow of electric charge and voltage or the
potential of charge to deliver energy. A given value of power can be produced by any
combination of current and voltage values. If the current is direct, electronic charge progresses
always in the same direction through the device receiving power. If the current is alternating,
electronic charge moves back and forth in the device and in the wires connected to it. For many
applications either type of current is suitable, but alternating current (AC) is most widely
available because of the greater efficiency with which it can be generated and distributed.
A direct current (DC) is required for certain industrial applications, such as electroplating and
electrometallurgical processes and for most electronic devices.
The wide-scale production and distribution of electric power was made possible by the
development of the electric generator, a device that operates on the basis of
the induction principle formulated in 1831 by the English scientist Michael Faraday and
independently by the American scientist Joseph Henry. The first public power station employing
an electric generator began operation in London in January 1882. A second such station opened
later that same year in New York City. Both used DC systems, which proved inefficient for long-
distance power transmission. By the early 1890s the first practical AC generator was built at the
Lauffen power station in Germany, and service to Frankfurt am Main was initiated in 1891.
There are two primary sources for driving generators—hydro and thermal. Hydroelectric
power is derived from generators and turbines driven by falling water. Most other electric energy
is obtained from generators coupled to turbines driven by steam produced either by a nuclear
reactor or by burning fossil fuels—namely, coal, oil, and natural gas.
Until the 1930s, hydroelectric-power plants equipped with water-turbine generating units
produced the largest percentage of electric energy because they were less expensive to operate
than thermal-power plants using steam-turbine units. Since that time, major technological
advances have reduced the cost of thermal-power generation, while the cost of developing more
remote hydroelectric sites has increased. By 1990, hydroelectric-power
production constituted only 18 percent of global electric energy output. Thermal plants
using nuclear energy or gas turbines to run steam-electric units are among these technological
advances. Alternative electric energy sources include solar cells, wind turbines, fuel cells, and
geothermal-power stations.
Electric energy generated at a central power station is transmitted to bulk delivery points,
or substations, from which it is distributed to consumers. Transmission is accomplished by an
extensive network of high-voltage power lines, including overhead wires and underground and
submarine cables. Voltages higher than those suitable for power plant generators are required
when transmitting alternating current over long distances in order to reduce the power losses that
result from the resistance of transmission lines. Step-up transformers are employed at the
generating station to increase the transmission voltage. At the substations other transformers step
down the voltage to levels suitable for distribution systems.
Energy can produce other forms of energy, such as mechanical energy, thermal / chemical. the
characteristics of electric power are the current / flow of electrical charge and the potential
voltage of charge to transmit energy. The given power value can be generated by a combination
of current and voltage values. There are 2 main sources to drive the generator that is hydro and
thermal. hydroelectric power comes from generators and turbines driven by falling water.
Alternative energy sources include solar cells, wind turbines, fuel cells, and geothermal power
plants. the central energy generated in the transmission to the point of delivery which will be
distributed to the consumer. step up transformer is used to increase the transmission voltage. And
in other substations - other substations transformers in the lower voltage in accordance with the
distribution system.