You are on page 1of 5


I. Introduction 
➢ study of small particles( micron size label) 
➢ study of various characteristics including Particle Size And Distribution, Shape, 
Angle Of Repose, Porosity, Volume, Density And Bulkiness. 

​ urface Area Increases ​⇒ I​ ncrease Solubility And 

➢ As Particle Size Decreases ​⇒ S

​ reater and Quicker drug action  

Dissolution ​⇒ G

➢ Release and dissolution:​ small particle size ⇒ more surface area ⇒ more drug 
solubility so faster dissolution 
➢ ​Absorption of drug​: high dissolution cause faster absorption of drug 
➢ ​Physical stability:​ small particle size( 2 to 5 micrometre) ⇒ brownian movement ⇒ 
good suspendability ⇒ stable suspension and emulsion; ointment, cream, 
ophthalmic preparation⇒ lake of grittiness 
➢ Drug uniformity​: small spherical particles ⇒ good flow property of granules ⇒ 
please has uniform weight of tablet/ capsule and drug content during filling/ 
compression. number/ weight of the particle and their distribution should be same 
in each tablet⇒ produced same therapeutic effect. 

II. Determination of particle size:  

A. Optical microscopy ​(0.2- 100 μm) : used to determine size of particle (in 
suspension) and globules (in emulsion) & in aerosol. 
B. Sieving method​ (50-1500 μm) 
C. Sedimentation​ (1- 200 μm)- anderson/andreason pipette 
D. Conductivity method/ coulter counter method​(0.5-500 μm): measured particle 
volume then it is converted into particle diameter.  

©ThePharmapedia & Pharmacon

III. Particle surface area determination  
A. Gas Absorption 
B. ​Air Permeability​: Fischer Subscene Sizes Instrument; Kozenyi Carman 
Equation is used to determine SA. 

IV. Determination of density: Pycnometer 

V. Flow property 
A. Angle of repose: 

tan θ= h/r , θ=tan​-1​( h/r ) θ= angle of repose  

©ThePharmapedia & Pharmacon

Angle of repose  Flow property 

く25  Excellent flow 

25-30  good 

30-40  passable/satisfactory  

>40  poor 

B. ​Considilation/carr’s index: 


Carr’s Index  Flow property 

5-15  Excellent  

12-16  Good  

18-21  Fair to passble 

23-35  Poor  

33-38  Very poor 

> 40  Very very poor 

VI. Poders 
➢ Powder  is considered as a collection of particles. If the Powder contain particle 
of  one  size,  the  Powder  is  termed  mono  size  or  monodisperse.  Uniform  size 
particles  are  normally  obtained  by  passing  the  Powder  through  the  sieve  of 
the desired aperture. 
➢ Size  for  diameter  is  a  fundamental  property  of  particle.  Volume,  density, 
porosity etc are the properties derived from fundamental properties.  
➢ Particle  number​:  The  number  of  particles  present  in  a  dosage  form  should 
remain constant in order to maintain the dose uniformity. 

©ThePharmapedia & Pharmacon

➢ Particle  size  distribution:  The  number  of  particles  present  in  each  size  range 
in  a  given  weight  of  powder.  Particle  size  distribution  is  ​expressed  as  the 
number or weight of the particular lying within a certain size range. 

❖ Porosity​: Influence the rate of Disintegration & Dissolution of Dosage form(more 

porous- faster rate of dissolution) 
❖ ​Bulk Density​: Helps In Selecting Container For Packing A Dosage Form 
❖ ​Flow Propertie​s: Help In Maintaining A Uniform Weight Of Tablet Or Capsule During 
❖ Volumes​: 
➢ ​True Volume​-volume of Powder Itself 
➢ ​Granule Volume​- Volume of Powder Itself + Volume of Intraparticle 
➢ ​Bulk Volume​- Volume of Powder Itself + Volume of Intraparticle Space + 
Volume of Interparticle Space (Voids). 
Density = mass ÷ v olume  

©ThePharmapedia & Pharmacon

❖ Classification of poder by fineness

S. All particle passes But not more than % particle ...through

No. through ​Sieve No​. pass... Sieve No

1 Very coarse 8 20 60

2 Coarse 20 40 60

3 Moderate coarse 40 40 80

4 Fine coarse 60 40 100

5 Very fine 80 - -


©ThePharmapedia & Pharmacon