THE LIBRARY THE INSTITUTE OF MEDIAEVAL STUDIES TORONTO

PRESENTED BY
Rev. A. A. Vaschalde, B»S»B»
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
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2011 with funding from
University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/handbooktogramOOgree

HANDBOOK
TO THE

GRAMMAK OF THE GREEK TESTAMENT.

HANDBOOK
TO

THE GRAMMAR
OF

THE GREEK TESTAMENT
TOGETHER WITH

A COMPLETE VOCABULARY,
CHIEF

AND AN

EXAMINATION OF THE

NEW TESTAMENT SYNONYMS

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS EXAMPLES AND COMMENTS

BY

Rev.

S.

G.

GREEN,

D.D,

REVISED AND IMPROVED EDITION

FLEMING New York

H.

REVELL COMPANY
Chicago
Society.

Toronto
London

The Religious Tract

6^9^2.
riov
\

a 02.0

PEEFACE.
(See also Xote to Hevised Edition,
jj.

xi.)

That

a knowledge of the

New

Testament in

its

original tongue

is

a thing

to be desired

by

intelligent Christians none ^'ill question.

Such

desire has

probably been largely quickened by the appearance of the Revised Version.

Xo book can be thoroughly known
although
*'

in a translation
is

only

;

and the

Bible,

the most translatable of books,"

no exception.
are deterred

Many, who would gladly undertake the study,
and unquestionable
to ask
difficulties of the

by the manifold
worth while

Greek language.

It seems

whether

this obstacle cannot, in

some measure, be removed.
Testament, as a later dialect of an
effectively

Undoubtedly, the Greek of the
elaborate

New

and polished language, can most
of the

be

studied through

the
is

medium

elder forms of the tongue.
;

This method, accordingly,

in general chosen

and the historians and

orators, the philosophers

and

poets of Greece, have led the

way

to the Evangelists

and the Apostles.

Yet many persons have no opportunity Are they, therefore,
critics,

for studies so extended
access,

and

difficult.

to be

forbidden

all

save through translators,
?
is,

and

interpreters, to the

words of the Divine revelation

In attempting to reply, we note that the Greek of Scripture
purposes, a language complete in
its
itself.

for

most

Its

forms and rules are

definite,

usages in general precise.

Its peculiarities,

though best approached from

the classic side,

may

be reached by a shorter way, and be almost as well

comprehended.

Many
to

circumstances,

again,

facilitate

the

special

study

of

the

New

Testament tongue.

The language

of orators
artificial

and philosophers had descended
speech.

men

of simpler

mind and

less

Comparing the Sacred

Volume with Greek
grammatical forms,

literature generally,
less intricate

we

find a smaller vocabulary, fewer scantier lists of

etymological rules, with

VI
exceptions,

PREFACE.
and a far
being
less

elaborate

syntax

;

wliile

tlie

student has

tlie

advantage of
interesting,

confined for the

time to one limited, but intensely

field.

The following pages
Greek
for
classical

are then intended
is,

as a sufficient guide to Biblical

English students, that
It

for those

who have

not studied the

languages.

may

also

be of service to those

who have made

some progress in

classical studies,

but who wish
of

to concentrate their chief

regards upon the language

and syntax

the

New

Testament.
for its study, are
all

The plan
sufficiently

of the volume,
set

and the method recommended
Introduction.

forth

in

the

To

specify

the

sources,

English and German, from which valuable aid has been derived, would
be unnecessary.
large
of

Winer's comprehensive work (translated into English, with
of

and valuable additions, by the Rev. Dr. Moulton,
discussions of the late Dr. Donaldson.

Cambridge) has

course been consulted throughout.

Scarcely less useful have been the

researches and

The New Testament
S.

Grammars
afforded
it

of

the Rev.

W.

Webster, and of the Rev. T.
hints.

Green, have

some very valuable

On Greek Testament
J.

Lexicography,

will suffice to

name

the Clavis Xovi Testcnnenti by Dr. C. L.

W. Grimm,
;

now

translated into

English,

with additions, by Dr.

H. Thayer

also

Cremer's

New

Testament Lexicon, translated by the Rev.

W.

Urwick, M.A.

The

first

Edition of the work was carefully revised in MS. by the Rev.

Dr. Jacob,

late Head Master of Christ's Hospital, author of the Bromsyruve Greek Grammar, and other classical works and, in the proof sheets, by the
;

Rev. R. B.

Girdlestone,

M.A., and by the late Rev. T. G. Rooke, B.A.,

afterwards President of
those gentlemen the

students of
the better

Rawdon College. To the important suggestions of volume owes very much. It is commended to attentive the New Testament, in the hope that it may lead not a few to

understanding, and therefore to the higher appreciation of the

Divine oracles.

INTEODUCTION.

The

following work so far differs from other manuals of the Greek
its method and in the persons for whom it is some preliminary words on the plan by which its

language, both in
intended, that

several parts sliould be studied will not be out of place.

On Orthography,
the
difficulties

the sections should be thoroughly mastered,

not only for the sake of facility in reading, but because most of

and so-called irregularities in the inflection of and verbs depend on letter-changes, of which the rules are comparatively few, and really simple. To know these laAvs at the outset is to be provided with a key to varieties and intricacies which might otherwise prove hopelessly It will be advisable that no student should advance bewildering. beyond this portion of the work before being able to read the lessons on pages 10, 11 with fluency, and accurately to transGreat attention should be literate the paragraph on page 12.
substantives, adjectives,

paid at this stage to pronunciation, especially to the distinction

between the long and short vowels and those who may be studying the work by themselves are strongly recommended to take an opportunity of reading a chapter or two in Greek to some scholar who can criticise and correct their mistakes. In Etymology, the forms must be carefully and completely learned. Everything in the student's further progress depends upon this. It is believed that the systematic and progressive plan on which the substantives and verbs, as the groundwork of the whole, have been discussed, will but lightly burden the memory, while the judgment will be kept constantly at work. The chief point to be noted is the place and power of the stem in Greek
;

.G5

Vlll

INTRODUCTION.

words.

and second declensions of Substantives will be seen to be mainly reducible to the same law the third declension, instead of perplexing the learner by countless varieties, will The inflection of Adjectives will exhibit one normal form.
first
; ;

The

while the appear but a repetition of that of the Substantives Peonouns only slightly differ. Of the Verbs, the terminations

should in the
are

first

instance

be

carefully

studied.

The

first

Paradigm exhibits the simplest

way
;

in which these terminations

combined v/ith the verbal root those that follow being but variations on the same model, according to the character of the Stem. The Verbs in /xt, called here " the Second Conjugation," are classified in a way which, it is believed, will give no serious
difficulty to the student.

The Exercises up to this point are simply for practice in declension and conjugation, consisting almost exclusively of words occurring in the " Sermon on the Mount " they are fair specimens and the learner is of the ordinary vocabulary of the language strongly recommended to write them out in all their forms, not neglecting the accents, which, by the help of the rules given
:

;

under the several heads, will present but little difficulty. A stock of words will thus have been acquired, with a knowledge of forms of inflection quite sufficient for ordinary cases.
chapters of greater difficulty follow (§§ 93 99 inclusive), treating of the Verbs, tense by tense, and exhibiting the chief

Some

and anomalies in particular words. These sections may be omitted on a first study of the volume, but it will be important to read them carefully afterwards. The aim has been, so to
variations
classify the verbal

forms that the apparent irregularities

may

be
;

seen to be, in general, exemplifications of some more extended rule

and without trespassing on the more extended field of classical literature, to leave no word in the New Testament without the means of ready analysis and explanation. The Exercises which succeed these sections are for still further Here for the first time some easy sentences are introduced test. for translation. Logically, these should no doubt have been deferred until some rules of Syntax had been laid down but tlie
;

INTRODUCTION.
interest

IX

be held a sufficient defence of the irregularities, especially as they contain scarcely any usages but such as are already familiar to those who have
utility

and

of

such Exercises

may

grammatically studied a-ny language.
be found necessary.

Here the Vocabulary will

The chapters on the indeclinable Parts of Speech (§§ 118 138 inclusive) call for no remark. Their complete discussion belongs Syntax but it was held necessary to the completeness of the to Etymology to give at least a general view of their formation and
:

meaning.
studied.

So far as they extend, these sections should be closely
will then be prepared for the Syntax, the study of
if

The reader

the intermediate chapters being postponed,

preferred, to a sub-

These sections (§§ 139 159 inclusive), on the different Languages of which the Xew Testament contains the trace, and on Xew Testament Proper Names, will suggest topics of
sequent stage.
interesting inquiry, which, in a

manual

like the present, could be

pursued only for a very

little

way.
of concord,

The Syntax embodies the simplest laws

government,

and the connection of sentences, as well as others of a more special and less obvious kind. The doctrines of the Article, of the Preposition, and of the Tenses, have received careful attention, as throwing light on many obscure or misunderstood passages. The arrangement of the Syntax has been adopted with a view to the learner's convenience, and for the most part follows the order of
the parts of speech.

The student

is

specially

and strongly recommended

to

study

the order of the whole work, and especially of this part, in the

Analytical Table of Contents. To this Table much care has been devoted, in the hope that it might be convenient, not only for ordinary reference, but as an outline and conspectus of the volume; suggesting at one view the leading principles of the language, and
especially useful in recapitulatory examinations.

The sentences from the Greek Testament,
division of the work, are intended partly to
to

so

which they are appended, the

illustrative

numerous in this exemphfy the rules words being printed

::

INTRODUCTION".
a thicker type

ill

;

partly also to form together a series of PrepaPri?)ier,

ratory Eeacling

Lessons or
is

introductory

to

the

Sacred

Volume.

The student

therefore earnestly counselled to study

these sentences in order.
easier parts of
difficult

Most

of

them, of course, belong to the
;

New

Testament Scripture
in their structure
;

others again are

more
will

and unusual

while in very

many

be discovered shades or specialties of meaning which the English

Version does not exhibit, and which perhaps no translation could reproduce. The study, therefore, of these sentences will be an
introduction to Biblical exegesis, which
readers for more extended inquiries.

may

prepare not a few

A

brief discussion of the chief

New

Testament Synonyms, and a

Vocabulary
the work.

to the

whole

New

Testament, complete the plan of

This
only.

Handbook claims, be it remembered, to be an Introduction By its means, a not inadequate beginning may be made in
surely the noblest of studies.
Its

what

is

aim

is

to fanuliarise

many
words

readers,
of

who

else
of
it

Christ and

had His Apostles.

despaired of the possibility, with the

Should

its

purpose in any

way be

accomplished,

will give access also to those criticisms

by

which expositors in our own land and age, as in others, have so The labour variously and nobly illustrated the " living oracles." been well spent and readers followed by such rewards will have of the New Testament in its own tongue, whether they advance or not to that high critical discernment which only the few attain; will have found in the acquisition a pure and life-long joy.
:

NOTE TO EEYISED EDITION.

The experience
received
to

of

many

years,

and the numerous testimonies

the value of the

Handbook, have warranted the

Editor in re-issuing the work in the same general form as heretofore.

The whole, however, has undergone a very

close

and

careful revision, results of

which appear on almost every page.

The frequent
of

references to the Eevised jSTew Testa^ient
letters R.

Version

1881 are indicated by the
been made in the

V.

Improvements have
of

also

size of the page,

and the emphasising
the eye

points of importance

by

tliick type, that

may

aid the

mind.

In the former editions the Greek Testament quotations were

made
of

in general from the Eeceived Text

;

the various readings

Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, and Tregelles, being occa-

sionally given.
critical text,

In order to secure the advantage

of

a

modern

without discussions that often convey no real help

to the learner, the passages are

now mostly

cited

from the Greek
of

Testament of Drs. Westcott and Hort, 1881, while cases

important divergence from the Eeceived Text are always noted.

The Editor begs

to

acknowledge the courtesy and kindness
;

of

Messrs. Macmillan in permitting the free use of this Text
to

and
of

add that a school edition has been published, with

lists

xii

NOTE TO REVISED EDITION.

various readings, and a sufficient critical apparatus for learners.

The

letters

W. H.
its

indicate the references to this work.

It should

be added that
the

orthography has not been implicitly followed, in

many

cases

where

it

differs

from that

of ordinary Greek.

The Vocabulary has been
on a new plan, which
of this
it is

entirely reconstructed,

and

is

printed

hoped will greatly add

to the usefulness

important part of the work.
add, that the revision of this
of

The Editor would only
has

Handbook
S.

been mainly the work

his

son,

the

Rev.

Walter

Green, M.A.,

New
are

Testament Professor in Eegent's Park College,

London.

Both

much

indebted to T. Osborne, Esq., of Stroud,
;

for his suggestions

on the former edition
Principal
of

and

to the

Rev.

S.

Newth, D.D.,

late

New

College,

London, and

member

of the

New

Testament Revision Company, for corrections

and additions

in the Vocabulary.

SAMUEL

G.

GREEN.

.

——

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PART

I.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
SECT.
I.

THE ALPHABET.
letters

PAGE

...
:

Names, forms, and numeral values of the

2.
3.

Notes on the Alphabet

......
initial p

1

2 2 2
3 3 3 4

The Vowels
The (c) The {d) The (e) The The ( /)
(6)

(a) their pronunciation, long and short diphthongs (regularly long) " breathings " of initial vowels

"breathings" of

....
.

lengthening of vowels in inflection
contraction of vowels.
1.

Exercise
{g) Diaeresis
(Ji)

........
Vowel
it

Table. Contractions

.

4
4
4

Hiatus, and the ways of avoiding
1.

The nu
Crasis

suffixed {y i<pe\Kv<rTiK6v)

2.

Elision (apostrophe)

3.

...

The Consonants
(a) Division into
(6)
(c)

....
.

4 5
5

mutes and liquids Classification of mutes The sibilant cr, and its combinations

5
5

{d) Rules of consonant combination 1. Labials or gutturals, with a
2. 3.
4.

6 6 6
6

Labials or gutturals, with a dental

Dentals before

cr

.

.

.

.

Mutes before

/j.

5.
6.

7.
8.

^nth other consonants A sharp mute before an aspirated vowel Consecutive syllables not to begin with an aspirate Consonants that may be final
v

Combinations of

6
6

EKercise
5.

2.

Changes of Consonants by assimilation,
sion, or insertion

..........
dujilication, transposition,

On

....

6 6 6

the Combinations of Consonants.
omis

XIV
SECT.
6.

ANALYTICAL TABL^ OF CONTENTS.

THE ACCENTS
(a)
(6)
(c)

PAGE
7

Use of the accents

The

different accents

Rules of accentuation

{d, e) Enclitics
7.

and

Proclitics

On

the transference of Greek words into Englisli
ai, 01, ei, ov, initial I

Latin the usual medium.

.... .... .... ....
and
characters

7 7

8
8

9
9 9

Equivalents of
8.

/c,

i;,

and'P
for

Punctuation
]\larks of pause, interrogation, quotation,

10

"etc'

10 10 11

Reading Lessons—
1.

Acts

ii.

2.

Rom.

iv.

1-13 1-16

......
Roman

3.

Matt. V. 1-16, in

12

PART

II.

ETYMOLOGY.
CHAPTER
9.

The " Parts

of Speech "

10.

THE ROOT

and

STEM

..,.». ....
.

L— INTRODUCTION.
14
11 14

Pure and (impure) liquid or mute stems (The stem to be marked by thick letters)

14

CHAPTER
11.

II.— THE

NOUN OR SUBSTANTIVE.

GENDER, NUMBER, and CASE
General significance of the Cases

....
.

15
15 15 16 16 16

12, 13.

The Definite Article and

Indefinite

Pronoun

.

Types of Substantive and Adjective Declension
14.

Characteristics of all Declensions of
(a)

Nouns

Neuter Nominatives and Accusatives alike Their plural termination always a.

16 16
16

{b)
(c)

The Dative Singular in t (" The Genitive Plural in wv

iota subscript")

15.

Masculine like the Neuter in Genitive and Dative Rules for determining the Gender of Nouns (a) Masculine : names of males, rivers, winds
(d)
(6)

16
17

Feminine nouns

:

........•••
names
of females, trees, countries,
islands,

17
17

and abstract

'

ETYMOLOGY.
SECT.

XV
PAGE
17

15.

(c)

Keuter

:

diminutives, indeclinables, and the verbal noun (infinitive)

(Note on
16.

common and
tj'pes
:

epiccene words)

DECLENSION OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE
Three leading
Illustrations
ttvKt}, dvOputiros, ttols

....... ....
first

Resemblances between the

and second

The A and O Declensions The Separable Declension
17. 18. 19.

(parLsyllabic)

...
.

(imparisyllabic)

The First

Dfx'len.«!Ion (A)

Feminine Paradigms {-qt-upa, 56^a, ti/jlt], aKia), and Remarks Masculine Paradigms {fiad-qr-qs, veavla^), and Remarks
.

Exercise
20.
21. 22.

of the First 3. Irregular forms of the First Declen.sion
(O)

Nouns

The Second Declension
Masculine

2324. 25-

(X(i7os) and Feminine {bdo^) Paradigms, and Remarks Neuter Paradigm {(xvkov), and Remarks Paradigm of Contracted Nouns in 00-, eo-, vovs, oarovv ( AttoXXws)

Declension of 'It^o-oOs

26.

Exercise 4. Nouns of the Second Declension The Third Declension (imparisyllabic)
Importance of knowing the Stem
General Paradigm
:

.......
p-rjfxa

.... ....

Declension

27. 28.
29.

aiwv,

Terminations of this Declension Paradigms of Third Declension
1.

'Apa\p, K-qpv^, tx^f^J, TToXts
TTOt/iTjJ',

2.
3.
4.
5.

\i(j}v,

/SacriXct^s, /3oCs

yevos

....... .........
at'Swj, iraT-qp, dvrip
.

..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ....

Referred to § 27
5.

Exercise
30.
1.
5

Nouns

Rules for the Nominative
2.
3.

added to the stem The stem lengthened

Digammated stems

31.

Neuter stems in es- (os) 5. Stem unchanged Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension Substantives of Variable Declension (a) Interchanges between the second and third (6) The word ad^^arov, Sabbath (c) Proper names, especially Moses, Jerusalem
4.

...... ...... ...... .... ...... .......
(eu-, av-, ov-)

of the Third Declension

Hebrew

indeclinables

Exercise

6.

Promiscuous List of Nouns

......
.

XVI

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IIL— ADJECTIVES.
SECT.

33.
34.

THREE FORMS,
FlllST FoiiM

correspondent with substantive declensions
diKaios, fxiKpos,
5

,

PAGE 34
34
34 35

,

Paradigms of dyados,
35. 36.

and Remarks

,

Contracted Adjectives, XP^<^^^^ Skconi) Fokm
General Remarks

Remarks

,

37.

Paradigms of

o^vs, ttSj, iKLov

...... ....
eo-rcus)
. :

,

36
36

,

36
37
38 39 39 39

38.

Participles of this class (declension of

,

39.

Adjectives of double form

(leyas, iroXvs

40.

Thiki)

General Remarks
41.

Paradigms of

42.

First Method Comparison of

...... COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ......
Fokm
dXT/^Tjs, a(Jo<ppwv

40 40

Triaros, dXrjdrjs, ao(p6s, v^os

40
41 41 41

43.

Second Method
Comparison of raxos, alaxpos,
KaXos, p-cyas
{fiei^uu)
. .

44. 45.

Declension of comparatives in -iwv
dyados, kukos,
/iLKpds, ttoXus

Irregular and alternative comparisons

42

42

46.

47.

Defective Comparatives and Superlatives Emthattc Methods of Comparison Exercise 7. Adjectives for Practice
.

42
42
43

NUMERALS
48.

The Cakdixal Numbeiis
(a)
{b)
(c)

Signs of numeration

.... ....
. =

44
44

44

Disused letters as numeral signs Composite numerical expressions

44
44 44

49.

Declension of the cardinal numbers
eh, 8vo, rpeh, ricffapes

50. 51. 52.

The Ordinal Lumbers Table of Cardinals and Ordinals, and Remark Distkibitive Numbeks Exercise 8. Numbers Numerical symbols, and
translation

......
:
.

.... .... ....

44
45 45
47

phrases for

47

CHAPTER IV.— PRONOUNS.
53.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
1.

49

Substantive-peksonal ("personal")
First juTson, (yib,
rj/xei^
;

second, av,
6
.

u/ie?j

49 49

54.

Third person, by

airr6s,

17,

$9

ETYMOLOGY.
SKCT.
5",.

XVU
PAQE 49

2.

Reflexive
First person, ifxain-ov
;

second, ffeavroC
.
'

,

50 50

Third, eain-oO (avrov)
56.
3.

.

Adjective-personal
{b, c)

(possessive)

,

50 50
50
51
51

(a) 6/^65, rifiirepos, ffds, v/i^epos

Genitive of the })ersonal pronouns as possessives
of the Article
avros

57.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
Framed upon the model
(e)
.

(a, b, c, d) 65e, outos, iKeTvos, 6

.

51

TOLOvTos, Tcxrovros, roaovroi. tvXlkoOtos

52 52 52
53 53

58.

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN
(a, b) 6s,
(e)
77,
6'

;

{c,

d) oaris, bairep, oaye

Relatives of quality, e]uantitv. number, degree

59.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
(a)
{b)
(c)

The simple

Interrogative, tIs

;

ri

;

53
53 53 53

Correlatives of quality, quantity, number, degi'ee

Direct interrogatives in indirect construction
.

(d) Interrogatives properlv indirect

60.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
(a, b)
(c)

.

54

The ordinary Indefinite, The old Indefinite, 6 Selua

tls,

and negative compound

54 54
54

61.

DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS
(a) &\\os, {b) erepos, {c) aW-rjXcjv, [dj

haaTOS
.

54
54

62.

Table of Correlative Pronouns

CHAPTER v.— THE VERB.
63.

THE VOICES

....
.
.

55 55 55

Four things predicated by the Verb
Threefold modification of the verbal stem
Activp, Middle, Passive
64.

55
55

THE MOODS
2. 3.
4. 5. 6. 7.

Four Modes or Moods 1. The Indicative, and

55
its

use

55 55 55

The Imperative The Subjunctive The Optative (properly
Interrogative Foi-ms

a division of the Subjunctive)

56 56

The Infinitive, \ The Pahticiple.s, J
.

Participials

56 56

65.

THE TENSES

Time and State jointly expressed Nine possible Tenses. Scheme

56 57

XVlll
SECT.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Seven actual Tenses (in common use, six) " Principal " and " Historical " Tenses Arrangement of Tenses. Tenses of Xuw
PACE 57 57
57

65.

66.

NUMBERS

and

PERSONS
:

....
suffixes

57
58 58 58

67.

The Two CoxjuaATioxs
Remark on the Greek and English typical forms The Verbal Stem How ascertained affixes and

68.

69.

Augment and Reduplication"
{a)

58

Augment in the historical tenses, indicative 1. The syllabic augment with initial consonants. 2. The temporal augment with initial vowels

— —

58 58 58 58 59

{h)

Reduplication in the perfect tenses throughout

.

An An
(c)

initial

initial

consonant repeated, ^^ith e vowel lengthened (like temporal augment)
.

59
59 59
59
59

70.

Augment and reduplication Inflectional Tekminations
{a)
(6)

in

compound verbs

Denoting

number, and person Personal endings originally fragments of pronouns
voice,

mood,

tense,

Normal forms
71-

Tense-characteristics (consonant) Active Future and First Aorist, <r Perfect and Pluperfect, k ,, Passive Future and First Aorist, 6

....... ....
.

59 60 60 60

.

.

.

.

.

.

60

72.

Modal Vowels
Subjunctive lengthened indicative vowels Optative diphthongal forms

60

7374-

Verbal Adjectives Paradigm of the First Conjugation
KKXTevu}.

Principal parts

Conjugation throughout
75.

..... ...... ......
.

60

60
61

:

pure uncontracted

61

61

All other forms variations of this type

76.

pure, uncontracted 9. Verbs of the pure uncontracted class

Exercise

On

Possible stem-endings

..... .......
.

....

62 70 70
70
71
71

Verbs

Pure, mute, and liquid verbs
78.

.

Pure Verbs.
{a)
{h)
(c)

Special Rules

The stem-vowels
Contraction with
a,

......
or

71

71
71

e,

7Q-

Contraction confined to Present and Imj^erfect Tenses Comjiare § 3, / {d) Peculiarities of contraction. Paradigms of rt/idw, 0tX^a>, 8r]\6o}, Present and Imperfect

71
71

80.

81.
82.

Note on remaining Tenses Exercise 10. On pure, contracted Mute Verbs. Special Rules Stem unaffected by a following vowel

..... ...... ....
Verbs

72

75

75
75

76

.

ETYMOLOGY.
SECT.

XIX
PAGE

^3-

a)

{*)

Tense -characteristics (§ 71) and terminations beginning with consonant modify the stem Rules of modification 1. As caused by -a after the verbal stem
.

I

.

76 76
76 76

.

.

2.
3. 4. 5.
6. 7.

by-^ by-r
by -/i by -ad by -vT by -K JTE Verbs.
T/)i/3a>,

>> J5 >> J>
>> J5

.

.

76 76
77

,

.

.

77
77

.

84.

Remarks
.

{a, b, c)

.

77
78
81

Conjugation of
85.
(«)

0170), Tret'^o;

.

Modification of the Present (and Imperfect)

,

The stem of the Present not always the stem of the Verb 1. Labial verbal stems, that add r
2. 3.

.

82

.

82 82 82 82
83 83 83 83
83

Guttural verbal stems, that change the stem-consonant to aa or ^ Dental verbal stems, that change the stem-consonant to f
.

All other tenses formed from the verbal stem

86.

87.

Vowels changed to diphthongs in short stem -syllables Here the Future and Perfect formed from the Present stem The Secondary Tenses of modified Verbs In these Tenses, the simple verbal stem always appears The Second Aorist Conjugated like the Imperfect Indicative (in other moods as Present) Illustrations from ({)vy- (0ei^7w), tvtt- (ti^tttw) Note on Accentuation Active, Middle, and Passive
.

83 83
83

84
84

88.

The Second Future
Illustration

(Passive).
.

from

tvtt- (ti^tttoj)

84
85 85

89.

The Second Perfect

(Active).

Illustration from irpa-y- {irpdaacj)
90.

General Rules for the Second Tenses
1.

.

85
85
in Passive

In what verbs they do not occur

2, 3.

4.

Seldom found in First Tenses in the same verb, except First and Second Perfects, Active
11.

85 85
85

Exercise
91.

On mute Verbs
.

Liquid Verbs. Special Rules (a) Present stem mostly modified {b) Future Active and iliddle, contracted {c) First Aorist Active and Middle
{d) Perfect Active, variations.
{e)

86 86 86 86
87 87

Perfect Passive, variations
.

92.

Paradigiis of Liquid Verbs

87 87

dyy^Ww, Kp'ivo}, atpuj JJxercise 12, On liquid

Verbg

91

XX
SECT.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTEXTS.
PAGE

Notes on the Tenses.
chiefly
verbs,

[TJiese

Sections,

may

with mimite variations and he omitted in the first study of the hook.]
I.

of § 99, dealing seeming irregulant ies in ^>«?'^it'«?ar
to

the

close

92 92

94.

The Present and Imperfect.
5.

The Present
.

1-4. Details of modification, as § 85

92
v,

Modifications of pure and impure stems by

93

6.

Alternative stems, consonant and

e-

93
93 94 94
94

7.
8.

Inchoative forms in

<jk-

Reduplicated stems

II.

The Imperfect
of Augment

Peculiarities

.... ....
or
uji:
.
.

95-

96.

97.

Double augment. Attic augment in 17 p-. The Second Aorist, Active and Middle Contains tlie simple verbal stem (Reduplicated Second Aorist. Change of short stem-v owel) The Vowel Aorist, as of Second Conjugation The Future, Active and Middle (a) Lengthening or otherwise of pure stems {h) The Attic Future of Verbs in t5- (ifw) (c) The digammated future of verbs in e/- (^w) {d) Future in middle form, with active meaning The First Aorist, Active and ]\Iiddle {a) Connection of Aorist vnth Future stem (1) In pure and mute (2) in liquid verbs
Double
. .

94
94

94 94 94 95 95
95

96
96

96
96

;

{h)

Peculiarities of

Augment

98.

Note on Accentuation The Aorists and Futures Passive
(a)
{h)

.... ....
. .

96
97

97
98 98

Modified like the Perfect Passive

99-

Vowel stem-endings, lengthened, shortened, or with (c) Transposition of vowel and liquid in short roots {d) Change of a weak vowel into a (c) First and Second Tenses seldom in the same verb Notes on Irregularities of Augment, and on Accentuation Perfect and Pluperfect
.

98
98 98 98

....

98
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99

{a)

Variations in reduplication
1. 2.
3.
e-

before a double consonant

€t\r](pa

from Xa/3- {\a/j.^a.vio) Double reduplication and augment
Pluperfect generally omits augment

.

4.

(J)
(c)

Third person plural Perfect active in -ai^ The Second Perfect active its special sense
.

:

(d)
(e)

100.

.... DEPONENT VERBS ....

The Perfect passive its peculiarities The Future Perfect passive (or mid.) Note on accentuation
:

100

100
100

100

.

ETYMOLOGY.
SECT.

XXI
PAGE 100
101

lOO.
lOI.

Active and Passive, as determined by the Aorist

IMPERSONAL VERBS
Their use
List
. .
.

....
.

.

.

101 101
101 101

and usual forms of the chief Impersonals

102.

DEFECTIVE VERBS
Originally caused by redundancy

103.

Principal Defective Verbs and their Paradigms
alpeo), epxoytiai, iadiu), opdu),

102

rp^x^i ^^P^^ dirov
.

Exercise
104.

13.

On

the Defective Verbs

102 104
-iii

THE SECOND CONJUGATION, or Verbs in
The
chief peculiarity of these Verbs

104 104
104 105 105 105

Future, First Aorist, and Perfect like Verbs in -w
105.

Modifications of the Verbal
(a)
{h)
(c)

Stem

Vowel of

a pure stem lengthened

Reduplication prefixed

.....
.

....

The

syllable

-I'l;-

[-vvv-) affixed

106.

formed First Class Paradigms in two divisioris First Division regular forms
classes thus

Two

107.
108.

Paradigms of laTrj/jiL, ridri/xi, Remarks on the Paradigms
1.

didio/xt.

.... .... ....
.

105
105 105 105 106 114

First Aorist Active, with
Peculiarities in

-k- [TidTjfju,
laT-rj/Mt,

didufu)

114 114
114 114 114 114 115 115

2. 3.
4.

augment of
'iarrjixL

Active Aorist of

The verb
:

(TTrjKd}

.....
.

—their difference

.

109.

no.
III.
112.

this division A-stems a. Active h. Deponent E-stems Deponent only Second Division Stems i(T- (dfil), l-{dfu), Conjugation of et>t (eli/at), to be

List of

Verbs in
:

;

....
e-{iT]fu).
.

116
117
dcpirnxL

,,
,,

elfJLi

{tevai), to

go

.

177/ii

in its

compound
.

118 120 120
121

Second Class Verbs Remarks
114.

.......
in
-w/jli

or -vpvimi

Paradigms of

116. 117.

and ^uvvvim Remarks on Paradigms New T&stament Verbs like deiKvvfiL New Testament Verbs like ^wwvfxi
deiKuv/xi
.

....
0-stenis
. .

124 124
125

A-stems.

E-stems,

125 126
(from 2 Thess

Exercise 14. Exercise 15. Exercise 16.
i.

On

the Verbs in -fit on the Verbs Short Sentences.
G-eneral,

126 127 127
128

ii. iii.

The Beatitudes Parts of John i.
Selected Sentences

..... ....

129

xxu

Analytical taBlE

o'B

contents.

chafter yl— prepositions.
ii8.

THE THREE CASES
Tliey

PAGE
:

general relations of place, etc.

Prepositions extend these relations indefinitely

....
.

131

131
131

may

govern the Genitive^ Dative, or Accusative

;

one, two, or

all

119.
120.

121.

122.

Prepositions Prepositions Prepositions Prepositions
fierd,
irepi,

governing governing governing governing
virep, vird
.

the the the the
.

Genitive only, duTl, dwo, Dative only, tV, avv
vVccusative only, dvd,
ei's

....
(f^),
. .

U

tt/jj

131

.

132 132

Genitive and Accusative,
. . .
.
. .

bid,
.

Kard,

123.

Prepositions governing the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative,
i-rri,

irapd,

7rp6s

...........
of the Prepositions

.132
132 133
13-i

124.
125.

Synoptical Table of the Prepositions
Note on the various meanings

CHAPTER YIL—ADYERBS.
126.

Adverbs in their Original Form, from Substantives {a) As an Accusative Noun, Adjective, or Pronoun (6) As a Dative ,, ,, (c) As a Genitive ,, ,,
.

135

135

135
135

{d)
(c)

As a

Preposition, with its Case
-6ev, -6t,

Old Case-endings in

127.
128.
129. 130.

Adverbs from Adjectives

(in -us)

Comparison of Adverbs Pronominal Adverbs. Table,

.... .... ......
and
-de
.

135 135 135
136 136
137 137 137

with Correlatives
-a/cts)

Numeral Adverbs

(in

-ts,

-/cts,

or

131.

Adverbs from Yerbs

132.

133.
134.

Ancient verbal forms, devpo, Bevre Derivatives from Yerbs in -i^u) Adverbs from Prepositions (or in -w) Prepositive Adverbs ("improper Prepositions"). Negative Adverbs, ov and fx-^

.... .....
List

138 138

138
139

CHAPTER YIII.— CONJUNCTIONS AND OTHER PARTICLES.
135. 136.

Meaning
1.

of the

word

Particles

.

140

Classification of Conjunctive Particles

140
140 140 140
141

Conjunctions of
,,

Annexation
Comparison Disjunction
Antithesis Condition
.

2.

3. 4.
5.

,, ,,
,,

.

.

141

ETYMOLOGY.
SECT.

XXlll
PAGE

136.

6.

Conjunctions of Cause
,, ,,

.

,

141

7. 8.

Inference Intention

.

141

or

Result

,

141
141 141 141 141

^713S.

Emphasis, ye, 8r], -Trep, -rot (6) Particles of Interrogation, d, ij, dpa Interjections {a) Natural instinctive sounds
{a)

Particles of

,

,

.

.

,

(b)

The Interjection

tde, idov,

behold

!

.

,

142

CHAPTER IX.— ON THE FORMATIOX OF WORDS.
[CJmpters IX., X.,
139.
1.

XL, XII
Avitli

may

be omiltccl in the first
etc.,

reading of the book.]

ROOTS,

primary, secondary, tertiary,

2.

Classes of ^Vords

3.

Modification of Stem-endings

140.

Classes of

Substantives
Declension

..... ....
.

formations

143 143

144 144
144

(«) First
1.

.

Masculine, in

-r-qs

2.
(6)

Feminine, in
MavSculine, in

-ia,

Second Declension
1.

-/xos

.... ..... ....
.
. .

144 144 144 144

-cxyvvi]

.

2.

Neuter, in -rpov,

-lov [-ap.ov, -Iolu:')

.

]44
-ktkos,
-icr/n;

(c)

3. Masculine and Feminine Diminutives, Third Declension
1.

.....
-Trjp,
-tt/s

145 145 145 145

Masculine,

-evs,
-o-is,

2
3.

Feminine,
Neuter,

....
-Tt:p
.

-jxa, -os

.

.

.

145
145
146

141142.

Scheme of Terminations of Derivative Nouns
Classes of Adjectia'es
1.

First

Form
-ic;,

{a) In
(6)
(c)

(-la), -lov
-77,
-7],

..... ....
.

146 146 147 147 147 147 147 147
147

In In

-iKos,
-Ivo^,

-ov

-Of

...
.
.

.

.

(So
(d)

-eos,

contr., -ovs, -ow)

2.

In -pos, -pd, -pbv (c) In -((r)t/Aos, -ov if) Verbals in -ros and -reos Second and Third. Forms {a) In -77s, -es {b) In -p-oiv, -/jLov

....
.

.

.

.

143144.

Scheme of Terminations of Derivative Adjectives
Classes of
(a)

.....
adj. roots

147 147

148
148 148 148

Verbs
principal terminations

Verbs from subst. or
Tlieii"

....

("denominative"^

Xxiv
SECT 144.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
from verbal
stems

{b)

V^erbs

— " Inceptives,"
etc.

PAGE

" Frequentatives

"

(or

emphatic), "Causatives,"
145.

General

Remark on Derivation

........
Composition
,,

149
149

CHAPTER X.— ON THE FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS
146. 147.

" Parathetic " and " Synthetic " Compounds PAitATHETic Compounds The former element a Particle
(a) Significance of the Preposition in
{h)
(c)
,,

.... ....... ......
Particles

150 150

150 151
151 151

Adverbs
I'lisejxij-ablc

Particles in Comiiosition

{a,
{b,

Compound Nouns and
c,

Adjectives generally from Verbs)

152 152

Adverbs
except

and
d-)

Inseparable

........
not found

with Verbs
.

{d,

Combination of Prepositions)
or

148.

Synthetic Compounds The former element a Noun
Connective vowels
-0-,

...
.

.

.

.

.

Verb

.

-i-

152 152 152 152
152
153

Com pound Verbs
The
149.

usually from

Compound Nouns

chief significance in the latter element
Illustrations

....

153

Derivation and Composition illustrated by the Variations and Combinations in the New Testament of the root /cpt, verbal stem 153 Kpiv-, to separate, to judge

.........
:

CHAPTER XL— FOREIGN WORDS IN NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.
150.

Languages of Palestine
What was
the

"Hebrew tongue
of

Hebrew " in New
.

.

155 155
155 155 155 156 156

Testament times

?

.

Question as to St. Matthew's Gospel
151.

The introduction

Greek

Various influences contributing to this Greek the usual language of our Lord

The
152.

Dialect of Galilee

.... ....
.

.

.

.

.

.

Difference of

New

Testament

AVi-iters

in style

.

156 156 156 156 156
157

Infusion of

Latin

.

Influences contributory to this
Classes of words derived from Latin
/53.

.

.

Aramaic (Hebrew) Words and Phrases
{a)
{b)

.

Assimilated words
Indeclinable words
1.

.

.

157 157
157

Proper

Names

.

2.

Common Nouns
Special Phrases

.

3.

.

158

SYNTAX.
SECrr.

XXV

154'

Latin
(a)
(b)
(c)

Words
of Coinb
c

,

....
.
.
.

Names

.

PAGE 158 158
159

Judicial terms

.

.

.

.159 .159 .159
159

Military terms

(d) Political
(e)

terms
. .

Articles of Dress

.

.

.

.

(/) General terms

CHAPTER XII.— NEW TESTAMENT PROPER NAMES
155.
156.

These Names fi'om the three languages (Chapter XI

Hebrew Names
(a) Indeclinable
(&)
(c)

160 160
160 160

Hebrew forms
.

Indeclinable and assimilated
Assimilated, Hebrew, -ah
;

Greek,

-as

161
\z\
lej

(d) Later forms,

Hebrew, -a ; Greek,

-aj

*;m»

Double Names
(o)
[h)
{c)

Greek the translation of the Hebrew
,,

161

vocal miitation

,,

161
161
.

Name and Surname
1.

The

latter being characteristic
,,

lei
161 lei

2.
3.

patronymic
local

,,

[d)

Different

names

of the

same man among Jews and Greek,
"
.

158.

Greek Names (a) Pure Greek— "The Seven
(6)

162 162
162 162 162 162 163 163 163

Contracted forms

....
. .

159.

Latin Names
{a) In connection
ih)
(c)

(d)

with Rome Names of the Emperors The name of "Paul" Contractions, " Luke" " Silas"

etc.

PART

III.

SYNTAX.
J

60.

CHAPTER I.— CONSTRUCTION OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. A knowledge of the general laws &f Grammar necessary .184
.
. .

]6i.

162.
163.

The Sentence as consisting of Propositions The PiiOPOSJTiON Subject and Predicate The Subject— a Substantive or its eq^uivalent

16-4

184
'384

h

2

XXVI
SECT.

ANALYTICAL TABLE 0? CONTENTS.
The Predicate The Copula a

164.
165. 166.

—a Substantive,

paqe!

tense of the verb " to be "

Omission of the Copula

167.

The Verbal Predicate

.... .......
Adjective, or equivalent

1G4 lb4
165

168.
169.

Tlie Substantive verb as Predicate

Omission of the Pronominal Subject
Its insertion for

emphasis.

Examples

..... ..... ....
"
. .

165
165 166

166 166 166 167
167

170. 171. 172.

Omitted in third person plural, " generalised assertion " Omitted in third person singular, " impersonals The Nominative the case of the Subject
.
,
.

.

THE FIRST CONCORD
y^^.
374.

Exceptions, (1) Neuter plural Nominative with singular Verb Variations in this idiom, a, b, c, d
.

167 167

775.

(2)

" Rational Concord."
Verb,
a, b a, b

Collective singular Subject with plural

168 169 170 170 170 170
Subject with plural

J 76.

Comljined Nominatives,

177.

Agreement of substantival Predicate with the Subject

Law
17S.

of Apposition
of adjective Predicate with the Subject
.

Agreement

THE SECOND CONCORD
179.

"Rational Concord,"
Adjective
(2)

180.
181. 182.
183.

Masculine or Feminine Subject with Neuter Adjective

Mule for Cojndative Verbs

Complements of the simple Sentence
Extension of the Subject
,, ,,
,,

........ ....... .....
(1) Collective singular
.
.

170
171

171 171
171

184. 185.
186. 187.

Substantival Predicate
Adjective-Predicate

Accessory Clauses
Co-ordinate

188.
i'89.

.........
.
.

Verbal Predicate

.... .... .....
.
.

172 172 172 172 172
172 172
173 173

Subordinate

190.
191.

Methods of introducing subordinate Clauses
Difficulties in the resolution of Sentences

—illustrated

192.

Hale for

ilie

resolution of CofapouThd Sentences

....

CHAPTER
193.
194.

II.— THE ARTICLE.
174 174
174

Construction of the Article
Employed with Substantives
by the Second Concord Pronoun Originally a Demonstrative Showm by its often standing alone By its being followed by a Genitive Or by a Pre])osition and its Case By its construction with Adverbs
;

195.
196.

174
175
i75

197.

198.

175

SYNTAX.
SECT.

XXVU
PAGE 176 17«

199.

200.

The Article with Adjectives With Participles

.... ....
.

,

.

201.

Often enuivaleut to a Relative and Verb With the Infinitive, in all the Cases Note on the verbal in -ing (Lat., genind)

.

17^
177

.

.

177
.

202.
203.

204.

205. 206.

With Phrases or Sentences With Pronouns. (See § 220) Substantivised Words or Phrases Significance of the Article The Article strictly definite The Article marks the Subject

171
178

.

.... ....
:

its

insertion or omission

.

178
178 178 179
179

.

.

207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212.

Definition of the Predicate by the Article (The Article may be omitted before words already defined) Use of the Article icith Monadic Substantives

.

.

For iiulividiud emphasis

213.

214.

215.

In collective expressions To iruike renewed mention (This sometimes implicit) Passages where the Article, omitted iu the A.Y from the original The Article with Abstract Substantives, a, b, c The Article as an Unemphatic Possessive
.

.... .... ....
. .

.

.

179 180

.

180
18i 181
181

.

.

.....
.
.

should be

suji plied

183

185

216.

The

Article with

Proper Names

217.

With
(ft)

the

Divine
God Lord
Jesus

(a) Gcds,

Kvpios,
vibs

(c)

Qeov, Son of

{d) 'Irjaovs,
(e)

..... ..... .....
Names
God
.

18D 188 186 187
187

188 188
189

XptcTTos,

Anointed, Christ
(dyiov),

(/)

Hvevna
(as

218. 219.
220.

Monadic Xoiuis

Holy Spirit Proper Names) without the Article

190
190
191

Prepositional Phrases without the Article

The

Article with

Demonstrative Pronouns
.

221.
222.

223. 224.

Omitted with ^Kacros, tocoutos The Article with avros, the sanu With Possessive Pronouns
ttSs, irdvTet, all

192 192 192 192

225. 226. 227.
228.

229.

With With 3Xos, lohole With 5XXos, 'erepos, other With iro\v, much ; -rroWoi, many With the Nominative for Vocative The Article separated from its Substantive by
{a)
{h)

.... ..... ....
qualify ingw ords
its

194 194
194
195

196
196

A

Preposition with

Case

.

An Adverb
its

195
.

230.

Repeated after
{b)

Substantive for emphasis

Sometimes where no Article precedes

196 197

XXVUl
SECT 231.
232.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Article with Participles Article in Enumerations

The The

(a)
(b)

Combined Enumeration
Separate Enumeration

.... .... .... ....
.

.

.

233-

234.

The Omission of the Article marks Indefinitenesa The Article with vojxos, laiv illustrations

.

b

197 198 198 198 199

200

CHAPTER
235. 236.
237. 238.

III.— THE

NOUN SUBSTANTIVE.
232 202 202 202 202 202
203 203

NUMBER
Singular and Plural used as in other languages

Singular Nouns for a whole class

Nouns predicated
The
Plural,

of several individuals (as

(xu>/j.a,

Kapoia]

Abstract Substantives in the Plural

239. 240.

by a speaker of himself
.

Plural to denote a single agent or object
(a)
(h)

As viewing it in its constituent parts As generalising the statement, (1), (2)
.

CASE
The Nominative and Vocative
241.
242. 243.

Nominative as Subject and Predicate The Suspended Nominative The Elliptical Nominative
(a)
(b)
(c)

After
,,

Idov,

behold

/
.

.

.

.

ovofia,

name
ibv

.

'

.

The

phrase, 6
for

koI 6
:

rju

Kal 6 ipxa/J-evos

244.
245.

an elliptical usage The Vocative, with and without u)

Nominative

Vocative

.

The Genitive
246.
247. 248.

Primarily signifying ??io^io?i/ro?H Modifications, 1-7
I.

Genitive

of origin

.... ....
etc.

After Substantives, to denote the source or author
249.

After Verbs of sense or mental affection
(a)
(b)
(c)

Of sense, as hearing, taste, touch Of affection, sls desire, caring for, despising Oi remembrance 2i\\(\. forgetting

250.
251.

After Verbs of accusation, condemnation, etc. After Verbs and Adjectives of plcnftf, want, fulness,
II.

204 205 205 205 205 206 206 206 206 206 207 207 207 207 208 208 208 208 209 210 210 210
>";io

252.

Genitive of

separation

or

ablation

After Verbs of removal, difference, hirulraiKc, etc.
253.

Genitive of comparison
After Verbs After Adjectives in

.... ......
tlio

210
211
211

Comparative Degree

211

,

SYNTAX.
SECT.

XXIX
PAGE 212

254.

III.

Genitive of

Possession
so used

.

" After Substantives " the Possessive Case
255.

212 212

The Genitive Personal Pronouns
"Words of kindred,
etc.,

256. 257.
258.

omitted before Possessive,

Attributive Possessive Genitive
Special Possessive phrases

259.

The

Genitive of Apposition

.... ..... ....
^/'cc^f^cs
.

1—

,

212 213 213 214 215 215 215 215
216 216

,

.

.

260.

Position of the Genitive
\a) Generally
{!))

.

aftei^

the governing Substantive

.

.

Instances where the Genitive

.

261.
262.

IV. Genitive of Partition
After Partitive Adjectives

Pronouns

Numerals
263. 264.

Superlatives

After Verbs of ^^^''^^Hng

After Verbs of taking hold

Different usage of Active

265.
266.

Aher Adverbs of time Partitive Phrases of Time
Partitive Genitive after

...... ........ ....... ...... ...... ....
. .
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

.

.

.

216 216 216 216
217
217

of,

attaining, etc.

.

and Middle

.

.

or Place
to be

.

217
217

267.
268.

Verb

.

.

V. Genitive

of

Object
:

.

218
218

May
269. 270.

be expressed by various Prepositions

Illustrations

.

Phrases that

VI. Genitive

may be Possessive of Relation

or Objective

.

218 219
219

.

In
271.
272.

respect of, as

shown by the context

MtQT

Adjectives, gewQVdAly

.....
:

Illustrations

.

.

220 220
221 221 221

Specially after Adjectives of ?ror^Ai«g5S,/i?i€55, etc.

.

.

273. 274. 275.

Genitive of pi'ice, penalty, etc
Genitives of different relations with the same Substantive

.

.

VII. The

Genitive Absolute

.

Originally eausal

.

222 222 222 222
223

The Dative
276.

Primarily ^igwiiymg juxtaposition
Modifications, 1

—4

.

,

..... .....
.

.

.

.

277.

I.

Dative of
(«)
{b)
(f)

Association
etc.

.

After Verbs of intercourse, comjmnionslnp, etc.

.

After Verbs and Adjectives of likeness, fitness,
After the Substantive Verb
:

.

223 223 223 223
223

to express property

.

\evh sometimes omitted
278.
II.

.

.

Dative of

Transmission
Verbs of
,,
,,
,

.

(a) After
(6)
(c)

grm7igf( Indirect Object)

.

223

information, command,
succour, assistance, etc.

etc.

.

.

\d)

mental

affection, obedience,
. .
-

faith
.

.

Distinction from Genitive

.

224 224 224 224

XXX
SECT.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

279.

in. Dative of

Reference

.

.

.

.

May
280.
(a)
{b)
(c)

be expressed in English hy for (or against)

.

IV. Dative of

Accessory Circumstance
.

.

Expressing the modes of an action Sometimes repeating the notion of the Verb (Hebraism)
Da.tive of cause ov motive
,,

.

.

PAQE 225 225 226 226 226
226 227
227
227 228

(d)

instrument

Dative after
(e)

x/x^o/xat, to

Dative of agent (rare)
, ,

..... .....
use

.

.

.

.

(/)
(gr)

sphere, that in
ti7ne

which a quality inheres
for

.

,,

.

228
228 229

(1)

A

space of time

:

(2)

A

point of time

at,

.

281.

The Accusative
Primarily signifying motion towards

....
.

.

.

229

Hence used
{a)
{h)
(c)

as the

Object of Transitive Verbs

.

Verbs intransitive in English, transitive in Greek The same Verbs sometimes transitive and intransitive,
Especially those denoting faculty

.

.

229 229 230
230
230

.

{d)

The

direct Object omitted after certain

Verbs
"

.

282 283
284, 285,

The

intevTial Object of Verbs, or

Accusative of Definition

......
.

" cognate Accusative

.

230
231 231
231

.

Dative of Accessory more common The Double Accusative, "nearer" and "remoter Object' The Accusative as Subject of Infinitive Verbs To be rendered as Nominative with that
.

.

.

.

.

Generally dilferent from the Subject of the principal Verb Accusative with the substantivised Infinitive

.

286

Accusative of
(a)
{b)

Time
:

and

Space
(2)

Space

Distance
(1) a

.... .....
.

.

.

.

232 232 233 233 233
233

.

Time:

Point;

287 288

The Accusative in

Elliptical,

Duration or unusual constructions

.

233
234 234 234 234 235 235 236 236 23e

.

THE CASES WITH PREPOSITIONS
Two
elements to be considered, the Preposition and the Case Variety of combinations hence resulting
:

.

.

.

289.

Interchangeable Prepositions

not identical
in different languages

.

290.

Note on the correspondence of words
Table of Prepositions

291.

avri, over

Prepositions with the Genitive only against : opposition as an equivalent
,

Hence, instead of for ; adverbial phrase, avO'
292. awb,

from

the exterior
(1)

Hence,
(5)

from;

use with Adverbs
the interior

293-

iK, i^,

from
(6)

...... ...... ......
.

.

.

.

.

Cov

.

.

236 236
236
237 237

(2) of; (3)

on

account

of;

(4)

elliptical

us:
.'

.

Hence,

(1) out of ; (2) from

;

(3) hy

; (4)

made

of ;

(5) belonging to

springing /7W«.

;

(7) tem})oral use

SYNTAX.
SECT 294.

XXXI
PAGE 238

trpo,

in front of

......
;

.

,

Hence, before in (1) time (2) place ; (3) degree Prepositions with the Dative only
295.
'

,

238 239
239

ir,

m
Hence,
(1) in, of place
;

,

(2)

among ;

(3)

"the

eV of investiture ;" (4)
;

296.

avv,

in "the sphere;" (5) special uses, by ; (6) adverbial phrases (8) " constructio prsegnans " (7) temporal use in conjunction with (co-operation) Hence, with, together vnth (beside)
; . . .

297.

avd,

Prepositions with the Accusative only up to, up by Only in special phrases in the New Testament
.

....... ....... .....
.

239
241 241

.....
. ;

.

298.

eis,

to the interior

242 242 242 242

Hence

(1) of place, into ; (2) unto, to ; (3) toivards, against
to,

(4) in
;

order

for

;

(5) into, a state

;

up to ; (8) " Prepositions with the Genitive and Accusative
of time, during, or
299.
5td,

(6) for, as, of equivalence constructio praegnans " .
. .

(7)
.

242
245 245

.

through
o.

Genitive: (l) through, of place
or after

;

(2) of agency

;

(3) of time,

during
246
247 248

/S.

Accusative
Genitive

300.

Kara,

down
a.

............
:

on account of

:

(1)

downfrom ;

(2) against ; (3)

by ;

(4) throughout, as
. . .

/3.

248 Accusative: (1) throughout; (2) over against; (3) at tlic time of; 248 (5) according to ; (6) adverbial phrases (4) distributive use
Genitive: (1) with, behalf of"

Accusative

301.

/Ltcrd,

in association tcith
a.

p.

Accusative: after {beyond)
Genitive

302.

Trepi,

around
a.
/3.

Accusative:

reference to
303.

vwip, over
a.

Genitive
to

/S.

Accusative
Genitive

304.

inr6,

under
a.
jS.

305.

upon Prepositions with the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative iiri, upon
Accusative: (1) under; (2)
close
a.

.......... ............ ......... ........ ............ ........ ............
; .

250

among ;

(2) together

with;

(3)

"with and on
250 250 250

:

about, con/xjiiing
(1)

250
251

around;

(2)

about,

of

time;

(3)

about,

in
.

.

251
251

:

(1)

on behalf of; (2) for the sake of; (3) in reference

:

beyond, above

253 253
253 253

:

by, of the

Agent

.

254 254

Genitive
fig.
;

:

(1) on, of basis

;

(2) over, of

superintendence

;

(3)

upon,

(4) before ; (5) i/i the time of; (6)

" constructio praegnans". 254

XXXll
SECT.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTEXTS.
PAGE
{iiri)

305-

p.

Dative
fig.
;

:

(1)

07i,

of basis; (2) over, of superintendence
to ; (5)

;

(3)

upon,

7.

" constructio prseguans Accusative: (1) ujyon, motion implied; (2) over; against) (4) with regard to ; (5) up to, of quantity
(4)
;

m addition

"
(3) to (for,

255
during,

of time
306.
irapd, beside
a.
j3.

Genitive

7.

from, of persons only near j (2) in the esteem or 2)ower of Accusative: (1) hy, near; (2) contrary to; (3) above; consequence
:

Dative

307.

7rp6s,

toicards
a.
/?.

Genitive

Dative

........... ............ .......... .... ....... ....... ..........
;

(6)

256

258 258 258 259
259 259

:

(1) icith,

.

(4)

:

conducive

to

.

:

oiear
:

260
260

7. Accusative

(1) to ; (2) ivith; (3)

mental direction

;

(4) estimate

;

(5) intention

On the I^'TERCHAXGE
308.

OF CERTAIN PilEPOSITIOXS
;

.

309-

310.
311-

312.

313.
314-

Mutual approach in meaning real distinction Interchange of 5id with e/c, diro, ev [eis, iwi, Kara) Interchange of e/c and dxo ip and the simple Dative ,, eis with irpos, eiri, and Dative (also ,, Note on 2 Cor. iv, 17 Trepi with did and virep ,,

261 261 261

..... .....
eV)

262 263 263

Repetition or otherwise of Prepositions governing several Avords

Note on Verbs compounded with Prepositions

....

264 265 265 266

CHAPTER
315. 316.

IV.

ADJECTIVES.
.

SECOND CONCORD,
Omission of Substantives
Occasional ambiguities

re-stated

267

List of Substantives frequently omitted
317318.
319.

267 267 267 268 269
269

" Rational Concord

" in

Number and Gender

Adjectives referring to several Substantives
Adjectives in adverbial relations

The Degrees
320.

of Comparison The Comparative ...

.

270
270 270

321.

Followed by a Genitive of Object Or by ij, than, as a Conjunction

Employed
{fidWov)

in special cases

1, 2,

3

270 270
271
or Verb.

322.

Omitted before Numerals after more, less Tj after the Positive, sometimes after a Substantive Comparative strengthened by inrep or -rrapd Emphatic Comparatives, as in § 47
.

271

272 272

SYNTAX.
SECT.

XXXlll
PAGE 272 272

3^3'

Comparative without expressed Object
(1) (2)

.

.

Where the context supplies it Where the Comparative is a familiar phrase (3) Where the Object may be supplied mentally The Superlative
.

.

.

,

.

.

272 272

324325-

General significance

326. 327-

Emphatic Superlatives Followe'l by irduTuv, preceded by Use of wpuTos
Hebraistic Superlatives
(1)

...... ...... ........ ......
ws, otl
.

,

,

.

.

.

.

(2)

By By

Preposition

(?v

after simple Adjective

.

.

Adjective repeated in the Genitive
.

.

Other so-called Hebiaisms to be rejected

.

The Numerals
328.

.

Special uses of the Cardinal eh, one
(1)
(2)

.

.

As an
For

Indefinite

Pronoun

(Indefinite Article;
...

.

tlie

Correlatives, one

other

.

(3) Its (4)

proper Negative combined with the Predicat
it

Ordinal /7*5Hnstead of

329-

Adverbial Particles with Numerals

.... ....

.

.

273 273 274 274 274 274 274 274 275 275 275 275 275 275 276
276

.

330331-

Omission of Names of Quantity after Numerals The Ordinals in Enumerations

.

276

.

276

CHAPTER v.— THE PRONOUNS.

The Personal Pronouns
332.

....

277

Subject to the rules for Substantives

277 277 277
277

333.

Omission of Pronominal Subject Possessive Genitive of Pronouns instead of the Adjective

334.

335.

Pronoun instead of the Genitive Redundant or repeated Personal Pronoun Use of avTos, self, in apposition As a Nominative, always emphatic [The reflexive eavroO for the Second Person iavrCbv for First and Second] ,, "Rational Concord," with avrbs Gender Number
Possessive Adjective
.

278 278 278

279
279 279 280 280

The Possessive Pronouns
336.

Their various uses exemjilified

....
. .

In apposition Mith a Genitive Substantive
337.

Unemphatic Possessive Pronouns by the Article Emphatic Possessive Pronouns by Ibios, own

280 280 280 281 281 281

The Demonstrative Pronouns.
338.
339.

Use of otiros, this (near), and Use of 65€, this (here)

iKeivos^ that.

XX XIV
SECT.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENT^.

340.

Exceptions to the ordinary use of odros,
iKelfos,

c/ceti/os.

the Emphatic Denionsirafive

341.
342.

redundant) Demonstrative Constructions Special uses of tovto, Tavra
(or

Emphatic

The Relative Pronoun
3\3-

344345346.

A

Agreement of the Relative. clause as Neuter Antecedent " Rational Concord" with the Relative

Attraction

....... THE THIRD CONCORD ...... — — .........
.

.....
Gender

.

.

.

.

.

.

tAGE 281 282 282 282 283 283
283
28;?

.

Number

.

.

281

(a) Attraction of the Relative to the Predicate
(b)

.

2S4 284

Attraction of the Relative to the Antecedent
Inverse Attraction (transposed Antecedent)

.

347-

348.
349-

avTos

Demonstrative Antecedent omitted complementary to the Relative

.....
(a

.

285
285 286 286 287 287 287 287 287 287 288 288 288 288 289 289 289
289

.

Hebraism)

.

.

The Compoimd Relative, Scrns, strictly But also exjdicative, and logical Used often with Proper Names

The Interrogative and
350(1) (2) Elliptically, as tVa rt
(3) (4)

Various uses of the Interrogative,

Simply, with or witliout a Substantive
;

Adverbially, liow

!

.... .... .... .... .......
Indefinite

.

.

.

Indefinite
7-''s
;

Pronouns

.

.

.

16"%

.?

.

In alternative questions

351.

The Interrogative

in indirect questions

352-

Transition from the Interrogative to the IndeliniLo

Uses of the Indefinite, ris (1) Simply, with or without a Substantive
(2)
(3)
(4) (5)

.....
.

...... ...
-

.

.

.

.

.

.

Emphatically, somebody

!

.

.

As "a kind of" " Some " approximately with numbers
In alternative expressions
/jirjdels]
.

,

.....
significance

.

290 290

(6) [Negatives of ris, i.e., ovdeis,

290

CHAPTER VI.— THE VERB.

VOICE
353-

291

Voice

:

the distinction in

form and

291 291

354.

The Active Voice
Intransitives used as Transitives

291
{'Icttiixi)

Variations in meaning according to form
Special use of e'xw
355.

......
three senses
. .

292

TiiE

Middle Voice
1.

:

its

292 292 292 292

i^c/eajiw (the "Accusative

Middle") But Pronouns generally employed with Active

SYNTAX.
SECT.

XXXV
PAGE 293
.

355.

2.

Ap2)r02mative (the ^'DatiYe 'Middle").

The
3.

direct Object of tlie Active retained

293 293

Causative (nearly resembling the Passive)

.

This meaning sometimes becomes reciprocal
356.

The Passive Voice
Its Sulijcct.

294 294

The primary
Verbs

or secondary Object of the Active

294
295 295
,

357.

358.

359.

360.

361.

Moods The Indicative Declarative and Interrogative The Tenses. The six employed (the three others essential ness) *' Historical " and " principal " Tenses The Present Tense General meaning, and Illustrations
Significance of the
.
.
.

..... THE MOODS AND TENSES ...... —
Agent
after Passive
Frc(|ueiit diliiculty of distinguishing Passive
.

(In the latter case, the primary Object remains in the

Ac

and Middle

295

296 296
296
to complete,

{a)
{h)
(c)
{d.)

A

state as

now

existing, a process

An

habitual or usual act

Past time, in vivid narration (the Historical Present)
Certain futurity

.......
....
. .

.....

....
. .
,

,

,

,

362.

The Imperfect Tense
General meaning, with Illustrations
(a)
(J)
(c)

An An
An

act unfinished at a past time. act statedly repeated

To be distinguished from the Aorist
inchoative act

{d)
(e)

......
.

Potential sense from the Inchoative

363.

(/) The "resolved Imperfect" The Future Tense

296 297 297 297 297 297 298 298 298 298 298 299 300 300 301
301 301

General meaning, -wdth Illustrations
{a)
{h)
(c)
(c?)

Indefinite futurity

.... ...... .... ....
;
.

301 301

Command,

especially in prohibitions

General truths or maxims, "Ethical Future" Future -snth ov fir] (see § 377)

302
302 302 302

364.

The "resolved Future," or Future Imperfect (/) The Future Auxiliary, /iAXw Use of 6^\w, to will, emphatic with Examples The Aorist Tenses
(c)

General meaning, with Illustrations
{a)

The absolutely

past, "Preterite"

Distinction between Aorist, Imperfect, and Perfect
(&)
(c)

The Aorist. as Pluperfect The " Epistolary Aorist "

.....
.

{d)
(e)

Sometimes equivalent to our Present Indicative Marking the completeness of an act

302 303 303 303 303 304 304 305 305

XXXVl
SECT.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Perfect Tense General meaning, and
(«.)

365.

TiiE

....
Illustrations

.

PAGE 305
305 305

.

A

(b)

completed action, or one whose consequences remain Distinction between the Perfect and Aorist

.

366.

The Pluperfect Tense
Rare in the

New

Testament

367.

368.

The *' Perfect Present," and corresponding Pluperfect Interrogative Forms With or without interrogative words
.

Elliptic questions

369.
370.

Peculiar forms of affirmative reply

Negative questions
(ft)

.... .... .... ....
: .

.

.

305 306 306 306
307 307
308 308

an act repeated in the past

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

308 308

With

01)

;

(b)

with

fi-q ;

(c)

with

/xrjTL

.

The Imperative Mood
371.

.

309
309 309 309
309

Used
firi

for

command

or entreaty
.

.

its }»roper

negative Adverb

.

372.

Employed
{a)
(&)
(c)

in simple permission

.

373.

Tenses of the Im2)erativc

.

The Present—generality, continuity, repetition The Aorist instantaneousness, completeness The Perfect (very rare)

.

309 310 310 310
311

....

.

.

Contrast between Present and Aorist illustrated
374-

.

The Subjunctive Mood
Always really dependent. Elliptical forms The Subjunctive in independent sentences 1. As a hortatory Imperative First Person 2. As the Imperative in prohibitions

.

.

311
311

375-

.

.

.

311 311

376.
377.

3.
4.
5.

In questioning or doubt, " Deliberative Subjunctive" In strong denial (Aorist), with ov jx-q For the Future Perfect (Aorist)
.

.

.

.

312 312 313
313 313 313 313 313 314 314

378.

The Optative Mood
Always really dej^endent The Optative in independent sentences 1. To express a wish
So with
2.
fi-r]

.

.

.

.

{fXTj

yevoLTo
.

I)

.

.

AVith dv for Potential in

.

The Moods
379.
380.

Dependent Clauses
in such Clauses
after

.

.

Different kinds of Subordinate Clauses

.

.

314
314
314

Mood and Tense

.

.

381.

The Subjunctive Object Sentences
OTL

words compounded with &v

.

.

314 315 315
315

with the Indicative
:

.

382.

{a) Direct quotation
(b)

Pleonastic
:

on

.

Indirect quotation

**Oratio obliqua"

.

SYNTAX.
SECT.

xxx'sai
PAQT?

382.

(c)

Indirect interrogation

383-

Use of the Indicative, the Subjunctive, and the Optative (d) Object and Objective Sentence after some Verbs Conditional Sentences The " Protasis " and " Apodosis " Four forms of the Conditional Sentence a. The supposition of a /rtc^ (ct, Indicative) The supposition of a jjos^ij 27 lYy (ed J', Subjunctive) /3.
.

....
.
. .

.

315 316
317

317

7. Entire uncertainty
5.

{el,

A

condition unfulfilled
past)

384.

Intentional Clauses expressive of pm'pose or design The Intentional Particles {tva, 6tu}s, ixtj)
:

(rt)

With the Subjunctive,
Does
tVa ever

to express intention

(Distinction between Intentional

mean

so that

Passages relating to Scriptui'e prophecy

...... .... ...... .... ...... ..... .?........ .....
Optative)
{el,

317

317 317 318 318
319 320 320 320 320
321 321 322

Indicative past

...

ctj'.

Indicative

and Object Sentences)

.

.

.

The negative
{b)

intentional particle

"With

the

Indicative

Future

(infrequent),

conveying

emphasis,

force

An
385.

ajyparent Indicative Present in Intentional Sentences

.

.

323 323 324

The
(a)
(&)
(c)

Infinitive
Properly a Verbal Substantive
.
.

.

.

.

.

.324
324 324 324 324 325 325 325 325 326 326 326 326 326 326 326 327 327
327 328 328 329

The

Negative Adverbs with the Infinitive Infinitive governs the same cases as the Verb
Tenses of the Infinitive Present, Aorist, Future, Perfect
Subject of the Infinitive {eom\)aive ^ 286).

....
. .

386.

387. 388.
389.

.....
....
. .

The The

Infinitive as Subject (substantivised) Infinitive as Object

{a)
{b)

After Verbs denoting faculty, act, assertion, etc.

To denote intention (1) After a Verb
(2)

or result

After a Substantive

390.

The

(3) After an Adjective Infinitivfc in oblique cases (as Lat., gerund) (a) Genitive,
(1) (2)

with toO

After Substantives After Verbs

....... ........
. .

(3)
(6)
(c)

To express design
t^j,

Dative, with
Illustrations

"With Prepositions {tov,
:

391392.

Infinitive of result,

with

Coart (so Indicative^

Infinitive as Imperative

..... ...... ..,...,..,
to express cause
t(^,

.327
. .

to)

did,

els, ev,

fierd, trpo,

-rrpos,

dvri

.

XXXVlll
^'.Xl

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Participles

The

Properly verbal Adjectives

Negatives with the Participles Subject of a Participle (Genitive Absolute)
}94-

...... .....
....
.

.

,

PAGE 329

.

329 330 330 330 330
331

,

,

Peedicative uses
1.

After

tJie

of Participles Substantive Verb: " the resolved Tenses

,

2. 3.

Complementai^ to the verbal Predicate Adjuncts to the verbal Predicate
(«)
{b)

,

,

Modal Temporal (1) Contemporaneous (Present Participle)
(2) (3)

.......
.

,

,

Preceding (Aorist Participle)

Succeeding (Future Participle)

,

(c)

Relations of cause, condition, etc.

{d) Intensive (Hebraistic)

A
395396.

Predicative Participle

may

be modified by ws

Attkibutive use

of Participles

Epithetic (like Adjectives)

..... .....
and a Finite Verb

"With the Article

:

like the Relative

The Temporal
397-

reference sometimes lost

Usual force of the Present Tense
Particijiles in broken constructions

.....

Anacolouthon (compare

§ 412)

332 332 332 332 332 333 333 333 333 334 334 334 335 335 385 336

CHAPTER VII.— ADVERBS.
398.

399-

Their general use Adverbial phrases
(a)
{b)
(c)

A A

Substantive with or without Preposition
Adjective
Partici})le

An

...... .....
of

337

337 337
337 337 338 338 338 338 339

{d)

The combination

two Verbs
. .

.

400.

Adverbs

as Prepositions (see § 133)

401.

Combinations of Adverbs The Negative Adverbs, ou and /x?? Combinations of Negatives Comparison sometimes expressed as denial

339

CHAPTER VIIL— CONJUNCTIONS.
402.
403.

Rule for words connected by Conjunctions Conjunctions of Annexation especially
:

340
Kai,

and

340

SY^'TAX.
SECT.

XXXIX
PACK 340

403.

Special iises of
(a)
(b)
(c)
(rf)

/cat

.

.

For rhetorical emphasis In the enumeration of- particulars (with

.

re)

.

Marking points
Explanatory
:

of transition

.

340 340 341
341
341

"

(c)

As

also, even

.....
/cai

epexegetic

"

.

.

404.

Frequently in comparisons, and in the rismj climax g Conjunctions of Antithesis especially aXKa, Se
:

.

.

1.

dWd,
(1)

hut, marks opposition, interru ption To throw emphasis on its clauses

,

transition

.

.

(2)

In the Apodosis of a Conditional Sentence,
a negative,

yet

.

(3) After
2.
5c, hut,

dW

ij,

except
.

.

uueinphatic adversative

.

Often
Koi
...

may
5^,

be rendered, and, then, noiv,
...

etc.

.

342 342 342 343 343 343 344 344

yea

moreover
...

.

Antithesis with
/x4v

/to'

M
...

,

.

occasionally without 5^ (three cases)
:

.

405.

The Disjunctives
-^

especially

ij,

ehe
.

.

.

...

ij,

iJTOi ...r}, etre

ij

Kal,

or even

^ "interrogative"
406.

...... .....
elrz
:

.

.

344 344 345 345 345 345
346 346 346 346 347 347 347 347 347 347 348 348 348 348 349 349

.

The Inferential Conjunction.^
Their distinction.

especially apa.

.

Slighter meanings
especially 'yAp

.

Other Inferential Particles
407.

.

The Causal Conjunctions
(a) Relative
(b)

:

.

.

Conjunctions, as on, because
yap, for
.

.

The Demonstrative Causal

.

Introduces a direct reason
(c)

.

{d)

Or the reason of some fact implied. Sometimes refers to a suggested thought The combination kuI yap, its two senses
:

.

.

.

408.

Asyndeton
(a)
{h)
(f)

or the omission of Conjunctions

id)

Of the Of /cat, Of the Of the

Copulative

Epexegetic
Antithetic

.... .... ....

.

.

.

.

Causal Particle

.

CHAPTER IX.— OX SOME PECULIARITIES IN THE STRUCTURE OF
SENTEXCES.
409.

The Arrangement
{a)
(b, c)

of

Words

General rules

......

350

Emphasis gained by variety of arrangement

350

xl
skct.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Special Forms of Ellipsis
1.

410.

page 351
351

Aposiopesis

2.

Zeugma
Inartificial collocation of Clauses

......
.
. .

351

351

411.

Apparent Redundancy
{a)
{b)

For special emphasis frequently in three ways Object and Object-sentence (see §382)
;
;

412.

Anacolouthon
(Not to be hastHy assumed)
(a)
{b)
(c)

Transition from indirect to direct speech

Transition from a Participle to a Finite Verb

{d)

A

Nominative Participles standing alone sudden change of structure
,
»

413.

{e) The non-completion of a Compound Sentence Attention to Sound and Rhythm

{a)

Paronomasia Simple alliteration

Alliteration associated with kindred meanings
(b)

Parallelisms, after the

Christian

hymns

.......... ..... ........
.
.

....... ..... .... ....... ....
(see §

397)

.

.

.

.

manner

of

Hebrew

352 352 352 352 352 352 353 353 353 353 354 354 354 354 354 354
355 355

Rhythmic constructions "Chiasmus"
(c)

in passages of strong emotion

.

.354
.

(1)

(2)

Quotations of Greek poetry in the New Testament Metrical lines apparently unconsciously introduced

.

.

.

356
357 369 369 371

Analytical Exercise on 2 Thessalonians On some New Testament Synonyms Introductory Remarks List of Words illustrated
I.

Verbs in ordinary use

II.

Words

chielly expressive of moral quality

........ ......
. .
.
.

.374
377 380 583
387

III. Theological

and

Ecclesiastical

Words

IV. Miscellaneous

.

VOCABULARY

PAET
1.

I.

ORTHO GR APHY.
The Greek Alpliabet contains twenty-four
:

letters,

arranged

and named as follows
Name.
Capital.

Small.

Sound.

Numerical value.

Alpha
Beta

A
B
r
.

a

a
b
r
sometimes

1

^or^
<y

2
(hard)

Gamma
Delta
Epsllon
.

A E
z

h
e

g d
z

3

4
5

e (short)

Zeta

Ko^i
V

7
8 9 10

Eta
Theta
Iota

H
e
I

e ao"3)

^or^
i

th
i

Kappa Lambda

K A

K

k
I

20 30

\
/A

Mu
Nu
Xi Omicron
Pi

M
N
H O

m
n X
(short)

40
50 60

V 1
TT sometimes xn

n
P
X

p
T
S

70 80
100

Eho
Sigma Tau
Upsilon

p
T
V
<#>

ox

q

(T final

9
}

T
T<E>

sometimes

t

u
jph

Phi
Chi
Psi

X

^
fl

y
-./r
ft)

Ch

(guttural)

200 300 400 500 600
700 800

ps
Gong)

Omega

2

notes on the alphabet

— the

vowels.

[§ 2, a.

Notes on the Alphabet.
The word Alphabet is derived from the names of the two letters, alijJia, beta. The forms of the Greek letters, which, it
2.
CL'

first

will

be seen, greatly resemble those of our

own

language (the

Koman

letter),

were originally modified from the Phoenician.
h.

The second forms
first,

of certain letters are used interchangeably with

Those of gamma and tau are almost always employed at the end of words, is often placed in the middle of compound terms when a part of the compound ends with sigma. Thus, Trpos^cpo).
the

but

less

frequently.
s,

obsolete.

The

final

besides being

c.

For an explanation of the numeral use of
list,

letters,

and especially of

omissions in the

see ^ 48.

The Vowels.
3. The vowels are
a.
a,
e,

%

t,

o,

v,

w.

In this country they are generally pronounced according to the English sounds. The Continental pronunciation of a, tj, i, is undoubtedly the more strictly correct but the matter is of little practical importance.
;

Absolute conformity to the ancient mode

is

unattainable,

and

it

is

most

convenient to adopt the method of pronunciation current among scholars of our own country.

and 0) are long vowels. Care must be taken to distinguish them from the short c and o. Thus, /xev is pronounced like the English men ; In roi/, the o is pronounced as in on/ in twv, as in ovm; fjLYjv, like mean.
T|

a,

t,

V,

may

be either long or short.
are
at, au,

b.

The diphthongs
a,
r),
<j>

«,

ev, ot, ov,

also

(or,

with
is

capitals, Ai,

Ht, Ot),

pronounc3d as in English where the i occurs with a

long vowel, and

not pronounced, being, therefore, written underneath

the vowel (excepting in the case of capitals), and called iota subscript.
It will be important to note this in the declension of

nouns and the

conjugation of verbs.
r}v is

pronounced like

ev,

eu; and

vi like wi.

C.

Every vowel, when standing

as the first letter of a word, has

what


§
is

,

3, /.J

THE VOWELS.
breathing over
(
*

3

called a

it,

written as an apostrophe, either turned
(
'

outwards, as

),

or inwards, as

).

The former
is

breathing, and shows that the vowel the latter the hard breathing, and
aspirated.

simply to have

is

termed the soft its own sound equivalent to the English h
is

To

note the latter is

most necessary
Ao, he.

for correct pronunciation.

Thus,

6,

7}

must be pronounced

The
d.

initial v is

always aspirated.
of

So,

vTrcp,

huper.
p

At the beginning

a word,

the
rh.

consonant (or semivowel)

always takes the

aspii'ate,

becoming

When

two

p's

come together

in the middle of a word, the aspirate

and

soft breathing are successively

employed. Thus, pew, rhed ; dpprjrosy arrhetos. When a word begins with a diphthong, the breathing is placed upon the second letter
:

avTOVy auton ; avrov, hauton.

In the lengthening of vowels for purposes of inflection or derivabecomes d, or more generally r\ e becomes t], or ci i, v, become respectively i, 5; o becomes «, or ov.
e.

tion, &

;

;

/.

Two

vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, occurring together
:

in different syllables are often contracted into one, according to the

following Table

followed by.
tt

.

.

a
a
or
0)
1]

c

1

o
(i>

(1)

ai
"h

CI

Tl

01
fa>

u
(U

OV
(a

becomes
M

....

.

.

a
Ck

a
T
a>

b)

a
Cl

a
Tl

^

a

ov

to

Tl

01 01

b>

ov ov

ov

ov

(0

b)

oil

01

b)

The

left

perpendicular line in this table gives the former vowel in each com-

bination, the upper horizontal line the latter,
will easily be found.

and the
long a
;

result of the contraction

Thus,

eo gives ov

;

ae,

and

so of the rest.

It

must be noted that where the letter o- occurs in inflection between two short vowels, it is generally dropped, and conti'action takes place according to the
table.

It wiU be observed by inspection of the table that an o sound always preponderates in contraction with the other vowels ; that an a sound, when first, prevails over an e sound following it, and vioe versa. Some special and

exceptional methods of contraction will be found noticed in
*

Etymology.

Or

ov,
o.

when the

et is

the contraction of

ee,

as in the infinitive of contracted

verbs in

-i

VOWELS

— CONTRACTIONS —HIATUS.

[§ 3,

/.

Exercise 1.— Vowel Contractions.
Write
SrjXo€T€i
tlie

contracted forms of

rt/xao), Tt/x.a€t9, n/xact, Tt/tao/jicv, Ti/xacrc,

<^iXe(u, ^tXcet?,

^tXeet, (faXio/xev, (fnXeere, SrfXou), 8>y\o€ts, St/Aoci, 8rj\oo/x€V,
TCfiaoLj
87]Xor]T€,

(fiiXerjS,

voos, voov, ycveos, aiSoa, opea, ^ao'tXcc^,

^.

Diaeresis
)

is

the opposite of contraction, and

is

expressed by two

dots ("

over the second of two vowels which are to be separately

pronounced.
h.

Thus, KatVav, Ca-i-nan, not Cai-nan.

Hiatus, and the

ways
is

of avoiding

it.

—The

hiatus

{i.e.

yawning)

caused by the meeting of vowels at the end of one word and the

beginning of the next

often prevented by one or other of the following

ways

:

(1.)

The
i,

pv i<p€\KV(XTLK6v, or nu-sufflxed.

This v

is

added to datives plural

and to the third persons of verbs ending in € or i, when the following word begins with a vowel, or at the end of a sentence. These words will be marked in declension and conjugation by a bracketed (v) thus, alu}<n{v), In a similar manner, ovtco, fi^pi, and &xpi-j a^s a rule add s when iTri<rTevff€(v). In the last two words, however, the New Testament text followed by a vowel. and on all three the best MSS. greatly differ. is not by any means uniform The negative ov becomes ovk when the next word begins with a vowel, ^ and the preposition iK becomes ^^.
ending in
; ;

The following words lose their final (2.) Elision marked by an apostrophe. vowel before an initial vowel in the next word the prepositions airb, Std, M, Trapd, fierd, and the conjunction 6.W6. ; with (occasionally) the particle M and
:

its

negative

compound ovM

;

also (before

S)v)

the preposition

olvtL

When

the

(see § 4, h). Thus, airb airwv vowel is aspirated, tt, t, become <|>, so for fxera aWriXiap, /xer becomes air axnuiv, and airb iavrwu, &(f iavrcSv and for avrl dv, avd' Siv. d\\7)\ci}v, but for fierd tj/juSv, fxed' ijfxoSp This elision was, in classical Greek poets, used much more frequently in words ending in a, e, t, o.
initial
; ;

is sometimes prevented by a Crasis (lit. a "mixing'')^ words the vowels forming a long vowel, or diphthong. or the union of the two Tliis takes place but rarely, and only when the former word is very short and The breathing of the vowel in the second closely connected with the latter. Thus, foi retained, to mark the fusion, and is then called a Ooronis. word is

(3.) Orasis.

— An hiatus

;

*

Compare

§ 4, d, 6.


§
4, d.]
airrd,

;

mE
the

CONSONANTS.
sometimes written
j
;

5
for koI iyd), for

TO.

same

things, rairrd is

and

7, Kayib

;

for TO ivavTLoVf the

contrary,

rovvavTiov

and once

rh

5i'ona, the

name,

ToCvofia (Matt, xxvii. 57).

The Consonants.
4.
\,
<f>,

ci.

As

in the orthography of other languages, the four consonants,

fx,

V,

p, are

termed liquids; the nine consonants,

/?,

y, 8,

tt,

k,

t,

Xi ^j Q-re mutes.
b.

The mutes may be evidently arranged according

to the organs of

speech specially concerned in their formation.

Thus

TT,

P,

(pj are labials

(^sounds)
;

Kj y, Xy ^^® gutturals (A;-sounds) r,

l^y^**-*^^**"^^^^

8J

6, are dentals (^-sounds).
it is

Each
aspirate

of these divisions has,

also plain, a sharp, a

flat,

and an

consonant.
:

Hence the highly important

classification of the

following Table

Sharp.

Flat.

Aspirate.

Labials

.

.

.

IT

P

^-sounds.

Gutturals

.

.

K T
8

X
e

A:-sounds.

Dentals

.

.

.

^sounds.

The

guttural 7

is

pronounced, before a A;-sound or
7,

|,

like the nasal ng.
;

Thus, dyycXos, ang-gelos (the second
ang-kura.
c.
a- is

as always, being hard)

dyKvpa,

the simple sibilant, which, in combination with a ^sound, gives
or
(jxr
;

if/='rrcr,

per,

in combination with

a ^'-sound gives i=K<r,ya;\tr;
^,

in combination with S gives C=8<r;
letters.

these three,

|,

\j/y

being double

The following eight rules must be carefully observed, as they relate to the changes which are imposed by the necessities of orthogi-aphy
d.

on the conjugation and declension of words, and will explain much hereafter that would otherwise be found very perplexing.

6
1.

COMBINATIONS AND CHANGES OF CONSONANTS.
As above, a
|.

[§ 4, d.
o*

labial followed

by

or

becomes

^

;

a guttural followed by
order,

becomes
2.

A

labial or guttural before a dental
if

must be of the same
flat,

i.e.

must be changed,

not already
<r

so,

into a sharp,

or aspirate, according to

the nature of the dental. 3. A dental followed by
4

disappears.
; ;

a dental a guttural becomes -y p. becomes o-. 5. The letter v becomes fx before labials ; y before gutturals ; before a liquid is changed into the same liquid and before o- or f is dropped. The combination o-f v with a dental and the sibilant, as vra, liecomes simply (T, with compensation by the lengthening of the preceding vowel e becoming €t, and 0, ov. Thus,
|jl

Before the letter

a labial becomes

;

;

yiyavrai
iXfjLipdcri

becomes
,,

7i7d(ri
eX/Mffi
; ;

TvcpdevTci TVTTTOVTCn

,,

TV(f)6€L<TL

TVTTTOVffl.

is changed into the corresponding Sometimes this change will take place when the mute occurs at the end of one word, and the vowel at the beginning of the next. Thus, d^' wu for
6.

A

sharp mute before an aspirated vowel

aspirate.

CLTT

Cjv

two consecutive syllables of the same word begin with an aspirate, Thus, Opixo^ is changed into rpixos ; and its aspiration. exw into ex^- But affixes generally lose their aspiration in preference to the stem, whether they are placed first or last as, ti-6€-tl for di-de-di., where the last syllable is a mere adjunct to the root. 8. No consonant can end a Greek word, except v, p, a, ^, xp; the last two being compounds of s. The preposition €k before a consonant, and the negative adverb o^uK before a vowel, are apparent exceptions but, having no accent, they may be
7.

0^ When
;

opau) for ouk bpaoj.

the former often loses

;

;

counted as parts of the following words.

Exercise 2.— On
Mule
1.

tlie

Combination of Consonants.
of ypac^o-et, tvtto-w, Xeycrov,
e;(o-w,

—Write down the proper forms
rpL^cro/xev, Acytras, Tr^ixnorov.
reTpi/Jrat, yeypac^rat,

crTp€(l>cr€L<s,

^\

Of
Of Of Of

irct^cro), i\7n8(T€L<s,

aScovrcs, avvra-CL.
AeXeyrat, (Se^pexraL,
lrpip6r]Vy 7r\€K$rjvaLf

^K
4. 5.

XeyOrjvai, cTre/XTr^T/v.
riTpiPfJLaij yeypacfifiai, jSe/SpexfJ^aL, imraOp.ai, yvvT/xat, ttcttXck/xou.
7rav7roA.vs,
cri>i/<^r;/xt,

(rvvyvwfXTj^ avvx'^^P^i o-w^vyos, <TvvaTpaTHDTr]s

also of TravTS, XvovTCTLj XvOevTaLV.

;

§

6, b.]

THE ACCENTS.
other changes of consonants

7
noticed,

5.

Some

may be
before

though they do

not so invariably conform to general rules as the preceding.
1.

AssimiJniion.

—The

labials

ir,

p,

<[>

ix,

and

v before the other
;

liquids,

are regularly assimilated to the following letters

i.e.

changed
is

into the

same

letter (see § 4,
;

cZ,

5).

Sometimes a

latter

consonant

assimilated to a former one
2.

as,

oAAv/xt for 6X-vvfXL.

Duplication.
it.

—The
Thus,

letter

p is regularly

doubled when a vowel

is

placed before

d7ro-pt7rra>

becomes

airoppLTTru).
;

Sometimes X
<r<r

is

doubled, to compensate for the loss of a vowel

as,

fjLaXXov for fxaXiov,

dyyeXXw for
rapaa-(Tisi

dyycXeo).

In comparatives and in verbs,
k,

or TT is
rjcra-ov

sometimes put for a guttural
for tjklovj
<r<r ;

y,

as,

for Tapa^^oi.

x with a following vowel In some words, t appears
often transposed

instead of
3.

as,

/xet^cov

for /xcyiwv.
is
;

Transposition.

—A

vowel with a liquid

as,

OvrjCTKU)

for Oav-a-KU).

4.

Omission.

—Any
;

consonants which

make

a harsh sound

may

be

omitted in the formation or inflection of words.
5.

Insertion.

— Sometimes,
as,

though

rarely, a

consonant

is
;

inserted to
so,

assist the
is

sound
w\}/,

from

avrip,

gen. (avepos, av-po<5) dvZpo^

avOpioiros

from dvyp

making

dv-pojiroSf

and, with 6 inserted, avQpoiiros.

The Accents.
a. Every Greek word, except the proclitics and enclitics, which be noticed under their respective parts of speech, has an accent expressed on one of its last three syllables. The accents are employed

6.

will

in writing,

but mostly disregarded in pronunciation. Their use was " rising " or " falling " inflection) on the to mark a certain stress (or
syllables

where they are placed.

It is said that

they were invented by
to reinstate

Greek grammarians,

as a guide to foreigners in pronouncing the language.

Some

linguists of our

helps in this respect,
6.

own day have endeavoured but without much success.
the acute
(
' ),

them

as

The

accents

are

the grave

(
'

),

and the circum-

flex C^).

The
vowel
;

accent
as,

is

avros,

marked upon a vowel, and in diphthongs upon the latter ovtws. The acute and grave are placed after the

8
breathing,

CONSONANT CHANGiES
;

—THE

ACCENTS.

[§ 6,

5.

and the circumflex over it as, og, ovto<s. The acute on the becomes grave, unless the word ends a sentence except tls, the interrogative, which always keeps its acute. Every unaccented syllable is said to have the gi^ave tone ; but the grave accent is not marked, except where it stands for a final acute.
last syllable
;

Words are called, with reference to accent Oxytone (lit. sharp-toned)^ when the acute is on the last syllable, as IXttl^ Paroxjrtone, when the
c.
;

acute

is

on the penultima
is
(lit.
;

when

the acute

(last but one), as ovtws; Proparoxytone, on the antepenultima (last but two), as ^tXtos ;

drawn-out), when the circumflex is on the last Properispomenon, when on the penultima, as ovrosThe circumflex cannot be farther back than the penultima, nor the acute than the antepenultima. If the last syllable of the word contains a long vowel, the acute accent must be on the last or last but one, the circumflex only on the last. Should, therefore, the final syllable of a proparoxytone be lengthened by declension, the accent is thrown forward, i.e. the word becomes paroxytone thus, av^pwTro?, dvOpoyirwv. But if the final syllable of a lengthened, the accent is changed to the acute, i.e. properispomenon is the word becomes paroxytone ; thus, Xt^eprti/os, Xi/SepTLvwv. It should be observed that the circumflex accent is always the result ' not of a grave and acute of contraction, i.e. of an acute and grave ( ' ) ^ ) ( as will be shown under Etymology. '

Perispomenon

syllable, as avrov

;

ately preceding,

word immediA proparoxytone or which word is aff'ected as follows properispomenon takes an acute accent on the last syllable also thus, Au oxytouc that would otherwise (see above) avOpdiTTos Tt5, oi/cos Tt?.
d.

Enclitics are words which merge their accent into the
:

;

take the grave accent retains the acute;
tones and perispomena show no alteration.

thus, fiaOrjTi^s rts.

Paroxy«

e.

Proclitics lose their accent in the words following.

In an emphatic

position, a proclitic

alone, no t
Tis.

A

proclitic followed

becomes oxytone. Thus, ov with a verb is not ; ov by an enclitic is also oxytoned ; as, ov
as one word.

The two may be written

Special rules of accentuation will be given under the sections of

Etymology
Greek
;

The

learner

is

recommended

to accentuate from the

first,

in writing


§
?.]

;

ORTHOGllAPHY, GREEK AND ENGLISH.

9

especially as the accent of very

many words
if

can only be
fii'st,

known by acquaintance
be extremely
difficult

with the words themselves, and
to acquire afterwards.

neglected at

will

On the Transference
7.

of

Greek Words into English.

Most proper names, and some few other words, are literally transcribed from the one language into the other. The medium of transference is almost always the Latin, and therefore the orthography conforms to Latin rules. For the most part, the Greek letters are represented by the equivalents given (§ 1). The following exceptions must, however, be
noted
:

K is always

c,

the letter

Tc

not being found in the usual

Roman

alphabet.
it is

Where

the c would be soft in ordinary English pronunciation,
ILvprjv-r],

generally so in Greek names, as

Cyreite.

'

In some words of

infrequent use, good speakers sometimes deviate from this rule, saying,
e.g.

AA-eldama, not Aseldama.

The vowel v is represented by y, as ^vpCa^ Syria. The diphthong at becomes ce, as Katcrap, Ccesar. Occasionally, the diphthong is made simply e ; so, Atyv7rT(o9), Egypt; Tpv(f>aLi'a, Ti^pliena. The diphthong oi becomes q3, as ^ol/^tj, Phoebe ; sometimes, as above,
only e: thus,
^otvt/07,
ct

Phenice.
as AaoSt/ccia,

The diphthong becomes e or ?, ThyaUra : sometimes (in practice) t,
ought really to be long, or long

Laodicea ; ©vdreLpa,

as SeXcvKcta, Seleucia.

But the

i

e ; so Attalia.

The diphthong
as
V,

ov appears as w, as AovkS?,

Luke;

or,

before a vowel,

as StXovavo's, Silvanus.
initial I before a
initial P,

The The
'PoSry,

vowel becomes
Thus,
'Pa^/3i',

J, as 'lovSa?, Judas.
(§ 3, d), is

always aspirated in Greek

generally without

the aspirate in English.

Bahbi.

But

'Prjytov,

Khegium

Rlioda ; and *Pd8os, Rhodes^ are exceptions, being original Greek

words.

Changes in the terminations of these transferred words belong to Etymology. rule can be given but usage why some should have their endings changed, while others are exactly transcribed. Occasionally, the same word appears in two forms. Thus, Marcus and Mark, LiLcas and LuTce. The learner is recommended to read carefully parts of the New Testament where many proper names occur, comparing the English with the Greek. No better portion for the pmpose could b>e found than Romans xvi.

No

10

punctuation

—reading

lessons.

8.

Punctuation.
8. Four marks of punctuation are used for the division of sentences
the comma, the colon, the period, and the note of interrogation.

The comma

(

,

)

and the period
it is

(

)
.

are like our own.

In modern
capital letters
;

typography
for the

very usual not to begin

reserving these for proper names, for the

new sentences with commencement of

quotations,

and

beginning of paragraphs.
is

The
the

colon (sometimes called semicolon)

expressed by a point above

line,

thus

(

).

Interrogation

is

marked by a

sign, after the question,

resembling our

semicolon

(

;

).

Inverted commas, as marks of quotation, are sometimes, though rarely, employed in printed Greek. The Greek equivalent for etc., et ccetera^ is in the initials k. t. X., for
Koi TO. Xonrd,

and

the rest.

The following sentence
(John
Kal
oiiK

exhibits the different marks of punctuation

ix.

40)

:—
Mrj kuI
rifieh TV(p\ol ea-jxev;
elirev

eXirav avT(p,

avTols (6) 'I'qcovs, Ei TV(j)\ol ^re,
i]

&y etx^T€ ajxapriap. vvv de Xiyere

otl, 'BXeTO/xev'

a/xapria V/xuv jxivei,

READING LESSONS.
I.

Acts

ii.

1-13.

Write the following in Roman letters, carefully inserting the initial aspirate wherever it occurs, and discriminating between the long and the short and e, as in Lesson III. below
:

K<xl ev

Tft)

av/JL7r\r]povo'dac rrjv^ rjixepav
6/jlov

Trj<;

TrevTrjKoarrjf;,
dcfiva)

2 ^aav irdvTe^i

iirl

to

avro,^

^k

iyevero

sk tov

ovpavov ^%09 wairep ^epofxevr)^
^ofievac

irvorj<;

^iaLa<; Kac eTrXrjpwcrev

3 oXov TOV oIkov ov Tjaav KadrjixevoL, Kal
yXojacrat
(her el 7rvpb<;,

a>(f)6rjaav avTOi<; Stafiepcecf)'

Kal eKaOiaev

eva eKaaTov Kat rjp^avTo

4 avTMv, Kal eirXTjadr^aav
\aXelv
^

7rdvT€<i 7rv€v/iaT0<; dyiov,

6Tepat<; y\oiiacraL<; Ka6(b<;

to irvevfia iSlSov diro^Oeyfinal syllable

^

According to what rule is the accent on the Why does this accent remain acute /

made grave f


§§ 1-8.]
5 tyeo-Bai
6 ovpavov

;

READING LESSONS.
avroU.
^Ha-av
Be
(cr)

11
f€aTOCfCovvT€<;

'lepovcaXrjfju

^lovBatOL, avBpe^

euXa^et? airo
tjkovov
el?

iravTO'i

eOvov^ tmv viro rov
to
ifKrjOO'i

yeyo/jLevT)^ Be Trj<;

(f)covr]^ ravrrff; crvvrfKOe

yX^f^ KOI avve^vurfr
7 XakovvTwv
8 IBov

on

€KaaTO<;

rfj

IBla

BtakeKTCp

avTMV e^Laravro
cKaaro^
rfj

Be koX eOavfia^ov Xeyovre^;, Ou;)^l
;

TTCLvre^ ovtol^

elaiv oi \aXovvTe<i VaXtXatoi,
IBia BloXIkto)
rjficov

Kai 7rw9
e<yevvr}6'ii-

r)fiel^ oLKovo/jLev

ev

fj

9

fjiev

;

HdpOoc koX

y\.r)BoL

Koi 'EXa/i-etTat, koI ol KaroiKovvre^
J^aTTTraBoKtav, Tlovrov

TTjv

MecroTrora/jbLav, ^lovBaiav re Kal
TTjv ^Kcriav,

^pvyiav re koI TlaiJb<f>v\tav, AlLyvirrov, Kai ra fiipT) T?}? Ai^VT)^ Trj<; Kara Kvp^vrjVy Kal ol i7nBrj/jLovvTe<; 11 ^VcdjjbaloL, ^YovBatoi^ re Kal Trpoo-rjXvroL, Kp^re? Kal"Apa^e<;, aKovofiev XaXovvrayv avroiv ral^ r}/jL&repaL<i yXcocraacf; ra fie10 Kal 12 yaXeta rod ®eov.
7rpb<;

e^iaravro Be

Traz^re?

Kal BLrjTropovvro, aXXof;
elvai
;

dXXov

Xeyovre^,

Tt
otl,

OeXei

tovto

erepoc
elaLv.

Be

13 Bia'^Xevd^ovT€<i eXeyov
II.

TXevKov<i
iv.

/jLefjuearco/xevot,

KoMANS

1-16.

Read the

following, carefully attending to the punctuation,

which

in

this passage is

marked with unusual

decisiveness

;

2 ei yap 3 ov

Tt ovv epovfiev ^Affpadfi rov irpoiraTopa rjpLOiv Kara adpKa ^A^pad/ju i^ epywv iBiKatoodT], e^et Kav'^rjixa' dX}C
irpo^

6eov,
To3

tI
6ea),

yap
Kal
Be

rj

ypa^rj
eXoyiaOi]

Xeyei

;

'^FiTTLcrrevaev

Be

'^A^padfi

4 tS Be 5 Kara
TOP

epya^opLev(p 6
ocfyelXrjfjba'

pbLcr6o<;
firj

avrS eh BLKatoavvrjv.^ ov Xoyi^erai Kara X^P''^ dXXd
epya^o/juevq),

toS

Trtarevovn Be
TTLaTL^;

€7rl

BiKatovvTa

rov

dae/Srj,

Xoyl^eraL

rj

avrov

eh

6 BiKatoavvTjv,

KaOdirep

Kal

AavelB

Xeyet

top

/jLaKapcafMov
%6>/3i9 epycov,

rov dv6p(i)7rov
7 8
9
*

w

6

6eo<^

Xoyi^erai BtKaLoavvrjv
at dvo/jLiaL Kal
dvrjp

yiaKdpiOL
dfiapTiavJ

oiv dcjiedrjaav

mv eireKaXix^Orfaav
Xoyiarjrai, K.vpto<%
Tr)v irepLTOiirjv
eTrl

'

at afiaprlaL,

fiaKdpco<;

(ou) ov

fjur)

*

/jLaKapccrfjLo<;

ovv
;

ovro^

rj

Kal

eTrl

rrjv
T]

aKpo^variav

Xeyo/xev yap, '^EiXoyiadr}
ttw?
I

roS

10

*

^A^padfjL

iridTL^i

eh

BcKaLoa-vvrfv.^

ovv eXoyladr)

^

Why has this

word two accents

12
6v
irepLTO/jbrj

READING LESSONS.
ovtl
tj

[§§ 1-8.
;

ev

aKpo/Svaria
'

ovk

ev
'

irepCTO/jifj
TrepLTO/iij^;,^
'

11

aW
Bl

ev

aKpo^varia'
rrj^i

koX

(77j/jl6lov*

eXa^ev
T7]<;

a^payl^a
^vcTTLa,

hiKaiocrvvrj^;

t?}9

'Tri(TTeai<;

ev

rrj

aKpo-

€69

TO ecvac axjTov irarepa irdvTwv rwv Tna-revovrcov
et?

dKpo^v(TTia<;,

to Xoyca-Orjvat avTol<;
Tot9
toI<^

(rrjv) BiKacoavvTjv,
/jlovov

12 KUL iraTepa
{koI
rot?)

7repcT0/JL7]<;

ovk ck
t'^vecnv

TrepiTOfxrjf;
Tr}<;

dWd
VOflOV

crTOij(ov(TLV

ev

aKpo/SvaTia
Scd

13

7rK7T6ft)9
rj

Tov TvaTpo^

Tj/jicov
rj

^A^pudfi.

Ov ydp
avTOVy

€7rayye\la tcS 'Afipadfju

to3 airepfxaTL

to

KXypoteal

vo/JLOv

avTOV etvat Koafiov,
ol

dWd
o

Scd

BiKaLoavvr}^ TrlaTeco^'
rj

14 15

et

yap
Be

ex
tj

vofxov

KXrjpovo/jLot,

KeKevcoTat
v6/jL0<i

irt(TTL<;

KaT7]py7}Tat>

eirayyeXia,
v6fio<;,

ydp

6pyr)v KaTepyd^eTat,

16 ou

OVK

ecTTLv

ovBk

7rapd^aaL<;.

Aid tovto ck

iricrTeay^y

Xva

KaTd

'^dpcv.

The quotation marks
used, as
citation
is

(inverted commas) introduced in verses 3, 7, 8, are the practice in some editions of the Greek Testament, to indicate a

from the ancient Scriptures.

III.

Matthew

v.

1-16.

Write the following in Greek characters, punctuating the sentences, inserting the soft and aspirate " h'eathings" but not attempting accentuation. The usual marks ( " ) and ( " ) discriminate the long and the short vowels. In the diphthongs, the short a and e are to be used. Where an iota is to be subscribed, the vowel is italicised thus, o = w.
;

1

Idon de tous ochlous anebe

eis

to oros
;

;

kai kathisantos autou

2 proselthan (auto) hoi mathetai autou

kai anoixas to stoma autou

3 edidasken autous legon, Makarioi hoi ptochoi to pneumati, hoti auton

4 estin he basileia ton ouranon.
5 paraklethesontai.
6 gen.

makarioi hoi penthountes, hoti autoi

makarioi hoi praeis, hoti autoi kleronomesousi ten

makarioi hoi peinontes kai dipsontes ten dikaiosunen, hoti

7 autoi chortasthesontai.

makarioi hoi eleemones, hoti autoi eleethete

8 sontai.
9 opsontai.

makarioi

hoi katharoi hoi

kardia,
hoti

hoti

autoi ton

theon

makarioi

eirenopoioi,

(autoi)

huioi

theou

10 klethesontai. makarioi este hotan oneidisosin 11 auton estin he basileia ton ouranon. pan poneron kath' humdn pseudomenoi humas kai dioxdsin kai eiposin

makarioi hoi dediogmenoi heneken dikaiosunes, hoti

§§ 1-8.]
12 heneken

READING LESSONS.

13
hoti

emou

;

chaiiute
;

kai

agalliasthe,

ho misthos humon

polus en tois ouranois

houtos gar edioxan tous prophetas tous pro

humon. 13 Humeis

este to halas tes ges
?

;

ean de to halas moranthe, en

tini

halisthesetai

eis

ouden ischuei
humeis

eti ei

me
;

blethen exo katapateisthai

14 hupo ton anthrop5n.
titheasin auton

este to

phos ton kosmou, ou dunatai oude
kaiousi

15 polls krubenai epan5 orous keimene

luchnon kai

hupo ton modion

all'

epi ten luchnian, kai lampei

16 pasin

tois

en

te oikia.

houtos lampsato to phos

humon emprosthen

ton anthropon, hopos idosin
patera

hum5n

ta kala erga kai doxasosin ton

humon

ton en tois ouranois.
exercises,

The Greek Testament wiU furnish many other

which should
facility.

h2 repeated until the learner can read the language with perfect

A little
of

care

a single

and time now devoted to this point, even before the uieaning word is understood, will very greatly contribute to future

progress.

14

[§ 9.

PAET

II.

ETYMOLOGY.
Chapter
9.
I.

INTEODUCTIOK
and
tlie

Etymology

treats of the classification, the derivation,

inflection of words.

of speech in Greek, and in stantially the same.
a.

The

;parts

all

other languages, are sub-

h.

More important than any

others

are the

Noun and
first

the

Vei^h.

be treated of, in their various inflections. With the ISToun are closely connected the Artidey the Adjective, and the Pronoun. The Verb also has its noun, the Infinitive,

These, as the necessary elements of a sentence, will

and its

adjective, the Participle

Of these two the

latter

only

is inflected.

10. The elementary part of every word is called as every inflection presupposes it, and branches from

its
it.

STEM*

language.

The Root of a word is its yet simpler element in the same or another With this, practical grammar has comparatively little to do
;

but to
word.

know

the stem

is

of the utmost importance in the analysis of

any

Throughout the Etymology the stem wiU be marked by thick letters, with a hyphen indicating the (general) incompleteness of the stem until some letter or syllable be added by way of inflection. The last letter of a stem is called the stem-ending. If the letter is a vowel, the stem is caUed " vowel," or pure. So a stem ending with a liquid is called a liquid stem ; ending with a mute, a mute stem. Liquid and mute stems are sometimes called impure.

§ 12.]

ETYMOLOGY

—THE

NOUN.

l6

Chapter
11.

II.

THE

NOUISr, or

SUBSTANTIVE.
and Neuter ;

Nouns have

three genders, Masculine, Feminine,

also three numbers, Singular, Dual,

and Plural.
but as
it is

The dual number
not found in the

denotes two, or a pair of anything

;

Greek Testament,
given.

it

will not be noticed in the forms of declension

There are
or Objective

five cases

:

the Nominative^ or case of the Subject
;

;

the

Genitive, or Possessive
;

the Dative, or Conjunctive

;

the Accusative,

the Vocative, employed in direct address.

Strictly speaking, the

Nominative and Vocative are not cases: the

word implying dependence.
ohliqiLS,^

Of

the

three

true

cases,
frorriy

often
then,

called

the

Genitive
;

originally

signifies
in,

motion

more
;

generally, separation

the Dative, rest

hence conjunction with
cases,

the

Accusative, motion towards, hence denoting simply the object of the
transitive

verb.

This general description of the three
Avill

for the

further illustration of which see Syntax,

explain most of their uses.

In the paradigms of Nouns Substantive, a convenient English rendering of the It must, however, is by the preposition of, and of the Dative by to. be remembered that these words are used for the sake of distinction merely, and not as intimating that such are the most correct or usual renderings.
Genitive

12. Before proceeding to the inflection of Nouns, it will be convenient to give the Definite Article in its numbers, genders, and
cases.

This must be thoroughly committed to memory.
is

no indefinite article in Greek, the nearest equivalent being the This is also subjoined, chiefly for the indefinite pronoun tl<s, any.^ reason that the two words together furnish a model, nearly complete, of the declension of all suBSTANTrvES and adjectives.
There

* Ohliquey or slanting, from the habit among old grammarians of expressing the forms of the noun by a diagram, the nominative being an upright stem, from which the cases branched at different angles.

*

Or the numeral

els,

one.

16

FORMS OF THE NOUN.
Definite Article, the.

[§12.

Stem, m. n. TO-•y fern, ra-

SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G. D.
F.

PLURAL.
N.
^r.

F.

N.

6

^
Tf)S

t6

01

ai
Toiv

Td
TWV
TOIS
TCI

TOV
T<S

TOV

TWV
TOts

TW
nrjv

Tats
Tcls

A.

TOV

T^

TOVS

Accentuation.
is

—The nominative, masculine and feminine,
and dative of both numbers
a.ve

singular and plural,

proclitic; the genitive

perispomena ; the rest

oxytone.

13.
M.
N. G.
D.

Indefinite

Pronoun
N.
Tl

;

an^, a certain,

a.

Stem, tlv^

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
M.

and
TIS

F.

and
TIV€S

F.

N.
Ttva
TlVCtfV

TIVOS
TlVl

TIVOS
TlVl

TtVWV
TlO-t

TlO-l

A.

Ttva
Accentuation.

Tt

Tivas
is

Tiva
;

—The word

generally enclitic, as here given

the accent being

regarded as transferred to the previous word (§ 6, d). When accented, the forms are oxytone, except the genitive plural, which is perispomenAm. Thus,
TLvbs, rial, rivQv.

comparison of the two forms now given will show four particulars, applicable to all nouns, adjectives, and pronouns and,
14.
;

A

therefore, at the outset,
a.

important to remember.

Neuters have but one form in each number for the nominative and accusative. Perhaps this might have arisen from things without Neuters plural, ULmiinative and life being regarded as objects only.
accusative, always

end in a

(short),

except

when

contracted, as reixy} for

T€txca (Heb. xi. 30).
h.

The dative singular always ends
is

in

i

;

though, where the letter
b).

preceding
c.

a long vowel, the iota

is

subscript (§ 3,
«v.

The genitive plural always ends in

d.

Masculine and neuter forms are always alike in the genitive
dative.

and


§ 16.]

GENDER AND DECLENSION.

17

Gender of Substantives.
15.
•gender.

General Kules.

Many names
This
fact,

of inanimate objects are of the masculine or feminine

common
in

no doubt, arose from the habit of personification, in early ages. The English, indeed, is the only great language

which masculine and feminine, with almost undeviating strictness, denote male and female. The French idiom, in the opposite extreme,
entirely rejects the neuter.

Considerable difficulty, therefore,
the gender of

is

felt

by beginners
it

in determining

many
;

nouns.

In some

cases,

will be necessary to

consult the Lexicon
guide, as is

in others, the termination of the
several declensions.

word

will be a

shown under the
rules,

The following
a.

however, are of general application
;^

:

The names
The names

of males are Masculine

so of rivers

and

-winds,

which

were regarded by the early Greeks as gods.
h.

islands,
c.

of females are Feminine;^ most tovms, and abstract terms.
-ov are

so also of trees, countries,

Diminutives in

Neuter, even though the names of persons.

To the
verb,

class of neuters also belongs the verbal substantive, or infinitive

with indeclinable nouns generally.

Declension of Nouns Substantive.
16. There are three leading types of inflection, under one or other which all declinable nouns may be classified. These are called the Three Declensions, and, as has been stated, the model of each may be traced in the Article and the Indefinite Pronoun. The First Declension corresponds with the feminine of the article, rj. The Second Declefnsion corresponds with the masculine or neuter of the article, 6, xq. The Third Declension corresponds with the form of the
of

indefinite pronoun, rts,

rt.

A
*

model of each declension

is

here given.

The generic names of animals
gender,
i.e.

are sometimes
(so

common,
irah,

i.e.

of either masc. or
;

fem.

according to circumstances

also

child)

more frequently
'H'olJ

rpicoene,
is

of one gender, used indilferently for both sexes.
xiii.

Thus, in Greek,

always masc, /ac always fem., even in Luke

32.

18

LEADING FORMS OF THE DECLElfSIONS.
First Declension.
TTvXr},

[§16.

a

gate.

Stem, TTvXaPLURAL.
irvXac, gates (s^^^/)

SINGULAR.
K.
G.
D. A.
V.

TrvXt],
7rv\r]<;,

a gate

(suhj.)

of a gate

TTvXwVy of gates
7ryXat9, to gates

irvXrjy to

a gate
(ohj.)
!

7rvX7]v,
TTvXrj,

a gate
gate

TTvXa^, gates (o&y.)
irvXac,

gates

1

Second Declension.
dvOp(07ro<;,

a man.

Stem, avOpcoirodvOpcoTToc,

SINGULAR.
N.
G.

D. A.
V.

man (suhJ.) man dvdpcoTTM, to a man dvOpcoTTov, a man (o&y.) man dvdpcoTre,
dvOpcoTTo^;,

a

dvOpcoTTov, of a

!

men (stihj.) dvOpcoTTcov, of men dv6pQ)7roc<;, to men dvOpcoTTovf;, men (o6/*.) dv6 pwiroi, men
!

Accentuation.

—The

reason
6, c.

why

the place of the accent varies in the genitive

and dative

is

explained, §

Third Declension.
7rat9,

a

c7w/c?, &oy,
(

servant.

Stem, TratSPLURAL.
TratSe?, children {subj.)
iralBcov, of children
iralo-L, to

Accent of this word

irregular.

SINGULAR.
N.

rrah, a child {subj.)
TracBo^;, of

G.
D.
A.
V.

a child

TratBl, to

a child
(06;*.)

children
(06/'.)
!

TratSa, a child
Trat,

iralBa^, children
TralSe^,

child

!

childi'en

declensions, with their rules of formation, their analogies

These three paradigms having been committed to memory, the several and variations,
p'articularly discussed.

may now be more

A certain
f

likeness will, on examination, be detected between the First

and Second especially in the plural number. may be set side by side, thus
:

The

plural termmations

.

jj

18.]
N.
G. D.

THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.
V.

19
-oi
-<DV

and

First Declension, -ai
»>

Second Declension,
»
j>

-<av

»
)>

-ats

-ois

A.

-as

»
is

-ovs

In the former, the predominant vowel
o.

evidently a

;

in the latter,
r\

So

in

the singular, the
3, e)
;

first

declension in the dative has

(for a

lengthened, §
the
first

the second, w (for o lengthened).
;

In the accusative,

has

av, or tjv

the second,

ov.

The two may accordingly be discriminated
the

as the

A

declension and

O declension

;

a distinction which the further examination of their
plain.

structure

makes yet more

Both, again, are distinguished from the third by admitting the termination which

marks the case

into the last syllable of the

word

;

while

the latter adds the termination as a distinct syllable.

The

First

and Second Declensions

are,

on account of this
;

last pecu-

liarity, called

the Inseparahle^ or Parisyllahic

the Third, the Separable,

or Imparlsyllahic declension.

All three admit, however, of
detail.

many

variations, as will

now be shown

in

17.

FIRST (INSEPARABLE), OR A-DECLENSIOK

This declension includes both masculine and feminine nouns. The stem invariably ends in a. As the feminine has already been
given as containing the typical form, that

may be

placed

first.

18.

Feminine Paradigms.
rj/juepa,

First Declension.

day.

So^a, opinion..

Stem,
SIXG ULA R.
N. G.
D.
t)/JL€pa

ijjjiepa-

PL URA L
Tj/jiepai,

Stem, So Rosing ifLA R. PLURAL.

So^a

Bo^at

rjfiepaf;

rjfjuepMV
^/jL€paL<i

y)P'€pa
r)/jLepav
r}fjL€pa

A.

rjiiepas
7)fi€pai
j

y.

86^av Bo^a

B6^a<s

Bo^ai

20
TLfir),

THE FIRST DECLENSION.
honour.
<TKldy

[§18
shadow.

Stem, TLfxaSINGULAR. PLURAL.
N.
TLfJuri

Stem, (TKLaPLURAL. SINGULAR.
aKLO.
(TKid^;
CFKLCi
I

TC/jLai
TtfJLCOV
TLfJLat<;
TlfJbd<;

(TKiai
(TKtCJV

G.

TLfXTj^
Tl/JL'p

D.
A.

(TKtal^
(TKtd's

Ti/jLl]V
Tifji-q

(TKLCiV

V.

Tifiai

(TKid

OKial

REMARKS.
and accusative singular whenever pi^eceded hy a consonant ; except by the Hquid p, the double consonants, or <r, sometimes v preceded by a diphthong or long vowel. In these cases, the a remains, long after p, short in the other cases. Preceded by a vowel, the a remains, generally long. Thus we have the nominatives ei/roArJ, o-vi/aywyT/, xl/v^ri ; but Ovpa, S6^a, yXCxraa,
a.
tj

The stem-ending a becomes

in the nominative

/?ao"tAtcrcrtt, Xeati/a, cTKid,
b.

fSaaiXetd, dXyjOeia.
pre-

In the genitive and dative singular, the stem-ending a, when not
p,

ceded by a vowel or
N. ho^a
c.
;

G. S6^r]<;

;

D. S6$rj

becomes but ;

t].

After a vowel or

p, it

remams.

Thus,

rj/Jicpa, r;/x€pa9, rjfxepa,

and

(TKia, (TKias, o-klo..

The
d.

plural terminations in all forms of this declension are exactly

alike, the

—"Whatever Accentuation.

a in

-as of

the accusative being long (contracted for
syllable
is

-av<s).

accented in the nominative retains

the accent throughout, so long as the laws in § 6, c, permit. The only apparent exception is in the genitive plural, Avhich in this declension is always pcrispo-

menon.

This, however, is accounted for by its being a contraction of -dcDV. Oxytone words become perispomenon in the genitive and dative of both numbers. For purposes of accentuation, the termination ai in the plural nominative
i'^

considered short.

19.

Masculine Paeadigms.
fiadrjTijf;, disciple.

Pir&t Declension.
v€avia<i
,

a youth.

Stem, /laOrjraSINGULAR. PLURAL.
N.
fiaOrjrr]^

fiaOrfral

Stem, veavLaSINGULAR. PLURAL. veavia^ veaviac
veavlov

G
1).

uaOrjTov
fiaOyrfj
fiaOr}T})V

fiaOrjTMV
fiaOijTai^
fjLadyjTa^

veaviMv
veaviai^
veavia'^

veavia

A.
V.

veavlav
veavia

fiaOyT(t

fxaOi]TaL

veavia i

§ 20,

a.]

THE FIRST DECLENSION.

21

REMARKS.
a.

All masculine nouns of the

first

declension form the nominative

except the liquid

from the stem by adding s, lengthening a into r\ after all consonants The vowel of p, and retaining a after vowels and p. the nominative is retained in the dat. and ace. sing. b. The genitive singular of all masculine nouns of this declension ends
in ov, originally ao.

The vocative

gives the simple stem.

Other cases

conform entirely to the feminine type.
e.

Accentuation.

—The remarks under the feminine paradigms are applicable to

masculine also.

Exercise 3.— Nouns of the First Declension, for Practice.
(Selected from the
*'

Sermon on the Mouut.")

1.

Masculine.
Te\dovr)<;,

KpLTrj^,

judge
debtor

tax-gatherer, " pub-

o^etXerrj^;,
irpo(\}rjTr]<;,

lican

"
attendant, servant

prophet
2.

V7rr)peTr]S,

Feminine.

PaaCkela, kingdom
htKaioavvrj, righteousness
evToXrjy
i^tiiTjy

commandment

life

head Xv^via, lampstand oLKia, house werpa, rock
K€(f)aX7j,
ylrv-^rj,

6vpa, gate

soul, natural life

The learner should commit these words to memory, with their meanings, and should then write them down in different numbers and cases, with and without the correspondmg articles, until all the forms are mastered. So with the other Exercises.

Irregular Forms of the First Declension.
Masculine proper names in a? of this declension form the genitive in a, excepting when 2'>'>'GC£ded by a voice!. Thus, 'Iwva?, Jonahs
a.

20.

gen. 'Iwva;

Ki](f)a<s,

Ce2)ha.S,

gen. Kr}(l>a ; Bap^a^as, gen. Bapvd/Sa

;

'Iov8a<s,

Judah

The accent of the genitive corresponds with that of the nominative. But 'AvSpea?, Andrew, makes 'AvSpcov; 'Ho-aia?, Isaiah, 'Horaiov. These names are from the Hebrew, with tho
or Judas, gen. 'Iov8a.

exception of 'Ai/Spcas.

22
b.

THE SECOND DECLENSION.
In Acts
;

[§ 20
of

h.

V.

1,

we
x.

find

SaTr^etp?/,
is

dative

the

proper

name
o-Trctpa,

Sappliira
cohort
tions

and in Acts

1, <T7reLprj<s

used as the genitive of

in both instances contrary to the rule in § 19, a.

Similar varia-

from the regular form are found in good MSS. in the case of other

substantives.

21.

SECOND (INSEPARABLE), OR O-DECLENSIOK
-s

This declension contains masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns.

The stem invariably ends in o, to which masculine and feminine nominatives, and

is

-v

to

added to form form the neuter.
Second

22.

Masculine and Feminine Paradigms.
Declension.
X670?, word, masc.

6S69, luay, fem.

Stem, XoyoSIXtJULAR. PLURAL.
N.
G. D.

Stem, 080SINGULAR.
6B6(;

PLURAL.
68oL
oocov
6BoL<;

Xo'yo9

\oyoL
Xoycov
\oyoL<;

Xoyov
Xoyoy

oSov
000) c

A.
V.

Xoyov Xoye

Xoyov^ XoyoL

686v
oSe

6Bov<;

oBol

IIEMARKS.
a.
first

As

before noticed,
o-

this

paradigm corresponds with that of the
a-.

declension,

being substituted for

The
€.

differences are,

that

in the nominative singular the stem-vowel is not lengthened,

and that
declen-

the vocative
plural,

singular changes

this

vowel into
c?,

In the accusative
in the
tlie
first

the termination
is

-ovs is for -ovs (§ 4,

5), as

sion

-ds

for

-avs;

in

each case,

s

being added to

accusative

singular,
b.

Accentuation.

—The

remarks on the

first

declension are mostly applicable.

The

syllable accented in the nomhiative retains the accent throughout, wherevei
;

possible

numbers.

oxytones becoming perispomena in the genitive and dative of both The genitive plural of other nouns is not,, as in the first declension,
In the nominative plural, the termination
01 is

perispomeiion.

tieated

with

reference to the accent as a short syllable.

8

24.]

SECOND DECLENSION

—CONTRACTED

NOUNS.

23

23.

Neuter Paradigm.
avKov,
fig-tree.

Second Declension.
Stem, ctvko-

SING ULAR.
N.
G.

PL URA L.

avKov avKov
(TVK(p

avKa
(TVK(OV

D.
A.

avKot^i

avKov
crvKov

avKa
crvKa

V.

REMARKS.
The only difiference between this paradigm and that of the masThe accusative culine and feminine is that already stated, § 14, a.
of all neuters is the in

same form with the nominative and vocative the plural these cases end in o.
Accentuation.
see § 6,
c.

;

and

— For

the

accontnal

changes

in

the declension of

avKov,

24. Paradigm of Contracted Nouns.
Nouns
o,

Second Declension.
ois

of this

declension

whose stem-vowel
according
to

preceded by
§

e

or
/.

generally

suffer

contraction,

the

scheme in

3,

Thus, voog, mind, becomes vov?; oariov, hone,

octtovv.

The contracted

forms of these words are not invariably employed in the Septuagint or New Testament. On i/oi)?, see Variable Nouns, § 32, a.

head may also be referred some nouns in names, 'AiroAAw?, Kw?.

To

this

-w?, like

the proper

v6o<ii

mind, m.

Stem, vooPLURAL.
(vooi) vol
(vocov) VOiV
{v6oL<;) voL<;

oareov, hone, n.

Stem, bcrreoPLURAL.
(oarecov) 6arQ>i>
(oareotf;) 6aroL<s

SINGULAR.
N.
G.
D.

SIXGULAR.
{pareov) oarov
(ocTTew) oaro)

iyoos:) vov<;

(oareov) ocrrovv (oarea) oard

(yoov) vov
{yo(p) v(p

A.
V.

iyoov) vovv
(voe) vov

(v6ov<;) vov<;

{oareov) oarovv (oarea) oarci
(oareov) oarovv (oarea) oard

(vooi) vol

24

SECOND AND THIRD DECLENSIONS.
'AttoXXco?, Apollos.
N.
G.

K2

'^i

'ATToWft)?

'AttoWo)
'AttoXXcG
'AttoXXwi/, or 'AttoXXco (irreg.)

D.
A. V.

'AttoWo)
Jesus,
is

25. The word
N.
G. D.

'l7;o-ou9,

thus declined
A.
V.

:

'l7;crou9
^Irja-ov

^1t](70vv
'I7;(70i/

*l7;cro0

Exercise 4.— Nouns of the Second Declension, for Practice.
(Selected from the
1.

"Sermon on

the Mount.")

Masculine.
XvKo<;,
vojxof;,

aSeXi^o?, brother
e^Opo^:,

wolf

enemy

law
eye
river

avOpcdiro^,
7]\lo<;,

man
2.

6(j)6a\fji6<;,

sun
Feminine.

TTOTa/jiofiy

afifiofi,

sand
3.

8oa:o9,

beam

Neuter.
Kpivov, lily

Saypov, gift

epjov,

work
measure

irpoparov, sheep
TeKPOv, child

/jueTpov,

26.

THIED (OE SEPAEABLE) DECLENSION.
in this declension are

Nouns
Tlie stem

masculine, feminine, or neuter.
fi,

may end
f, f, yfr),

in

consonants
necessitate

any consonant (except and in the vowels and
i

v.

and the double These varieties
all

the giving of

several

paradigms, although

are

reducible to a simple form, already illustrated in the indefinite

pronoun

ns,

and shown

in the

two nouns declined below.


§28.]

THE THIKD DECLENSION.
essential thing, in this

25
is to

The one
or in a

declension especially,

know

the stem, which

may end in vowel {picre). From
is

a consonant {impure,

mute

or liquid),

this the nominative, as well as every
is

other case,

derived

;

but the stem-ending

better seen in the
is

genitive, which, in Vocabularies

and Lexicons,

therefore given

with the nominative.

always
is

The termination of the genitive singular in this declension is Take this away, and the remaining part of the word os.
the stem.

27.

General Paradigm of the Third Declension.
M. or
F.

N.

al(ov, age, duration,

masc.

prj/iia,

vjord.

Stem,
SINGULAR.
N. G.
D.
A.

alcoj^-

Stem,
SINGULAR.
pijfjia

prifiOLT-

PLURAL.
alo3ve<;

PLURAL.
pij/xara
prjfiarcdv
pi]fJLa(Tl(v)

aldiv
alcjvof;

alcovoyp

pr^fiaro'^

aloyvi

aloiaiiy)

prjixan
prjfia
prjfia

aloiva
alcov
AccoUuation.

alSyva^
al(t)i/e<;

pi'jfiara
prjfjbara

V.

—The

accented syllable of the nominative, as in other nouns,

retains the accent tliroughout, wherever possible.

monosyllables, see § 29. written for alwv.

For a special rule respecting In the above paradigm, aiuy in the nominative is

Terminations of the Thied Declension.
28. These paradigms
are
essentially
alike

lq

termination,

setting

aside the invariable differences

between neuter and other forms

(§ 14, a).

We

thus find that the termiuations of the third declension are, in the

SINGULAR
Genitive,
os,

appended

to the stem. to the stem.

Dative,

i,

also

appended

26
Accusative,
find in the
o.

THE THIRD DECLENSION.
This, however,
is

[55

28.

first

a suhstitute for v, which we and second declensions, and which in pure stems often
really
also.

appears in the third
the nominative.

Vocative^ the stem, subject to necessary modifications (§ 4, d, 8), or like

In the PLURAL
Nominative,
Dative,
Genitive, wv,
<rt,

appended to the stem. appended to the stem. added to the stem, with necessary modifications
€s,
/i,

(§ 4, d, 1, 5).

On

the

vv i(f>€\KvarTLK6v, see § 3,
os,

1.

Accusative,

the a short, or

s

added

to the accusative singular.
§ 35, a.

Com-

pare the First and Second Declensions,
Vocative, like the nominative.

Table of Terminations.
SING ULAR.
N.
6.
s,

PL URA L.
es,

or

none

a

OS
I

uv
ct
as,

D.
A. V.

a, V

a
a

as

Nom.

«s,

29.
I.

'

Paradigms of Third Declension
letter s affixed to the stem.
a.

(see

§ 30).

The

Consonant Stems

{mute), labial and guttural.

"Kpa^^, Arabian, masc.

Krjpv^, herald, masc.

Stem, A/)a/3SINGULAR. PLURAL.
N.
G.
D.
A.

Stem, KypVKSINGULAR. PLURAL.
KTjpV^
Kr)pVKO<;
K7]pVK€<;

"Apa'\lr

"Apa^€<i

"Apa^o<;
"Apa/Sc

^Apd^cov
"Apayjri{v)

KTjpVKCOP
K7]pv^l{u)
KrjpvKa^^

K7]pVKL

"Apaffa
"Apayfr

"Apa^a<;
"Apa^6<;

KTjpvKa
Kr)pV^

V.

K^pVK€<i

§29.]

THIRD DECLENSION

—PARADIGMS.
;

27

For example of a dental stem
the Declensions, § 16.
ace.

x^P^^

'>

'^^€^'^)

^*<^j

Paradigm of The feminine noun x^P^? (xapir-), favour, makes iQTD.. (kXciS-) has ace. sing. xActSa ace. plur. by
(neuter), see Introductory
i.

syncope and contraction, kAcis (Rev.
xvi. 19).

18)

;

but also xActSas (Matt,

h.

Vowel

Stems.
iro\t<;, city, fern.

i'^Ov^yfish, masc.

Stem, l^OvPLURAL. SINGULAR.
N.
G.

SING ULAB.

Stem, ttoXlPL WRA L.
TToXeWI/
7r6\ecrL(v)

IxOvcov
I'^Ovo'L (v)

TToXecO?

(Attic gen.)

D.
A.
V.

(TToXet) TToXei

TToXiv
TToXt

(TToXea?) TroXet?
(TToXee?) TroXef?

REMARKS.
Stems in
note).
-t,

and some

in

-v,

change to

-c

before the case-endings

(§ 37,

One neuter noun,
TToAts,

a-lva-m,

mustard (singular
is,

only),

is

declined like

excepting that the accusative
Accentuation.

of course, like the

nom.

accentual purposes, the genitive termination, -eojs or nouns, is considered as one syllable, and does not, therefore, in these '€0}v require the acute accent to be thrown forward.

—For

11.

The vowel of the
TTOLfirjv,

last syllable

stem lengthened.
Xecov, lion, masc.

shepherd, masc.

Stem, TTOifiepPLURAL. SINGULAR.
N. G. D.
iroLfirjv

Stem, XeovTSINGULAR PLURAL,
Xecov
\60VT0<;
XiovT€<;

iroifieve'i
nroijjLevoiv

irot/iievo^

XeovTcov

iroL/xevi

7roi/jL6at{v)

\eOVTL

Xeovai{y)

A.

TTOifieva
TTOlfjUT^V

TTOLfievaf;
7roLfieve<;

XeovTa
Xecov

Xeovra^
Xeovre'i

V.

28

THIRD DECLENSION
atSa>9, modesty, fern.

—PARADIGMS.
Stem, alSo^^

[§29

SINGULAR ONLY.
N.
G.

al8(o^
(alS6(a)o<;) atBov<;
(atSo(cr)t) alSol

D. A.

(aLS6{(r)a) alScj

Syncopated Nouns of this Form.
irarrjp, father.
avTjp,

man.

Stem, irarepSTNGULAR. PLURAL.
N.
G.
D.

SINGULAR,
dvrjp

Stem, avepPLURAL.
dvSpe^
dvBpcbv

irarrjp
irarpos
irarpC

7raTep6<;

irarepwv
'irctTpdo-i(j')

dvSpof;

dvhpi

dvhpdcniv)
dvSpa<i

A.
V.

TTarepa
Trdrep

irarepaf;

avhpa
dvep

dvhpe^

REMARKS.
The syncopation takes place in the g. and d. sing, and d. phir. To this class belong uyrrjp, mother ; Ovydrrfp, daughter ; yaa-Tiqp,
Lar-qp, star,
belly.

has

a.a-rpa(TL{v)

in the dative plural, but

is

not syncopated

in any other case.

words are paroxytone in the cases that retain e, and The syncopated avrip, which is irregular). cases of the singular are oxytone, and the vocative throws back its accent as far
Accentuation.

—These

througliout the plural (excepting

as possible.

III.

Nouns

in

-avs, -cvs, -ovs,

with original digamma.
Stem, ^aatXeF^ PLURAL.
(^aaL\e€<;) ^aa-LXeh

fiaaiXeix;, king, masc.

SINGULAR.
N.
G.

^aaikev^i
ffaaiX€0)<;

^aaiXecov
Pa(TLkevaL{v)
fiaacXea^, ^aaikel<;
{^aaiXees:) ^aatXel^

D.

{^acnXii) ^aaCkel

A.
V.

^aatXea
iSaaCKev

§29.]

THE THIRD DECLENSION.
fiov<i, ox,

29

masc.

SINGdLAR.
N.
G.
D.
/3ot'9

Stem, jBoFPLURAL.

l3o6^
l3oi

^OV(Tl{v)

A. V.

^ovv
/8oi}

/3oe9

REMAEKS.
Noims
ill

in -€vs
-ovs

form the accusative singular in
v.

-ea

(the a long)

;

those

-avs

and

take

Accentuation.

— Nouns in
-os,

-eus are all

oxytone in the noniiaative singular, and

perispomenon in the vocative.

rv. Neuter nouns in

from the stem-ending

-€s.

761/09, race.

SINGULAR.
N.
G.

Stem, yevesPLURAL.
{'yeve{cr)a) yevrj

761^09
(7ei/e(cr)o9) yevov^;

fyevecDv

and yevcov

D.

{j€V€(a)c) <yevei
yevo<; 761/09

yeveai{v)
('yive{a)a) yevii

A.
V.

{yeve{cr)a) yevrj

V. The simple stem as nominative.
given, § 27.

See alwv and

prjiJ.a,

already

Exercise 5.— Nouns of the Third Declension, for Practice.
(Selected from the "

Sermon on the Mount.")
its

*^* The learner should assign each noun to

proper

class.

Masculine.
ypa/jLfiaT€V(;, -6&)9, scribe
'X^iTcovy -0)1/09,
|

oSoi;9, o3oi'to9,
6(f)i^, 6(f)€0)^,

tooth

vest,

inner gar-

<

snake

ment
Feminine.
Bvva/jLt<;, -60)9,

power

KpicTi^, -60^9,

6pi^, Tpij^o^^, hair

^6/p, ^€ip6<;,
Xepo-L

judgment hand, daL

plur,

30

VARIETIES IN THE THIRD DECLENSION.

L§ 29.

Neuter.
eOvo^, -ou?, nation
OeXrj/jia, -aro^, will ovojjLa, -aTo<;,

opo9, -0V9,

mountain

TTvp, TTvpo'i, fire

name

(^w9, (fxDTOf;, light

30.

A careful

inspection of the paradigms of § 29 yields the following

rules of the third declension.
First Rule.
is s

The most usual termination of the nominative singular added to the stem in accordance with the orthographic law, § 4, c. Thus (1) A labial stem makes the nominative in ^,

Examples.
"Apaif/,

Arabian,
Ethiopian,

from

dpap.,
alGioir-,

gen. dpajSo^;

AWloiJ/,

gen.
in

aW lottos

(2)

A

guttural stem

makes the nominative
Examples.

{.

(f)\6^,

flame,

from

<}>\o7.,

gen. cfiXoyos
gen. KrjpVKO^ gen. VVKTOS

Krjpv^, lierald,

KT]pVK-,

vv^, night,
6pi$, hair.

VVKT-,
epiX-,

gen. rptxos

(§ 4, d,

7)

(3)

A

dental stem drops the stem-termination before

s.

Examples.
Trats, child,

from
„ „ „
s

7rai8-,

gen. TratSos

opvLs, bird,

6pvi9-,

gen. 6pvL0o<i gen.
XOipLTO<^
(§ 4,
rf,

Xapt9, favour,
68ov9, tooth,

XapiT-, 680VT-,

gen. oSoVtos

6)

Vmvel stems add

simply.

Examples.
TToAts, city,

frem

iroXi-,

gen. 7roAc(o9, for TroXto?
gen. tx^vo9
vt {gene rally),

ixOv^, fi-^h,

IxGv.,

Second Rule.
always),

— Stems
s

ending in

v

and

in

p

{almost

and in

{invariably, except in neuters),

form the nominative by

lengthening the vowel preceding the termination.

§ 30.]

VAEIETIES IN THE THIRD DECLENSION.
Examples.
TTOLfirjv,

31

shepherd^

from
„ „

iroi|ji€v-,

g^n.

7roLfxevo<s

XcW, Uon^
pTfTiop,
al8(i)s,

XcovT-,
pTjTop-,

gen. Xcovros
gen. pr/ropo^
(gen. atSoVo?)
s

orator,

modesty,

alSos-,
is

The

genitive of this last

word

contracted by dropping the
;

between
Table

two short vowels, and combining them

aiSoos, aiSovs-

(See

§ 3, /,

and Note.)
Certain nouns with the stem-ending p preceded by
i.e.

c

are syncopated,

omit this vowel in some of theu*
e,

ca9«s.

One,
(See

avTJp,

man,

av€p-, in

omitting

inserts the letter 8

between

v
p.

and

p.

§ 5, 5.)

The

dative

plural of these

nouns

also adds a after
ev,

(See the Paradigms.)

Third Ride.

— Steins in

singular, according to the first rule,

and other
gularity

cases,

while adding s in the nominative drop the v in the genitive singular thus forming an apparent exception to the rule that the
av, ov,

genitive gives the stem
is

by taking away the termination
is

os.

The

irre-

only apparent, as the v of the stem consonant v (written in Greek F, and called, from
originally belonged

in reality the old

its

shape, digamma),

which

to the

genitive, like

the other consonant
written
as the
/3o6<;.

stem-endings.

Thus,

/3ovs, ox, po/-,

gen.

/So/'o<s,

now

Some
will

of the cases of these

nouns are

also contracted,

paradigm

show.

Stems in ev take a special form of the genitive singular, called the " Attic Genitive," ending in €«s.
Fourth Rule.

—Neuter
-os
;

stems in

€s

change this termination in the
s

nominative into
suffer contraction

in other cases they drop the
§ 3, /.

of the stem, and

Example. 6po<;, mountain, opes-, gen. (6p€(To<;, opeos) 6pov<;, nominative and accusative plural (opecra, opea) oprj. (See Paradigm.)
Fifth Rule. Other neuter nouns, together with those masculines and feminines which have liquid stems preceded by a long vowel, retain the stem in the nominative unchanged, save by the general orthographic
law.
pi)|iaT.,

by

Thus,

aiu)Vy prjfia,

already given.
d, 8.

The

latter

becomes

prjp-a

from

according to §

4,

Accentuation. Monosyllabic neuters are oxytone in except the genitive plural, which is perispomenon.

all their dissyllabic

forms,

Masculine and feminine monosyllables accent the penultimate in the accusative singular and nominative

and accusative plural

;

in other cases follow the rule of neuters.

32

irregulak and variable nouns.

[§ 31.

Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension.
Thus, yvvrj, 31. These are irregular chiefly in the nominative. woman, takes gen. yvvatKo?, and forms all its cases from the stem Y^vaiKthe vocative being ywat by § 4, d, 8. yoVv, knee, is declined regularly as from the stem yovar- (neuter), gen.
yoVaros,
Kvtov,
KVV-,

nom. plur. yoVara, etc. dog (masculine, also feminine in
Kvv6<;, etc.
;

singular), is declined as
kv(tl{v).

from

gen.

but voc. sing, kvov, dat. plur.
is

lxdpTv<s,

witness (masculine),

from the stem

(laprvp-,

which

it

follows

throughout, except in dat. plur. fxdpTV(TL{v).
vSojp,

water,

is

declined regularly as from the neuter stem vSar-, gen.

vSaros,

nom.

plur. vSara, etc.
s,

Some

neuter stems in -ar- form the nominative by changing the t into
it.

instead of dropping
Kepara, gen.

Thus,

Kcpar-, liorn,

nom.

sing.

Kepa?,

nom.

plur.

Kepdroiv;
;

Kpcar, Jlesh,
Tcpar-,

nom.

sing. Kpeas,

nom.

plur.

Kpca,

by

syncope from Kpiara
Tc/aara, dat.

prodigy,

nom.
is

sing,

repas,

nom.

plur.

Tepacniv).
a.pva<s,

The

accusative plural form,

lambs,

once found (Luke

x.

3),

and may be referred to the stem iipcv-, nom. sing, ap-qv, the e dropped in inflection by syncope. In one passage, the name of the Greek deity Zeus is found (nom. Zcvs) gen. Atos, ace. Ata (Acts xiv. 12, 13).

Nouns of Variable Declension
32.
«•

in

the

New

Testament.

found with forms both of the Thus, second declension and of the third (neuter stem -€s like ycvos). second, but is found in good ttXovtos, wealth, is properly masculine of the
-os are

A

few substantives in

MSS.
voi

neuter of the

third,

vovs,

mind

(see § 24),

second declension,
;

occasionally takes a genitive

and dative

as of the third declension

vock,

(Eom.

vii.

25

;

1

Cor.

i.

10, xiv. 15).

So, ttXoos (Acts xxvii. 9) for

ttXov.
h.

The word
if

(idppaTov, sahhath,

is

a

r(\L^\ilar

noun, second declension,

neuter,

except in the dative plural, which in the

New

Testament

is

ad(3fta(n (as
a-aftft(i.T(u<;

from

crappar-, o-dp/Sa).
xxiii.

But the Septuagijit has

also

(1

Chron.

31).


?,

32.1

NOUNS OF VARIABLE DECLENSION.
In proper names much irregularity
is

33

c.

exists.

Mwo-^s (or Mcovo^s),

MoseSy

thus declined

:

G.

Mwo-€0J9
MoKrci, or Mtocr^

D.

A.
V.

MoKTca, or MtuoSJv

Ma>o^ (LXX.)
is

The name
plural,

of Jerusalem

found in a threefold form

:

(1) 'Icpovo-oArJ/x,

inddcUnabley a transcript of the

Hebrew word

;

(2) 'Icpoo-oXv/xa,

neuter
ii.

second declension

;

(3) 'lepoa-oXvfia,

feminine singular (Matt.

3,

only).

Many

proper names analogous in form to nominatives of the
are

different declensions

indeclinable.
KcSpoiv,

So,

Kava, BrjOaaLBd, B-qOf^ayq^

roAyo^a,

*Pa/i,a, 'Aaptuv, ^v/xctov,

'Icpix^ti'

To

this class

may be
Hebrew names

referred the indeclinable neuters, Trao-xa, passover ; a-Uepa^ strong drink

(Luke
words,
of

i.

15).
tarra,

The

last

two

are,

in fact, but
S>

adaptations of
i.

jot (Matt. v. 18), aA,<^a and

/xcya (Rev.

8),

the

Greek

letters, are also treated as

neuter nouns without inflection.

Exercise 6.— Promiscuous List of Nouns, for Practice.
*,* The genitive case
is

given, to

show the declension and the stem.

Learners

should, wherever possible, infer the gender from the form.

aero 9,

ov,

m.

eagle

Ouydrrjp, Tp6<;, daiighter

alfia, aTo<;, blood

KaKLa, a9, vice

dvOo<;, ov<;, flower

KiOdpa, a9, harp
fidarc^,
Lyo<;, f.

dpvLov, ov,

lamh

scourge

^ovXtj, ^9, counsel

fjLepof;, ov<;,
6(f)i<;,

part

yovev^, 609, parent

€0)9,

m. serpent
m. lahour
thing

BaKpv, V09, tear
BevSpov, ovy tree
StSa<r/ca\o9, ov, teacher
€\7rl<i, tSo9, f.

7roXtT7;9, ov, citizen

TTovo^, ov,

TTpay/jLa, aro<;,

hope

o-dXTTcy^,

i/yyo<;,

trumpet

eoprrjy

r}<;,

festival

(TTOfia, aro^,

mouth

'Hpa>S7;9, oVf

Herod

wpa,

a9,

hour

34

ADJECTIVES.

[§33.

Chapter

III.

ADJECTIVES.

33. Adjectives in Greek follow precisely the inflection of substantives. Every declension, almost every form, reappears, but in
different combinations.

In respect of form, adjectives are divided into three
1.
2.
3.

classes

:

Those which combine the first and second declensions. Those which combine the first and third. Those which follow exclusively the type of the third.
first

In the

two, the form of the

first

declension

is

feminine.

34.

First

Form.

Paradigms.

(Stems, o- m. agood.

f.

o-

n.)

ayaOo-y -a-,
SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G.
F.

PLURAL.
N.

M.

F.

N.

dya6o<;

wyaOr]
drfa6rj<!i

dr^aOov

diyaOoi
drya6a)v
d/yadol'^

dr^aOai
djyaOoiv

dryadd

dyadov
(hyado)

dyaOov
drfa6(p

dyaOcov
dyaOoi<:

D.

wyaOfj

dyaOal^i

A.
v.

dyaOov
d/yaOe

dyaOrjv
cuyaOrj
-jjicvos

dpfaOov
dr^aOov

dfyadoix;

dyadd^;

dyadd
dryaOd

dyadoc

dyadal

All participles in

are declined like dya^os.

SlkouO", -a-, just
N.
G.

SiKala
BiKalov
c

hUaiov
Blkulov
BiKaLO)

BiKaioi

BUaLac

BcKaLa<;

BtKaiwv
BcKalot^

BiKamv
BiKaiaL<;

BUaia BiKamv
BiKaioLf;

D.
A.

BUacov

hiKalav

V.

BcKala

BUaiov BUaiov
fJLCKpO-,
'

SLKalov;
BiKaCOL
-a-y
little.

BcKalaf;

BUaiaL

BUaia BUaia

N.
G.
D. A. V.

jJLlKpO^

fJLCKpd

fJblKpOV

jJLVKpoL

fiiKpal

/JLlKpd
/JLlKpcbv

flLKpOV
flLKpO)

flLKpd^
fJLLKpa

fJLLKpOV

flCKpCOV
fJLf,KpOL<;

flCKpWV
fiiKpal<;

fllKp^
flLKpOV
jJLlKpOV

flLKpoU
fjbtKpd

flLKpOV
fXLKpe

fMLKpaV
flLKpd

fjLiKpOV<;

fiLKpd<;

fJLLKpol

fiLKpai

flLKpd

§35.]

ADJECTIVES

—FIRST

FORM.

35

REMARKS.
a.

The femmine
is

singular of these adjectives, as will be seen in the

above paradigms,
declension.

formed in
is,

strict

analogy with the usage of the

first

vowel or
the cases
also runs

by a which vowel is preserved through all p, the feminine ends in d, of the singular, os preceded by a consonant becomes t], which

The

rule

that where the masculine has -os preceded

through the singular,
first

h.

Several adjectives belonging to this
also,

form employ the masculine

terminations for the feminine

conforming thus throughout to the

second declension.

This

is

especially the case with polysyllables
rule of
to

and

But as there is no definite these adjectives of two terminations from those

compound words.

distinguish
it

three,

will be

necessary in doubtful cases to consult the Vocabulary or Lexicon.
c.

Accentuation.

—The

rules in § 18
is

are strictly observed.

Note, however,

that the feminine plural

not,

like that of the first declension, necessarily

perispomenon, but, like the other cases, follows the stem of the word. Thus, from Skaios, f. pi. gen. diKuiuv (the accent being thrown one syllable forward by the terminal long syllable § 6, c) but /xiKpds makes /iiKpCiv.

;

Contracted Adjectives of the First Form.
35. Adjectives
sufficiently

in

eo-

and

oo-

belong to this
(§ 24),

given with contracted substantives

class. The explanations and the scheme in § 3 /, will

show the reason

of each contraction.

yjpvaeo-j -a-, golden.

By

contraction, 'xpvo-ov<; (eo?),

-rj

(erjj,

-ovv (eov).

SINGULAR,
M.
N. Xpvo-ov*;
G. ')(pvaov D.
f.

PLURAL.
N.

M.

F.

N.

Xpv(^V
Xpyo-r}"^

Xpvo'ovv
Xpvo'ov
Xpyo'(p

Xpyo-oL

Xpvo-al

Xpvaa
Xpvacjv
XpvaoL<:

Xpvacjv
')(pvcrol<;

Xpvaojv
Xpv(7al^
Xpvo-a,<;

^(pvaS

Xpvo-y
Xpvo-'fjv

A. ')(pV(TOVV
V. 'Xpy(yee

Xpyo'ovv Xpva-ovv

Xpvcrov^

Xpv<rd
Xpvo'oi

xpyo-v

XpvaoX

Xpvcral

36

ADJECTIVES

— SECOND

FORM.

[§ 35, a.

REMARKS.
a.

apyvp€o<s,

silver (adjective), occurs in

N.T. in two forms

:

ace. plur.

dpyvpovs, neut.
b.

nom. and

ace. plur. dpyvpa.

These adjectives occur very infrequently. It will be observed that the feminine of ^(pvorco? is formed irregularly as -os preceded by a vowel,
;

according to rule, requires

-a.

The
in

adjective ore/acos,

ca,

coV,

fiimy

is

declined without contraction.
c.

Accentuation.

—The
c),

final

syllable

these

adjectives,
dTrXous

when
from

contracted,
airXdos,

is

circumflexed throughout.
(regular,

Thus we have not only
from
xP^^^^^t

simple

see

§

6,

but XP^^^^^

^iid

af/yvpous

from

df/yvpeos,

anomalous.

36.
Masculine.

Second Form.

General Eemarks.

formed from the stem, according to Thus, 6|v- gives nom. masc. 6|v?, the methods of the third declension. iravT- becomes irds, all (§§ 29, first rule, 3 ; sha7'p (§ 29, first rule, 4)
nominative
is
;

—The

4, d, 5)

;

and

Ikovt- gives ckwi/, willing (§§ 29, second rule ; 4, d, 8).

Feminine.

—The

nominative always ends in a

;

the other cases in the
(§ 18, a).
-<ra,

singular follow the

model of the
as
6^v<;,

first
;

declension
VT-

The stemand
as

ending
e/cwv,

V

becomes

-cia,

o^eta
-v-

becomes
i

as ttS?, Trao-a,

kKovcra.

But stems in
.

insert

an

before

that

consonant,
-via.

fieXa?, hlach, (icXav, f fxiXacva

;

and

or- (originally for)
f.

becomes

Thus,

AcAvKws

(participle),

having loosened, XcXvkot-,

AcAvKvIa.

Neuter,

—The

neuter nominative contains the simple stem, altered
;

only by the general euphonic rules

as,

o^,

ttSlv,

€k6v, /xe'Aav, AcAvkos,

37.

Paradigms of the Second Form.
o^V', -eia-, sharp.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
N.
t

M. N.
G.

F.

M.
1 c-

o^eta
o^€La<;

f. /

F. «

N.

o^et9
if.

«

0^609
0^6 L
6^6(rt{v)

o^ecov

D.
A.

0^61

o^eia

o^eaiiy)
0^€ta9

o^euav

o^et9 0^€t9

W

o^ela


§38.]
Note.

ADJECTIVES

—SECOND
:

FORM.

37

—The
and

singular,

stem-ending v becomes c in the genitive and dative and throughout the plural el*, dative singular, being contracted
ccs, ca?,

into €t;

in the plural, into

ets.

But

co?,

genitive singular,

and ea in the neuter plural, are uncontracted. A very few substantives the only instance in the New Testament being also change v into € TTT/x^v (John xxi. 8 ; Rev. xxi. 17) for Trrjx^oiv, from 7rrj)(ySj cubit
;

TrapT-, -aaa-,

all, every.

SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G.

PLURAL.
N.

F.

M.

F.

N.

Tra?

iraaa
7rda-7j<;

irav
Trai/TO?

iravre^

Trdaat

Trdvra
Trdvreov
7rdcn(v)

iravTO^
IT

irdvTwv
7rd(rL{v)
'7rdvTa<;

Traawv
irdaaL^;

D.
A.
V.

ami

Trda-rj

iravTi
irdv
irav

Trdvra
Tra?

iracrav

Trdaa^
Trdo-ac

Trdvra
irdvra
as
-€is,

iraaa
in
-as

7rdvT6<;

Participles

are

similarly

declined

(stem,

avr-)

AvVa?,
-et<ra,

having
-ivj

loosed.

The

participial stem-ending €vt- makes, nom.
;

gen. ^vTos,

cCotis, 4vtos, etc.

as ySovXcv^et?,

having been counselled.

eKOVT-^ -ovaa-, willing.
SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G.
F.

PLURAL.
N.

M.

F.

N.

€KCOV
eK6vro<;

eKovaa
€KovaTj<;

eKov

eKovre^

eKovaai
eKovcrcov

eKovra
i/covrcjv

eKovro^
eKovri

eKovrwv
eK0V(7L{v eKOvcniv)

D.
A..

eKovn
eKovra
€K(l)V

V.

€Kovay eKovaav eKovaa

eKovaai^
eKovaa<;
e/covaac
this model.

€kov(7l(v)

6K0V
6k6v

eKovra^
eK6vre<i
are declined

e/covra

eKovra

Participles in -wv,

-ovo-a, -ov,

on

38. The declension
gen. /xeA.avo9,
fj,€\aLvrj<s,

of adjectives like
/xeXavo?, dat.

/xeXas, ^iXatva,

/xeXav,

black,

plur.

m. and

n.

/xeXacrt(v),

and

of

participles like AcAvkw?, XcXv/cvta, XcXvkos,

having loosened, gen. AcAvkotos,

AeAvKvia?, AcAvkotos, will not
k(TT-qK0i<s,

now

present any difficulty.
ta-TrjfML,

One

participle,

having stood, from the verb

takes the alternative form,
is

cVtws, the result of syncope

and contraction, and

thus declined

:

38

3 IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

— SECOND
M.

FORM.

[§38.

SINGULAR.
M,
N. e(7T&)9
G.
D. A.
F.

PLURAL,
N.
F.

N.

ecrrcoaa

earof;
earcoTO^;
eo-rcort

Icrrwre?
eO-TCOTCOV
k(7T(t)(TL{y)

earcoaac
€(TT(Oa(OV

karcoTa
ecrrcoTcov

k<TTOiTO<^ €(7Tcoa7]<;
e(TT(x)TL

earcoarj

eo"Ta>(7at9 €crTa)(ri(v)
€<Trci)cra<i

earcbra

earTcoaav
is

eo"T09
lo-raws.

ecTTOiTa^

earcora

The

contraction

from

(See §
tlie

3, /.)

Accentuation.
class

— Oxy tones circumflex

feminine.
It

Adjectives of the second
in the

otherwise follow the ordinary rules.

mil be observed that
Trds

genitive

and dative

singular, masculine

and neuter,

takes oxytone forms,

otherwise accenting the stem-syllable throughout.

39. Two
declension
is

adjectives

of

common

occurrence

are

irregular

in

the

singular masculine and neuter, owing to a combination of forms.
as follows
:

Their

1.

jieya- {fxeyaXo-^ fieyaXa-), great
M.
F.

Sing.
N.
G.

N.

fieya^
fjL€<yd\ov

fieyaXrj
fjueyaXr}^

fieya

fieyaXov
fjLeydXo)

D.
A.

fieydXa)
/jbiyav
if

fieydXy
jjLeydXrjv

fieya

Plural regular, as

from

fieyaXos.

2.

TToXv- (ttoXAo-, TToXXa"), many.
M.
F.

Sing.
N.
G.

N.

7ro\v<;

TToWrj

TTOXU

TTOWOV
TToXXft) t

7roW^9

iroKKov

D.
A.

TToWy
TToXKrjv

iroXk^
TToXv

TTOkvV
if

Plural regular, as

from

ttoAAos,

§41.]

ADJECTIVES

—TRIED

FORM.

30

Third Form.

General Eemarks.

40.

Adjectives of this class being altogether of the third declension,
are, therefore, of
tls, § 13.)

have no special form for the feminine, and
nations or (sometimes) of only one.

two termiis

(Compare
of

For the most
peculiarity.

part,

the

declension

these

adjectives

without
If

It should be

noted that an adjective in -«v (nominative
or other of the stem-endings ovt
class.

singular)

may be from one
latter, it
;

and
from

ov.

from the

belongs to the third

Thus,

ckcuv,

Ikovt-,

has three terminations

but

crwc^poav,

from

(rw<|)pov-,

only two.

and most important class of adjectives in this neut. -es, where the stem-ending es is not changed into OS in the nominative and accusative singular, as ia the corresponding class of substantives (§ 29, iv.), but where similar contractions take
far the largest
division are those in
-qs,

By

place in the other cases.

41.

Paradigms of the Third Form.
aXTjOeS", tni^e.

SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G.

and

F.

N.

aKri6r}<;

6X7)6 e^
a\7)6ov<^

(aXTjdeo^;) a\r]dov<;

D. A.

(a\7]6ei) aXrjdel

aX7)6el

{6X7)6 ea) okTjdrj
aXT]de<:

a\7)6h
aXT]6i<!

V.

PLURAL.
M.
N.
G.

and

F.

N.

(aXT^^ee?) akrjdeh
(aXrjdicov) d\7]6a)V

(a\7)6ea) 6X7)61)
a\7)6a)v

D. A.
V.

aXr)6eai{v)
{akrjOeas:) a\r)det<;

6\7)6eaL{v)

{aX7)6ia) 6X7)67)
(^6X7)6ea) 6X7)67)

(aX7;^e€9) dXT/^et?

40

AiDJECTlVfiS

—COMPARISON.
PLURAL.
M.

[§ 41.

acocbpoP'^ sober-minded.
SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G.

and

F.

N.
cr(0(l)pov

and

F.

N.

o'(0(l)p(t)v

(T(o<f)pov€<;

aa)(f)pova
acocfypovcov
(Toi)<f)pO(T(,

aa)(f)povo<;
<T(£>(^pOVi

a(o^povo<;
a(O(f)p0VL
(ra)<f)pov

(TQXppovcov
(roi)(f)po(rc

D.
A.
V.

a(0(f>pova
(Tc!)(j>pOV

(TCi}(f)pova(;

adx^pova
a(o(j>pova

(TOJCJ^pOV

<T(i}^pove<;
«v.

To

this class belong

comparatives in

(See

§ 44.)

COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES.
42 There
The
first

are

two regular methods

of

forming the Greek

comparative and superlative.

and most usual is by adding to the stem of the positive the further stem-ending rcpo- for the comparative, xaro- for the These forms are then declined exactly like the first superlative.
form of adjectives
Thus, from
ttio-tos,

34).

faithful, stem irwrro-,

we have

Comparative, nom. sing.
Superlative,

Trto-Torcpos, Tria-roTepa, Tna-Torepov,

nom.

sing. TrtcTOTaTos, Tna-Torarrj^ Tno'ToraTov*
dXriOts-

From

oAt/^t}?, true,

stem

Comparative,
Superlative,

aX-qBi<TT€.po<i, aXrjOecrripa, aXrjOka-Ttpov,

oX-qOicTTaTO^i, akrjBicrTaT-q, aX.rj6i(TTaT0V.

Adjectives of the first class which

have a short syllable before the
«.

stem-ending

o-

change this vowel into
wise,

Thus,

(T0(j)6'i,

makes

Comparative,
Superlative,

a-oc^oinpo'^, crocfxaripa, cro<f)U)T€pov.
(To<l>(i)TaTO';, a-oKfxDTaTrj, cro<f}(i)TaTov,

From

veos, Tiew,

we

have, in like

manner

Comparative, vewrcpos, vcwrepa, veionpov.
Superlative,
Accentuation.
tone, except

vcwraro?, vcwTarry, v€<i)Tarov.
superlatives of this form are always proparoxyis

— Comparatives and
the final syllable

when

long

;

then paroxytone.

In other words, the

accent

is

thrown back

as far as possible.

§ 44.]

ADJECTIVES-—OOMPAEISON.
of

41
to

43. The second form
abbreviated

comparison

is

by adding, generally

form of the positive stem, -i«v (stem-ending lov-for comparative, and -wrros (stem-ending ktto-) for the superlative.
Examples.
Ttt^s,
SJijift^

an the

ra^Lwv,^
alcr^Loiv,

Td)(L(TTo<;

aurxpos, disgraceful,
KoXos,
/xeya?,

olcryLa-To^

fair
great,

koAAiojv
fi€L^o)v (for

KaAAicrros

/xcytW), /xeyto-ros

Accentuation.
if5

— In these, as in other comparative and superlative forms, the accent
as far as possible.

thrown back

Paeadigm of Comparatives in
44. These

-i«v

or

-«v.

follow the third form of adjectives (see

a-uxfjpoiv,

§ 41),
c,

but are sometimes contracted by the omission of the v before a or
the combination of this vowel with the o of the stem.
is,

and

This contraction

however, infrequent in the

Kew

Testament.
greater.

fiet^cou,

fxel^op,

SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G.

and

F.

N.
fiel^ov

fxel^cov
fiet^ovof;

fiel^ovo^
fiel^ovL

D.
A.

fiei^ovc

fiei^ova or fiel^co
/jLel^ov

fxet^ov

V.

fiel^ov

PLURAL.
M.
N.
G. D. A.

and

F.

N.
fjL€L^ova or fiel^o)

fjL€l^ov€<;

or fiei^ov^i

fiet^ovcov
fJL€l^O(n(v)

fl6i^6v(OV

fl6L^0(n(v)

fi€l^ova<i or fjL€i^ov<;

fl6L^0Va or

/JL€L^(0

V.

fiel^ove^ or fjuei^ov^

fiei^ova or fiel^co

^

See John xx.
»

4 (jaxeioi').

In classic Greek,

daTTuiv

is

the form generally

used.

42

ADJECTIVES
this

—COMPARISON.
which
the
following
list

[§ 45.

45. To
paratives
suffice
:

form

of

comparison belong several irregular comof

and

superlatives,

will

dya06<s, good,

comp. yScXriwv,

KpcLcroroiVf

sup. /SeXTto-ros

Kpa.TiaTO'i

KaKO<s,

hadf


KaKLwVy
X€Lpoiv,


KaKLcrros

x^'P'o^os

jtuKpos, ZzY^/e

„ „

fUKporepos (regular)
eXacrcwv,

cAa^to'TOS

iroXvs,

manyy

ttXcuuv or ttXcwv

ttXcio'tos

Some

adjectives, it will

be seen from the above, have an alternative

comparison, having recourse to different roots for the purpose.
respective forms are
difference

The

now

interchangeable, or nearly

so.

For shades of

between them, see Vocabulary and the chapter on Synonyms.

46. The following comparatives and superlatives have no answering positives
:

(From
(From (From (From

avo),

adv. up) dvcircpos, upper ; avwraros, topmost
adv. down) KaTon^po^, lower ; KaTwraro?, lowest

KctTO),

ccrw, TTpOy

adv. within) ia-iorepos, inner ; iawrarosy inmost
prep, he/ore) Trporcpos,

former

; 7rpu)To<Si first

Many

of these forms are but seldom used.

Emphasis in Comparison. 47. (<^) An emphatic comparative is made by the adverb fxaWov, more. So Mark ix. 42, kuXoV Io-tlv avrw /taXXov, "it is far better for him." The same adverb is sometimes prefixed to a comparative, as in Mark vii. 36,
/AoXXov Trepto-o-oTcpov,
Phil.
i.

"much

(Ut.

more) the more abundantly."
is

23, yet another adverb of intensity
Kpila-a-ov (ht.

affixed to /xaXXov

In with the

comparative, ttoXXw /xoXXov

"by much

the more better").

§ 47.]

ADJECTIVES

— COMPARISON—EXERCISE.
iii.

43
2).

Compare " most unkindest cut of all " in Shakspeare (Julius Caesar, Thou Most Highest." So Psa. ix. 2 (Prayer Book version), "
(b)

Another form of securing emphasis
(iii.

is

by
"
-^

affixing a

comparative
/xet^wv,

termination to a comparative or superlative form.
greater

Thus, from

John,
;"

4), fX€L^0T€pav

ovk e^o)

x'^P°-^^

greater) joy

and from

cA-axtorros, least

irdvTwv Twi/ dytcjv, well rendered in E. V.,
saints."

(Eph. " less than the least of
iii.

have no greater (more 8), tw IKaxLo-roripia
all

Exercise 7.— Additional Adjectives, for Practice.
(Selected from the

" Sermon on the Mount.")

First Form.
07^09, holy
a8t/co9,
7rTft)^o9, poor,
o-Tei/09,

pauper

unjust
ancient

narrow

ap'^alof;,

reXeio^y full-grown, perfect

Ka6ap6<;, pure
irovrjpo^,

^avepo^, evident
(ppovLfMos,

wicked

prudent

Second Form.
aTra?, airao-a, airav, all, altogether
fie\a<;, fieXacva, fieXav,

black

7rXaTU9, TrXarela, TrXarv, broad

Third Form.
apira^y
-ar/o<;,

rapacious

|

iXerjficov, -ovo<;,

merciful

In practising with these forms, they should be combined with the nouns of the The adjectives should also be put into the different forms of the comparative and superlative. Almost countless combinations will thus result, by which the learner, either Avith or without the aid of an instructor, may become
previous Exercises.
versed in these parts of speech.

44

NUMERALS.

[§ 48, a.

NUMERALS.
The Cardinal Numbers.
48.
{o) -For the signs of the respective

numbers, the

letters of the
is

Alphabet are used, according to the list in § 1. When a letter employed numerically, an acute accent is appended. Thus, a\
f^,
a,

1

;

2,

and
;

so on.
fi,

To express thousands, an
;

accent

is

placed beneath

1,000

2,000

/,

10,000, etc.

(6) It will

be seen that the places of some numbers are vacant, owing

to letters

Alphabet

:

having dropped, in very ancient times, out of the Greek the Digamma (f ) having come between « and t, ; while the
tt

space between

and p was occupied by Koppa
o>',

(9), a guttural
q.

with a

hard ^-sound, the original of the Latin and English letter
alphabet ends with
900.^

As the
C/T))

800,

another discarded

letter,

Sampi

was

Three signs have therefore been added, as follows used for r (the sign of a double consonant, sty used instead of f ), 6 ; ^\ 90 ^', 900.
(c)

Combinations of tens and units, or of hundreds,
but by addition.
Thus,
11

tens,

and

units,

are expressed, not as in our Arabic numeration,
unit-signs,
p.(M^r}\
ta',
t/S',

by the
Ky',

collocation of

pS*, 104; 12; ; In these expressions, the 1868 ; x^r' (Kev. xiii. 18), 666. numeral accent is only written once, excepting with thousands.
;

23

49.

The cardinal numbers, eh, one

;

hvo, two

;

rpeh, three

recrcrape?, four, are declined as follows.

The
-oi,

rest are indeclinable

up

to

two hundred, which, with the other hundreds, follows the
first

plural of the

form

of adjectives in

-ai,

-a.

eZ?,

^la, €v (stems kv-j t^OL-\ one.
N.

M.
N.
G.

F.

M.
f
1

F.

N.

eh
f
t

fila
A
/jLca<;

€V
f /

D.
A.

evi,

fxia
1
tf

€1^09

€1/09

eva

tt

yuiav

€V

^

Hebrew students

will recollect

that these are the places of Vav, QopJi, and

Skill respectively.

§51.]

NUMERALS.
its

45
ovSci?,

Like tU are declined
fir}8€L<s,

compounds,

no one (absolutely), and
of all three is irregular,

no one (hypothetically).

The accentuation
Bvo, two,

as seen above.

N. G.^

and

A.

Svo
|

D.

BvaL{v)

T/3et9,

Tpla, three.

M.
N. G.

and

F.

N.

M.
D.

and

F.

N.
TpLcri{v)

TpeU
TplCOV

Tpia
rpicov

rpiaiiy)
Tp€i><;

A.

Tpia

T6(T(7ap

M.
N.
G.

and

F.

N.

M.
D.

and

F.

N.

Tea-aapef;

Teaaapa
Tcaaapcov

reaaapaL^v)

rea-(7ap(Ti{v)

Teaaapcov

A.

Teaaapa^

reaa-apa

The Ordinal Numbers.
50. l^ov first, the superlative f orm Trpwros (§46) is used. The succeeding ordinals are derived from the stem of their cardinal numbers, and are
declined like adjectives of the
first

form.

Cardinal numbers are someetc.

times used instead of ordinals in reckoning the days of the week,
(See Syntax.)

51.

Table of Cardinals and Ordinals.
CARDINAL.
ORDINAL.
7rpc!)T0<;,

1, 2,

el?, P'ia,

€v

first

Bvo

BevTepo^,
T/)tT09,

second
third

3.

TpeU, Tpla
Tea- crapes,

4.
5,

Tecraapa

T6TapT0<;,
TreyLtTTTO?,

fourth
fifth

irivTe

^

III

classic

Greek the gen.

is

Svciiv

or dvdv (dual forms).

So also the dative,

sometimes.

46

NUMERALS.

[§5
ORDINAL.
1
1 1

CARDINAL.
6,
7, 8. 9,

€KTo^,
e^Bofiof;,

sixth

CTrra
OKTCO

seventh
eighth

07S009,
€vvaTo<i,

evvea

ninth
tenth
etc.

10, 11, 12,

heKa
evBcKa
BooBeKa, or BeKa^vo

BeKaro<;,

evBeKaro^
B(oBeKaTo<i

13,
14,

(Acts xix. 7) TptcTKaLheKa
Tecaapea-KaiheKa, or BeKaTe(T(Tap6<;

Tpi<rKatBeKaTO<;

Te(T<7apaKaiBeKaTo<^

(Matt.
<

i.

17)
irevreKaiBeKaTOf;

15,

irevreKaiheKa, or ^eKairevT6

(John
16, 17,
18,

xi.

18)

eKKaiheKa
eTTTa/calBeKa

eKKaiBeKaro^
67rTaKacBeKaT0<;

oKTcoKaiBeKa,
OKTO)

or
xiii.

BeKa Kol
4)

6KT(OKaLBeKaTO<:

(Luke

19,

ivveaKalBeKa
etKoa-iiv)

ivveaKaLBeKaTO<i
elK0(Tr6<i

20,

21, 22,
30,

eiKoai Kal ehy fila , ev eUoa-L Kal Bvo

elKO(no<^ KoX irpSiTO^
€Iko(tto<;

Koi SeuTe/309

TpLCLKOVTa

TpLOKOCTTOfi

40,
50, 60,

Tea-aapaKovTa
irevTrjKovra

Te(Ta-apdK0(n6<i
TrevTTjKoarofi
e^rjKoo-TOf;

e^rjKOvra
e^BofiriKOvra

70,
80, 90,

e^BojJbrjKoaTO'i

6yBoi]KovTa
ivevrJKOvra

6yBor}KO(rT6<:

ev€vr)K0<rT09

100,
200,

EKarov
BidKoatoL
TptdKoo-iot

eKarocTO^
BiaK0(TL0(TT6<i

300, 400, 600,

T piaKocTLOcno^;
Te€raapaKoaio<TT6<i
TrevTaKoa-LocTTO^

TerpaKocTLOL
nrevTCLKocrtoi

; :

2.]

NUMERALS.
CARDINAL.^
600,
e^dKoa-tOL
eirTCLKocnoi

47
ORDINAL.
e^aKoa-LOdTO^
eirTaKocTLOcrTO^

700,
800, 900,
1,000,

oKTaKoaiot,
ivcLKoaLOL
'^tkcoc
Eict'^iXloi

oKTaKoa-ioa-TO^
evaKocTioa-TO^
'^iXL0(rT6<;

2,000,

hia"^CKto(TT6^

3,000,

TpKT'X^LXlOC

TpKT'^CkLOCTTb^
T€TpaKL(7'^c\tO<7T6^
fJLVpi0<7T0<;

4,000,
0,000,

T€TpaKL(T'^l\lOL
fJLVpiOt,

compound numbers, the largest is placed first, ^ and the smaller follow in order, with or without the conjunction Kal, and. The smaller numbers are in many copies treated as enclitics, and attached

Eemark.

—In —

to the larger as

one word.
Svo,

Examples.

Tio-crapaKovra

" forty-two "

(Rev.

xi.

2,

xiii.

5)
;

€KaTov irevrrjKovTa rpiuiVy ''of a

hundred and

fifty-three"

(John xxi. 11)
;

6p6voi ciKocrt Tco-o-apcs, " twenty-four thrones " (Rev. iv. 4)
Koi

r€ar(rapa.Kovra

ti

€T€(rtv,

''for

forty-six

years" (John

ii.

20);

hCtv

oySoi^Kovra

T€o-crapo>v,

" of eighty-four years " (Luke ii. 37) ; Sexa kol oktw Iny, " eighteen years " (Luke xiii. 16) ; ra wevrJKovra cwca, " the ninety-nine"
;

(Matt, xviii. 12

Luke

xv. 4).

Distributive Numbers.

52. The
In Mark

distribution or repetition of a

number
:

is

variously expressed.

vi. 7,

the simple cardinal

is

repeated

8vo Svo,

"two and two

;"

Luke
€15

X. 1, for
;

the same thing, more classically employs a preposition,

dva 8vo

Mark
cts,

Kara

xiv. 19 combines another preposition with the cardinal " one by one."

Exercise 8.— Numbers.
1.

Interpret the following numerical symbols

:

—^,

irfy

kS', /otr',

pt^,

2.

[Vocdbulai-y.

w/sa,

-as,

hour;

rjfjiipa,

-as,

day;

crd/SpaTovy -ov

(lit.

^

The

rule in classic

Greek

is

to place the smaller

number

first

with

Koi, or

the

larger without Kcd.

48
sabbath), week, sing, or
irXetW, comp. adj.
pliir.
;

NUMERALS.
/tijv, firjvos,

[§ 52.

m. month

; tro^, -ov9, n.

year

;

more;

koX,

and ;

y]^or ; cv (prep., proclitic),

m, govern-

ing the dative.]
Translate the following
1. 2.
.
:

kv €T€L TrevTCKatScKaro). €V TO)
1^

/X?;]/t

Tip

Ikto).

ojpa

iy

0€KaTr).
/r»;vt'.

4. 5. 6. 7.

cv T<3 €vi Ktti €^aKocriocrT<p Irct, iv r<a Scvrcpo)
rj

fJLLa

(rjixepa)

twv

(raf^j^aruiv.

(See Jolin XX.
xvi. 9.)

1,

etc.)

7]

TTpoiTrf

o-a^ySaTov.

(See

Mark

TJ

rpLTTj rjfxipa.

Supply
rj

ow, to express the force of the dative.

8.

rjfiepaL TrXeiovs o/cto)

ScKa.

Supply thaUy

after the comparative.

10.

iTTj

oySoT^KOvTa Tccrcrapa.

3.

Render the follomng into Greek
1.

:

Thirty years.

2. 3.

Eleven months.
In the fourth month, on the sixth day.
(See
7,

above.)

4. 5.

Twelve hours in the day.

On

the

first

day of the week.^

^

In what two ways might

f^rst

aud week respectively be expressed

?

(See 5, 6,

above.)

)


AND REFLEXIVK
49

5 55.]

PKONOUNS

—PERSONAL

Chapter IV.

PKONOUNS.

Personal Pronouns.
53. These
are

divided

into

(1)

the

simple

substantive-pronoun

(2) the reflexive,

and

(3) the adjective-personal. or possessive.

The Substantive Pronouns of the
First Person1

first

Two

Persons.

SINGULAR.
N.
G.
€70), 1
>

PLURAL.
,

Second Person PLURAL. SINGULAR,
(TV,

'

T
fJLOV

rjfieU,
rjficov
rifitv
'niJia<;

we

thou
or a^oL or
(Te

v^iel<^,

you

i^OV OT
i/jLOL

(TOV or (TOV
(Toi
(T6

VflCOV

D.
A.

or fiot

vfiLV
vfia<;

ifii

or

fi€

Accentuation.

— In

the singular, genitive, dative, and accusative, the uuem(See §
6.

phatic pronoun

is enclitic.

54. For the third personal pronoun, he, she, it, the New Testament employs the three genders of the adjective-pronoun avro^;,
self (avTO-, -a-).

SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G.
F.

PLURAL.
N.

M.

F.

N.

auT09

avT^
avTrj<;
»

avTo

avroL
avTCJV

avTal
avTO)v

avrd
avTOJV

avTov
avT(o

avTov
avTco

«

D.
A.

avrrj

avToU
avTov^

avraU
avTd<i

avTol^

avTov

avrrfv

avTO

avrd
ia

The nominative
always emphatic.

of this pronoun,

when used

in the personal sense,

Reflexive Pronouns.
55. These are formed by the combination
with the oblique cases of auros.
one word.
of the personal pronouns

In the singular, the two are written as

50

PRONOUNS

—REFLEXIVE

AND POSSESSIVE.

[§55.

SINGULAR.
G.

i/iavTov,
ifiavTO),

-'^9,
-rj,

of myself

aeavTov,
creavTm,
creavTov,

-t}?,
-rj,

of thyself

D.
A.

to

myself
{obj.)

to thyself

i/iavToVy

-1JV,

myself

-r^v,

thyself (obj.)

The

plurals of these forms are written separately.
; v/mv avrols, to yourselves, etc.

Thus, ruidv avrwv,

of ourselves

Third person (from* the old stem,
etc.

e-,

him), of himself, herself, itself

SINGULAR.
M.
^-liJL^

PLURAL.
N.
..

F.

G. D.

eavTOV

eavrrj^

eavTOV
eavTco
1,

^^^'^^ iavTwv
eauTot?
eai>T0V9

F.

N.

eavTcov

kavTOiv

eavTM
eavTov

iavry
eavTTjv

kavTol^

kavTol^

A.

iavTo

kavrd^

eavrd

This reflexive pronoun is sometimes written without the e, as avrovy avTov, etc., and is only distinguished from the cases of avrds by the
aspirate.

Wliere there
used for the
X.'wTCt.,

'ourselves "
(Phil.
ii.

no risk of ambiguity, this reflexive pronoun may be and second persons likewise. Thus, iv cavrot?, " in (Rom. viii. 23) ; ryy iqA^<x)y crioTyptav, " your own salvation "
is

first

12).

^ez^,^^

<^vt„r»—

Possessive, or Adjective-Personal Pronouns.

56. (a) These are declined and are as follows
:

precisely like adjectives of the first form,

First person,
,,

cjios,

cja^,

cjaov,
f|(ji€T«pov,
<r<Jv,

my
our
thy

f||ieT€pos,
o-ds,

iq|i€Tcpa,
o-f\,

Second person,
^
(b)

{lfl€T€pOS,

V|l€T€pa

{)}ieT€pOV,

yOUr

There is no possessive pronoun in the New Testament for the third person singular or plural, the genitive case of avrds or of eavrou Thus, vlo<^ iavrov, or avrov, his oivn son, i.e., the son being used instead.
of the person

who

is

subject of the sentence

;

vlds avrov, his son,

i.e.,


§ 57, e.]

PRONOUNS

—POSSESSIVE
In Heb.
i.

AND DEMONSTRATIVE.
3,

51

the son of another person.
**

tw

pTJ/xart

t^s Svva/xccos avrov is

by the word of His power," i.e., that of God the Father ; avrov, the reading of some editors, would denote " of His own power," i.e., that of Again, 1 John iii. 3, t^v iXTriSa i-rr avrw, " the hope in^ Christ Himself. Him," i.e.f in Christ, not avT<2, which would have referred the hope to
the subject of the sentence, "every one."
(c)

The

genitive cases of the other personal pronouns are also used

most frequently with the force of the possessive.

Demonstrative Pronouns.
57. The chief original demonstrative was the article, already given 12), and all other demonstrative pronouns are formed upon its model.

They

are

(a) 88e,
(h)
(c)

ijSe,

toSc,

this (here)
this (near)

oStosi
lK€tvos,

cUJti],

tovto,
cKcivo,

€K€tvT],
T|

that (youdcr)
th£

(d) 6 avTos,
(a) oSc is

avTTj,

TO auTo,

same

simply the

article declined

with the
:

enclitic 8c.

(6) ovTos is

thus declined (stem, tovto-)

SINGULAB.
M.
N.
G. D. A.
F.

PLURAL.
N.

M.

F.

N.

0UT09

aUTTJ
TavT7]<;

TOVTO

OVTOL
TOVTCOV
TOVTOl^i

avTai
TOVT(DV
TavTac<;

TavTa
TOVTCOV

TOVTOV
TOVTO) t

TOVTOV
TOVT(p

ravrrj

TOUTOt?

TOVTOV

TavTrjv

TOVTO

TOVTOV!;

TavTa^

TavTa

Care must be taken to distinguish the feminine of the nominative
singular
VIZ.,

and

plural, avny, avrcu,

from the corresponding cases of avros.

avnjf

airrat.

(c)

cKctvos is declined exactly like the article.

(d) 6 avros in all its cases is only avros (§ 54),
prefixed.

with the definite artiole
is

The neuter
accent,

plural,

nominative and accusative,
these,

sometimes
ft,

written ravra, being distinguished by the coronis over the v
well as
^

(§ 3,

3), as

by the

from ravra,

neuter plural of ovros.
marks
this meaning.

The

preposition employed in this passage further
set

See

Revised Version: "this hope

on Him."

52
(e)

PRONOUNS

—DEMONSTRATIVE
:

AND RELATIVE.

[§ 57,

t.

The demonstrative pronouns
Quality,
toiovtos,
roiavrr],

of quality,

quantity (number), and

degree are declined like (b) preceding

toiovto,
Too-ovTo,

SUch
SO great

Quantity, too-oOtos,

Too-avn],
Too-avrai,

Number,
Degree,

too-ovtoi,

TocravTa,

SO

many
i.

T-qXiKovros,

T^XtKavrq,
is

rqXiKovTo,

so very great

The last-mentioned pronoun
James
iii.

found only in 2 Cor.

10

;

Heb.

ii.

3

;

4

;

Rev. xvi. 18.

The Relative Pronoun.
58.
M.
N.
G.
D.
rf

{a)

The

relative

os,

%

i,

who

or ivhich,

is

thus declined

:

SINGULAR.
F.

PLURAL.
N.

M.
ot

F.

N.

09

1
ov
*
*

at

•r/

a
ft) J*

if

od

0)2/

5
ov
(&)
riv

CO
4,

0I9

al?

069

A.

ou?

Tf

a9
article will

a
be seen at

The

similarity

between

this

pronoun and the
is

once.

In the nominative singular feminine, and the nominative plural
that the article
is to-.

mascidine and feminine, the only difference

is proclitic.

The stem
(c)

of the relative is

6-,

while that of the article

An
:

indefinite relative, ivhoever, whatever, is
os,
rj,

made by
are

affixing the

enclitic

rts to

o.

Both

parts

of

the

word

declined,

as

follows

SINGULAR.
M.
N.
G. D.
A.
F.
tt

PLURAL.
N.
0,Tt

M.
o'iTive<;

F.
a'iLTLve<i

V.

ocrTi9

r}TL<;

CLTLVa

ovrLvo<;

TjCTTLVO^
fjTLVL

OVTLVO^
(pTLVL

OyVTLVOJV
ol(TrL(TL

MVTIVCOV
alarcat,

WVTCVCOV
ola-Tio-i

WTLVL

ovTLva

riVTLva

0,TL

ovaTtva<;

aaTcva<;
is

ariva

The neuter

singular, nominative

and accusative,

divided as above

(sometimes by a space without the comma), to distinguish the word from
the conjunction
oti,,

that.
is

The

genitive masculine singular

sometimes written
ecus

otov,

used in the

New

Testament only in the adverbial phrase
V. 25, etc.).

otov, as long as, until

(Matt.

§ 59, d.]

PRONOUNS

—RELATIVE

AND INTERROGATIVE.

53

(d)

Sometimes the

relative is declined

emphatic identity), and means the very one
suffixes are often used, e.g., ocryc

with the particle irep (marking Other indeclinable icho.
32),
oo-Sttitotc.

(Rom.

viii.

(See Syntax,

on the
(e)

Particles.)

For the relative adverb

ov,

consult § 129.

Derivative relative pronouns are employed to express quality,

quantity,

and number.
f

e

Quality,

olos, s?/c7i as.
6<ros,
6<roi,

'^^-crf^

o\^Gi/\
j

Quantity,

so great as.

^

^^
as.

Number,

plural of
iqXikos,

otro?, so

many
size,

Also the relative of degree,
passages (Col. ii 1
;

of ivhat a

used only in two

James

iii.

5).

Interrogative Pronouns.
59.

{a)

The simple interrogative
is

is tis

;

rL

;

who

?

or lohat

?

The
tl<s

declension of this pronoun
13), except that in the

identical with that of the indefinite
i

interrogative the

of

the stem

syllable

is

accented throughout, the dissyllabic forms being paroxytone.

For the adverbial interrogative form,
(h)

ixyJtl,

see § 134,

c.

Other interrogative forms are employed, correlative to the relative
§

pronouns under
num,her,

58,

e,

and,

like

them, denoting quality, quantity,
the letter
ir-

and

degree.

They
Quality,

all prefix
iroios,

to the relative forms.

of what kind?

Quantity,

ird<ros,
irdo-oi,

how

great

? ?

Number,
Degree,

how many

irT]\iKos,

ment only indirectly: Gal. vi. 11, to mark emphasis) ; Heb. vii. 4.
(c)

how great ? used in the New Testa"with how large letters" (probably

Direct interrogatives are often themselves

used in the indirect
(rts) it

construction, as

John

v.

13,

"ZTe that was healed knew not who

was."
(d)

The properly

indirect interrogatives prefix the letter

6-

to
? is

the
the

direct forms beginning

with the

letter

tt.

ottoio?,

of lohat kind

only one of these employed in the

New

Testament.

54

pronouns

—indefinite,

and table of correlatives.

[§ 60.

Indefinite Pronouns.

60.

(«)

been given,
Tw, enclitic.
(b)

The ordinary indefinite pronoun ns, any, a The genitive and dative singular are § 13.
of this are
§
oih-is,

certain one, has

occasionally roVf

Compounds
The

n^ns, no one.
ets,

For the distinction
§ 49.
article,

between them, see
(c)
is

134,

b,

and compare under
Sciva,

old indefinite pronoun

such a one^ used with the

once found (Matt. xxvi. 18).

Distributive Pronouns.
61. These are mostly declined
(a)

like adjectives,

and are

as follows

:

dXXos,

AXXtj,

dXXo,
dXXoi,
^Tcpov,
'^T€pa,

another (numerically)
others

Plur.
(b)

dXXoi,
'^T€pos,

dXXai,
€T€pa,
^Tcpai,

othcv (different)
others

Plur.

^Tcpoi,

For the force of the
(c)

article

with these pronouns, see Syntax.

oXXtjXwv,

of each other, only used in the genitive, dative, and accusaiKdoTTj, ^KatTTov,
ii.

tive plural.
{d) ^KatTTos,

each,
4.

uscd only in the singular; with a

doubtful exception, in Phil.

62. The number
forms and

of the

pronouns being so limited,
be

it

is

un-

necessary to give exercises for further practice.
inflections

The foregoing

must

very accurately committed to

memory, and the
marked.

distinctions

between similar words carefully
will be

The following Table of Correlative Pronouns as a summary
:

found useful

Demonstrative.

Relative.

Interrogative.

Dependent
Interrogative.

Indefinite.

Simple
Quality
. .

0VT09
TOLOVTO^i
TOO'OVTO'i
oi,o<i

TL^
TTOfcO?
QITOIO'!;

Quantity

...

iroao^

^

• • •

- "T^*

'''

Degree

rrjXiKOVTO^

TrrjfitKO^ XIkc

— —
THE VERB

§

64]

—VOICE

AND MOOD.

55

Chapter V.

THE VERB.

The Voices.
63. There are four principal things which verbs are employed
to predicate

concerning a given subject:
1.

Its state.

'A.^t

2.
3.

4.

upon an object. upon itself. The action of the object upon
Its action Its action
:

it.

Hence

arises a fourfold division of verbs

into neuter (or intransitive),

active (or transitive), reflexive^

and passive.

The Greek language employs a threefold modification of the The modiverbal stem to express these varieties of meaning.
fications, or " voices," are

named

as follows

:

The Active Voice, as Xvw, / loosen. The Reflexive, or Middle Voice, as Xvoixai, I The Passive Voice, as Xvofxai, I am loosened.

loosen myself.

Neuter verbs borrow the Active or the Middle form, as
(^oyXofxaLj

7rao-;(a),

I suffer;

I wish.

The Moods.
64. The Greek verb has four modes, or moods Imperative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive.
1.
-A

the Indicative,

The Indicative

asserts absolutely, as IXvo-a t6v SeV/xtov,

/

loosened

the prisoner.
2.

The Imperative commands,

as Xvere t6v SeV/^tov, loosen (ye) the

prisoner /
3. The Subjunctive asserts conditionally, as orav XvarjTi rov Sia-fjuov, when you have loosened the prisoner. A subjunctive clause, it is evident, requires another to complete its meaning ; hence the name
1

Compare " Handbook of the English Tongne,"

§ 277.

50
of
*'

MOODS AND TENSES OF THE VERB.
the mood,

[§ 64.

the

"subjoined" mood.

It

is

often

also

called

the

Conjunctive."

4. A division of the Subjunctive is called the Optative Mood, because sometimes employed to express a wish, as in the frequent phrase, fxri ykvoiTo (rendered E. Y. " God forbid "), may it not he ! It is really the

subjunctive of the historical tenses.
he so,

the verb

5e,

Thus, in the phrase, He asks if it subjoined to the principal tense " asks " (present),

would, in Greek, be subjunctive. He asked if it were so, would require were to be in the optative after the historical tense " asked " (aorist). For
further detail, the Syntax
5.

must be consulted.
either the Indicative or the Subjunctive

For the Interrogative,
§§

may be employed,
Syntax,
6.

according to

the

nature of

the

question.

(See

368, 376.)
Infinitive expresses the action or state denoted
Sda-fiLov,

The

by the

verb, as

in itself i.e., " the act of loosening him."

an object of thought, as Xvctv t6v

to loosen the pi'isoner,

The
is

Infinitive, it is plain, partakes of

the nature of a substantive, and

often called the verbal

noun

;

being,

moreover, employed as an uninflected singular neuter, with the article in
all its cases.
7.

(See Syntax,

§§

201, 388, 390.)

To the Moods must be added the Participles, which are verbal adjectives, and agree with substantives expressed or understood, as 6 BicTfxLos \vO€L<s, the p'isoner, heing loosened; 6 XcAou/tevos, hs who has heen
washed.
the Infinitive " partakes " the nature of the substantive, and the

As
pials.

Participle that of the adjective, they are sometimes both called particiIt
is,

however, more

common

to distinguish

them by the phrase
as

*'the infinitive verb," the remaining

moods being known

"the

finite

verb."

Both the Infinitive and the Participles which see the paradigm of the Verb.

are used in different tenses, for

The Tenses.
65.
a.

Time

\^ present, past,

smd future.

In each an action
{i.e.,

may

be predicated as indefinite (i.e., having regard to the than to its completedness or otherwise), imperfect

act itself rather

going on),


66.]


57

TENSES, NUMBERS,
(i.e.,

AND

I-ERSONS OF THE VERB.
possible tenses, of

or perfect

finished).

Hence nine
:

which the

Greek

language has seven, as follows
Indefinite state.

Imperfect state.

Perfect state.

Present time
Past time

-(I

write)

Present (I
ing)

am
(I

writ-

Perfect

(I

have writ-

ten)

Aorist

(I

WTote)

Imperfect
writing)

was
shall

Pluperfect (I
ten)

had

writ-

Future time

Future
write)

(I

shall

(I

Future-perfect^ (I shall

be writing)

have ^mtten)

names of which the found in the Syntax, § 360, seq.^ where it will also be explained how the meaning of the deficient tenses, the Present Indefinite and the Future Imperfect, is supplied.
h.

More

detailed exposition of these tenses, the

table gives in itahcs, will be

The Aorist
e.

(doptaro?, indefinite) is properly

an indefinite past^ but

it

has other uses, which will also be afterwards explained.

Of the above, the Present,
;

called principal tenses

and Future-perfect are the Imperfect, Aorist, and Pluperfect, historical
Perfect, Future,

tenses.
d.

The

tenses are usually arranged as foUows
1.

:

2.

3.
4.
5.
6. 7.

/ loosen. I was loosening. Imperfect, tXvovy Xvcruiy I shall or will loosen. Future, e\v(ra, I loosened. Aorist, XeAv/ca, I have loosened. Perfect, Pluperfect, {k)\€KvKuv, I had loosened. Future-perfect, found only in the passive or middle, XcXvcro/Acu, / shall have been loosened.
Present,
Avcj,

Numbers and Persons.
Greek verb three persons, corresponding with those in other languages, and three numbers, the singular, dual, and (See § 11.) plural, of which the dual is not used in the Xew Testament. Only the singular and plural, therefore, are given.

66. There

are in the

^

Very

rare.

See d,

7.

58

forms of the verb.
Conjugations.

[§ 67.

67. There
ancient, the

are

two principal forms
jii

of

conjugation.

In the most

first

person singular, present indicative active of the verb
;

has the termination

in the later, the termination w.

The

latter

being the

easier,

the more symmetrical, and embracing the far larger
first,

number

of verbs, is usually given
is

and

is

called the First Conjuor,

gation. The other " the verb in -|xi."

termed the Second Conjugation,

more

generally,

REMARK.
The first person singular, present indicative active, is the form of the verb given in almost all Vocabularies and Lexicons, and is generally explained by the
English infinitive.

Thus, Xvu,

to loosen ;

more properly, / am

loosening.

The Verbal Stem.
68. The
which
is

chief thing necessary to be

known

in a verb

is

the stem,

found by abstracting from any given verbal form the adjuncts of mood and tense. Thus, a glance over the forms of the
easily

verb " to loosen," in

§ 65, dy will at

once disclose
its

its

stem,

Xv-.

Additions to the stem are made either at
addition at the beginning
is

beginning or

its

end.
;

An

addition at
alike to the

termed augment or reduplication an The former belongs the end, the inflectional termination.

two conjugations

;

in the latter, the conjugations vary.

Augment and Reduplication.
69.
(1)
a.

The augment

characterises the historical

tenses

65, c) in

the indicative mood.

Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix the syllabic augment. Thus, from Xvw, imperfect eXvovj
(2)

letter

i,

called the

aorist eXva-a.

Verbs beginning with a short vowel augment by lengthening it a- into T]-, 6- into tj- (in a few cases into «-), t- into l-, v- into v-, and ointo W-. This is termed the temporal augment. Verbs beginning with the (" changeable ") diphthongs ai, av, oi, are augmented by changing the former vowel. Thus, ai- becomes t|-, av- is changed to t]v-, and oibecomes
augment.
b.
oj-.

Sometimes,

also,

cv-

is

augmented into

y]v-.

The other
incapable of

diphthongs and the long vowels are (" unchangeable,"

i.e.)

The reduplication,

i.e.^

the repetition of the initial consonant of


THE VERB
«,

;

§ 70, h.]

ITS INFLECTIONS.

59
action

the stem with

belongs to those tenses which

mark a completed

and future-perfect), and is continued through moods. It takes place, in general, only when a verb begins with all the a single consonant or a mute and a liquid. Thus \4-XvKa, perf. from Xvw Pc-^ovXcvKtt, from ^ovXevu) ; -ye-ypa^a, from ypdcfxi).
(the perfect, pluperfect,

In verbs beginning with a vowel, only the Temporal Augment is emTo ployed in these tenses, but it is continued through all the moods. distinguish this augment from that of the historical tenses, it is sometimes called the improper reduplication.

Verbs compounded with prepositions almost invariably take the augment or reduplication after the preposition and at the beginning of Thus, from €K-A.va>, to set free^ comes the Aorist the proper verbal stem. eieXva-a (ck changed into e^ by § 3, h, 1), and from aTro-Xvw, to dismiss,
c.

the Aorist

is

aTriXva-a,

the o disappearing by elision before the augment
prepositions
ttc/di

vowel

(§ 3, h, 2).
;

The

and npo, however, do not

elide

their vowels

and a few other exceptions will be noted in

their place.

Inflectional Terminations.

70.

a.

As

a verb

is

distinguished by voice, mood, tense, number, and
the phrase, we were being loosened,

person, five different elements will evidently concur in fixing the termi-

nation in any given case.
is

Thus,
it

if

to be translated into Greek,

will

be necessary to

fix

"the personal

ending" of the first person plural passive, the "tense-characteristic" of the imperfect, and the " modal vowel " of the indicative.
h.

The Personal endings

are

no doubt the

fragments

of

ancient

personal pronouns, afiixed to the verb;^ but the original forms are in a
great measure disused or lost.

The

attentive student will observe the

recurrence of

-s

in the second person singular,
plural,

and of

-jiev, -re,

in the

first

and second persons

throughout the active.

It will be seen, also,
-o-i (-<riv

that in the active principal tenses the third person plural ends in

before an initial vowel in the next word), and in the historical tenses in
-V.

In the passive and middle, the normal forms

are, for
;

the principal

tenses
Sing.,

Sing.,

-y-ai, -<rai,

-rai

;

Plur.,

-|i.c9a, -<r0€,

-vrat

historical tenses

-ji-nv, -0-0,

-TO

;

Plur.,

-fieOa, -<r0€,

-vTo.

Study of the Paradigms which

follow will suggest other points of comparison.
*

See Miillers "Lectures on

tlie

Science of Language,"

first series,

especially

p. 272, seq.

60

THS VERB

ITS INFLECTIONS;

VERBAL ADJECTIVES.

[§71.

71. The Tense-characteristics most important to be noticed are the
following
a.
:

verbal stem

The Future and (First) Aorist Active have -o--. So, from the iritrrru- we have the Future stem irKrrevo-. When the verbal
:

stem ends with a short vowel, it is generally lengthened in the Future from Tipa-, ti|xt]o- (see § 3, e) ; and from thus, from \v- is formed Xv<r;

S-qXo-, 8t]Xwo-,

The Perfect and. Pluperfect Active take -k-. Thus, irKrrcv- (with the reduplication, § 69, ^), makes irciriorTcvK-. Here also a final stem-vowe]
&.

is

usually lengthened
Xv-

;

as

from

TijAa-,

t€tijitik-,

and from

8t]Xo-,

ScSiiXwk-v

But

makes

XcXvk-.

c. The Future and (First) Aorist Passive take -9-, lengthening the vowel where lengthened in the Perfect Active. Thus, from the verbal

stems already given,
d.

irio-TeuG-, Xv9-,

nix-qG-, 8tiX«0-.

In the Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive the normal forms (see § 70, &) are affixed to the verbal stem without any connecting
letter.

The successive paradigms will show how the tense-characteristics are modified by the consonants of the verbal stem.

72. The Modal Vowels
It will be especially noted

will be sufficiently traced in the Paradigms.

how

the Subjunctive throughout lengthens

the vowels of the Indicative, and

how

the Optative abounds in diphit

thongal forms.

In the third person plural

will also

be seen that the

Subjunctive takes the termination of the principal tenses, the Optative
of the historical.

The Imperfect and Mood;i \\^Q Future,
junctive.

Pluperfect tenses occur
also,
is

only in the Indicative

absent from the Imperative

and Sub-

>

It will be

seen

under Syntax,

§

378, that the Optative

mood

really

is

the

historical Subjunctive.

Hence the Present and Perfect Optative are the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive. The ordinary names have, however, been retained to
tlie learner.

prevent unnecessary ditficulty to

8

74]

VERBS IN

a>

:

7naT€vco.

61

The Verbal Adjectives.
73. Many verbs have,
generally expressed
;

in addition to their passive participles, a kind of

The former is by the termination -tos, -tVj, -tov, appended to the verbal stem the latter by the termination -reos, -rca, -t€ov. Thus, from Xv- may be formed Avto's, capable of being loosened ; Avrcos, that ought to
participial adjective, to signify either caiiahility or dutij.

be loosened.

74.

Paradigm of the First Conjugation, or of

"THE Verb

in -«."

The verb ttio-tcvo) has been chosen as a model, because it is a characteristic word of the New Testament, and because all its forms contain the unaltered stem. The verb ^ovXcvw, to advise, employed by Kiiliner and others, only occurs in the New Testament in the middle voice and Xvo), to loosen, chosen by Professor Curtius and Principal Greenwood,
;

though easy
in

to conjugate, has the disadvantage of

having the stem long

some forms, and short

in others, although unaltered to the eye.

The

learner will have little difficulty in discovering throughout the
(iria-nv-),

paradigm the root
letter (a- or k),

the augment or reduplication, the connecting

and the tei'mination. As a help, however, the augment and terminations are printed in a darker type.
Stem, TncrreV'y
or trust

to believe

;

Mid.,

to trust one^s self

or to

confide
a.

;

Pass., to be entrusted.

Principal parts.
incrrevco

Present Indicative Active,

Future
Perfect


Tna-revaco
ireirio-TevKa
ireTrlaTevfiaL

Perfect Indicative, Mid. and Pass.,
(First) Aorist Indicative Passive,

eTna-TevOr^v

To know
of the

these five parts thoroughly, with the addition, in
(§§

many

verbs,

Second Aorist

86-88),

is

to

know the

verb.

62

THE VERB IN

-w

:

ACTIVE VOICE.

L§74.

Active Voice.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense. SINGULAR.
TTLCTTCVia

/ am

helieving.

PLURAL.
7rtCrT€V0|X€V

TTtO'TeuClS
TTttrret'ci

7rtO"T€U€T€

7rto"Tevov<ri(v)

Imperfect. SINGULAR.
67rt(TT€VOV
CTTtCTTCVeS

I loas

helieving.

PLURAL.
€7rtO'T€VO}l€V

CTTtO'TCVCTC

€7rt(rT€V6(v)

C7r«rT€V0V

Future. SINGULAR.
TTLCTTevaoi
Trttrreuo'cis

/ shall

or will believe.

PLURAL.
7n(TT€V(T0\LiV
7rL(TT€V(TtTi
7rtcrT€uo'ov<rt( V )

Aorist (First Aorist^). SINGULAR.
iTTtCTTCVCra

I believed.
PLURAL.
€7rt(rT€ucra|i€v

€7rio"T€va'as
€7riO'T€V(r€(v)

€7rto"T€v(raTC

eTrttrTCixrav

Perfect.

/ 7ia?;c

believed.

SINGULAR.
TTCTTto'TCv/ca

PLURAL.
7re7ri(rT€uKafi.6v

TTCTTlO'TCVKaS
7rc7rto"TevK€(v)

TrCTTtOTeVKaTC
7r€7rto'T€VKdc-i(v)

Pluperfect.^

/ had

believed.

SINGULAR.
i7r€7n(TT€VKH.V
€7re7rt(rT€VK€is
€7r€7rt(rT€WK€l
1

PLURAL.
CTreTTtCTTCl 'Aftl^WV

€7rt7rt(TT€t'K€lTf

^7rc7rt(rT€u/c€(i)aav

Sec

§ 86.

'

Augment

generally omitted in N. T. in

j

lupf. act.

and

pass.

§74]

THE VEKB IN

:

ACTIVE VOICE.

63

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
SINGULAR.
Believe (continuously')

PLURAL.
TTLcrrecfm
irt(rT€V€T«o-av

2nd

pers.

TTLcrrev^
Trto-Teve'rw

3rd pers.

Aorist.

Believe (at once).

SING ULAR.
TTwrrcvcrov
irtoTCuo'dTa)

PL URAL.
7rto'T€V(raT€

irtcrreuo'dTwo'av

Perfect.

^a-Z/'e

believed
.

(i.e.,

remain

so).

SINGULAR.
7r€7riCrT€VK€

PL URAL.
7r€7rtO"TevK€T€
7r€7rL(TT€VK(r(Ji<raV

ir€7rCOT€VK€T«

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
SINGULAR.

/ may

believe.

PLURAL.
7ricrTev«|iev

irt(rT€UT|s

7rt<JTeVT]T6

7rto'T€vw<ri(v)

Aorist.

/ 7nai/

believe,
I

or shccll have believed.

SINGULAR.
in<TTeV(Tbi

PLURAL.
TTtCTeVCrCDIJLCV

irtOTCUO'TJ

7rto'T€vcr«<ri(v)

Perfect.

/ 7nay

have

believed.

SINGULAR.
7rc7rtO"TevK«
ir€7rtOT€t ACJJS
;re7r«rr€VK'n

PLURAL.
TreTTiCTTev/cwjicv

ir€»rt(rT€VKT]T6
•T€7rtO'T€VKft)(rt(vj

04

THE VERB

IN

«*:

ACTIVE VOICE.

t§74

OPTATIVE MOOD.
{Or,

SUBJUNCTIVE OF HISTORICAL TENSES.)

Present (or Imperfect). SINGULAR.
TTtO'TCVOlJl.l

/ might

believe.

PLURAL.
Trifrrcvotucv

7rt(rr€vots

Tnarevoi

7rt(rT€V0l€V

Future.

/ should

believe.

SINGULAR.
7rtO'T€VO'Ol|il

PLURAL.
7rtcrTcvcroi|tev

TTttTTCVO'OlS

TTtOTevCOlTC
Tn(TT€VCrOl€V

TrioTiva'oi

Aorist.

/ might

or

am

to believe.

SINGULAR.
7rt(rT€V(rai(ii

PLURAL.
7naT€V(Tai\L€v
TTtO'TCVCaiTC

TTtOTTevcrais

Tnarrevcrai

TnoTivaaiiv or -ciav

Perfect (or Pluperfect).

/ might

have

believed.

SINGULAR.
7r€7rt(rTCuKoi|j.t

PLURAL.
7r€7rt(rT€UKOC}l€V

7r€7rt(rT€VKois
7rC7riO"T€VKOl

TTCTTtarCUKOtTC
7r€7rtOTCVKOl€V

INFINITIVE.

Present,

Trtcn-cveiv,

to believe (be believing).

'

Future,
Aorist,
Perfect,

Tnareva-fiv, to be
TTtoTcvo-ai,

about

to believe.

to believe. to

TrcTrtorcvKcvai,

have

believed.

PARTICIPLES.

Present nom.,
Tri<rT€vovT-

Tricrrcvwv,

Trto-rcv'ovo-a,

m-to-rcvov,

believing;

stems,

(m. and

n.), vrioTivova-a- (f.).

Future nom.,
stems,
^

Trtarcva-wv, TTto-Tcvcrovcra, ^Krrcvcrov,

about

to

believe

;

irwrTevo-ovT-

(m. and

n.), irwrrcvo-ovo-a- (f.).

The form

in -eiav (^Eolic)

is

found only once in N. T. (Acts

xvii. 27).

;

§74.]

THE VERB IN
Trto-Tevcras,

:

MIDDLE AND PASSR'E.
TncTTevcraVf
(f.).

65

Aorist nom.,
stems,
irio^euc-avT-

TTtcTTcvcrdo-a,

having helieved having now

(m. and

n.), TrwrrtiKrao-a-

Perfect nom.,

7r€7rtoTcvK(&s,

irtma-revKvla.^

TreTncTTevKS^,

helieved ; stems, iren-KTrevKor- (m.

and

n.), ireirwrrcvKvia-

(f.).

Middle and Passive Voices— Forms
INDICATIVE MOOD.

common

to both.

Present Tense.
SINGULAR.
irta"T€t'o|xai

/ am confiding (trusting am heing entr listed}

myself), or

PLURAL.
7rL(JT€v6\i.iQ<X

7rtOTCV€<r0€

irtOTCV€Tai

TTtCTTCrOVTai

Imperfect.

/ was

confiding, or

was bein^

entrusted.

SINGULAR,
k7rtaTev6\kr]v
^

PLURAL.
€7rtcrT€rdp.€0a

iTTtcrrcvov

iTTioTcvero

CTTtOTCVOVTO

Perfect.

/ have

confided, or have been entrusted.

SINGULAR.
TreirtoTCvuat
TrCTTlCTTCVO-Ot

PLURAL.
7r€7rtaT€i'p.€0a
7r€7r6CrT€VO-0«

TrCTTlOTCVTai,

TrcTTicrTCvvTai

Pluperfect.

/ had

confided, or

had

been entrusted.

SINGULAR.
6Tr€7rtOTCVJtT]V
l7rc7rtcrT€v<ro

PLURAL.
€7r€7rta"T€vp.60a
e7re7rto"Tev<r0€

6ir€7riOT€VTO

€7r€7rtaT€WTO

*

The

collocation

am

being

is

doubtlessly inelegant
into -«

;

but the true force of the timae
indefinite.

could be given in no other way.
'
'

The Greek language has no present
is

Contracted from Contracted from

-ccrot.
-e(ro.

The contraction

very rare.

66

THE VERB IN

:

MIDDLE AXD PASSIVE.

[§74

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Confide, or he thou entricsted.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
^

2nd

pers. iricrTevov

7rtOT€V6(r0€

3rd pers. TrtorcveVOw
Perfect.

ino'Tcv€<r0«<rav or -^crOwv

Have

confided, or

Aare been entrusted

(i.e.,

remain

so).

SINGULAR.
TrCTTiVTeixro
7r€7rtoT€v<rQ«
7rc7rtGrTcv<r0w<rav

TTCTTtOTCVOrOw

or -<r6«v

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.

/ may

confide, or 6e entrusted.

SINGULAR.
7rtcrT€v«|JLai
•TrtO-TCVTJ

PLURAL.
TTtcTTruwfteOa
7rtorTCTrr]<r0€

7rtcrT€VT]Tau

irtaTCvwvTai

Perfect.

/ may

have confided, or have been entrusted.

SINGULAR.
7rC7rtO'T€V|Jl6VOS

PLURAL.
<S2
ijs
tj

7r€7rtcrT€V(i^voi TreTTtCTTeVJl^VOl
7rc7rt(rT€v|i^voi

wucv
T)T6

7r€7rtcrTru|i€vos

ir€7riOTCV}l€VOS

w<ri(v)

OPTATIVE MOOD.
(Or,

SUBJUNCTIVE OF HISTORICAL TENSES.)

Present.

/ might

confide, or he entrusted.

SINGULAR.
7rto-T€T;oCjii]v

PLURAL.
7ri(rT€Vof|i.€0O

TTttTTCVOtO

7riOT€vot<r0«

TTltTTCVOlTO

TTKTTCVOIVTO

^

^

Contracted from -eo-o. These forms are made by the perfect participle,
auxiliary.

with the substantive verb

"^0 6e" as an

§74]
Perfect.

THE VERB IN

:

MIDDLE.

67

/ might
6lT]V
i^y\9
eiTJ

Jmve confided, or been entrusted.

SINGULAR.
TTCTTtO'Tei'JlCVOS

PLURAL.
7r€7rio'T€V|icvot 7r€7riO-T€V|l€VOl
6iii|iev
€'l11T€

7r€7riOT€VJJL€VOS

TTCTTtOTCVJt^VOS

irc7rto-TCvp.€VOi

cl'-qo-av

IXFIXITIVE.

Present,
Perfect,

Tna-Tevta-Qai,
7r€7rto-Tcvo-0at,

to coTifide,

or be entrusted.

to

have confided, or have been entrusted,
PARTICIPLES.

Present,
entrusted.

Trto-Tcvojievos,

Trto-TevonevT),

Trto-Tcvdjievov,

confiding,

or

5cm^

Perfect,

TreTrto-TcvpLc'vos, TrcTrtcTTcviJievT),

7rc7ri(rTcr|icvov,

having confided, or

having been entrusted.

Forms peculiar

to the Middle.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Future Tense.
SINGULAR.

/ shall

or will confide.

PLURAL.
TrtoTcrcoficOa

TTto-Tcvo-xi

7rt<TTCvcr€<r06

7rtOT€va€Tai

Trto-TevcrovTai

(First) Aorist.

/ confided.
PLURAL.
€7rto'T€vcrdp.€0a

SINGULAR.
CTncTevo-dnTiv
€7rto'T€vcra)^

CTrttTTCucao-Oe

c7rto'T€V(raTo

€7rtO'T€VO'aVTO

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Aorist.

Confide (at once).

SINGULAR.

PLURAL,
irto-Tcvo-ao^c
TTtOTTCvcrdo-Gwo-av 01 -d<r6«v
-acro.

2nd

pers. TrtcrTeixrai

3rd pers. Trto'TcwTdcrGw
^

Contracted from

C8

THE VERB IN

:

MIDDLE AND PASSIVE.

[§74.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Aorist.

/ may

confide, or shall

have confided.

SINGULAR.
TTtoTcvcrwiiat

PLURAL
7rLcrT€V(Td>\LeQa
'7n(rT€Vcrr]<rQi

TTLarevaxi
TTio-TCvo-riTot

TTtOTCVcrwvTat

OPTATIVE MOOD.
(Or,

SUBJUNCTIVE OF HISTORICAL TENSES.)
Future.

/ shoidd

confide.

SINGULAR.
7rtO'T€VO-Ol|JLT]V

PLURAL.
TTtO'TCVO-oCp.tOa

irtCTTevcroio

irtoT€vcroi(r06 7rt(rT€vcroivTO

jricrrcvtroiTo

Aorist.

/ might

or

am

to confide.

SINGULAR.
7rto'T€V(rai(iT]v

PLURAL.

7rc(rT€vo"aio

7riorT€V(rai(r06

TrtoTTcvcraiTO

TTlCTTCVCraiVTO

INFINITIVE.

Future,
Aorist,

Trto-Tcvo-ea-eai,

to he

about

to confide,

TrtGTTcvo-ao-eai,

to confide

immediately.

PARTICIPLES.

Future,
Aorist,

rrtorcvtroiicvos, Tnanvcro^ivT], 7rtcrT€va"<J}i€vov,
7r(,o'T€vo-dfi€vos,
7rt(7T€vcra|ji€vii,

obout to confide.

7r6o-T€vcrd(jL€vov,

having confided.

Forms peculiar
Future Tense.

to the Passive.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
(First)

/ shall

he entrusted.

SINGULAR.
TTurTcvOrjao^f,
ina'TfvOya'xi
VLorevOrjarirat.

PLURAL.
'jn(TT€v9r}(T6\it9a,

VKTTcvOrjcrta^f
TTLortvOi^a-ovraK

§H]

THE VEEB

IN -«

:

PASSH^E.

69

(First) Aorist.

/ was

entrusted.

SINGULAR.
«7rtcrT€V^T]V
€7rtOrT€v'^TJS

PLURAL.
iin(rT€.v6y\^(v
€7riCrT€V^TlT€

kTnaT€vdr\

eTrtorcv'^Tjo-av

IMrERATIVE MOOD.
Aorist.

Be thou entrusted

(at once).

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

2nd

pers.

inaT€v6y\r\.
ttio-tcv^tjtw

3rd pers.

Tncm.v$i\TUia-o.v

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Aorist.

/ may

he or shall
I
I

have been entrusted,

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
7rtcrTruC7«[i.€v

7rtCrT€f^f]T6

TrtO"T€V^«0-l(v)

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Future.

/ slwuld

he entrusted.

SINGULAR.
7n(rT€v6r]croi\i.r\v

PLURAL.
irL(TT€v6TJ(T0i\i.iQa

7n(rT€v6T^(TOiO

TTLcrTevO-qaoifrQf.

TncTevO-qcroiro

Aorist.

/ might

he or
I

am

to he entrusted.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
7rt(rT€V^€lT}|l€V

7ricrT€v^€tT]s

7rt<7TCV^6l€V

INFINITIVE.

Future,
Aorist,

Trto-Tev^TJo-co-eai, to

he ahout to he entrusted,

7rtoTcu6'7)vai, to

he entrusted.

70

THE VERB IN

:

EXERCISE.

[§ 74.

PARTICIPLES.

Future,
Aorist,

Trto-Tcv^T/o-diicvos,

-rj,

-ov,

ahouf to he entrusted.
;

7rtoT€v^€is, -€io-a, -ev,

having been entrusted

stem,

irio-TcvecvT-

(m. and

n.).

VERBAL ADJECTIVE.
7rto-T€VTos, -T^,
7rto-T€VT€os,

-Tov,

capobU of eutrusting, or 0/
^Aa^
oi^^/z-^

SeirZ;^

entrusted;

-Wa,

-T*ov,

^0 6e entrusted,

75. The learner who has thoroughly mastered the different forms of ina-Teva) now given is ready to encounter with comparative ease the manifold variations of verbs in
-«.

First,

however,

let

the following Exercises be written

:

Exercise 9.— On Pure Uncontracted Verbs.
1.

Write out the whole of the regular verb ySovXcvw:

active, to advise;

middle, to deliberate^ to advise oneself ; passive, to be advised,

[Vocabidary of Verbs selected from the ^'Sermon on the Mount." cLKovu), to hear; SovXcvo), to serve; Xva>, to loosen (compound derivatives,
2.

aTToXvo), to

put away ;

KaraXvoi, to abrogate) j

vrja-Tevo), to

fast ;

7rpoc{>r)T€vw,

to

prophesy; <^ov€vw,

to

murder.^
:

Analyse and translate the following forms
Xvcry, 7jK0V(raT€, (jioveva-eis,
vr](TT€vovTe<s,
<^ov€.v(Trj^

SovXevav,

KaraXCcrat,
VYj(rT€V7)T€,

aTroXuo-T/,

(XTroXcXv/xet'Tyv,

7rpoe<jir]Tev(rafji,€V.
;

Also the following
XeXvKivaL,
y]T€,

KareXvOr), aTroXeXvrat,

i/r/o-Tcucrov,

7r€(f>ov€VKa(nv,
Trpotfu/jrev-

KaraXcArKtos, vrjcrTevcro), Trpof^rfrcvcroVy 7rpo(f>7)T€vov(Taif
SovX€vovt€S,
eSovXcvtrcv,

SeSovXevKa/xcv,

SovXcvcrwcrav,

(XTroXv^evTcs,

a.7roX€Xi;(r^at,

oLTreXvovTO,

76. The verbs in the foregoing Exercise, as well as the conjugated verb TTto-reuo}, are all distinguished by a vowel stem-ending,
which, in the great majority of cases,
thongal or simple form.
is

the letter v in a diph-

They

are, therefore, called pure verbs;

and inasmuch

as the stem appears throughout without contraction

or alteration, they are further termed uncontracted.

§ 78, d.]

ftRE VEKBS IN
class of
I,

-ft*.

71

To the

pure uncontracted verbs belong most with the stemIt
is,

ending V or

but no others.

therefore, necessary to see
;

how

the

verbal terminations are to be adapted to other kinds of stem
this thoroughly in the case of all regular verbs, little else is

and to do needed than

the remembrance and application of the elementary laws of euphony, as
stated in § 4.

most be noted by the learner that, when the terminations of the voices, moods, and tenses are once known, and a very few simple general rules of conjugation impressed on the memory, the acquisition of all the multifarious •* classes" and ** species" of verbs in -« is a matter of euphony and nothing
It
else.

77. Let us take the possible verbal stem-endings according to the alphabet. It will appear that the stem may terminate (1) in
a vowel or (2) in a consonant
(i) a
;

and that the consonant may be

mute, (2) a liquid, or (3) a double letter. The last may be rejected from the account, as no verbal stems, in fact, do so
terminate.
verbs, the

We

have, then,

three

main

divisions

:

the

PURE

MUTE, and

the LIQUID.

78.
a.

PuEE Verbs.
verbal stem
i

— Special
o,
c,
i,

Eules.
;

A

may end

in

o,

or u

i.e.,

in any short

voweL

Those in
b.

and

v,

the uncontracted, have been considered already.
3, /,

From
o,
it
c,

trations of

and the partial illusthem given in the nouns and adjectives, it has been seen that
the rules and tables given under §
or o precedes a vowel, long or short,
it is

when
with

generally contracted

into one syllable.

Hence, verbal stems ending in these vowels

form a second class of pure verbs
c.

viz.,

the contracted.

As, however,

it

appears from the paradigm that the last letter of

the stem precedes a vowel only in the Present
follows that the contraction will

and Imperfect

tenses, it

be confined to these parts of the verb, and that there will be no deviation in other parts from the general form
of
TTICTTCVO).

For the Table of Contractions, see § 3, /. Note especially that with -ow the stem-vowel a- makes «-, while e and o- disappear before the diphthong. In the Infinitive, also, the combination -o€iv becomes -ow.
d.

72

CONTRACTED VEEBS IN

-o».

[§ 79.
difficulty
:

79. The following paradigms will now present no
1.

A-stem,
E-stem,

Tijido),
<j)i\€w,

to honour. to love.

2.
3.

0-stem,

Si^Xdw, to Tnanifest.

Stem, rZ/xa-

(J)l\€'

8r]Xo^

Active.
Indicative
-tt

—Present.
8i;Xo)
Sr]\oL<s

TLfxC)

^tXoj

-619
-€l
-OJJl€V

T6/x,as

^tXcts
<j>Lk€L

TLfia
Tt/AW/XCV

SrjXoi
Br]\ovfi€V

(fnXov/icv

-en
-ov(ri(v)

TL/xaT€
Tt/xa)crt(v)

^iXctre
^tXo9(rt(v)

BqXovre
BrjXovcniv)

Imperfect.
€-CS
-€
. .

-OV

iTLfxoyv

€^tAovv
c^iActs

iSrjXow
iS-qXov;

cTi/xas
CTi/xa
iTL/XWfJLCV

c^tAa
i<f>LXoVfX€V

iS-^Xov
iSrjXovixcy

-OJICV

-€T6

iTLfiare
iTLfXHiV

iffaXcLTc
icftiXovv

iSrjXovTi
iSrjXovv

-OV

Imperative
-€

Present.
SrjXov
StjXoVTiJ}

TLjXa

<f)iX€L
<J>lX€LT(1)

-(to
-6T6

TLfiaTO)

TLfxare

(ficXetTe

8r]Xovr€

-CTwo-av

TLfxaTOidav

f^iXuTinaav

SrjXovTwa'av

SuBJ UNCTivB
-«>

Present.
8r]XCi

Tt/XCO

^
-43 03

<f>iXii)
(fyiX'fj'S

-US
-Tl
-<i)\LtV

TLfiaS

o

SrjXoLS

Ti/xa
TLjXWfJLiV

'S

<l>LXrj

SrjXol
hrjXCjfX€V

<^tA(o/x.cv
a>

-T]T€

TLfxarc
TLfXW(rL(v)

C^tA^TC

8rjXu)T€
hr]Xui(rL[v)

-«<ri(v)

13

^tA(o(n(v)

§79.]
Stem,

CONTRACTED VERBS IN

-w

:

MIDDLE AND PASSIVK
StjXo'

73

TL/JLa-

0rAeOptative

—Present.
or
'OLTJV

-Ol(tl

TLfJiWfXL

or

-lorjv

(fnXoLfJLL

BrjXoLixL

or -Oi-qv^

-OlS
-01
-OlfJlCV

Tt/xws or
Tt/xo)

wr]^

(fnXoLS or -onys

SrfXoLS or -otrys
BtjXoL or 'OLTJ
SrjXoifLev or -ot7//>t€V

or

-<

k
-lorjixcv

(faXot or -017/
<^t\ot/xev or -OLr]fji€V
(jiikoLTi <f>LX0L€V

TL/X(2/x€v

or

-OITC
-Ol€V

TLfx&re or 'Wr)T€ TtftWCV

or

-0L7p-€

SrjXoiTi or -otT/re
Si/Xotcv

Infinitive
-CIV

—Present
St/Xouv

TLfJLaV

<}>l\€IV

Participle
-(i)V

—Present.
St/Xwv
8r;Xovcra

TLfltOV

<f>LXC>V

f.

-ouo-a

TLfiwcra
TLfLOiV

<l>LXov<ra

n. -ov

<f>LX0VV

SiyXovv

Middle and Passive.
Indicative
-Oftai
-Tl,

—Present
8i;Xov/xat
SiyXot

TLfioifiai
TLjXa.

^t\ov/xcu
^tA.^ or -ct
<^tA.€tTat

-"

-CTttl

TLfxarat

SrjXovrai
hrjXovfitOa
Br)Xovcr6e

'0|ie9a
-€<re6

TLflWfXcOa
TLfxaa-Oe
TiyiuiVTOx

^tXou/X€^a

^tXctc^e
<f3LX0VVTaL

-ovrai

BrjXovvTaL

Indicative
€. .

—Imperfect
iSrjXovfxrjV

-<Jp,t]V

^TLfXWfirjV
irLfiu)

i<f>(,Xovfnjv

-ov
-€T0

icfaXov
iffuXeiTO
i(f>LXovfic6a
iffxXeta-Oe

iSrjXov

iTLfiaro
iTLfi(i)fJi€6a

iSrjXovTO
iSrjXovfxeOa
iSr]Xov(r6€

-on€0a
-€006

€Tt/Aacr^€

-OVTO

iTLjJMVTO

i<f>LXovvTO

iSrjXovvTo

^

The

latter are the

more usual terminations.

74

CONTRACTED VERBS IN
Stem, TLfia-

:

Mtt)DLE

A^)

PASSIVE.

[§ 79.

0^X6-

SrjXo"

Imperative
-ov
-la-Oca

—Present.
SrjXov
SrjXovcrOo)

Tt/XW
TLfidcrOoi

^tXov
f^iXucrOiii

-60-06

TiixaorOe
TLfxdcrOoicrav
TifJidarOoiV

^iXeLcrOe
fjuXiia-Odicrav
tfiiXiicrOuyv

SyjXoxxrOe
Sr]Xovcr6(t)(rav

-|o-0a)(rav

or -(V0WV

SrjXova-OuiV

Subjunctive
-(i)[iai

—Present.
Sr]Xu)fiaL

TLfJbWfiaL

cfuXCj/xaL

-n
-ilTat
-w(jLe0a
-T](r06

TLfXa

o
'3 h5

cjaXfj

BrjXol

TLfxaTai
TLJXWfXCff^a
TifjiacrOe

cfuXrJTai
<f)LXo)/X€6a
cfytXrjcrOi

SrjXwraL
SrjXwiiiOa

o
r^

SrjXdaOe
SrjXuivraf,

-wvrai

TLjxCjVTaL

3
Optative

^tXtOI'Tttt

—Present.
^LXoLjxrjv
(f>LXoto

-o{|iiiv

TLixiofirjy

SrjXoLiMrjv

-oio

TLfXWO

SrjXoLO

-OITO
-oi|i€0a
-ot(r06

TLflWTO
TLfjuofjieOa

<f>lXoLTO
<f}LXotfJi€6a

SrjXoLTO
SYjXoLfxcOa
SrjXola-Oi

TLfXiZcrOe

<f>LXoi(T6€

-OIVTO

TifllOVTO

<f>LXoLVTO

Sr]XoLVTO

Infinitive
-6(r0ai

—Present.
SrjXovcrOai

Tt/xao-^at

fjaXeLaOaL

Participle.

m.
f.
11.

-d|i.6Vos
-OJJ16VT]

TLfJi(i)fX€VO<S

<jiLXoVfX€VO<;

Sr]XovfJi€VO^
SyjXovfJiivr)

TLfJLWixivrj

K^LXovfxiv'q
<fiLXovfJi€VOV

-0|16V0V

TL^dilXCVOV

Sr]XovfJi€vov


§ 81.]


:

mute vekbs

special rules.

76

Note on the Kemaining Tenses.
80. These
are regularly formed.

before the future, aorist,

and

perfect tense-endings
of ^tXco),
(f>LX(i)

The lengthening of the vowel must be marked.
of BrjXooi
SrjXC!)
8r]X<ji)(T(j)

Principal tenses

of TL/xdWf
TLfJL(i>

Present active

Future active
Perfect active
1st Aor. passive

TLfX-qcr(j)

(fjiX-qcTiji

T€TLfJL7]Ka
iTl/J,T]Or]V

7r€(f>LXr]Ka
€<f>LXi^Orjv
7r€<f>LXr]fJiaL

SeST^XwKtt
iBrjXwOrjv
ScSTyAoj/u-at

Perf. mid.

and

pass.

TiTLfxrjuaL

Exercise 10.— On pure Contracted Verbs.
[Vocabulary of Verhs^ selected from the
dyaTTao),
^^

Sermon on
thirst ;

the

Mount."

to love ;
^€/xeXto(o,

ahio)^ to
to

asTc ;

Snf/d(Dy

to

^cao/xat, to

hehohl
/xLcrew,

(dep.i)
to

;

found

;

^lyTeo), to

seek ; /xcTpew, to measure ;

hate ; otKoSo/xeco, to build ;

o/xoLooiy to

liken ; Trctvaw, to hunger ; irotew,

to do,

make.^
:

Analyse and translate the following words
ayaTrrj<T€L<s,
fjna-rjcreLSy

TrctvwvTc?,

Sti/^wvre?, Trotet,
TrotctTe,

a,ya7rrjcrrjT€j

dyaTroii/Ta?,
^Tyretrc,

Trot^crat,

uoto^cn,

TTOulvj OeaOijvaiy

Troths,

air^crat,
6fJLOL(i)(r(J),

fjL€Tp€LTe,

alTT^arj,

alTovcnv (dat.

%^

plur.)j TTOLUiCTLVy -TTOLOVV,

(OKoh6fXr)(T€y

TC^C/XcXtWo, O/XOtW^T^aCTat.
yiydir-qareVy

Also the following
fiivrjVj

:

OedcacrOaLy rediaraL,

dyaira,
it.7]TovVy

-^yaTrrjtpr^ruiVy

dyaTT^Vy

atrctcr^c,

yrovvrOy

'pr-qcravTOy

alTw/x€Vy

^r}T€iT(Oy

e^r/TctTO,

ofuoLijjOTjjxiVy

lircLvaa-a (see

§

96,

a),

Tretva,

iBcij/Tjcra,

Mute

Verbs.

— Special

Eules.
verbs
<|)

81, The large class of mute verbs comes next in order whose stem-ending (or "characteristic") is either a labial,
guttural,
K,

i.e.,
tt,

p,

;

a

Y,

X

i

or a dental,

t, 8, 0.

It will

be convenient to retain

^

Deponent,

i.e.,

middle /or/n with

active

meaning

:

an active form not being used.

See § 100.

76
the names of
(dentals).

MUTE VERBS
(§ 4, b)

—THEIR

CONJUGATION.

"[§ 82.

^-sounds

(labials), /i>sounds (gutturals),

The

cross-division, into sharjp, Jlat,

and ^-sounds and asj)irate, must also

be remembered.

82. Whenever, in the conjugation of a verb, the stem is followed immediately by a vowel, the mute stem-ending is unaffected. In the Present and Imperfect tenses, therefore, the mute verb
precisely resembles TnaTeixo.

SS.
with

ct'

Many

tense forms, however, begin with a consonant
-o--,

:

as

those of the Future and First Aorist with
-K-,

that of the Perfect
-0;

that of the First Aorist passive with

while in the

different parts of the Perfect

middle and passive there occur four
-vrau

several consonants immediately following the stem, the terminations being
b.
-jiai,

-o-ai, -rai, -|i€0a, -crQi,

So with the Pluperfect.
modify the mute

The

rules, therefore, in § 4,

c?,

will be applied to

stem-endings.
1.

Thus, with
pass.,

-o-

(Fut. act.. First Aorist act.
sing.,
IT-,

and mid., Perf. mid.

and

second person

and imper.)
p-,
Y-j
8-,
<}>-,

become

^j'*

K-,

X->
0-,

T-,

i » disappear,

*

2.

Before

-0

(pass. Fut.

and
VKT-,

First Aor.)
pY0-,

and and
8-,

become

c^.


(T.

3.

Before

-t

(mid. and pass. Perf. ind., third person sing.)^
p•y-

and and
8-,

4>'

become
» „
first

ir.
•*•

X0-,

T-j

<r,

4.

Before

-|i

(mid. and pass. Perf.,

person sing, and plur., and

Perf. participle)
IT-,

p-,

<!>-,

become
»»

|i.

KT-,

and
8-,

X0-,


<r.

;

§ 84, c]
5.

MUTE VERBS

—THEIR

CONJUGATION.
-<r0

77
after a consonant

Terminations commencing with
affecting the

drop the

<r

the remaining
Ti-Tpi/S-a-Oe

mute according

to rule.

Thus, from

rplp-,
first

(mid. and

pass. Perf. ind.,

second person plur.) becomes

ri-TpLp-6t,

then TcVpK^^c.
-vt in

6.

The combination
is

the terminations of the middle and passive
is

Perfect (-vrai) and Pluperfect (-vto)

impracticable after a consonant.

Hence the form

dropped altogether, and the perfect Participle, with the substantive verb, put in its stead, as in the Perf. subj. and opt. Thus, Tpip- would regularly give the combination (third person plur.,
Perf. mid.

and

pass.) Te-TptyS-vrat,

the foregoing laws.^

which cannot be dealt with by any of compound form TerpLfxfxivoL €Lcn(y) is therefore The
'

employed.
7.

There only remains the
t-,
8-,
0-,

-k-

of the Perfect active.

Before this letter
TreVctKa.

the dentals

are dropped.

Thus, Tri-iraO-Ka becomes

But when
aspirate or

the stem-ending is a labial or a guttural, the k is treated as

an

hard hreathing^ the mute being changed into its corresponding So ayo> gives r^xa for ^y-Ka = ^y-d, and aspirate, and k disappearing. Tpipm gives ri-Tpl'<fi(iy from T€-Tpt/3-Ka = Tc-rpi^-d.

Paradigms of the Mute Verbs.
84.
To

a.

facilitate

comparison,

all

the tenses are given.
all

It has not,

however, been thought necessary to go through
persons, excepting in the Perf. mid.
It will be seen that the

the numbers and

and

pass.

h.

sharp

labial,

the flat guttural, and the aspi-

rate dental

have been selected.

No

difficulty will

be found in applying

the laws of inflection to mutes of the kindred classes.

c.

The verb

aytu,

beginning with a vowel, takes the temporal augment

instead of the reduplication in the Perfect tenses.

See

§ 69, h.

^

In the older Greek writers, the v
;

the word would become rerpiipaTai
to the Perfect tense.

is sometimes replaced by the aspirate a. Thus but this usage is not confined to mute verbs or

78

MUTE VERBS

—ACTIVE.
DENTAL.
^sounds.
ireiO-

[§84.

LABIAL.
_p-sounds.

GUTTURAL.
A;-soiinds.

Stem,

rpIIS-

ayActive.
INDICATIVE.

Present, -«

TpL^iD,
.

I rub

ayo),

/

lead

TTCiOiDy

I persuade

Imperf.
Future,
1st Aor.

i-

.

-ov

trpiPov
rpLxj/oi

^yov
aiii)

(.TriiOov

-o-w
t. .

TTCtVo)

-era
^

erpn/^a

rji^

cTTCKra
TTCTretKa

Perf. redup. -a

rerptc^a
(i)T€TpL(f>aV

TJxa

Plup. redup.

-ctv

VX^^^

{ijimriLKiiv

IMPERATIVE.
Present,
-€

Tpipc
Tpl\{/ov
-1

aye
aiov

TTCt^C
TTCtO-OV
iriiTiLKi.

1st Aor. -(Tov

Perf. redup.

T€Tpi(f>€

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present, -w
1st Aor. -<r» Perf. redup. -w
rpL^ui
rpCxpta
TeTpicf}(a

ayo}
aid)

TreiOo)
Treioro)

TrCTTClKO)

OPTATIVE.
Present,
-oi(ii
-<roi|xi
-(TaijjLi

Tpi/SoL/XL
Tptlf/OLfJLL

ayoL/u
a^oLfxi

TreiOoL/xL

Future,
1st Aor.

TTiLCrOLIU
TreLcraifXL

TpLif/aLflt

aiai/xL

Perf. redup.

-olfii

T€TpL(f>OllXL

TTCTreLKOLjU

INFINITIVE.

Present,

-€tv
-<r€iv

rpL/ScLv
TpLlf/CLV

ay€iv
a^ctv

iriiOcLV
7r€LCr€LV

Future,
1st Aor.

-o-at

TpliJ/aL

a^at
Tj-xivai

TTCicrai

Perfect, -«voi

T€TpL(fi€Vai

TTCTTClKcVat

*

In labials and guttiuals.

See § 83,

i, 7.

§84]

^lUTE VEEBS

—ACTIVE,

MIDDLE AND PASSmi.

79

Stem, TpL^'

ayPARTICIPLES.

irei 6-

Present, -«v

Tpl^oiV
rpixf/oiv

ayiov
a^oiV

TTClOoiV

Future,

-<rwv

veicroiv

1st Aor. -<ras

Tpiij/a?
T€Tpl(f>(i><S

a^as
"7X^5

TTClVa?
TreireLKw^

Perf. redup. -«s

Middle and Passive.
INDICATIVE.
Present,
-ojiai e.

TpifSo/JiaL

ayo/xcu
rjyofirjv

TTCtdofXaL

Imperf.

.

-o|M]v

iTpi/Sofxrjv

kiruBoix-qv
TrcTrcKr/iat

.-(JiaL

TiTpiflfiaL
T€TpL\f/aL

^y/xat
T]$aL

-<rai

TreTTCKrat

Perf.

-TOl
-fjLcOa

Terpvirrdx
rerpLfXfxeOa
r€TpL(fi6€

T]KTaL

TreVcioTai
ireKiicrp.iOa
TreireLcrOi
\

redup.

iqyixeOa

-(<r)9.

rixOi

-(VTOI)
-I^TIV

T€TpifXfxivOl €iCrt(v]

yyfxevoL €tcri(v

7r€7r€L(TfJL€VOL cicri(v)

(e)T€Tpi>/X7;V
(€)TeTptl/^0

vyn-w
^KTO
TjyfjLiOa

(e)7r€7r€tV/xr;v
(c)7r€7rcio-o

-0-0

Plup.

ii)
^

-TO
-|i€6a
-(<r)0.

{i)T€.rpLTrTO
(i)T€TpLIXlJ.€Oa
(^i)TeTpL<f>6€

(i)7reTr€LcrTO

redup.

(i)7r€7r€Lcrfi€6a

rixO^

(€)7re7r«o-^€

L-(vTo)

T€TpL^lxivoL rjcrav

yy/xivoL yj(rav

imrcLo-fiivoL rjorav

IMPERATIVE.
Present, -ov
-<ro

TpL^OV
rirpLxl/o
T€TpL(f>0(xi

dyov

tt^lBov
TriiriKTO
•77

V^o
rJxOoi

Perf.

-(o-)0w
-(<r)9.

ilT €10-9(0

redup.

TiTpLcfiOi
T€TpL<{>Oix}(TaVf
T€TpL(f>6(i)V

rjxO€

TreTreLo-Oe
TreTTCtcr^cucrav,
TTCTretcr^cuv

-(<r)0«crav

or

rjxO^crav^ or
rjxOiiiV

or

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present, -«(iai
Perf. p£irt.
Tpt'ySaJAtat
!

aywfiaL
yiy[xivo<i

wcii^cojLiai

with(S

T€TpLfi.fJi€VO'S U>

w

TTCTTCtCr/XcVoS

U)

80

MUTE VERBS
Stem, Tplfi-

—MIDDLE

AND

PASSIVE.

[§84.

ay
OPTATIVE.

Tree e-

Present,

-o\,^y\v

TpLJSoLjxrjv

dyoLjJLrjv

trCLOoLflTjV

Perf. part,

with

\

7rc7rcicr/x.cVos

tlrjv

IXFINITIVE.

Present,

-€<r6ai

rpi^ecrOaL
T€Tp1<j>6(U

ayccrOcu
1Q)(6(U

TTfLOca-Oax
ircTTCto-^ot

Perfect, -(<r)0ai

PARTICIPLES.
Present,
-o|i€vos
-|i€vos

TpL/36fX€vos
T€TptfifX€vos

dy6fi€vo<;
yjyixivo^;

TTCt^O/XCVOS
7rc7rcto-/jteVo?

Perf. redup.

Middle only,
INDICATIVE.

Future,

-<ro|jLat

TpLxf/ofiai
irpLxf/dfxrjv

d^o/xaL
ri^dynfjv

ir€L(TOjxax
€7r€LCrdfL7]V

1st Aor. €-.. -<rd|n]v

IMPERATIVE.
1st Aor.
-o-ai

Tplx^ai

d^ax

TTCIO-CU

SUBJUNCTIVE.
1st Aor.
-<r«|iat
TpLij/uyfxaL

d^oifuu

TetoroiiKU

OPTATIVE.
Future,
1st Aor.
-<roC}iT]v
-o-aCjjLTiv

rpLxj/OLixrjv

d^OLfjLtjv

7r€L(T0LfXrjV
TreLCTaLfjiTjv

Tpuj/aLfjLfjv

d^atjxrjv

INFINITIVE.

Future,

-<r€<r0ai

Tpix^idOaL
Tptxj/aaOaL

d^io-Oai

TreicricrOcu

1st Aor. -<ra(r0ai

d^aaOcu
PARTICIPLES.

TTiLcraa-Oax

Future,
1st Aor.

-o-<{|jicvos

TpL\f/6p,€V0^

d$6fl€V0^

TTCtCrO/X.O'OS

-ordjievos

TpL\f/dfX€VO^

d^dfxevo^

TTCicra/iCVOS

§

85.]

AiUfE VEliBS

—PASSIVE.
ayTreLd-

81

Stem,

Tpl^~

Passive only.
INDICATIVE.

Future,
1st Aor.

-0TJo-o|iai

TpL(f)6-qcrofJiaL

axOi^a-OfJiaL

TTUu-OrjcroiKn
iTTiLO-Qriv

€-

.

.

-0T1V

IMPERATIVE.
1st.

Aor

.

-0tlTl

rpicfiOTjTL

axOrjTi

TT^iaO-qri

SUBJUNCTIVE.
1st Aor. -0w
TTUa-dtii

OPTATIVE.
Future,
1st Aor.
-9r]<roC\Lr]v

rpi<ji07](roLfX7]v

dxOrjcroLfjirjv

iraa-O-qa-otpLtjv
'7r€L(T6€Lr]V

-0€lT]V

Tpi<^6€.Ly]v

oixOeLrjv

INFINITIVE.

Future,
1st Aor.

-0iqo-£o-0ai

TpL<f>6T^<i€cr6ai

axO-qcrecrOaL

TTU(T6rj(T€a-6(U

-0T]vak

TTCtcr^^vat

PARTICIPLES.
Future,
-0TJ(rojJL£VOS

TpL(f)6r}(r6fJLevos

axOrja-ofXivo^
d)(6€LS

7r€L(r9r](T6fJi€voi

1st Aor. -0€lS

TpL<f>6€LS

TTCia^CtS

VERBALS.
-Tos

and

-TC'OS

TptTTTOS

aKTOS
aKTCOS

TTCKTTOS
Trctcrreos

TptTTTCOS

Note.—The Future
once found in the

Perfect, "Paulo-post

Future" (see
:

§ 65, d, 7), is

Xew

Testament
§

(rec. text)
2,
ii.).

K^Kpd^ovrai (Luke xix. 40),

from Kpa^w (stem
Kpd^OV(TLV.)

Kpa^-,

85,

a,

But

as

this

is

the

only

instance, the tense has not

been given in the paradigm.

(W. H. read

85. Before treating of the remaining class of consonant- verbs, i.e., those with a liquid stem-ending, it is necessary to notice a most important modification to which very many mute verbs, as
well as those of other classes, are subjected.

82
a.

MUTE VERBS

:

MODIFIED STEMS.

[§ 85, a.

Present tense,
irciO-.

In the examples given, the stem appears full and unaltered in the rpi^ui is from the stem rpip-, ayw from 0,7-, and Trct^w from
There
are,

however,

many

verbs in which the stem

is

modified

It is therefore requisite to note two main points first, the stem of the Verb, from which aU the tenses are derived and secondly, the stem of the Present^ as found in Lexicons and

in the formation of the Present.
:

;

Vocabularies.

Labial stems are modified by the introduction of -t- before the Thus stem tvtt-, strike^ Present tutttw stem pXap-, hurt^ termination. Present pXairro) (for pXa/S-T-u), § 4, d,2)\ stem pi<j)-, throw Present ptWw
1.
:

;

^

(for pJ(^-T-a), § 4, d, 2).

2.
-orer-,

Guttural stems are modified by changing the stem-ending (i.)into thus from the stem rav-, set in order, we or its equivalent -rr;

have Present
Present
3.
Kpdt,(D.

racrcroi

or tutto)

:

(ii.)

into

-S-,

e.g.,

stem

Kpa^-, cry out,

Dental stems are modified by changing the stem-ending into thus, from the stem <})pa8-, tell, comes the Present <^pa^w.
It will be seen that, as the Present termination -fw

-I-

:

may

be derived either

from a guttural or a dental stem, a knowledge of the verb will be required
before deciding to

which of the two

to refer it.^

b.

are

of these "strengthened" verbs, as they are called, from the verbal stem, according to the rules before given. formed

The

tenses

Thus—
TVTTTOi,

to strike, to hurt.

TVTT-

fut. TV\{/0)
>)

perf.

reVv^a
/?e/3Aa^a
eppLqta
1
3 t
1

(SXaTTTU),
pLTTTd),

pXap^i<J,-

/iXaxj/ui
pLXJ/ili

to throw.
to arrange.

)>

Tacro-o),

Ttt-y-

>J

rdifji

T€Ta)(a

Kpd^O),
</>pa^w,

to cry.
to tell,

Kpav(}>pa8-

»
>J

Kpd$(i}
(fipdcrw

KiKpaxa
7ri<f)paKa

^

The

original modification of guttural
(i

and dental stems was probably by the
So, ray-, rayiu:, Tda-aw
;

insertion of a sliort vowel
<J)pa8-,

or

c)

after the characteristic.

0pa5^w,

(fypd^a:.

The
i

softening occasioned

by the vowel may be compared

with the

effect of i

upon

in the termination -iioju

§ 87.]
c.

MODIFIED VERBAL STEMS
class of

—SECOND

AORIST.

83

Every

may
XiTT-,

receive modification

syllable, so as to
leave, XctTrcD.

mute verbs (as well as others, on which see hereafter) by the insertion of a vowel in a short stemform a diphthong. Thus, <j>vy-, flee, gives ^eiryw, and Only, in this case, the Future and Perfect are formed
AetVo),
Aet'i/^w,

from the stem of the Present, as

XiXeicfta.

86. The most important point connected with the modification stem is the introduction, into the verbs so characterised, of a set of '' secondary " tenses, in which the unmodified stem appears. These tenses, except in special cases, are of precisely similar meaning to the corresponding "primary" tenses. For example, the difference between the First and the Second Aorist is a difference of form only. The same remark can hardly be applied so unreservedly to the First and Second Perfect; but the instances of different meaning belong rather to the Lexicon than to the Grammar, and will be explained in the Vocabulary.
of the
few unmodified verbs, as ^x^} have a Second Aorist, as will be afterwarda Occasionally, too, the Second Aorist differs in meaning from the Fu'st. The above rule, however, is general.
noted.

A

Second Aokist.
87.
the
a.

Imperfect, in the
is

The Second Aorist Active in the Indicative resembles other moods the Present, except that the
taken from the modified, the Second Aorist from the

Imperfect

original stem.

Thus, from

<^evyo> (^tvy-), to flee


€<^€vy€(v),
i(f}evyo/x€v, k.t-X.
i^fivyofxev,

Imperfect,

cc^cvyov,
€<f>vyov,

cc^euyc?,

Second Aorist,

€<^uycs,

c<^i7€(v),

k,tX

The augment and the terminations
be exactly alike.

of the

two tenses

will be seen to

In the moods after the Indicative, the Second Aorist drops the augment and follows the Present in termination, but accentuates the
final syllable of

the Infinitive (perispomenon) and Participle (oxytone).

84
With

THE SECOND AOEIST.
these explanations, the Second Aorist Active

[§ 87,

a.

paradigm will

present no difficulty.
TyTTTO), to strike.
XetTTci), to leave.

Stem, TfTTIndicative,

AtTT-

ervTTOv
TVTre
TVTTCO
TVTTOLfjLt

eXcTTov
\iire
XiTTO)
XtTTOLflt

Imperative,
Subjunctive,
Optative,
Infinitive,

Tvirelv
TVTTCOV,
-

Xnrelv
ovcra, -6v

Participle,

XCTTOOV

b.

The Second Aorist Middle
is

follows exactly the

same analogy.

The

Imperative, however,

perispomenon, the Infinitive paroxytone.
€TV7rOfJL7]V
iXcTTo/jLrjv

Indicative,

Imperative,
Subjunctive,
Optative,
Infinitive,

Txrirov

XtTTOV
XiTTcofiac
Xcttol/jltjv

Tvircofiac
TV7rOLfJL7]V

TxnreaOai
TV7r6/JL6VO<;

XiTriaOaL
XL7r6/j,evo<;

Participle,
c.

Second Aorist Passive.

— Here the mood and

tense-endings are like

those of the passive
fied root is
€Tv(fi6T]v
;

Pii-st Aorist,

the difference being that the unmodi-

is

used instead of the aspirated form with -0-. First Aorist, Second Aorist, irvTrrjv. In the Imperative second person, -0i found instead of -ru One paradigm of this tense will suffice
:

Indicative,

irvTrrjv
TvirTfOt, TV7n]Tco

Optative,

rvireiriv

Imperative,

Infinitive, rvTrr/vac

Subjunctive, tuttw

Part. TU7ret9, Tinrelcra, rvirev

Second Futuee.
88. In the Passive voice there is a Second Putnre connected with the Second Aorist, exactly as the First Future is connected with Thus, from Tvirrtu wc have First Aor. pass., iTv<j>d-qv ; the First Aorist.


§ 90.]
First Fut.,


85

SECOND FUTURE AND SECOND PERFECT.
TV(f>0rj(TOfjLaL
;

Second Aor.,
:

Irvirqv

;

Second Fut., nnrqcro^at.
TVTnja-eadac
TU7nja6fMevo<;

The paradigm
Indicative,

is

as follows

Tmrrjaofxai
TVTnjaoijjLTjv

Infinitive,

Optative,

Participle,

Second Perfect.
Active voice only, and is distinguished from the ordinary Perfect of mute verbs by having the unmodified stem without the aspirate. Thus tvttto) (tvit-), First Perl,

89. The Second Perfect belongs

to the

:

T€TV(f>a

;

Second Perl,

rervTra.

The

tense

is

of rare occurrence,

and

its

have to be explained in individual cases. It The Second Pluoccurs in some verbs that do not modify their stem. where found. One paradigm here also will be perfect accompanies it sufficient. Second Perfect of irpaaa-ui (irpaY-), ^^ ^^
special significance will
•*

Indicative,

ireirpw^a

Optative,

nreTrpar/oifii

Plup.

(i)'7T€7rpcuyeLv

Imperative,
Infinitive,

ireirpa'ye

Subjunctive,

ireirpouya)

TreTrpayevat

Participle, TreTrpayco';, -via, -09.

90.
1.
T| 8,

General Kules for the Second Tenses.

These do not occur in the pure verbs, or in verbs having a dental,
(t),

for their characteristic.

2.

The same verb very seldom takes both First and Second Aorist The Passive may have both
First

in the Active or Middle.
3.
4r.

and Second Aorist and Future.
TreVpaxa,

When
/

both First and Second Perfect active are found, the former
latter intransitive.

is

often

transitive, the

/ have done;
?").

ircTrpaya,

have fared (compare English, "

How

do you do

Remark. For the vowel-modifications sections on Tense-formation, §S 93 99.

of the second tenses, see the

Exercise 11.— On Mute Verbs.
[Vocahularyy
^XcVo),
to
see ;

from

the

"Sermon on
to

the

Mount."
to
rpi<\>ui

(1)

Labial Stems
K/ovVroj,

:

dXct'^co,

anoint ;

OXt/Soi,

straiten ;
(Op€<|>-),

to

hide ; yiTmo,

to

wash

;

a-rpefjiii),

to turn ;

to

nourish*

86
(2)

MUTE AND LIQUID VERBS.
Guttural Stems
to
:

[§ 90.

aya>, to

lead ;
to

Slwko),

to

have; Xeyw,
\J/ev8ofxaL,
voixLt,(iiy

say;

Trpoo-cvxo/xat,
;

pray
to

(dep.).
;

purme ; €x<o (kx), to (3) Dental Stems
:

to

lie

(dep.)

oi/etSi^w,

reproach

So^a^w,

to

glorify;

to suppose; vrjOiHy to spin; dyia^w, to hallow."]

Analyse and translate the following words
Stto^ovai, xj/cvSo/xevoLy
'jrpo(T€vx^o'0€y Stw/covTwv, c^CTe,

:

SeStwy/teVot,
vo/jtto-iyrc,

ovciStVcjo-tv,
crrpixj/ovy

eStw^av, Kpv(3rjvaL, So^dcroiCTL,

c^ct,

^XeVwv,

Trpocrevxi), Trpoo-ev^at, Trpoarevxo/J.cvoL^
VT/^et,

ayiacr^T^Tw, aActi/^at,

viif/aL,

ySAeVwv, KAeVrovai,

XcyovTC?, arpdcjievTe^

(see § 98,

tZ), Te^Xi/A/AeVvy.

Also the following

:

^Xenf/c, rj-yLaa-jxivoL,

dyiatrat,

eSi'wKov,

KeKpvfjLfiiva^

Xeyd/xevos, Xe^Oct'Si Trpoarjvx^'^^f Trpocrcv^d/xevoL,

6pii}/u).

Liquid Verbs.
91. Verbs with the stem-endings
variations from the foregoing models,
sections on Tense-formation.
to the paradigms, to observe
a.
e.g.,

X,

|a,

v or

p,

present

many

which

will be*noticed in the

It will be sufficient, as introductory

The stem of these verbs is generally modified in the Present stem ayyA-j announce^ Present act. dyyeXXw ; <j)av-, appear, Pres.
The Future active originally ended in
middle
Thus,

h.

-^<r«,

-^orofiai

;

but
Put.

the
are

<r

being dropped (see a similar case in Nouns,
together,

§ 30, iv.),

two vowels
dyycX-,

brought

and contraction
J

ensues.

(dyyeXe-c-a),
dyycXov/Atti.

dyyeXe-w), dyyeXw

middle

(dyyeX-e-(r-o/xat, dyycX-e-o/xat),

The Future

active

and middle

of liquid verbs

is

therefore

declined like the

Present of contracted

pure verbs with

stem-

ending
c.

€-.

The First Aorist
o-,

active

and middle follows the Future in the

omission of the

but lengthens the vowel of the preceding syllable.
fut. <f>av(o

Thus :—
tfiaiVd)
«j>av-,

1st Aor.

€<f>rjva

dyyeXXo)
Kptvu)

ayyiK-,
Kpiv-,
a-vp-,


,,

dyycXw
KplvOi
(rvpij>

»
j>

•^yyaXa
€Kplva
ta-vpa,

avpa)

j>

§92.]
d.

LIQUID VERBS

—THEIR
and
y.-

CONJUGATION.
cannot come before
-k,

87
various

In the Perfect active,
(Ke/<ptKa, etc.).

as v-

expedients are adopted.

KptVw, to judge, kXlvo), to bendy irAvvw, to wash,

drop the v

Other verbs, as

<^atvw,

adopt a Second Perfect,
Others, again, form

lengthening the vowel as in the Aorist the Perfect as from a pure root in €-, as
if

(7re<f>7]va).

/xevo),

to

remain,

fxejjLivrjKa,

as

from
e.

fjL€V€(j).

In the Perfect passive, v- is changed into o-- or into |i- before -jiat; thus, from <}>av-, 7rec/!)acr/xat instead of 7r€<jiav-ixai, and from ^iipav-, i^-qpaiMfxaL The three verbs which drop v- before -Ka in the instead of i^-qpav-ixaL.
Perfect active, lose

Thus, it also in the Perfect and First Aorist passive. Those verbs which assume a root in e- for the Perfect KiKpLfxai, iKpcO-qv. active, construct the passive Perfect and First Aorist after the same
analogy.

92.
Stem, ay/eXStrengthened,

Paradigms.
KpiVKplv-

dpalp-

dyyeXX-

Active.
INDICATIVE.

Present,

ayyiXXo)

Kplvco

atpco
TJpOV

Imperfect,

'^yyeWov
ayyeXSt)

CKpiVOV
Kpcvco
Kpi,vel<i

Future
}>

sing.

dp(o
dpel<i

» »

ayy6\€L<;

»

ayyeXel
ayyeXov/iev
a/yyeXeLTe

KpLvel
/CpLV0VfJL6V

ap€t
apOVfjL€V

„ »
»

plur.
M

KpLvelre

dpelre
dpovcn>(v)

»

ayyeXovcn(y)
rjyyeiXa

Kpivovaiiy)

1st Aorist,
Perfect,

€Kplva

^pa
fipKa
fjpKeLV
TjpOV

TjyyeXKa
rjyyeXKecv

KeKpXKa
(i)K6KpLKeLV

Pluperfect,

2nd

Aorist,

7]yyeXov

88

LIQUID VERBS

—PARADIGMS.
KpXvKplv^

[§92.

Stem, ayyeXStrengthened,

dpalp-

ayyeXk-

IMPERATIVE.

Present,
1st Aorist,
Perfect,

dyyeWe
djyeiXov
7]<y<y6\K6

Kplve

alpe

Kpivov

KeKpUe

2nd

Aorist,

dyyeXe
SUBJUNCTIVE.

dpov ypK€ ape

Present,
1st Aorist,

dyyiWo)
dyyeiko)
'^yyeXKCo

KplvCO Kpivoi

aUpco

dpCD
fjpKCO

Perfect,

KeKpUco

2nd

Aorist,

dyyiXd)
OPTATIVE.

dpoa

Present,

a/yyeXKoijxi

KpLVOlflt

aipocfit

Future,
1st Aorist,
Perfect,

dyyeXoLfit

oi -OITJV KpLVolfJbL or -OLTJV dpolfll

or

-OLTJV

dyyelXaLfiL
rjyyekKOHii,

KpivaifiL

dpatfjLi

KeKpLKOOflC

fjpKOipt,
dpotfJLC

2nd

Aorist,

dyyiXoLfic
INFINITIVE.

Present,

dyyeXKetv
dyyeXetv

KpiveiV

aipeiv

Future,
1st Aorist,
Perfect,

KpLvelv
Kplvat,

dpelv

dyyelXat
rjyyeXKevaL

dpac
rjpKevat

KeKpCKevai

2nd

Aorist,

dyyeXetv
PARTICIPLES.

dpelv

Present,

dyyeTCXcov

Kpivu)v KpiVCOV
KpLva<;

atpayv

Future,
1st Aorist,
Perfect,

dyyeXoiv
dyyelXa^i
rjyyeXKoyf;

dpcov
dpa<;

KeKpLKoa^

ypKm
dpcov

2nd

Aorist,

dyyeX(t)V

§92.]

LIQUID VERBS

—PARADIGMS.
Kptv-

89

Stem dyyeXStrengthened,

apalp-

ayyeXK'

Kplv-

Middle and Passive.
*

INDICATIVE.

Present,

dyyeWo/iai,
'^yyeWo/jLTjv
7]y<y€\ijLat

Kpivofiat
eKptvofirjv

alpofiai
rjpofiTjv

Imperfect,
Perfect,

K6KpXfiaL
{i)K6KpL/n)v

'Spfiai
rjpfiTjv

Pluperfect,

Tjyyek/jLTjv

IMPERATIVE.

Present,
Perfect,

dyyiWov
7]yye\(ro, -6(o

Kpivov
KeKpLCo, -aOco

aXpov
ypcTo, flpdoy

K.rJk,

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present,
Perfect,

ayyeWcofiaL
'^yeX/Jbivo^

Kpivwfiai

atp CO fiat,

w

K6Kpifievo<;

w

fipfxevo^

w

OPTATIVE.

Present,
Perfect,

dyyeWoLjjLrjv
rjyye\^ivo<i
etrjv

Kpcvolfirjv

alpoLfi7)v
ellrjv

KeKpifjuevo^

TjpflivO^ €LT]V

INFIXITIVE.

Present,
Perfect,

ayyeXKeaOaL
rjyyiXOai

KplveaOai
KeKpicrOai,

alpecrOai
flpSai

PARTICIPLES.

Present,
Perfect,

ayyeXKofievo^
riyy€\fiivo<:

KpLvofievof;

alp6fi6vo<:
ypp,ivo<:

KeKpLfiivo^

Middle only.
INDICATIVE.

Future,
1st Aorist,

ayyeXovfiac
'qyyeiXdfirjv

Kpivovfiac
eKpcvdfiJjv

dpovfiai
r/pdfjLTjv

gnd

Aorist,

dyyeXofjLTjy

vpoprjv

90

LIQUID VERBS

—PARADIGMS.
KpLVKplv-

L§92.

Stem, ayyeXStrengthened,

apalp'

dyyeXX-

IMPERATIVE.
1st Aorist,

ayyeCkaL

Kplvai

2nd
1
i

Aorist,

dyyeXov
SUBJUNCTIVE.

apai dpov

1st Aorist,

A

-_ '^i.

>

dyyelXayfiai

/-v

>/

Kplvco/JLac

apco/JLai

2nd

Aorist,

dyye\o)p>ao
OPTATIVE.

dpcojJLat

Future,
1st Aorist,

dyyeXoL/jLTjv

Kpivoip.rjv

dpOL/xrjv

dyyeCkaiii7)v
dyyeKoip^rjv

KpLvalp,7jv

dpalfirjv
dpol/JLTjv

2nd

Aorist,

INFINITIVE.

Future,
1st Aorist,

dyyekelaOai

KpLvelaOa
KpivacrOai

dpetadai

2nd

Aorist,

dyyeiXaaOai dyyeKeaOat

dpaaOai
dpecrOai

PARTICIPLES.

Future,
1st Aorist,

dyyeXovfievo^
dyyeiXdiievo^
dyy6X6fjL€vo<;

KpLVovfievo^i

apovp.6VO<;
dpd/JL€VO<i
dp6jJL6VO<;

Kpivafxevo^

2nd

Aorist,

Passive only.
INDICATIVE.

1st Future,

dyyeXO^CTO/xai
TjyyeXOrjv
TjyykXrjv

KpiOrjcrofiai

dpOrjaofiai
7]pdrjv
7]pr)v
dpi](70/JLaL

1st Aorist,

iKpldrjv

2nd Aorist, 2nd Future,

dyyeXtjaofiai
IMPERATIVE.

1st Aorist,

dyyeXOrjTL

KplOijTL

dpOrjTt
dprjdt

2nd

Aorist,

dyyeXydi

§92.]
Stem,
Strengthened,

LIQUID VERBS.

'Jl

ayyeX-

Kpiv Kplv
SUBJUNCTIVE.

dpalp-

ayyeXK-

1st Aorist,

dyyeXdco
dyyeXo)

KpiOoy

dpOco
dpoi

2nd

Aorist,

OPTATIVE.
1st Future,
1st Aorist,
cuyyeXdrjaoLfMTjv
KpLOrjaoLfjLTjv
dp6rj(7ol/JLr]V

dyyekdeiT}V
dyyeXelrjv
dyy€\T]aoL/jL7}v

Kpidelrjv

dpOelrjv
dpeirjv

2nd Aorist, 2nd Future,

dprjaoiprjv

INFINITIVE.

1st Future, 1st Aorist,

dyy€\6rjcr6(T6aL KpiOrja-ecrOai,

dpOrjaeadai
dpdrjvac
dprjvat.

dyyeXOrjvac
dyyeXrjvaL
dyyeXrjaeadai,

Kpidrjvac

2nd Aorist, 2nd Future,

dpjjaeadac

PARTICIPLES.
1st Future,
dyy6X67](r6fjLevo<; KptOrjo-opevo^
dpd7]a6/jLevo<i

1st Aorist,

dyyeXdei<i
dyyeXei^;

Kpidet^i

2nd Aorist, 2nd Future,

dpdeh dpeh
dp7]a6/jL6VO<;

dyyeXrjdo^evo^
VERBALS.

dyyeXT6<i
dyyeXTio<;

KpLT6<^

dpT6<i

Kpirio*;
all

dpTeo^

*^*
in use.
occur.

It is not to be

supposed that

the above forms are actually

They

are given as TrapaSety/xaTa, examples, of

words that may

Exercise 12.— On Liquid Verbs.
[Vocahulary,

from

the

"Sermon on

the

Mount."

avidvoj,

to
t],

groin,

to increase ; /SdXXo), to throw, cast ; OiXm, to will
§ 94, II.)
;

(augment with

comp.

to

Kpivoi, to judge ; /xoapaivo), to corrupt ; cnrdpoi, to soic ; cfiaiviOf show (Second Aorist, passive or middle, appear) x'^^P^y ^^ rejoice.]
;

^2

LIQUID VERBS.
:

[§ 92.
x^V'^^^j fioipavOrj, /SX-qOrjvaL

<

Analyse and translate the following forms
(see § 98, c),
av$aLV€L,
jSXrjOrjcrr]^

/JaXc, ^XrjOr},

OiXovTLy KpiOrjvai, <^av^s, tTTTCipovcrtv,

^aXXofxevov, KpiOTJre, KpiO^a-ea-Oi, jSdXrjTCy Oik-qre.
:

Also the following
KpLvaT€,
ifxtopdvOrja-av,

^eXct, riOiXov^ yOeXrja-a, ^cXovrcs, /cptVet,
(TTrcLpdiv,

Acpivct,

c/Acopavcv,

(nrapeCsy

la-irapfxkvov^

c^avi/,

0aiVco-^€, ^avetrat, ^aAc, (SXrjOTjTiy

^dWeiVf

/JaXctf, ^oAXcd,

paXd,

Notes on the Tenses.
93. The foregoing paradigms have
of the First Conjugation,
i.e.,

fully given the typical forma

and of must now be noticed, with apparent irregularities, which for the most part can themselves be reduced to rule, or explained by some early
of the great majority of verbs,

most

of the tenses in all verbs.

Manv minute

variations

usaijje of

the lanouacje.

Accentuation.

— It may be repeated
accent, i.e.,

at the outset from § 73, that verbal forms

mostly retract

tJie

throw

it

back as
is

far as possible.

Exceptions are

noted below under the different Tenses. mate, e.g., in dissyllables, a long vowel been already shown.

When

the accent falls on the penulti-

circumflexed, in certain forma, as has

The Present and Imperfect: Active, Middle, and Passive.
94.
I.

The Present Indicative Active,

first

person (the form usually

given in Lexicons, Vocabularies, and Concordances i) contains the verbal
stem, often modified.

The principal forms of modified stem
1.

are as follows
t-.

:

Labial stem-endings, strengthened by

(See
c.)

§ 85, a, 1.)

2. 3.

Short stem-syllables lengthened.

(See § 85,

The euphonic

<r<r-,

tt-,

for a guttural characteristic
§ 85, a, 2, 3.)
X-.

;

I-

for a dental,

or occasionally for
4.

7-.

(See

XX- for the characteristic

(See note^ § 85.)

^

Pruder's Concordance^ 4to (Tauchnitz), gives the Present InfinUive,

:

:

§ 94.J
5.

ON TENSE-FORMATION.
letter v- affixed to the stem-syllable.

03

The
may

This
a.

take place in different ways.
affixed
:

To a pure stem, simply

Thus, from 0^a-, (pddpo), to anticipate, from TTt-, vivoj, to drink.
b.

Two

consonant stems follow this model

from from
c.

Kafj.-,

Kd/xv(a, to he

weary,

5aK-, daKvu, to bite,

One

affixes ve-, i<f)LK-, d(piKve6iJiai, to arrive.

d.

To a pure stem lengthened, two verbs only
from from
/3a-, /SatVw, to go,

eXa-, iXavvio, to drive.

e.

To a consonant stem, with connective a:
from from
d/j-apT-, dfiaprdvu}^ to sin,

Xa/3-,

Xafi^dvu, to take.
fi is

In the last-mentioned verb This
is for -v-

it

will be seen that

also inserted in the stem-syllable.

(made /* before a labial, § 4, d, 5). So iiavddvb), to learn,, from ^a^-, and other verbs. The stem appears in the Second Aorist, rmaprov, ^\a/3ov, (fuidov.
6.

An

alternative pure stem in

c-.

This appears generally in the Future, Aorist, and Perfect.

Thus, ^x^ *iid
6e\fiev-

<^X^-i to

have,

^w,

e^w, or crxv<^(^> ^(^XV^o-',

Second Aor.,

?<txov.

and and

deXe- (also ideX-), to will, ^e\a>, deX-qa-o}, ideXrjaa.
fieve-, to

remain,

/n^vu), /xefievrjKa.

Occasionally the e-stem appears in the Pres.
(5o/c^w), 56|w, ido^a.

Thus, doK- and

Sokc-, to appear, So/cw

Some of the verbs under 5, we find dfiaprqcroj, T)/xdprT]Ka.
7.

«,

have a similar alternative stem. Thus, from

d/JLaprdput

The

inchoative form (so called because

some verbs of

this class

denote the beginning of an action), in ck- or
Pure stems add
posed from 6av-,
-<rK-,

wtk-.

generally lengthening a short stem-vowel.

So, Ova-, trans-

to die, dvfjffKCj, ?^a»'Oj', Perf. ridv-qKa,
-ktk-,

Thus,

have an alternative stem in c-. irdax^y to suffer {irad-, with alternative stem, vevd-), has Second Aor. iiradov, Second Perf. Triirovda. diddaKcj, to teach, originally from 5a-, assumes a mute guttural stem: Fut, diSd^u; First Aor.
Consonant stems add
often, as in 6,
cyp-, tupc-, to find, evpiaKU), evprjau, evprjKa, eiipov.

and

pass.,

iSiddx^vVerbs of this class are very various in form, as exhibited in the Lexicon or

Vocabulary.

94
8.

ON TENSE-FOEMATION.
Reduplicated stems, the
class are of

[§ 94.
t.

initial

consonant repeated with
occurrence.

Four verbs of this
a.

very

common
to

yivofiai

(deponent intransitive),

become, stem yep-,

by reduplication

yiyev-,

shortened into yiyv-, the second y- being dropped for the sake of euphony; Impf.,
iytvofiTjw;
b.

Inf., ylvecrdai;

Second Aor.,

iyevo/xTjv, yeveadai.

after the

to Tcnoiv. Stem yvo-, which becomes ypuxTK-, then by reduplication yiyuwaK-, when y- is dropped, as in the last instance; Fut., ypiocrofiai; Perf., eypuKa; Second Aor., ^pojp (like second
yivdjffKO}, to

become acquainted with,
class 7
;

model of

conjugation).
c.

fiifxPT^aKOfiat, to
TriTTTO},

remember (deponent), from
This
is

fipa-, fiprjcrofiai, ifjLPrjcrdrjp, fie/jLPrjfiai.

not a labial verb strengthened by t-. Its root is Trer-, by reduplication irnreT-. The weak vowel -e- is then dropped, leaving ttlttt: Second Aor., ^ireaop, the <r- being softened from t- Fut., Tre<rovfuii ; Perf., TreTrrw/ca. (Compare
d.
to fall.
;

§ 96, d.)

II.

the

The Imperfect Texse always Augment being prefixed.

follows the stem of the Present,

For the Augment, consult § 69. After the Augment, an initial -p- is A few doubled, as from pvo/xai ; Impf., ippvo/x-qv First Aor., ippvcrOrjv. verbs have the Attic double augment t] instead of €. Thus, /xeAAw, to he opaw, to about to do a thing, has efxeWov and •^/acXA.oi/ interchangeably,
;

sec,

has a double augment also

:

Impf.,

koiptav

j

Perf.,

cwpdKo.

(See

further under the Aorist, § 97.)

The Second
95. This
is

Aorist, Active and Middle.

the simplest of the Tenses (see § 87), and in general conHence it is mainly found in verbs whose tains the exact verbal stem. Present-stem is modified. So Imperf., hvinov', Second Aor., h-mrov.

In one verb,

ayco,

Second Aorist is Impf., y]yov ; Second Aor., ^yayov
2\^ole,

where the Present-stem is unmodified, the distinguished from the Imperfect by a reduplication
to

lead,

:

;

Inf., dyayctv.
e-

— Some

short stem-syllables with

change this into

a- in the

Second Aorist,

as from a-ireipw, to sow {airep-), eawapop.

The Vowel

Aorist.

—A few pure

stems

(like the

second conjugation,

or " verbs in -pt")

affix

the tense-endings to the stem, with lengthened

vowel, rejecting the usual modal vowel.

Thus,

yLvw(TK(i> ("yvo-, see § 94, 8, b), eyviav.
8ui/(o,

to set (as the sun) (8v-), eSw. to (JO (Pa-),
(.p-qv.

jSatVto),


§ 96,
h.]

ON TENSE-FORMATION.
-|jli.

95

For the conjugation of these forms, see paradigms of verbs in
Accentuation.

—The

Second Aorist active
tvttQv,
;

infinitive

circumflexes the final

syllable: rvwelv; in the participle accents the stem-syllable -ovt, with a circumflex

on the fem. where possible:
is

rvwova-a, rvirbv.

In the middle the

imperative

perispomenon, tvkov

the

inf.

paroxytone, Tviricdau

The Future, Active and Middle.
96. For the
relation

between the Future stem and the simple stem
&, c.

of the verb, consult § 85,
a.

In pure stems, the vowel
-<r-.

is

teristic
V-

The stem-endings
long.

a-

lengthened before the Future characand €- become r\- ; o- becomes w- i- and
;

are

made

Thus,

rt/xdw,

tlix-^o-id

;

^tAew,

(jaX-qcro);

St/Xow, SrjXwaoi;

Xv(o, Xv(r(i).

Exceptions

:

(i.)

a-

becomes
id(D, to

d- after

a vowel or

p.

Thus :—

permit^

Fut.
,,

idcroixaL.

idofxaif to Ileal,

IdaofxaL.
TreLpda-ofxaL*

TreLpdo/xat, to try,

,,

So,

ireLvdo), to

hunger,

,,

Tretvaorw.
;j(a\a(r(o.

^aXdo), to loosen,

,,

But
(ii.)

xpdojxai, to use,

makes

^(pT^crofxaL.

The following verbs do not lengthen
:

their stem-endings for the

Future 1

a-forms

:

yeXao), to laugh,
kXclo),

Fut. yeAacrw.
KAacro).

to break.
suffice,

€-f

orms

:

dpKew, to
c7rati/€(o,

apKcVw.
€7ratv€o-a).

to praise.

KoXioi, to call.

KoXeoro).
TeXecru).
cf)op€(roi.

reXim, to finish,
<j>op€(i),

to carry.

Verbs in ila (stem i8-) usually drop the -a-- Future characteristic, replacing it by a contraction similar to that of the liquid verbs. This form is called the Attic Future.
b.
^

Some

of these verbs are regular in classic Greek.

oc
Thus
:

ON tENSE-FOilMATIOl^.
d(f)opL^<j},

f § 96,
d<^opio).
iX-jnoi.

K

to separate^

lakes Fut.
))

Ko/jLi^uij

to carry

>)

Kopxui,

mid.

KOfxiovyLOL.

KaOapt^w, to purify,
ySttTTTt^w, ^0 baptize,

»»

KaOaptw and Ka^apcVo).
/?a7rTto-(o

M
J

only.

aaXiTL^oi, to

sound a trumpet,

n

o-oXttiVo) only.^
it

But the verbs of
Aorist
c.
;

this class

so far differing

which drop -a- in the Future, resume from the liquid verbs.
originally
-€/«,

in the First

Three verbs in
:

-i<a,

show the digamma
7rA.€vcro/i,at.

(see § 29,

iii.)

in inflection as v

7rA.€0),
ir|/€0>,

to sail, to hloiO,

Fut. „ „

TTJ/CVCO).

pew, to flow,

p€V(TiD.

Another digammated verb, xcw> io pour, omits the o- altogether, and conforms to the Attic Future, retaining, however, the c before the circumflexed final iKx^o), I ivill pour forth (Acts ii. 17).
:

iTTveuera.

In this class the First Aorist characteristic conforms to that of the Future. From efcxew is formed First Aor. i^ex^a, uncontracted.

So

To the digammated verbs may be
KXato), to iceep,

referred Kaiw, to burn, Fut. Kauo-w
vi.

Fut. Kkava-m and KXavcro/xat (Luke

25

;

Kev.

xviii. 9).

(See d.)
d.

Several active verbs of frequent occurrence have a Future in the
still

middle form,

with active meaning

;

as

aKovia, to hear,
^ao), to live,
XafjL/3dv(j},

Fut. aKovaro/xaL, or aKOvaro).
f,

^-qao/xaL,
X-qxJ/ofjLai

or

^rjcro).
Xi]ij/-).

to take,

(from XaP",
once,

6avfxd^w, to wonder,

6av/JLd(T0fxaL,

^cvyw, to flee,
•KLVdi,

^cu^o/xat.
TTtOfiaL, -€Orai, -€TaL

to drink.

(Lukc

XVll. 8).

The First Aorist, Active and
97.
(2)
a-

^Iiddle.

(1) In the

Connection of the Aorist stem with that of the Future. pure and mute verbs, the o- of the Future is retained. In the liquid verbs, the Aorist lengthens a short vowel before the
^

In classic Greek, aaXiriy^u}, from stem

o-aX7ri77-,

g 97,

h.]

ON TENSE-FORMATION.
Thus,
cnrcp-, to soio;

97
and

stem-ending.

Fut., a-rrepQ); First Aor., ecTretpa;

from

ayvcX-, -^yyetAa,
-av-,

Verbs in aivw, from the stem
Aorist.

generally have d in the Future, a in the First
Xei'A:d;'u;;

So, Xfu/caiVw, ^o whiten;
<n)ixd.vai

Fut.,

First Aor., eXei/Kdva.

arjfmlvu}, to
i.

signify; First Aor. inf.,

(Acts xxv. 27).

Similarly, i-n-Kpavai (Luke
to

79),

from

iiri,

(paivu,^

to

show, appear.

But

Kepda'.vw,

gain, Fut. Kepbdvu),

makes

iKepdrjca, as

from an alternative pure

root, Kepda-,

b.

Peculiarities of
:

Augment.

—The
;

double augment

is

occasionally

also rjvoi^a. Compound verbs prefix dvotyo), to found but where the compound has lost its the augment to the verbal stem force, or has usurped the place of the simple verb, the augment may

open, aviio^a,

precede the whole verb.
Trpocc^rjrcvcra.

Thus, from
€v,

irpo<f>r)T evoi,

lirpocfi^Tevcra,

instead of

The

prefix

sometimes
a,
€,

left unaltered.

o,

is itself

augmented.
not

icell, is sometimes augmented into -qv-, But a verbal stem after ev, beginning with So, from evayycAt^o/xai, to preach the Gospel^

we have

evrjyycXLo-d/xrjv,

rjvayycXLcrdfJirjv.

makes First But as the e is found in the Future of the same verb (Karect^et, Matt. xii. 20), and in the Second Aor. subj. pass. (KaTeayCoffi, John xix. 31), it may mark a collateral form of the verb, and not
dy-, to break (second conjugation, AyvvfiL (with prefix Kara-,
Karrj^a.

The root

Aor. Karea^a (John xix. 32), instead of

be intended as an augment.^

The Aorist augment of the verb atpu
latter is correct, as it is the simjylc

(see § 92) is variously printed

y or

^.

The

stem which is lengthened. N^ote. Some verbs in the LXX. have a kind of compound Aorist tense ("Alexandrian"), like the First in termination, but like the Second in tense-form: i.e., attaching First Aorist terminations to the simple verbal stem. So in classic Greek, ijveyKov or ijveyKa. (See § 103, 6.) An instance in the Xew Testament of the Alexandrian Aorist is Heb. ix. 12, evpdfxevos. Many others occur in the most ancient MSS., and have been adopted into critical editions, as eireaav (compare § 94, 8, d), and ctTra in different numbers and persons; in imper., dirdrwaav (Acts xxiv. 20).

Accentuation.

—The

active

First Aor. Infinitive accents the penultima, cir-

diphthongs and long vowels, as <pv\d^ai, iriaTevaai. The act. Optative third person sing, has an acute accent on the same syllable, the at being here regarded as long, as Tna-Tevaai. The same form again is found in the middle Imperative the at, as usual, being treated as short, and the accent thrown back, as wiffTevffai. Only in monosyllabic stems, where the accent must be on the penultima, a long vowel is circumflexed, as XOo-ai. To present the three cases at one view: Act. Opt., 1st Aor., third pers. sing., iriffTeijaai Xi)<rat <f>v\d^ai.
cumflexing
all
;

Active, 1st Aorist, infinitive,

iriffTevffai

\vffai

<pv\d^ai. 0i5Xa|ai.

Middle, 1st Aorist, imperative,
^

irloTevaai

\vaai.

'

The classical First Aor. of (paivco is ^(pTjva. Or it may be simply to distinguish the forms from those of

/cardyw, to lead dowiu

H

98

on tense-formation.

[§ 98.

The Aorists and Futures
98.
Passive,
d'

Passive.

The

First Aorist, Future

and Perfect (with the Pluperfect)
modification of the verbal
;

have generally the same
Ti|xa-,

root.

Thus,

from
;

eTLfxrjOrjVj

Teri/AT^/xai

from

Xv-,

iXvOrjv,

XWrjcroixai,

XiXvfxai

and from irctO-, CTrctV^r^v, TTCLo-OrjoroixaL, TreTreic/xai. To know one of these Tenses is, therefore, a help to the knowledge of the rest. But o-to^oj, to save, makes icrioOrjv and a-ecroyo-fjLaL.
in the stem-syllable of these tenses from the model is in the case of pure verbs. Usually, these lengthen ordinary the vowel stem-ending. In several verbs, however, the short vowel remains, as in IhiO-qv, IXvOrjv, and others. In many, again, the letter o- is
b.

The chief variation

inserted after the stem, as in IrfXia-O-qv (Perf.,
(2

TereAecr/xat),

ixaXda-Orjv
iv.

Cor. xi. 33),
also,

and from

pvofxai, to deliver,

ipva-Orjv

(2

Tim.

17).

Thus,
c.

from

aKovti), to hea?',

yKovaOrjv, aKovadi^a-ofxaL, rJKOvcr/xaL,

The transposition of a vowel and
very

liquid, in short monosyllabic

roots, is

common

in these tenses.

Thus, paX-,

to throw,

becomes
call,

pXa-,
is

and gives

i^XrjOrjv, pXrjOrjarojxaL, Pe^Xrj/xaL.

The
;

rOOt koXc-, to

treated as koX-, KXa-; First Aor.

Pass., iKXrjOrjv

Fut., KXrjOrjarofiaL

Perf., K€KXrj/jLat.
d.

A

weak vowel

in a short liquid stem is often changed into

a.

This rule generally applies to the Perfects Active and Passive, and to
the Aorists and Futures Passive (sometimes also to the Second Aorist

Active
drink

:

see § 95, note).

Thus, from
a.TTf.cTTa.X'qv,

dTroo-reAAo), to

send forth

((ttcX-),
ttlvio,

airka'Ta.XKa, a7rco"Ta\/xat,

a.irocrTaXrj(ro^ai.
t

(KaraTriVo),

to

swallow), changes

into

o.

The verb So we find

to

ueVcoKa,

KareTroOrjv, KaTairoOi^cro/xaL.
e. The First Aorist and Future Passive are chiefly found in pure stems and derivative verbs the Second in original consonant-verbs. Where, too, the First would give an inharmonious concurrence of letters, the Second will generally be employed. Both are seldom used in the same verb. But a verb that has the First Aorist in the Active may have the Second in the Passive, and vice versa.
;

strike,

For the usage of particular verbs, consult the Vocabulary. irX-qacu}, irXrjy-, to makes second Aor. iifkiiyriv but in compounds rj becomes a, as e^eirXdyrjaav (Luke ii. 48) 0i5w, to.grow, has the Second Aor. participle <f>viv (Luke viii. 6, 8).
;

;

Irregularities of

Augment in

the Aorists Passive.

KaTei\rj(f>dr],

in
13.

John

viii.

4; direKaTeaTddr)

(e after

both prepositions): Matt,

xii

many copies of From avoiyo)


§ 99, c]

ON TENSE-FORMATION.
5

99
3-^^

(compare § 99, a, 3) we find rivolxOW} avei^x^V^t v^'^VX^V^ with Second Future dpoiy-^cro/xai.
AccentuaMon.

Second Aor,

iivoiytjv,

—The
\v6eis,

Aorists Passive circumflex the Subjunctive mood-vowel
-rjvai.

throughout, and the penultima of the Inf.

The

participle accents the

stem-syllable -evr throughout, with a circumflex on the

fern,

wherever possible.

Thus:

Xvdeiffa,
XvdeiarjSy

\v6lv,
\vdivTOi, k.t.\.

\v6hT0i,

The Perfect and Pluperfect, Active, Middle, and Passive.
99.
a.

For the Reduplication, see
:

§ 69.

The following variations

must be noted
1.

verb beginning with two consonants, other than a mute followed by a liquid, or with a double consonant, takes c Thus, o-T€<^avo(i),
to

A

crown,

icTTefjxxvuiKa,
-y-,

i(TT€(f>dv(ofJiaL

;

^T/paiVto, to

Wither, iit^pafifxaL.

So

when
2.

V follows

as

from

7V0-, eyiw/ca.

The verb

Xd/x/Savo),

Xap-,

takes

el-

instead of

the reduplication,^

€iXrj(f)a.

3.

Some

verbs beginning with

a,

«,

or o take a

double reduplication

in the active.
aKOvct), to

hear, aKrjKoa.

{kXvB-), to come, iX-^XvOa (see § 103, 2).

The verb
4.

dvot-yw (see §§ 97, 98)
-^ucioyfjiivr}

may have

a double reduplication in

the perf. pass.,

(Rev.

iv. 1).

Testament generally omits the augment, taking only the reduplication, as Te^e/xeXtwTo, it had been founded
in the

The Pluperfect
vii.

New

(Matt.

25).

h For the termination of the Active Perfect third person many MSS. frequently give -av, like the First Aor. In John
the rec. text reads eyvcuKav.
c.

plural,
xvii.

7

The Second Perfect
-ko.

active takes the termination of the First with-

out the characteristic

or aspirate,

and often modifies a vowel in the
stem,

stem-syllable, preferring
ir€v6-), TTCTTOV^a.

Thus,

XetVo), XiXoL-n-a, irdcrxo) (alternate

This tense

is

often intransitive

;

as from weidu}, to persuade, First Perf. triireiKa,

I have persuaded; but Second
^

Perf. ireToida,

I have

confidence,

Ifully

believe.

To

So in

classic

Greek some other verbs, as XaTxcivw,

e^XT^xa.

100

TENSE-rOEMATIOX.

—DEPU^'ENT VERBS.
&t/ca,

[§ 99,
(/t/c-)
;

C.

the class of Second Perfects belong the forms
{ri5-).

/ am

like

oT5a,

/ know

(See § 103.)

When
guttural

—the Perfect

the stem-ending' of the verb
is

is

an aspirate

—mute,

labial or
ypa.^-,

in the Second, or unaltered, form: as from

to write, ykypa<^a.
d.

Some

peculiarities of the

Perfect Passive have been noted under
in the stem-syllable are given in
-o--

the head of the Aorist.

Vowel changes

the Lexicon or Vocabulary.
after a

So, also, the insertion or otherwise of

vowel stem-ending.
Tp€(f)(ii,

E.g.,
to

to

nourish

(0p€(f>-),

rerpo^a,
iv.

TcOpa/xfjiaL.
;

Again, Opavoi,
to
cease,

crush,

makes

TeOpavo-fjLat
1).

(Luke

18)

but

Travo/xai,

TreVav/xat (1 Pet. iv.
e.

The Future-Perfect (passive in
is

classic

Greek

;

called

often the
xix.

Paulo-post Future)
is

but the middle Future reduplicated.

Luke

40

the only instance in the

New

Testament

:

KiKpaiovrai,

tvill

immediately
In the
through,

cry out.

(But

W. H.

read Kpd^ovartv).
Perfect Infinitive accents the peniiltima
-or,
-Ivai..

Accentuation.

—The

active participle the stem-syllable, masc.

fem.

-vi, is

accented

all

the latter circumflexed wherever possible.
XeXuKcis,

\e\vKvta,
\e\vKviai,

XeXy/c6s,

\e\vK6T0^,

XeXv/coroj.

In the middle and passive, the Infinitive accents the penult., circumflex on diphthongs and long vowels, pe^ovXevadai, TeTi^rjcxdai, rervcpdai. The participle accents the penultima as Xe\v/x4vos, XeXv/x^vrj, XeXi/^ef ov.
;

Deponent Verbs.

100. Deponent
Thus
:

verbs have no active voice, but

may

be either

middle or passive in form.
Si)(Ofxai, to

This

is

decided by the Aorist.

receive; First Aor., iScidfxrjv (middle).

/3ov\ofxaL, to

wish; First Aor.,

i/SovXi^Orjv (passive).
T^o-Oojurj]'

alcrOdvoixaL, to perceive; Second Aor.,

(middle).

Some
meaning

verbs have both Aorists, middle and passive, with the same
:

as

dTroKptVo/xat,

to

answer

;

First

Aor.,

aTnKpLvdixyjv

and

aTreKpiOrfv,

I

ansvjered.

Deponent

transitives often
to heal;
to

have each tense with

its

proper force.
healed.
iXoytcrOrjv, I ivas

tao-a/xryj/,

/ healed;

IdOrjv,

I was

reckon;

iXoyio-djxrjv,

I reckoned;

.

^ 102.]

IMPERSONAL AND DEFFCTIVE VEEBS.
yivofxai, to

101

The verb ytyvo/xat, or forms— Fut., yevrjo-o/xat
;

become

(^ev-,

see 94, 8, a), has the
iycvofirjv;

First Aor., lyevrjO-qv;
;

Second Aor.,

Perf.,

yiyova (Second Perf.)

rarely yeyivrjfiaL,

Impersonal Verbs.
101. Impersonal verbs are used only in the Third Person singular, and are generally rendered into English with the pro-

noun
The
is

it.

For the grammatical construction of impersonals, see
chief impersonal verbs are
it

§ 171.
^'^

Set, it

is

necessary^ one ought; XPV^
hoKet, it

expedient or fitting ; Trpiira^

lecomes ;

seems

; fxeXet, it is

a

care.

The following forms of these verbs almost
participle, it will

all

occur in the

New

Testament.

The

be observed,
5et,

is

neuter.

Some

of the verbs are also found per-

sonally

:

Indie. Pros.

XPV,

Trp^Trei,

So/cet,

fi4\ei.

Imperf.
First. Aor.

idei,
...

^PW,
...

^Trp€Tre{v),
...

i86Kei,

^^o^eC"),

Subj.
Inf.

5e77,

deiv,

XPVvo.1;
.

Part. Pros.

Mov,

irpeirou,

5okovu,
it

From

elfjLi,

the substantive verb,

is

formed the impersonal i^ean,

is

lawful; part., Uov.

Defective Verbs of the First Conjugation.

102. The explanations given under the several Tenses have sufficiently accounted for most of the so-called " irregularities" in
the conjugation of verbs in
-«.

Some

verbs, hov^ever, of very frequent occurrence, are

anomalous

in another way.

The ancient Greek tongue, like all early languages, while destitute of words expressing the more complex ideas, had a redundancy of terms denoting some of the simplest actions. Hence arose many synonymous words, some of which, being evidently unnecessary, were afterwards dropped. But in several instances of two or three verbs with the same meaning, different tenses were discontinued in each, so that forms of distinct verbs had to be brought together

102
to constitute a whole.

DEFECTIVE VERBS.

[§ 102.

Compare in English go, without a Preterite, and went, without a Present, except in some phrases, wend. Occasionally, again, where the same tense of two synonymous verbs has been retained, it expresses two different shades of
meaning.

103. The following
their forms
1.

are the principal verbs which thus derive

from different roots:
take (in comp., KaOatpiu), to take

atpeo), to

down;

Trpoatpioyy to

take

heforehandy
alpTjcrofxaL,

etc.);
yjprjKa,

Mid., alpov/xaL, to choose; Principal Tenses,
'^prj/xat,

at/DTJo-w,

ypiOrjv,

alpeO-^o-o/xaL.
elXo/uirjv',

Prom stem

IX-:

Second

Aor.
2.

act., elAoi/;
epxo/JLaL,

Inf., cA.etvj mid.,

Inf., cXeV^at.

to

go,

come; Impf.,
cXevO- (Put.),

cXvG-,

lengthened into
e'Aet'o-o/xat
;

Other tenses from stem contracted into i\Q- (Second Aor.):
ypxofxrjv.

Put.,

Perf.,

cXT]XvOa', Plup.,

iXrjXvOeiv;

Second Aor.,
iXOwv.
So,

rjXOov;

in

the several moods,

eXOe,

tXOw,

eXOoLfxi,

iXOeiv,

many

compounds.
3.

ia-Olwyto eat; Impf.,

tJo-Olov',

Second Aor. from

4>o.y-,

t<^ayov, ^ayetv;

Put.,
4.
oTTT:

(fxiyojxaL, <f)dy€(raL, cfidy€Tai, k.t.X.

So, Kareo-Oto), to devour,

opdoi, to see;

Impf., eojpwv; Perf., iwpdKa.
6i{/€L,

Tenses from stem
oxf/oifxat

6ir-,

Put.,

6xf/ojxaL,

6{j/€TaL',

Pirst Aor.
ocfiOrjvaLj

subj.,

(once,

Luke

xiii.

28); Pirst Aor. pass.,
fiS-:

w<f)6r)v,

Pirst Put. pass.,
ISclv,

6(f>6y(ToixaL.

Tenses from

Second Aor.,

elSov,

tSw,

iSayv

(tSov,

an old Im-

perfect middle used as an interjection, behold!)',
(

Second

Perf.,

I knoio
Icrdi,

= have

seen) oTSa, oTSa?, ot8e(v),

ot8a/>tei/,

otSare,

ot'Sao-t(r) (in

Imp.,

icrre;

Subj., etSw; Inf., ctSeVat; Part., ciSws; Plup. ind.,
ct^TJo-w,

/ knew,
Put.,

-^hav))

Put.,
5.

shall

know (Heb.

viii. 11).
Speji-,

tpk^^, to run; Second Aor. from

IS/aa/toi/;

SpafjLov/xai.

(LXX.).
6.
(f>€p(D,

to

bear; Put. from stem
act.,

ot-,

ota-io.

Tenses from

cvcyK- or
',

€V6K-:

Pirst

Aor.

^veyKa',

Aor. pass., yvlx'^rjv; Perf.,
Trpocr^epo), elcrcfiepa), k.t.X.

Pirst Second Aor., i^veyKov, iveyKeiv Compare eVrji/oxa, with double rcduphcation.

Second Aor., / said (supphes Present and Imperfect from second conjugation); stem, eV-; Pirst Aor., ctTra. Tenses from <fir]fxi, Tenses from pe: Put., ip€0}, ipu); Perf., ilpyjKa] Perf. pass., itprj/xaL. €p-:
7.

etTTov;

First Aor. pass., ippiOrjv or IpprjO-qv; Part., prjOeLs.

§ 103.]

SUMMAKY OF DEFECTIVE VERBS.

103

a
2:
5="

a o

^

2

-,

^

O

5i

I.9.

-A- -e-

»2

X

^

.^

ss

o •tw

3
X'
p.

O
3.

O

2k

;^

<^

^
.^ *w

^w
t-

d
CO
•iH

h

OQ

<c

;:^

•»

3
^O

3
^ivyy

o
^3 *o "3 "W

o
1"VW

;^

w

S

3 b « w CO CO w O
;^

o « ^ v^ W CO CO "J «o i»o w
::k

^
-d

O > W GO a

d
:t o^
*

*

^d
"O

\ •

rik

?>

1 h
^5?-

&

o
i-H

a
aJ

>
CQ QQ 03

-6-

*3

'^
•1-1

o
-2

J

o
:

© t—t
:
:

:

w
.fe

?:
.t-

-d 'd

• •

s

3

^
;^



d

g

:

p
^5>

X.

o
<3i

b
X.

X.

<0
.

c
to
(C

d

15=",^

«
v3
"«»

:

3
vfe.

• •

d

9
O

b
"3^

o
i<. ^i=;
m;

i^

'

o
.s-

«

ti

m

.s-

d

d *?i

^P- ^o ^2- :^

b
':<
vt4;

^w
VS-

W

"fa

d

t^

,U> 2 O O

Pi

"^
t;
5^

^

^o t:

o
'->

q

a>
ffj

<^

o
O)

*^ ^ •— 2 ^ ~-' ^ ^ ^ cc C PhI—lpHi-lP-lP^C<J<MPHf2HhH(M<M
<

D Ui

<D t+H

o I ^ ^
pSH

<1 <1
-Tii

ru
;3

Ph Ph

c3 <^>

CM

iiji

DEFECTIVE VERBS.

K

103.

These forms are not all actually found in the New Testament, though most of them are. Other forms occur in Greek authors, and, if required, may easily be formed by the usual analogies.

Exercise 13.— On the Defective Verbs.
[The following forms, which should be carefully analysed, are all from the " Sermon on the Mount," and illustrate the frequency with

which this class of verbs occurs. In addition to the meanings of the verbs given in their paradigms, and unnecessary, therefore, to repeat, it must be noted that the prefix eis
denotes into;
ii,

out of; irapa, by or aside
to.

(TrapcpxojjLaL,

to

pass away);

and

Trpos,

in addition

For further

details,

see § 147, a,

and the

Vocabulary.]

Forms.
rjXOov,

oxpovrai,

tSwctv, oTSe, oiSarc,

ctTrwo-t, ippiOrj, CiTrrj, epctg, ipova-t,

TrapeXOrj,

ilcriXOrjTe,

IkOwv,

€$€XOr]S,

etaeXOe^

IXBiroi,

ctcreA^crc,

elcrep^oiJievoL,
cfidyiofiev.

elcreXev a erai, TrpocrcfiepYjS, Trpoacfyepe,

ela-eveyKy^, ^^^Xe, cfidyrjTC^

THE SECOND CONJUGATION, OE VEEBS IN
104. The
active
chief peculiarity of the

-|iu

Second Conjugation

is

that the

Present and Imperfect tenses, and in

many

verbs the Second Aorist

the ancient terminations (see § 70)^ to the The mood- vowels, however, of stem, without a connecting vowel.
affix

and middle,

the Subjunctive and Optative
ending,
-vai,

are retained.

The

old Infinitive

reappears.

The other tenses conform to the paradigm of the First Conjugation, with occasional exceptions that will be noted in their place.
^

These terminations
-fii,

are, in

singular,

-<n, -tl

;

plural,
-v,

-ixiv,

the Active, for the Present (as a principal tense), -re, -vci. for the Imperfect and Second Aorist
(generally dropped)
;

(as historical),

singular,

-s, -v

phu-al,

-fiev, -re,

-cav.

The

ancient Imperative ending

-6l also

appears.

In several cases the terminations are

slightly modified, as the paradigms will show.

The analogy

to the Aorists Passive of

the First Conjugation will be observed throughout, in form and accentuation.

§ 106.]

VERBS IN

-jxi.

105

MODiriCATIOI^fS OF THE StEM.

105. Verbs
three ways.
a.

in

-\ii

modify the verbal stem in one or more of

A

pure stem
Thus, from

lengthens
<j)a-,

singular.
<f}r]-crL,

say,

the vowel in the active Indicative we have first person cfirj-fxi; third person,

b.

Most stems prefix a reduplication
Thus,
8o-, give, first

tenses.
TLOrffML,

from

06-,

put.

in the Present and Imperfect becomes 8w-, as above ; then, St-S(o-/xt. So, The vowel preferred in this reduplication is
i.

The

root

(rra-,

place, accordingly
is

makes

lorrrj/xi,

and

I-,

se7id,

irjfxL.

Some-

times the stem

reduplicated within itself (the Attic reduplication,

see also § 109, a), as,
-V-

from

6va-, profit, ovLvy/xt.
-|i-

In other
;

cases, a nasal

is

inserted, modified

before labials into

thus,

irpa-,

burn, gives

irijXTrprjixL.

c.

Several verbs add the syllable -w- to the stem before the personal

endings in the Present and Imperfect tenses.
Thus,
861K-,

Pure stems take
strew
or

-vw-.

sJioio,

gives

huKvvjxi

;

and

oTpo-,

spread

(with

lengthened vowel, as above),
It is convenient, then, to

o-rpcovvu/xt.

mark two chief

classes of verbs in

-jn.

The

first

exhibits the simple lengthened stem, generally with redupli-

cation preceding.

The second
endings.

inserts -w- or -vw-

between the stem and the personal

Paradigms of the First Class. 106. These
normal forms
stems,
;

also

faU into two divisions.

The former

exhibits

the

the latter contains a few verbs, with short monosyllabic
irregular in their conjugation, and,

somewhat
et/xi',

from their importanc(i,

requiring separate treatment.
verb:

To the

latter class belongs the substantive

/ am;

eTvau, to be.

106

VERBS IN

-jti— FIRST

CLASS

—PARADIGMS.

[§ 107.

107.
The

Eegular Forms, Stems A-, E-, 0-.
tenses conjugated like those of verbs in -w will be given at the end of the
is

paradigms.

The accent throughout Exceptions will be noted.
La-T7}fii, to

generally thrown back as far as possible.

i
place.
TL6r)fiL, to

put.

BiBcofii, to give.

Stem, (Tra-

deActive.
INDICATIVE.

So-

Present,

i(7T7]flC
i(TTr)<;

Tidrjfic

SlBcofic

tlOt)^
Ti6r](Tl(v)

SlBq)^
SiB(ocrt(v)
BlBo/jL6V

icrrTjcTL^v)

'lardfiev

TiOefiev

lardre
L(rTdaL(y)

rlOere
Tt6eaaL[u)
eriOriv

SlBoT€
BtS6a(Tt(v)

Imperfect,

lO-TTjV
'lg-tt)^

eSlBcov
e'StSft)?

irWr}^
irLdrj or eTiOet^
iriOefJLev

larr}
to-Ta/jLev

iSlBco or iBiBov'

eBlBofiev

L(TTdT€
r/

irldere

iSlBore

i

laraaav

.

irlOeaav^

iSlBoaav

2nd

Aorist,

6(TTr)V

earrj
€(7T7J/JLeV

eOefiev

eSofiev

earrjre
eo-TTjaav

eOere

e8oT6
eSocrav
from forms of the First Conju-

eOeaav
irldti, iriOovv, as

^

2 Cor.

iii.

13,

Acts
etc.

iii.

2,

have

gation contracted.
^

Matt. xxvi. 26,

As from

a form of the First Conjugation contracted.

§ 107.]

VERBS IN
Stem, crra-

-(Ai

— FIRST

CLASS

—PARADIGMS.
So-

107

6e-

IMPERATIVE.

Present,

'laTT}

for XaraOi TiOeL (for TiBeri) BiSov (for Bl^oO

la-TCLTa)

TiOeTO)

BcBoTco

Xcnare
lardrcoo-av

riOere

Sl8oT€
BiBoTcoa-av

Ttdercoaav
^

2nd

Aorist,

(tttjOl or
crTrjTco

ard

Oh

(for Oeri)

So9 (for B66i)
Bora)

Oerco

(TTrjre

6 ere
dercocrav

B6t€

(TTTJTCOCraV

BoTwaav

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Present,

larco
l(TTTJ(;

TtOcj
Tt6fj<;

BiBco

8tSco9
BcBo) L
BiBoifiev

Lcrrr)

TlOfl

laTCdfxev

zi6o)fiev

laTpJTe
l(TT(Oai{v)

Ttdrjre
Tt6(jj<7c{v)

BiBo)Te
BiBa)ac{v)
Bo), K.r.X.

2nd

Aorist,

CTTW, K.T.X.

6a), K.T.X.

like Pres.

like Pres.

like Pres.

OPTATIVE.

Present,

l(TTair]v

TiOeCriv
TL6eLrj<;

BtBolrjv
BLBoirj<;

laTair}^
l(TTaLr]
l(TTaL/jL€V

TideiTj

BlBoLTJ

TiOelfiev

BiBolfiev

l(TTalT€
[(TTolev

TiOelre
TiOelev
Oelrjv
6eiri<;

BiBolre
BcBotev
BoLTjv or Ba)r]v
BoLr)<;

2nd

Aorist,

qTairjv
arair)^
G-rairj

or

B(pr}<;

9 €17}
;

Bolt)

or Bmtj

*

Only

in

compound

verbs, as dpoLara (Acts xii. 7

Eph.

v. 14),

and similar words.

108

VERBS IX
Stem, (TTa-

-jjii

—FIRST

CLASS

— PARADIGMS.
80-

[§ 107.

1

6e~
OPTATIVE—-continued.

2nd

Aorist,

aralrifiev

OeLTj/jLev

BoL7]/jLev

aralrjre
CTTalev

OelrjTe

BoLTjre

Oelev
INFINITIVE.

Bolev

I

Present,

lardvaL
arrjvai

TiOevat
delvac
PARTI CirLES.

BtBovai

2nd

Aorist,

BovvaL

1

Present,

lard';,

-aaa, -dv TiOel^,

-elora, -ev BiBov<;, -ovcra, -6v

2nd

Aorist,

cnd^, -d(Ta, -dv 6 eh,

-elaa, -ev Bov^y

-ovaa, -6v

Middle and Passive.
INDICATIVE.

Present,

iLO-rafiai

TidefJiaL

BlBo/jLat

iaraaaL
laraTat
[(Trd/jbeOa

TiOecrai or riOr]

BiBoaai
BiBorat
BiBo/jieOa

rlderai
TiOe/jbeda

iaraaOe
XcnavTai
Imperfect,
lardfjur^v

TiOecrOe

BiBoaOe
BlBovrac
eBtB6/j.7]v

TidevTai
iTidiiJiijv

XcTTaao
icrraro
la-rdfjbeda

erldeao or irlOov iSi^ocro or iBiBoif
eriOero
eTidefJieOa

iBlBoTO
eBiBofjbeOa

laraade
laravTO

eriOeaOe
iridevTO
IMPERATIVE.

iBlBoaOe
iBlBovTO

Present,

L(TTa(To or 7aT(0

TiOecro or riOov

BlBocTo or BiBov

lardaOco
'laraaOe

TideaOco

BtBoado)

TideaOe
TiOeo-QoxTav

BiBoade

lardadcoaav

BiBoaOwaav

§ 107.]

VERBS IX
Stem, CFTa-

-|JLi

—FIRST

CLASS

—PARADIGMS.
So-

109

SeSUBJUNCTIVE.

Present,

larcjfiat
l<TTf}

Ti6a)/jLaL

BcScofiac

Tief)

BlBS
ScScoraL
SiBco/jLeOa

laTTJrai,

TLOrjTat
rtdcofjbeda

larco/jLeda

larria-Oe

TtOrjaOe

BcBcjaOe
BihcovraL

l(TT(OVTat

OPTATIVE.

Present,

l(7TaL/jLrjv

TcOeLflTJV

8tBoL/jLl]V

laralo

TiOelo

BiBoio

laralro
ia-TalfxeOa

Tidelro
Ttdei/ieOa

BlBolto
BiBoL/xeOa

laralaOe
LGTalvro

riOelaOe
TcOelvTO
INFINITIVE.

BiBotaOe
BlBoIvto

Present,
PARTICIPLES.

BlBoaOau

Present,

Bi,Bo/jL€vo<;

Middle only.
IN DICATIVE.

2nd

Aorist,

iB6/jL7]V

edov
edcTO

(-e(7o)

eBov (-oao)
eBoTO
eBofJueOa

iOifieOa

WecrOe
eOevTo
IMPERATIVE.

eBoade
eBovTO

2nd Aorist,

60V

(-€(T0)

Bov

(-ocro)

OeaOco

BoaOco

OeaOe

Boade
Bocrdcocrav

OeaOwaav

1

10

VERBS IN
Stem, (TTa-

-|xi— FIRST

CLASS

—PARADIGMS.
do-

[§ 107.

6eSUBJUNCTIVE.

2nd

Aorist,

6cx)/JLaL

Bcofiai Boy
Ba)Tai,

Ofi

BrjTai
OcofjieOa

Bco/xeda

erjaOe
Ocovrac
OPTATIVE.

Sa)a6e
Bcovrac

2nd

Aorist,

Oeiixrjv

BoifjLTJV

Oelo

Solo

Oelro
OelfjieOa

SoIto
BolfieOa

OelaOe
OelvTO
INFINITIVE.

Sola 6 e
SolvTO

2nd

Aorist,

deaOat,
PARTICIPLES.

SoaOai

2nd

Aorist,

defjLevo<i

Sofievof;

Tenses after the Model of the First Conjugation.
Active.
INDICATIVE.

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TT^(TCO

6rj(T())

Scbo-CO

earrjaa
6<TT7]Ka
ecrrrjKa^;

€07] K a

eScoKa
SiScoKa,
K.T.X,

Perfect,

reOeLKa,
/C.T.X.

6aT7JK€{v)

earrjKafiev

or earafjLev'^
1

1

This syncopated or shortened form

is

very usual.

So in

Perf. Inf.

and Part.


§ 107.]

VERBS IN -HI— FIRST CLASS
Stem, (TTaINDICATIVE

—PARADIGMS.
So-

111

Oecontinued.

Perfect,

ecTrJKare
or ecrraTe
€(TTl]Ka(7L(v)

or €cnaa-i{v)

Pluperfect,

6LcrTi]K€Lv OT

{e)Te6eUeLv

(e)S€S(OK€tV

e<nriKeLV

IMPERATIVE.
1st Aorist,
(TTrjarov

Perfect,

BiBcoKe

SUBJUXCTIVE.
1st Aorist,
(TTrjO-Oi

BcDO-Q)^

Perfect,

€<rTrJK(o

redeiKO)
OPTATIVE.

BeSMKO)

Future,
1st Aorist,

cnrjcroLfiL

Otjo-ol/jLL

BcocroifiL

cTTTjaai^L
iaTiJKOifjLi

Perfect,

TedeUoifii
INFINITIVE.

SeBcOKOLflt

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TTrjO-etv
(TTrjcrai,

OrjaeLV

Bayaecv

Perfect,

k<TT7]Kevai

redeiKevat

SeBwKevaL

or ka-rdvaL
PARTICIPLES.

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TTTjo-wv

6r)aoiv

B(t)(TO)V

a-TTjaa^
8eB(0Ka)<;

Perfect,

or
1

e(TTco<;, -cocra,

1

^

See John xvii. 2; Rev.
H., however, read

viii. 3, xiii. 16,

in

which passages the form
neuter form
ia-Tws.

Swo-tj

occurs.

\y.
'

duxrei, fut. indie.

See § 38,

Some grammarians contend

for the

12

VERBS IN -HI— FIPtST CLASS
Stem,

—PARADIGMS.
80-

[§ 107.

ara-

6e~

Middle and Passive.
INDICATIVE.
i^erfect,
eara/jbat,

reOetfiaL
(i)T€OeL/jiTjv

BeBofiat
(ejBeBofiTjv

Pluperfect.

ea-rdfiTjv

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Perfect,
€crTa/jL6vo<;

w

reOeiiievo^;

co

BeBofiivo^

0)

OPTATIVE.

Perfect,

i(7TaiJL6V0<; eXr^v

redet/jbivo^ eirjv

SeBofievof; eiTjv

INFINITIVE.

Perfect,

eo-Tao-Oat,

reOetaOaL
PARTICIPLES.

BeBoaOai

Perfect,

earafjuevo^

reOeifJievo'i

BeBofiivo^:

Middle only.
INDICATIVE.

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TTrjcroiJbai

Orjaofiai

B(0(TO/JLai

iaTrjad/jbrjv

IMPERATIVE.
1st Aorist,
(TTrjo-ai

SUBJUNCTIVE.
1st Aorist,
a-T')]ao)/jLai

OPTATIVE.

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TT7]<T0ifir]V

6ri<T0ifJi7]V

Bo)(TOi/jLVV

crTrjaalfirjv

INFINITIVE.

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TTrjaea-Oai

drjaeadai

BcoceadaL

ar^aaaOai
PARTICIPLES.
(TT7ja6/jievo<;
o-Tr]O'dfjb€V0<;

Future,
1st Aorist,

Orjaofievo'^

B(0(T6fievo<i

§ 107.]

VERBS IN -HI— FIKST CLASS
Stem, (TTa--

—PARADIGMS.
So-

ils

OePassive only.
INDICATIVE.

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TTaOrjcroiJLaL

TeOrjcrofJuaL

hoOrjaofxai
iBoOrjv

iaTadrjv

ireOriv

IMPERATIVE.
1st Aorist,
(TTd67]TL
TedTJTI,

h66r}Ti

SUBJUNCTIVE.
1st Aorist, (TTa6(b

reOcj
OPTATIVE.

hoOo)

Future,
1st Aorist,

crTa6r}(TOLfjL7]v

reOrjaoifiTjv

BoOrjaoLfjLTjv

aTadelrjv

reOeirjv
INFINITIVE.

BodeLTjv

Future,
1st Aorist,

(TTaOrjaeo•6aL

reOrjaeaOai
TeOrjvai

BoOrjaeo-Oai,
hoOrjvai,

GTadrjvai

PARTICIPLES.

Future,
1st Aorist,

araOrjao/jLevo^
a-TaOel^, -elcra,

TeOrjaofxevo^;

Bo6r]<r6fJL€vof;

TeOei^, -elaa,

hoOei^, -elaa,

iv
VERBALS.

GTaro^
<TTaTeo<;

BoTo<;

Borio^

Note.

— It will

be observed that several Aorist forms are omitted, the alternative
:

For example in the Active Indicative of ridrjfii and didco/u, the employed for the singular, the Second for the plural, while in the Middle throughout laTTjfii has the First, ridrjfjn and diSufxi the Second. The Active First Aorist of iar-qfn is trajisitive, the Second Aorist intransitive, as will be shown
tense being in use.
First Aorist is
hereafter.

114

VERBS IN

-|ii—FIRST

CLASS

—REMARKS.

[§ 108.

Eemarks on the Paradigms.
108. 1. The First Aorist Active of riO-qixi and StSwfit, and, as will be seen hereafter, of uy/xt also, takes -k- instead of -<r- for tense-characteristic. This peculiarity is confined to these three verbs and their
;

First Aorist
2.

is

found only in the Indicative mood.^
tenses of
as an
€-,

The Perfect
€-

breathing, with

mented tenses have
3.

to-TTy/xt, from the stem (rra-, take the hard "improper reduplication:" lar-qKa. The augas ecrTi;i/; but the Imperfect retains U.

The

First Aorist of
ca-Trja-a,

la-T-q^i

is

transitive, the

Second intransitive,

in meaning:
4.

I placed;

eo-rrjv,

I stood.

A

verb,

o-tt^ko)

(intransitive), to stand, of the First Conjugation,
o-Ta-,

derived from the Perfect of

Testament.

It

found in a few forms in the New must be distinguished from the Perfect forms of lo-ttj/jll.
is

Verbs belonging to this Class.
109. The number
is

I

of verbs

which conform

to the above paradigms

very small.

The

principal are subjoined.
v<rTT]p.i,

A-STEMS.
a.
1.

—Like
to

are conjugated the following:
(stem
ova-,

oviv-qjxi,

benefit

with Attic reduplication), only
ovatfxrjv

once in the

New
to

Testament; Second Aorist, Optative, middle,

(Phile. 20), mai/
2.
7rt/x7rp77/xi,

I have joy!

hum

(stem

irpa-,

reduplicated, with

/x),

only once in the
(Acts xxviii.
6),

New
to he
3.

Testament, Present Infinitive, passive,

Tri/xTrpao-^at

burned or inflamed.
<^>7/>tt,

to

say (stem

c}>a-).

The Present

Indicative

is

usually enclitic,
singular,
€<f>rj.

except second person singular, otherwise oxytone; third person
xf>r](rL(v);

plural,

^ao-t(v);

Imperfect,

e^^i/; third

person singular,

(See § 103, 7.)

^

To

this

remark there

is

one exception

if

the reading

ddjff'^

(on which see note,

$. Ill) be genuine.

;

§ 110.]
4.

VERBS IN
ii

-|ii—FIRST

CLASS

—REMARKS.
(See
§

115
101.)

xp^)

^s fitting

(stem

xpo--))
iii.

impersonal.

Once in

the
h.

New

Testament (James

10).

Deponent Verbs.
-/xat, -o-at

1.

Svvafiaiy

to he

able

(stem Swa-).
Imperfect,

Present
iSvvd/xrjv,

Indicative,
or

(or in

MSS.,

SvvyJ), -rat, k.t.X.;
;

(with double augment) ySwafxriv
Infinitive,

Present Subjunctive,
Participle, Swa/xevo?;

Svvw/xat

Optative, 8vvat)ar/v;

Bvvaa-OaL;

Verbal,

8waT09, possible^ capable; Puture, Sw^o-o/xat; First Aorist, IhwTqOtjv^ or
^Sw-^Or^v (occasionally in

MSS.,

ySwda-Orjv).

2.

cTTto-Ta/i-at,
€7rt',

to knoio, or to feel sure^

(stem
in

preposition,

and

-o-ra-,

"to take one's stand upon" but without aspiration), only in Present
i.e.y

New Testament;

Indicative,

-/xot, -crat, -rat, -/xe^a, -cr^c,

-vrat; Participle,

€7ri(rTa/>tcvos.

3.

Kpe/xa/xat,

fo Tiaw^r,

neuter (stem

Kpcjjia-);

Present Indicative, third

person, Kpe/xarat; plural, Kpe/xavrat; Participle, Kpc/xa/xei/os ; First Aorist,
iKp€ixd(T6r]v
',

Subjunctive,

Kp€iJ,acr6o>;

Participle, Kpifxaa-O^U.

E-STEMS.
myself;
in the
rj/xai,

Deponent Verbs.

1.

-^/xat,

to be seated

(stem

I-),

pro-

perly a Perfect middle or passive, as

from

cw,

I have

seated myself and so

I set or seat; ain now sitting.
the preposition
KaOfj^
\

eo/xai,

I seat
down.

Only found
/cara,

New Testament compounded with KaOrjfjLaty I am sitting down, second person,
kolOov,

for KaOrja-ai', ImperaParticiple,
KoB-q^fvo^i
;

tive,

for

Kd67](To ;

Infinitive,

KaOrjadai

Imperfect Indicative,

eKaOrjixrjv,

properly a Pluperfect.

2.

Kelfiai,

to lie

down (stem

kci-),

properly

also

a Perfect,

"I have

laid

myself" or "have been laid down;"
Imperfect Indicative,
eKct)u.?;v,

Infinitive,
-to.

Kcto-^at; Participle,

Kci/xcvos;

-cro,

110. The three stems, eV-, 1-, and e, being marked by special peculiarities, must be placed alone. The first of the three is by far the most important, as the stem of the substantive verb, esse,
to
be.

With
elfxi,

the

personal

becomes
to be.

I am; and

termination, -fit, the stem (ia-fMi) with the Infinitive ending, -vat, elvai,,

116

VEKBS

l^ -(ti— FIRST

CLASS

—SPECIAL

FOKMS.

[§ 110.
is

Several tenses are wanting in the conjugation of this verb, which
follows
:

as

Stem, eaINDICATIVE MOOD.

Present, am.
ia-fiiv

el (for

iaal)

ecrre

eCTTO

elaiiv)

Imperfect or Aorist, was.

^v or
rjaOa
'9

7]/jbt]v

r/fiev

or

7

7JT€
rjarav

Future, shall
€(TOfJLaL
if

he.

eaofieda
eo-ecrde

ear)

eaTac

(for ecreraC)

eaovrai

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Be
XaOi
e<TT(0

tJiou.
it

e(TT6

or

7]T(0

earcoaav
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present,

may

be.

(0

a)fiev

v^

^re
Ci)(Tc(v)

V
OPTATIVE MOOD.
l^resent,
€17]V
etrjf;

might

be.

eLTjfiev

elrjTe

ecv

eirjaav


§111.]

VERBS IN

-|ii— FIEST

CLASS

— SPECIAL

FORMS.

117

INFINITIVE.

Present, to

he, elvai.

Future,

to he

ahout

to he,

ecreaOai,

PARTICIPLES.

Present, heing,

cov,

ovaa, 6v

;

gen. 6vto<;,
-rj,

ov(T7j<;,

ovto^, k.t.\.
-rj^,

Future, ahout

to he, i<r6fievo<;,

-ov; gen. -ov,

-ov, k.t.\.

Note on Accentuation. In the Present Indicative, with the exception of the second person singular, this verb is an enclitic, excepting (1) where it follows a paroxytone, when it retains its accent as above and (2) in the third person, where it is b, predicate, when it becomes paroxytone, as '^ari 6e6s, there is a God.
;

It is also

paroxytone after
that is to say.

ws, ovk,

d

Kal,

tovt,

dW,

Thus, ovk

^ctti, it is

not;

TovT*

^<TTi,

111.
fore to

Not unlike the substantive verb

in conjugation,

and there-

be carefully distinguished from it, are the verbs elfic (stem 1-), Neither of them is found in the New go, and tT/yitt (stem e-), send. It will suffice to give a few Testament,^ except in composition. forms of eJfic, to show the differences between it and the substantive verb ; while the most important compound of ltjjjll is subjoined
in fuU.

Forms
Ind.

of

elfii, to

go (stem
9 6t

l-)

:

Pres.

el/juc

CLCTL
fj€i>

ijieV
y€t/JL6V

IT€
7JetT€

La(Tl[y)

Imp.
Pres.

yecv
if

fjecrav

Imper.
SuBj.

Opt.
Inf.

— — — Part. —

V tTG) V
icofiev
J/

tre
trjT6

iTcoaav
Lcoai(v)

LQ)

Pres.

locfit

Tot?

LOL

Locfiev

LOLTe

toiev

Pres.

livat,
» /

Pres. loov

lovcra

lov

*

Some MSS. read

in

John

vii. 34, 36, for elixl,

I am,

etfii,

I

{will) go.

This Pre-

sent tense has in classic Greek a Future significance, equivalent to the English idiom,

/ am going.

118

VERBS IN

-}ii

—FIRST

CLASS.

[§ 112.

Conjugation of
112. The stem
preposition
aTro,

Xtjixl,

to send,

in its

Compound,
LrjfXL,

d^LTj/jn,.

is

I-,

which, reduplicated, gives
o
<}>.

Prefixed
i,

is

the

from, away from; the
aspirate into
let

being lost before

by

elision,

and the w changed by the

Hence
The

d<}>iT]}ii,

to

send away,

go (permit), forgive.
so

tenses

far as necessary, in the following

which follow the analogy of the First Conjugation arc included, paradigm, and will readily be traced.

Active.
INDICATIVE.
Pres., sing.,

plur.,
d^LTjfjLc,
-le/jbev
7](f>Lov
-irjf;

or

-6t9,^

-i7j(Ti(y)

-tere
7](f)Le<;

-i,d<7c(v)
Tjc^ue

or d(f)Lov(Tc{v)

Impf., sing.,^
Fut.,
d(f)^crco

1st Aor., dcf)7]Ka.
Pluperf., d(^eiKeLv

(See

§

108,

1.)

Perf., a(/)et/ca

2 Aor., sing., wanting.
IMPERATIVE.
Pres.,
d(j)[6L,

Plural,

dcjielfjuev

a(/)6tT€

d<j>el(Tav

dipteTO)
d(l)iTCD

Plural, d(j>leTe,

d(j>teT(0(Tav

2 Aor.,
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Pres.,

d(f>6^,

»

d<l>eTe,

d(j)eT(0(Tav

d<l)t(0, -Lrj<;,

-L'Q
-fj

-LM/JLeV,

-crjre, -L(oai,(v)

2 Aor.,
OPTATIVE.
Pres.,

d(j)M,

-fi^,

-cojiev,

-Tjre,

-SxTiiy)

d(j)Lei'r]v,

-779, -7j
-rj<;,

d(f>t€ifjLev,
d<j)eLjjLev,

-eLT€, -6L6V

2 Aor.,
INFINITIVE.
Pres.,

d(f)eirjv,

-tj

-elre, -elev

d(f)LevaL

2 Aor.

d(f>e2vat

PARTICIPLES.
Pres.,
d(f)L€i<;,

-elaa, -ev
20,

2 Aor.,

d(f)eL<;,

-ecaa, -ev

1

Rev.

ii.

W. H.
Plural wanting.

'

Preposition augmented.

§ 112.]

VERBS IN

-fii— FIRST CLASS.

119

Middle and Passive.
INDICATIVB.
Pres.,
a(f>L€/jLat,,

-crai,

-rat
-to

Plural,

a<j>L€/jL66a, -o-^e,

-vtul

Impf.,

a(^iefi7]Vi

-ao,

dcfyiifieda,

-a6e, -vro

Perf., sing., ac^elfiai „
plur., a(f)6ifjLeda
d(j)eL/JLTJV

a(^elcraL

acpelTai

acpetaOe
d(j)6L(T0

dcpecvTat or dcpecovTac'*
d(j)6lT0, K,T.\,

Plup.,

IMPERATIVE.
Pres., d(f)L€(7o or d(l>Lov

dcpteadco, k.t.\.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Pres., d<f)i(ofiac,
-ifj,

-irjrai, k.t.X,

-ccofMeOa, -iTjcrde, -Icovrai

OPTATIVE.
Pres.,
INFINITIVE.
d(f)L0L/JL7)v

or d(^Lei^r}v, -olo or -eto, -olro or -€lto,

ac.t.X.

Pres., d(l)[€(rdai

PARTICIPLE.
Pres., d<j)L€fievo^

Middle only.
INDICATIVE. Put.,
d(j)i]<70fiai

2 Aor.,

dtpelfirjv,

as Plup.

IMPERATIVE.
2AoT.yd<f)ov, d<f)e(r6co

acpeade, dcpecrdcoaav

SUBJUNCTIVE.
2AoT.,d(f)(OfjLai,
-fjy

-rjraL, /c.r.X.

OPTATIVE.
Put.,
INFINITIVE.
d(f>7j(rol'fi7)v

2 Aor.,

dtpotfirjv, -oio,

-olto

Put,
PARTICIPLES.
Put.,
*

d^i]a€<T6ai

2 Aor., dcpiaOai,

d(l>7ja'6fi€V0f!
is

2 Aor.,
form, and
is

d<f>€/jL€VO<;

This

the more

common

taken from the Doric dialect.

120

^^RBS

IN' -|ii— FIRST

CLASS.

[§112

Passive only.
INDICATIVE.
Fut.,
d(}>€6i](T0/jLai,

1 Aor., dcpeOrjv

IMPERATIVE.
1 Aor., d(f)€dr]TC

SUBJUNCTIVE.
1 Aor.,

a^e^w

OPTATIVE.
Put.,
INFINITIVE.
Flit.,
d(j)€d7](roLjjL7jv

1 Aor., d(f)e6ei7]v

d^eOrjo-eaOai

1 Aor., d^eOrjvai

PARTICIPLES.
Fut.,
dcfieOrjcrofievo^

1 Aor., d<f>e6el^

VERBALS.
a<j)6T0f:

d(f)€T60f^

Second Class.
113.
2.
1.

Verbs in

-w/jlo

or -wvfii,

These verbs have no Second Aorist.^

Most of them have a kindred form of the First Conjugation,

From this form are taken often, the Indicative Preor -vvvw. and Imperfect, with the Present Infinitive generally, the Present and always, the Subjunctive and Optative moods. Thus, Participle
in
-vvci)

sent

;

;

from

8€iK-,
;

show,

we sometimes

find the forms SeLKvvo),

-€ts,

-«, SeiKvveiv,
SeLianxa,
-779,

SuKvvoiv
•7/
;

while the only Present Subjunctive recognised
ScLKvvotfjLL.

is

and the only Present Optative,

In the paradigms, these forms of the First Conjugation are marked by a dagger
3.
(t).

All the tenses but the Present and Imperfect are formed from

the stem (without -w-).
*

These are placed separately for comparison.
^<r^r}v.

With one

exception, in classic Greek, ff^hpvfu, to qiiench; Second Aor.,

§

114.}

VERBS IN

-|ii

—SECOND
to

CLASS.

121

114.

Paradigms of heUw^i,

show,

and

^oovw/jlc, to gird.

Stem (consonant), decKActive.
INDICATIVE.
Pres.,
Bel/cvvfic or f^eiKvvo)

(vowel), ^o-

^(ovvvfit or f^covvveo
^(tivvv;
^(ovvvecfii k.t.X.

ScLKW^
helKvvaiiv)
BeUvvfjiev

BeLKvvec<;,

k.t.X.

BeUvvre
BeLKvvai^v)
Impf., eBelfcvvv or feSeiKvvov
eheiKVUf;

^(OVVVT€

i^covvvv or fi^covvvov
i^(ovvv<i

iSeLKwe^;,
K.T.X,

i^oovvves, k.t.X.

iSeiKvv
iBeiKvvfiev

e^covvv
i^covvvfJLev

€0€LKVVT€
iSeiKvvcrav
IMPERATIVE.
Pres.,

i^a)vvvT6

heiKvv or BeUvvOi
SeLKVVTCO

^davvv or ^covvvOt
^a)vvvT(o
^(t)VVVT€

helKvvre

BeiKvvTcoaav
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Pres., iheLKvvto

^covvvTcoaav

OPTATIVE.
Pres., fBeLKpvoifii
INFINITIVE. Pres.,

BeiKvvvat or fBeiKPvetv

^(ovvvvai or f^cDvvveiv

PARTICIPLES.
Pres.,

BetKvv^, -vo-a^orfSecKvixov ^(ovvv<;, -vera, or "f^cavvvcdv

122

VERBS IN
Stem, SeLK-

-|ii

— SECOND

CLASS.

[§ 114.

Co-

Middle and Passive.
INDICATIVE.
Pres.,
BeiKvvfjiat

BetKvv/jbeda

^covvu/jLai,

^covvvfJLeOa

BeLKVvaat
BeiKVvrai

BeiKwaOe
SeL/cvvvrat

^covvva-ac

^(ovvva-de

t(ovvvTac
e^cavvv fxr^v

KoivvvvTai
i^covvv/jLeOa

Impf., iSeiKVv/irjv iSetKVV/xeda

eoeiKvvao

eoeiKvvaoe
iBeiKvvvTO

e^oovpvao
i^covvvTO

e^covvvo-oe

iBeUvvTO
IMPERATIVE.
Pres.,

i^covvvvro

BeiKvvao
SecKVvadco

BeLKVvaOe

^covvvao

^oovvvaOe

BecKVvadcoaav ^covvvaOco

^(ovvvaOcoaav

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Pres., fBecKvvcofjLat,
"f^covvvco/jLat,

OPTATIVE.
Pres., fBeLKVvolfiTjv

f^covvvoifirjv

INFINITIVE.
Pres.,

BeiKwa-QaL OT'fBeiKvveaOai ^(ovvvaOai or f^covvveo-dat

TENSES AETEK THE MODEL OP THE FIRST CONJUGATION.
INDICATIVE.
Fut.,
Perf.,

Active.
Bei^co
fa)cr&)

1 Aor., eBet^a

e^coa-a

SeSetp^a

e^coKa

Plup.,

(i)B€B6L')(^€LV

i{c)^(OK€LV

IMPERATIVE.
1 Aor., Bet^ov

SUBJUNCTIVE.
it, f

1 Aor., Bel^co
OPTATIVE.
Put.,
Perf.,

^axrco

Perf.,

8eSe/;;^a)

egcdKco

Bel^Olflt
BeBel^x^oc/jLL

^(OCTOL/ill

1 Aor., Bel^atfii

^(oaatfit,

§ 114.]

VERBS IN
Stem, 8eLK-

-|xi

—SECOND

CLASS.

123

^o-

INFINITIVE.

Fut.,
Perf.,

Bel^etv

^coo-ecv

1 Aor., Bet^ac

^axrai

BeBei^evat

i^coKevai

Middle and Passive.
INDICATIVE.
Perf.,

BeBecyfiat

e^axTfiaL

Plup.,

iBeBelyfiTjv i{c)^a)(r/jLr}p

IMPERATIVE.
Perf.,

BeBei^o

BeBel'^do),

K.T.X.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Perf.,
B€B6t,yfievo<; a>
€^(oafJLevo<; a>

OPTATIVE.
Perf.,
BeBecy/jLevo^; etrju

INFINITIVE.
Perf.,
BeBe'l')(6ai

Middle only.
INDICATIVE.

Put.,

Bei^ojxai

^(oa-ofiai

1 Aor., iBei^d/xrjv

i^coadfirjv

IMPERATIVE.
1 Aor., Bel^ai

^coaai

SUBJUNCTIVE.
1 Aor., Bel^cofiac
^(oo-cofiat

OPTATIVE.
Fut.,
INFINITIVE.
Bei^Oi/JLTJV
^COCTOLflTJV

1 AOT., Bet^aLflTJV

^COO-aLfJLTjV

Fut.,

Bel^eadac

^coa-eaOai,

1 Aor.,

Bei^aaOai

^axraaOaL

PARTICIPLES.
Fut.,

Bei^ofievo^ ^coaofxevo^

1 Aor., Bet^d/jL6vo<;

^wadfievo^

124

VEP.BS IN -lAi— SECOND CLASS.

[§ 114.

Stem, SeLK-

Co-

Passive only.
INDICATIVE.
Fut.,
Bet'^d'tjaofMac
^coadijcro/jLac

1 Aor., iBei')(p7}v i^axj-drjv

IMPERATIVE.
1 Aor., Sel'^OrjTi,
,

^(oadrjTL

SUBJUNCTIVE,
1 Aor., Sec^Oco
,

^coadct)

OPTATIVE.
Fut.,
B6L')(6r)(T0L^7}V

^(O(TBr)G0lfl7}V

1 Aor.,
INFINITIVE.

Fut.,
,

Bei^OrjaeaOcu

^(0(T6rj<rea6ai
^(Dcrdrjvac

1 Aor., Bei'^Orjvac

VERBALS.

BecKTo^

Set/creo?

t(0(TT6<;

t(OC

Eemarks on the Paradigms.
115.
a.

The quantity
a,
€,

of the v

is

marked in a
in the
first

sufficient

number

of
-^t,

cases to indicate the rest.

Where,

class

of verbs in

the stem-vowel

or o

is

made

long, the v of the second class is also

lengthened.
b.

Thus,

TiOy/jLL, SetKvv/ja,

but

TiOe/xev, SetKvvfxev.

Verbs of

this class

seldom occur in the

New

Testament, with the

exception of SiUw/jLL and aTroXXv/xt.

(See below.)

Verbs with Consonant- stems, like SeUwfii,
116.
1.
/xtyvv/xt, to

mix

(stem,

[t-iy-),

only found in the

New

Testament

in forms like the First Conjugation.
fi,€fXLyfxaL.

First Aorist, c/xt^a; Perfect Passive,

2.

oXXvfxtf

to

destroy, to

lose (stem,

with the

V assimilated, oXXv/xt),

hence 6\-wfXL and only found in the New Testament with
6\- or
oXe-;

!

— —
VEEBS IN
airo.
-Jit

§ 117.]

— SECOND

CLASS.

125
Middle
collateral

the prefixed preposition,

Present Indicative, d7roX\v/xt;

and Passive,
:

aTroAAv^at.

Cliiefly

found in tenses derived from

stem a-TToXc- Active Puture, dTroXeVo), once aTroXoi]^ First Aorist, aTrwAeo-a; Perfect, witli neuter meaning, / jpefi'ish ! dTrdXwXa ; Middle Puture,
aTToXovyotat
;

Second Aorist,

aTrwXo/xT/v ;

Present Participle,

o\

aTroXXvfMevot

often, the peiishing.
3.
ofxvvfjii,

to szvear (stem,

6\i-

or

ojio-).

The forms used
Aorist,

in the JS'ew

Testament are Present, as of Pirst Conjugation, o/xvvw, o/xvveiv (but in

Mark

xiv.

71,

W.

H. read d/xvwat); Pirst

wfxoaa; Infinitive,

d/jtofrat,

from

6|xo-.

4.

pr/ywfxi,

to

tear (stem,

pav-).
ix.

Present Passive Indicative, third

person plural, p-qyvvvrat (Matt.
p-q<r(T<i)y

17); but generally with forms as from

pT^idi.

Verbs with Vowel-stems, like
117.
!•

^cowv/jit

A-Stems.

KcpdvwfxL, to
;

mix

(stem, K€pa-).

Only

twice, First

Aorist, cKepao-a (Rev. xviii. 6)

Perfect Participle Passive, KeKepao-ixevos

(Rev. xiv. 10).
2.

E-Stems.

Ivw/xt, to clothe (stem,

fk-),

only found with the prefixed
Indicative,

preposition,
singular,

d/x^t,

about.

Present Active
vi.

third

person

d/x<^i€Vvvo-t(v)

(Matt.

30),

and Perfect Passive
yix(f>L€(7/x€vov

Participle,
xi.

with augment prefixed to the preposition,

(Matt.

8

;

Luke

vii.

25).
to

KopevvufjiL,

satisfy

(stem,

Kope-).

First

Aorist Passive Participle,
Participle,

KopeaOeLs
(1

(Acts
8).

xxvii.

38)

;

Perfect

Passive

KCKopeafiivos

Cor. iv.
a-pivvvixL,

to extinguish (stem, o-pc-).

Future Active,

o-piaia

;

Future

Passive,
3.

a/S^o-Oi^crofxaL.

0-Stems. pwvwixi, to strengthen (stem, po-), found only in the Perfect Middle Imperative, eppwcro plural, eppwaOe, he strong/ i.e.,
]

Farewell
1

1 Cor.

i.

19,

from

LXX.

126
a-TpwvvvfiL,
o-Tpwvi/vo)
;

VERBS IN
to strew or

-fjii— SECOND

CLASS.

[§ 117.

spread (stem,

o-rpo-).

Present forms as from
Participle

First Aorist Active,

ea-rpwa-a;

Perfect

Passive,

€a'Tp(DflivO<S.

If the

above verbs, with their significations, are
stages.

now committed

to

memory,

some trouble may be saved at subsequent

Exercise 14.— On the Second Conjugation, or Verbs in

-fxi.

[The following examples of verbs in -|it occur in the " Sermon on the Mount," and are here presented for analysis. In addition to explanations already given (see Exercise 13, on the Defective Verbs), it must be noted that the prefix aTro- (from, away from) with the verb StSco/xt has
the sense of return:
a7ro8i8(u/xt,

to give

hack; and kin- with the same

verb

may be

rendered over; ovti signifies against.]
lctOl, el, co-to), icrea-Oe,

Forms.

ia-nv, co-tc, ccrrat,

y, oVra, ovtc?, ri^eao-tv,

7rpo(T$€ii/aL, 7rpo(TTeOrj(T€TaL, avTLCTTTJvai, 809, Soto), SiSov, aTToSws, 7rapa8(3, So)T€,
€7rt8(jocret,

So^ryorerat, StSovat, a<^e9, a(fii€fx€v, acfirJTe, ac^rjcrei, hvvacraL, Svj/arat,
6jx6crrj<;,

hvvao'Oe, K€LfX€vr], airoXrjraL, ofxoa-ai,

piq^oicnv, apic^Uvvvcriv.

Exercise 15.— General, upon the Verbs.
*^*

The learner should now be expert
to its stem.
is

in tracing

any verbal
list of

form
verbs

As

a test of proficiency, the

following

subjoined, taken in order from the Second Epistle to the

Thessalonians.
and,

Let the stem, conjiigation

class,

voice,

mood,

tense,

when necessary, the number and person, of every one be written down if possible, without reference to any paradigm. Prefixes not belonging to tlie root are printed in thick type. The Vocabulary or Lexicon must be consulted for the meaning of the words.
;

CHAPTER
3. €v;(api(rT€tv,

I.

irXeovd^ei. 4. Kav^aaOai (how between the First and Second do you distinguish in such a word
o<^€tXo/x€v,

vTrtpav^dviL,

Conjugations?),

dve;)(€(r^e.

5.

Koaa^naOrivai,
8.

7rdcr)(€T€.

6.

dvTairooowai,
\maKovov(Ti

OXi^ovcTiv (Participle).

7.

OXt/Sofxivot'S.

SiSoVto?,

ciSocrt,

§ 117.]
(Participle).
ova-Lv
9.
t'hjovg-lv.

EXEKCISES.
10.
tX6r}^

127
Oavfiaa-OrjvaLj
d^Koorry,

IvSo^ao-^rJvai,
'irpo<reu;)(o/x€^a,

TnoTev-

(Participle),

€7n(TTev6rj.

11.

TrXrjpoxry.

12. ivBoiaaOy.

CHAPTER
1.

II.

ipoyToyfiev.
CL'jroKa\v(f)Orj .

2.

craXevOrjvaL,
4.

OpoiZaOai,

kvicTTrjKev.

3.

k^a7raTy]crrj,

^\0r),

avriKet/x-evo?,

virepatpo/xevo?,
6. KaTe;(OV,

Xcyo^cvov,

KaGtcrat,

diroSei/cvtVra.
7.

5. fxvqfJiOvevcTe, eXeyov.

otSare, a.iroKa\v(f)$rjvai.

evcpyetrat, Kare'^^wv, yivqrat.

8. diroKaXut^^T^crcTat, dvaXcucret, KarapyrjcreL.

10. diroAAv/>t€v069, eSe^avTO, crco^^i/at.
tliis

11.

Trifxij/eL,

Trtcrrcvo-at
Kpt^uJo-t,

(distinguish
TrtcrTcvcravTcs,

from Optative forms, as in
13.
;

ver.

17).

12.

€v8oKr;crai/Te9.

o(^etXo/x€V,
rzo^e),

€v;(apt(rT€rv,

rjyaTrrjixevoL,

elXero (eiAaro is

read by
KpareLTC,
(TT-qpi^ai

W.

H.

see § 97,

14. cKoAeo-ev.
8oi;s.

15. o-rrjKere (see § 108, 4),

iSiSaxOyre.

16. dya7r77cra9,

17. irapaKaAeVat

(Optative),

(Optative).

CHAPTER m.
1.
'n'poflrcv;(€cr^e,

rpiyrj, So^d^Tyrat.

2.

pvcrOio/xcv.
5.

3.

0"n)pL^€L, (jyvXa^eL,

4. 6.

7re7rot'^ap,ev,

irapayyeAAo/xev,

TrotetTc, TrotT^crcrc.

KaTci/^wat (Optative).

(rreAAccr^at, irepiTrarovvTO?, irapeAa^e.
8.

7.

ixL/x€L(rOaL, ^raKTi^a-afjLev

(from
8oj/xcv.

draKTea)).

e^dyo/X€V,

ipya^ofxcvot,
^e'Aei,

i-ni^aprjc ai.

9.

exop-ev,

10.

^p.€V,

irapT/yyeAAo/xev,

ipyd^ccrOat,

icrOUTU).

11.

aKoro/xcv,

cpya^o/xevovs,

irepiepyo^o/xei/ov?.

12. irapaKoAov/Aev,

icrOtoicnv.

13. ^K^a-

K-qcTjTC, KoXoTTOtovvTe?.

14. viraKOvci, (rrjp.eiov(r6€y o-uvava/xtyvvcr^e, kvrpair^.
16.
Scui;.

15. riyeiaOe, vovOeTCLTe.

17. ypdcfxn.

Exercise 16.— Short Sentences.
I.

The Beatitudes

(Matt. v. 3-10).

These and the following sentences are given chiefly as practice in applying the rules of conjugation and declension. As the clauses
are complete in sense, they necessarily involve the principles of S}Titax
;

but no

difficulties in

construction will be found.

For the use of the

Cases, see § 11.

The

references in the Notes to succeeding parts of the

work

will also

be useful.

Observe that throughout the Beatitudes the substantive verb are inust be supplied with the predicate, fxaKdpioi, hlessccL (See § 166.) 6'rt is because
(§ 136,
6).

128
1.

EXERCISES.
MttKaptot ol TTToy^oi
tcu TrvevfxazL'^

K
rj

117.

ort avTwi/- €(ttIv

jSacrtActa

twv

2. fiaKapiOL ol 7r€vOovvT€^'^ OTL avTol 7rapaKXr)6rj(TOVTaL.
3. 4.

fxaKapiOi OL Trpaets*
jxaKapioi ol

on

avrol KXrjpovo/Jiya-ovcn r-qv

yyjv-

7reLV(x)VT€<5

kol Sti/^wvTes* rrjv SiKaioa-uvrjv'

on

avrot X^P"

Tacr6r]crovTaL.
5.
6.
fJiaKOLpLOL

ol

iX€r]jxove<S'

otl avTol IXi-qQ-qcovTai.

fxaKapioi ol KaOapol Trj KapBia'
[XaKOipiOi ol
ilprjVOTTOLOL'

on

avrol tov 0eov oxf/ovrau^

7.

OTL avTol vlol^

0€OV
*

K\r]6rj(T0VTaL.
icrrlv
rj

8.

/xaKapLOL ol SeSttoy/AeVot eve/ccv^ StKatoo-vnys

oTiavTwv

f^aaikua

Toiv

ovpavwv.
II.

From John

i.

Prepositions.
d-TTo,

Adverb
Xwpts,

ttsed as Preposition,

with Gen.,

/roT/i,

o/ (a place).
of,

with Gen.,

ivithout.

Sid,
€K,
iv,

by means
out
in,
of.

Negative Adver'bs.
plural,
ov, not.

with Dat.,

with

among.
irapdj
TTpos,

ovSe, not even.

with Gen., /?'om (of persons).

with Ace,
details,

WTj^o,

with

307,
Kttt,

Conjunctions.

r. 2).

and
as

136,

1).

Further

Ch. VI., and Syntax.

0)9,

(§ 136,

2).

Verses 1-5.
"El/ apx]7
"V*^

o Xoyos,
Iv

/cac

6 A-oyos

r]v

Trpos

tov

0€OV, Kat 0eos

^j'

o

Xoyos.^

ovTO<; yjv

o.py;rj

irpo^ tov ®e6v.

TravTa 8l

avTOV

eyevero,^ Kat

^ 2 ^

Dative

:

in

(the) spirit, as hereafter
theirs.

explained, § 280, /.
200.

Compare

tt/

Kapdla, 6

Of

til

em =
4, 8.

The mourning ones = <^05c

wJio

mourn,

§

Compare the
§ 281, a.

Participles in

sentences
*

Hungering and thirsting /or righteousness (ace),
See
§ 103, 4.

6
^

7
^

Nominative after a copulative verb. For the sake of (gen.), § 133.
6 Xd7os is

See

§ 165, note.

the subject, § 206.
§ 173.

*

Singular verb, with plural neuter nominative,

§ 117.]

EXEKCISES.
Iv o yeyovev.

121)

Xwpt? avTOv iyev€TO ovSc
TO
(^ojg

iv

avrw

t,(j)rj

rjv,

kol
rj

rj

t,oir]

rjv

tCjv av6pu}7r(x)Vf kol

to

<f>(i)S

€v ttj o-kotlo. (^atVci, kol

(TKoria avro

ov KOTeXajSev,

Verse 14.

Kat

6 Xo'yo?

aapi

eycVero, kol

€(TK-qvo)(r€V

iv

rj/xiv

(kol iOeacrdfieOa ttjv
7rXt]pr]<?

So^av avTOV,
aXrjOi.ia'i.

B6$av

ws /xovoyevoCs Trapa

Trarpos')

^dptTO^

Kat

Verses 45, 46.
EvpL(TK€L ^L\i7nro<; Tov 'SaOavaTjX, Kal Xiyet
iv

avTw}

''^Ov'^

€ypaif/e

MwvcttJs

TW

VOfJiCO

KOL

OL

TTpOC^T^Tttt^

€Vpi^KafJL€V,

'Ir](T0VV^

vloV

TOV

'I(jO(T^0

TOV^

dirb

Na^apeV.

Kat cTttcv avT<}^
avraj^ ^tXtTTTros,

Na^ara^X, 'Ek Na^aper Swarat
Kat
tSe.

Tt dya^oif

cti'at;^ Xcyet

''Ep;>(Oi;

III.

Selected Sentences.
Conjunctions,
8e, hut.

Prepositions (additional).
€is,
(TTL,

with Ace,

into.
to.

oTt, thai.

IxcTa,

with Gen., together with.
'Erot/xacraTe'^
'iTyo-oi),

1.
2.

t^v

oSop'

Kvptov.

i\€r}a'6v' fie.
<f>u)veL
(re,
(Tf.

3.

®dp(T€ij^ eyeipaij

4. 5.
6.

H

TTLCTTLS

(TOV (T€CrOiK€

A^ewvrat

(Tov at d/xaprtat.

^vviSpo-fii^ Trpos auTOvs vras 6 Xao9,

7. 8.
9.

M€TCKaX€0"aTO Tovs 7rp€(r^vT€povs T^s
MaKaptoi/
ccTTt

eKKX>/crtas.

StSdvat /jtctAXov

17

Xafx^dvecv.
7rop€V(rrj.

KatVapa^

CTTtKCKXrycrai, CTTt

KatVapa

^

•*

*
•^

^

^

To him, dative after the verb of saying, § 278, 6. Understand him as antecedent: "him whom," § 347. Understand eypaxpav. (Namely) Jcsiis, in apposition (§ 177) with the antecedent (2) above. Simply refers to viov (§ 230, a), not to be translated. The infinitive dependent on duvarai (§ 389, a), can anything good he ? For the sense of the Aoiist Imperative, and its distinction from the Present,

§

373
8

may
§

be consulted.
(5).

See

103

'

To

Cajsar: prep, implied in verb (§ 281, a).

See

("*)

on the Beatitudes.

K

130
10.

EXEKCISES.
Avd(TTr]6i,^ KOL (TTrjOt^
CTTt

[§ 117-

TOv<s TToSa?

aov.
Kocr/xu).

11. 12. 13.

H
Q<s

7rto"Tts

vfiiov

KarayyeA-Aerat iv oXo) tw

FiV<l>pdvOr]Te,^ Wvr}, fx,€Ta
(ro<:f)6<i

rov Xaov avTOv.

dp)(^LT€KT(DV Oe/jiiXLov TeOeiKa,
riOrj

dWos

Se cTrotKoSo/xet.

14. ^detpovatv 15.

^^crO'^

6/xtXtat
(Tvvi')(€i

KaKaL
rjixas.

H

dyaTrr)

rov ^pi(rTov
Ty/xas,

16. Xa)/)7j(raT€^
eTrXeoveKTT^ca/xev.

ovSeVa

^St/<>;o-a;u,ei/,

ovSeVa

i(fi6eLpafji€V,

ovSeVa

17.

IlavTa 3oKt//,a^€Tc

^

to KaXoi/ Karep^ere*^

(xtto

Travros ct8ovs Trovvpov^

dir€)(^ea6e.^

18.

IIto"Tos* 6
€is

Xoyos

Kttt

Trdcrrj'i

d7ro8o)(yj<i^

agios, ort

Xpto"Tos

'It^o^oC";

^XOev

rov

KocTfJLOv

a/xaprwXous
Trj<s

o'wa'at.^

19. 'HvotyT^ 6 vao<s

aKr]urj<s

rov fxapTvptov iv tw ovpav<^.

1

For the sense of the Aorist Imperative, and

its

distinction from the Present,

§ 373
2

may

be consulted.
evil, 1

See §

3, h,

^ ^
^ ^

From

every form of

Thess. v. 22,
note.

Understand e(XTi. Compare on the Beatitudes, prefixed Genitive, by a^ios, worthy of (§ 272).
Infinitive, expressing ^wr^osc, as in English.

(See § 389,

?>,

1.)


§

119.J

PREPOSITIONS.

131

Chapter YI.

PEEPOSITIONS.

" cases,"

118. It was stated in § 11 that three forms of inflection, or in Nouns are used, to denote three several relations of
:

place

the Genitive implying motion

from ; the Dative,

rest in, or

and the Accusative, motion toiuards. The cases thus severally answer the questions, Whence ? Where ? Whither ?
connection loith ;

With
relations,

this general distinction

are connected very

many

other

which are expressed by the same three

cases,

with the

aid of Prepositions.

To Syntax
tions,

it

belongs to exhibit the various meanings of the preposi-

and
list

their place in sentences.
of the chief of them,

For the present,

it Avill

suflice

to

give a
is

with their general

significations.

This

necessary, partly because several adverbs (see § 132) are derived from
;

prepositions

but chiefly because of the important place which preposi(See Chapter X.)

tions hold in the composition of verbs.

Prepositions
1.

may govern
:

2.
3.

4.
5.

The The The The The

Genitive only
:

Wlience,

?-

Dative only Where ? Accusative only Whither
:

.?

Genitive and Accusative

:

Mlience
:

?

Genitive, Dative, and Accusative

Whither? Whence ? Wliere

?

TVTiither ?

119.

Prepositions governing the Genitive only.
to,

avTL (opposition, equivalent), ovei' a(jainst, ojyposed
ttTrd

indead

of.

(motion from the exterior), from, away from.
i^ (motion

Ik,

TTpo, before,

from the interior), from, oid whether of time or place.

of.

To

these

may be added most
;

of the " improper" prepositions, as they

are often called

being really adverbs with a prepositional government.

(For a Hst of these, see § 133.)

132

ITvEPOSlTICNS.

120.

120.
iv, in,

Peepositions governing the Dative
of time, place, or element
;
;

oni.v.

among.
/-tcra), ivitli.

(Tvv

(union of co-operation

compare

121.
ava (up

Prepositions governing the Accusative only.
in),

used in

tlie

phrases ava fxiaov, in the midst of ;

di^a fX€po<i,

in turns (1 Cor. xiv. 27).
C4S

(motion to the

interior), into, to, unto,

with a view

to.

122.
Sid,
of.

Prepositions governing the Genitive and Accusative.
Gen. (through,
as proceeding from), through, by
of,

through.

means

Ace. (through, as tending towards), on account
Kara, down.

owing

to.

Gen. (down from
to,

:

so,

literally,

1

Cor. xi.

4), against.

Ace. (down towards), according
ixerd

throughout, during, over.
o-w).

(union of locality

;

compare

Gen., together with, among.

Ace., after.
irepi,

around.
2).

Gen., about, concerning, on behalf of;
about,

once, above

(3

John
vTrif),

Ace,

round about.
,

over.

Gen., above, on behalf of for.

Ace,

beyond.

vTTo, under."

Gen., by (of the agent or efficient cause).

in the ]iower of, close u;pon (as
early").

Acts

v. 21, close

Ace, under, upon morning, i.e., "very

123.

Prepositions governing the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative.
Gen., upon (as springing from), over, in the pre

cTTt

(superposition).

sence of, in the time of.

Dat., upon (as resting on), in addition
(used of place, number, aim),
overr

to,

on

account

of.

Ace, up

to

(of time,

place, extent).

irapd (juxtaposition).
ttTTo

Gen. (from

beside), from, used of persons, as
ivith,

of places.

Dat.

(at

the side of), near,

of persons only, except

124. J
xix. 25.

PREPOSITIOXS.
Ace.
(to,

133
witli^ z.e.,

John

or along the side of), beside, compared
to,

so as to be
irpos (in

shown

beyond, or contrary

instead
of,
to.

of.

the direction of).

Gen., in favour
reference

only in Acts xxvii. 34.

Dat.,

at, close by.

Ace, towards, in

124.
may

Synoptical Table of the Peepositioxs.

The Prepositions are here exhibited, in groups, both because their meaning thus be more easily remembered, and because the comparison, both in meaning and form, suggests some interesting points of relationship. For further Only details the student may consult Goodwin's Greek Grammar (Macmillan). the general meaning of every preposition is given in the following table and
;

the initial capitals denote the cases governed.
tions in classic Greek,
Q.
ttTTo,

Cases found with certain preposi-

but not in the

New

Testament, are l)racketed.

in reference to the exterior, from.

C

G.

Ik,
Iv,
€19,

in reference to the interior, from, proclitic.

\ (
(

D.
A.

„ „

iJi,

,.

to,

(d.) a.
G. A. G. D. A.
G. D. A.

dvd,

(
/

Kara,
Ittl,

up; opposite of Kara. down ; opposite of dra.

superposition, up>on.

I

Trapa, juxtaposition, beside.
Trpo'?,

G. D. A.
G. (d.) a.

propinquity, toioards.

TTcpt,
d/x,<^i,

circumvention, entire

;

around.
;

(q. d, a. )

circumvention, partial
{super).
(sub).

about.

{G.

A.

virip, ove\' ;
vTTo,

G. A.

under;

{G.

A.

ix€TOL,

association, with, after

D.

arvv,

co-operation, with.

{G.
G. G. A.

dvTL, opposition, specific, over
TTpo,
Stix,

against

opposition, general, in front of, before.

through, kindred with
parts.

Si-o,

and regarding the object

as

divided into two
a/x<^t

is

not found in the

New

Testament, except in composition.
rare.

In
it

Greek its use is comparatively means about, or around.
classic
Accenttuition.
ix, iv.

With

all

three cases

— The

Prepositions are all oxytcne except the proclitics, eh,

134

PREPOSITIONS.

[§ 125.

125. For further
Syntax.

details

as

to

the meaning and use of the

prepositions, see Chapter X., especially the Table, § 147, a; also

In explanation of the very various significance which may belong to the same preposition, two points should be noted: (1) that its meaning

by the signification of the verb that it may follow, and by that of the noun which it governs, as also b)'' the case of and (2) that as all languages have a far smaller number of the latter words than there are shades of thought to express, one Avord must often have many applications. Then, as no language is exactly parallel, word for word, with any other, the variations of meaning included under one Greek term, for instance, will not be the same as those embraced by the
will be necessarily modified
;

nearest English equivalent.

often he translated /o?' / but the applications of the two words, though perhaps equally various,
v-n-ip

Thus,

may

are very far

from being identical

:

§ 127.]

ADVERBS.

135

Chapter YII.

ADYEKBS.
original

form of an Adverb, is some case of a substantive, a pronoun, or an adjective agreeing with a noun understood fixed absolutely in that shape to express some quality, manner, place, or time.

126. The simplest, and perhaps the
;

a.

The Accusative

is

very often thus employed, as

d/cyiiTJv

(Matt. xv. 1 6),

yet^ lit.,
is

"up

to (this) point ;" irepav, on the other side.

In like manner

used the accusative neuter of
the article
TToAAa,
:

many

adjectives,

both singular and plural;

often with

as,

to AotTrov, furthermore (once, tov Xolttov, Gal.
So, possibly from obsolete adjec-

vL 17);

TO.

for the most part.

tives, crrjixipov, to<laij ; avptov, to-morroio ; x^^'?? yesterday.
h.

The Dative (sometimes
Tr^lrj,
:

as i8ia, privately ;

omitted

Travrrj,

found Here the iota subscript is often always (Acts xxiv. 3, in some copies, TrdvTrj) eiK^,
in an obsolete form) is also frequently

by land.

;

mthout
c.

a cause.
Genitive occurs in avrov, there, as well as in other forms

The

which

will
d.
is

be noticed inunediately.

In some instances, a preposition
Trapaxprjfj.a,
lit.,

used adverbially, as

written as one word immediately, lit., " along with the
tvith its case

business;" e^at^vr;?, suddenly,
order,
e.

"from a

steep descent;"

KaOe$7]<s,

in

lit.,

"according to a special course."
older form of the language

and

employed the terminations -0€v, -9i, Dat., Ace), and when they became obsolete in ordinary declension, they were retained as adverbial terminations to denote whence, where, and whither. Thus ovpavoOev, from heaven; TraiSioOev, from childhood (Mark ix. 21) Tripvcrt (the -cri standing for the older -0i), last year (2 Cor. viii. 10; ix. 2). These terminations are also found in adverbs derived from prepositions and other adverbs, on which see § 132.
-8€

The

as

case-endings of nouns (Gen.,

:

;

Adverbs
127. The most

in

-ws.
is,

common form

of adverbs

however, that in

-cj§.

This termination, which answers exactly in meaning to our finaJ

136
syllable -ly}
is

ADVERBS.

[§ 127.

affixed to adjective-stems of all forms, the stem-

ending, where needful, being modified.

For example

:

First form (§ 34),

SiKaLo<;, Just, 8iKaio-;
;

StKatMS, justly.

Second form
Third form
Participles
ovT'), really.

(§ 37), Tra?, all, iravr-

Travro)?,
;

wholly.

(§ 41), aXrjOrj^, true, dXTjOeo--

aXrjOCjs, truly.

may

also use this adverbial form, as oVtws (from wv,

stem

Ttt^v

Sometimes an adverb made from an adjective appears in two forms: as and raxews, quickly ; evOvs (probably a corrupt form of cvOv) and
immediately.

€v6eiD<;,

Comparison of Adverbs.
128. The comparative
plural.
of adverbs is generally the neuter singular
;

accusative of the corresponding adjective

the superlative, the neuter

XX. 4); 2
€i5s,

raxews (or ra^v), quickly ; Ta^iov^ more quickly (John TaxiOTTa, most quickly (Acts xvii. 15); €v, ivell (probably from
:

Thus

an old equivalent of dya^o?); P^Xtlov, better (2 Tim. i. of other than adjective derivation conform to this model. (see § 132) is found avoixepov.

18).

Adverbs So from av<o

Some comparatives
ahundantly.

take the termination -w?, as

Trepia-a-oTipo)';,

more

An
most.
classic

irregular comparative

and superlative are iwXkov, more ;
a-yyicrja..

/xaXio-Ta,

So, acro-ov, nearer (Acts xxvii. 13), attributed to the adverb (in

Greek) ayx^ near; superlative,

Pronominal Adverbs, used also as Conjunctions.
129. Several adverbs are formed indirectly or directly from pronouns and, like pronouns, are demonstrative, relative, interrogative, dependent interrogative, and indefinite (enclitic).
;

^

It is possibly

an old dative plural
rdxciou.

:

-a;j

= -ots. The
;

accentuation generally follows

that of the genitive plural of the adjective
*

as oiKaioju, diKaicos, dXrjOQy, d\T}6(oi.

But W. H. read

Cf. § 43, note.


§ 131.]
ADVERBS.

;

137

The following Table gives the chief pronominal adverbs found
in the

New

Testament

:

Demonstrative.

Relative.

Interi-osative.

Dependeut
Interrogative.

Indefinite.

Time
Placo

...

rbre, then
vvv, vvvi,

now

when TjviKu, when
5t€,
o5,

TTOTe;

when?

biroTe,

when

TTore,

some-

time
Kov', U'hcre?
oTTov,

...

avTov, here
(35e,
e/ce?,

where

where

TTov,

some-

here
iKeiae,

where

there, thitlier

ivddde, hither

hrevdev, hence,
thence

66 €v, whence
ws, as

TTodev,

whence?
oTTWs,

Manner

oi!tw(s), thtis, so

TT'is;

how?

how

7rw(s),

some-

irdrepov, wliethcr

how

The

correlatives in the

above Table

Avill

be immediately perceived.
§ 62,

For further details compare undei* Pronouns, especially
oxjTta^ so,

and Syntax.
is

becomes

ovTui<i

before a vowel, and the indefinite ttw

always

7rw9,

except in composition.

It will

relative

be observed that the scheme of adverbs is incomplete in the and interrogative divisions, by the omission of the (accusative)
Classic

form

Greek supplies the omission by the words oX, ttol ; oTTot, but these are not found in the New Testament, the genitive forms ov, TTov; OTTOV bclug uscd. Compare in English the tendency to say " Where are you going 1" for " Whither are you going V
whithefi\

Numeral Adverbs.
130. Numeral adverbs end in -is,
cTTTaKt?,
-kis,

or -aKis, as

St?,

twice; rpi^ thrice;
xviii.

seven times;

ifSho/jLTjKovTdKi^,

seventy times (Matt,
all,
is

22);

TToXAaKts,
ocraKLs,

viany

times,

aira^,
xi.

once for
is

exceptionally formed
relative.

08 often as (1 Cor.

25, 26),

from the

Adverbs from Verbs.
131. Ancient verbal forni.s, used as adverbs, are Sevpo, hither, with its These are generally employed as imperatives, " Come thou

plural, hevTt.

13S
(or ye) hither /^^

ADVERBS.

[§131is

The imperative aye
iv.

also

employed as a kind

of

adverb,

Go

to !

(James
-{X,<a,

13

;

v. 1).

Some
-KTTi.

verbs in

expressing national peculiarity, form an adverb in

Tims, from
ifSpaicrTi,

eAAiyvt^w,

we

find eXXrjvLo-TL, in the Greek language;

similarly,

in the

Hebrew language.

Adverbs from Prepositions.
132. Many
tone).

prepositions have a corresponding adverb in -« (paroxyis

Thus, from avd
So,
lo-o),

formed avw, upioards
c^w,

;

and from Kara, Karw,

doimiiuards.

within;

without.

added
e^oiOev,

to these adverbs also,

with a genitive force

The termination -0€v is as arw^er, from above;
;

from

toithout.
is

Once, a preposition without change
xi. 23),

employed as an adverb

(2 Cor.

virlp iyo),

I (am) more^

Prepositive Adverbs, or Improper Prepositions.

133.
following

Several adverbs

may be used
list

like prepositions to

govern nouns,

and are then termed "improper"
is
:

or

"spurious"

prepositions.

The

an alphabetical

of

the principal

found in the

New

Testament

a/xa, together with.

avevj without.
axpi(9), or fii)(pL(^), until.
iyyv'5,

near (in time or space).

efXTrpocrOev, before.

IvavTLov^ in front

€V€Ka (-ev),

of againd. for the salce of
in the presence of

ivioTTLovy before,
€^<o,

without.
above.

l-rraviii,
€(r(i},

within.

€W9, as
fX€(Tov,

far

as.
ii.

in the midst o/(Phil.

15).

fjLGTa^v, betioeen.

*

So,

7r/)6j,

ton,

often in classical Greek.

§ 134. C]

ADVERBS.
OTTora), oTTLaOeVy
6i}/€,

189

behind, after.
(iNFatt. xxviii.
1).

at the end of

vXrjvy excejyt.
TrXrjaiov,

near ;

TrapaTrXrjcrLOV, vei'y near.

vTTcpeKctva,

beyond (2 Cor.

x. 16).
of.

X^-P^^i ^V fd'^our of, for the salce Xwpis, separated from, without.

Some
(Matt.

of the above,

it

is

evident, are originally adverbial forms of

adjectives
xiii.

and substantives. All govern the Genitive, except a/xa and TrapairX-qaiov (Phil. ii. 27),^ which take the Dative; 29),

as does eyyu? sometimes.

Negative Adverbs.
134.
«.

The negative adverbs

are ov

(before
jxr),

a vowel, ovk

;

before an aspirated vowel,
Accentuation.
i.

oup^), not,

and

not.
ov, JVo
!

— ov

is proclitic,

excepting where emphatic; as

(John

21).

b.

Syntax.

For an explanation of the difference between these two words, see It must suffice now to say that ov denies facts, /xrj mental con-

ceptions.

The former
latter,

is

called the " categorical " or " objective" nega-

tive;

the

the "conditional" or "subjective."
rts,

Both words

are

used in composition with
adverbs in the Table,
c.
fiTj

tl

(see § 60); also

with the indefinite
never in any case.

§ 129, as ovTray, not yet ;

ix-rj-n-oTe,

is

also used as

an interrogative adverb, expecting the answer,
tis,

no; and, in composition with the interrogative
to the hearers, as

adds a kind of appeal
:

though enlisting their assent to the negative
i.e.,

thus,

fxrJTt

cyw;

(Mark

xiv. 19), Is it I?

" It

is

not

I, is

it?"

*

But W. H. read

irapaTXrjcriov Oavarov,

140

coNjuNCTioxs.

[5:5

135.

CHArTER VIIT.

COXJUNCTION'S
PAETICLES.

AND OTHER

135
clinable

Besides the Conjunctions properly so called, used, as in other
words,

languages, to unite words and sentences, there are in Greek several inde-

with other words, for the purpose of empliasis.
be translated,
less flexible

employed sometimes separately, often in combination These cannot always the degree of emphasis being too slight for the words of

languages to convey.

These indeclinable words, together with the conjunctions themselves (and sometimes the primitive adverbs), are generally called
Particles.
It belongs to

Syntax

to discuss the place

and power
is,

of the particles in

a sentence.

All, therefore, that is

now

necessary

to classify the chief

of them,

and

to indicate their general meaning.

Classification of the Conjunctive Particles.

136. The
or (8)
result.

Conjunctions
(4)

denote

(1)

annexation,

(2)

comparison,

(3) disjunction,

antithesis,

(5) condition,

(6) reason, (7) inference,
§

The

relative

forms of the adverbs (see

129) are also

really conjunctions.
1.

Annexation.

—The
—As

copulative conjunctions are
:

/cat',

and, also, even;

re,

and, also.

The

latter is generally subordinate

rc.Kat, both...andf
14, 15, etc.

not only ..

.hut ; sometimes Kat... tc, or tc...t€.

Very commonly, however,
ii.

both... and is expressed
2.

by

Kat... Kat', as in 1 Thess.

Comparison.
just as;
so.

conjunctions of comparison, the particles ws, as;
as, are

loa-rrep,

Ka6ui<;, like

used

;

mostly in correlation with the

adverb ovrm,
3.

(Compare

§ 129, Table.)

Disjunction.

—The disjunctive

particles are

rj,

07';

-7... -7,

either... or

(in general); r;rot...r;, either. ..or (as

an exclusive alternative), ctrc.ctTe,

whether... whet her.

,;

§ 138,
4.

a.]

CONJUNCTIONS

—INTEKJECTIONS.
dAAa
but.
latter.

141
(originally neuter
is

Antithesis.

—The
and

antithetic conjunctions are

plural of oAAos)

8e,

both signifying

The adversative sense

much
fxiv

stronger in the former than in the

often

or on the

With Se the particle stands in the precedmg sentence, and may be rendered indeed^ one hand (8e, on the other), or, more frequently, may be left
tlie

untranslated, marking simply that
antithesis.

Etymologically,

/xiv is
is,

two clauses stand in real or formal (probably) 'the first thing;" 8e, " the

second thing:" the antithesis
rather than opposition.
5.
ctTTC/o,

therefore, often very slight, a distinction

Condition.

—The

conditional particles are

et,

if; ciye,

if at least
as to

if at all ; idv (ct av), if (possibly).

For the important rules

their use
6.

with verbs, see Syntax.

Cause.

Particles
Scort,

expressive

of

a reason

(causal)

are,

ort,

that,

because; yap, for ;
7.

because ; tVet (see § 407, a), since.

Inf&i'ence.
; apa,

— The
/x-^,

chief inferential particles are ovv, therefore; tolvvv,
; 8td,

then
8.

consequently

wherefore

; rocyapovv,

accordingly.
u)s

Result.

—The

" final " conjunctions are tva, in order that ;

and

OTTCDS,

so that;

that not,

lest.

Particles of Emphasis and Interrogation.

137.
and
hrj,

^.

The

chief emphatic particles are ye, at least, indeed (enclitic)

certai7dy, noio.

To

these

may be added

the enclitics

Trep,

very,

verily, and toi, cTretSryTrcp (Luke
b.

certainly,
i.

found in combination with other words, as

1), since verily ; /xeVrot, hotceoer.

As

inteiTogative particles the following are

employed

:

ei,

if,

used

elliptically,

"Tell us

if

;"

^,

simply denoting that a question

is

asked,

and requiring no English equivalent save in the form of the sentence and apa (not to be confounded with apa, § 136, 7), which makes the question emphatic (only in Luke xviii. 8 Acts viii. 30 Gal. ii. 17). Eor the interrogative adverbs, see § 129; and for the structure of interro; ;

gative sentences, consult the Syntax.

Interjections.

138.

a.

An

Interjection

is

generally but the transcript of a natural
of

instinctive sound,

and therefore scarcely ranks among the "parts

142
organised speech."

INTERJECTIONS.

[§ 138, a.

Words

of this

kind in the
29)

New
;

Testament are
iv.

w,

0!

oh

! ca,

ah

!

expressive of

pain and terror (Luke
ouat,

34)
!

;

ova,

ah

expressing scorn and hatred (Mark xv.

woe

alas ! often

governing a dative
h.

;

oval

vfjlv,
tSc,

woe unto you
see, is

!

alas for you

The imperative form,

often treated interjectionally, but
of the

still

more frequently the old imperative middle
:

same verb

is

employed, accented as a particle

tSov, lo 1

behold I

;

§

139.]

W01lD-rOKjlATlU.\

— SUBSTANTIVES.

I'Ao

Chapteu IX.
139.
1.

ON THE FOEMATION OF WOKDS.
of
all

Roots.

— Words

kinds are derived from some Koot.

For the distinction between root and stem^ see § 10. The root is that part which remains after taking away from a whole family of kmdred words all the parts which are different in each. Thus AK- is the root
of
aK-fx-q,
OLK-po<i,

aK-av9a.

The

root expresses the leading idea, or general meaning,
all

which runs
;

through

the kindred words, though

differently modified in each

thus,

AK- expresses the general meaning of " sharpness" or " pointedness." In the formation of words, some are derived directly from the root
as
oLKfjLrj,

from AK-.

Others take as a ("secondary") root the stem of
;

words already formed

as d/c/xa^w,

from

ctK/xTJ (dKjia-).

Hence we Thus :—

find

primary,

secondary,

tertiary,

etc.,

formations.^

Primary.
'AK-fXTj, point

Secondary.

Tertiary.

'AKp,-aCw, to flourish.
'AKpt-^rys, accurate
'AKpi'pc-ia, accuracy.

"AK-pos, poirded

*AKpip-cos, accurately.

Without attempting here any extended statemethods and laws of derivation, it will be useful to specify ment of the some of the leading terminations which occur in the formation of Greek Each of these terminations has a particular force and meaning words. thus, of its own, whatever be the root or stem to which it is joined kXc'tt-tt/s, TToXi-Trj'i, have all the same termination, Kpi-TTJs, ^TyXw-Trj?,
2.

Classes of Words.

:

-rqs,

and with the same meaning. Classes of Avords may thus be formed, by arranging togetlier those which liave the same terminations, and marking their signification and substantives, adjectives, this may be done with words of all kinds
;

pronouns, verbs, and particles.

^

See, for greater dotail,

Goodwin's Greek Grammar, §§ 128

— 132.

144
3.

WORD-FOllMATIOX
Modification of Stem-endings.

— SUBSTANTIVES.

139.

root or

The final vowel or consonant of the stem will be affected by the termination according to the general
Thus,
7roLr]-T^<;,
cZ,

usages of the language, as illustrated especially in the inflections of the
verbs.

KaXvjx-jxa (see § 4,

4),

from from

iroic-

(compare

§ 96, a, etc.),

and

KaXvTr-Tw,

Ka\v(j>-

or KaXvp-.

Classes of Substantives.

140.
-TTis

a.

First Declension.

1.

Masadine Nouns.
KplTy'is,

—The

termination

expresses a

male agent.
as

Thus,

doer, imet.

Some nouns
:

of this termination are

a judge ; 7rof/;T>7s, a maker^ formed from the root of

simpler nouns

7roXLTr}<; (TrdAts),

citizen ; oik€ti)<; (oTkos), domestic.
class,

Accentuation.

—Dissyllables of this
deavora (voc).

tima, throw back the accent as far as possible,
deairdTrji, xpevcrTai,

and polysyllables with short penulexcept Kpir-^s. So xpivarris,

The

rest are oxytone, except TroXtTT^s.

2.

Feminine Nouns.
-Old.

i.

The termination
cs',

-id

(paroxytone) expresses

quality.
-€ia,

Adjective stems in
So,
(TOcfiLa,

or oo- give the forms (pro-paroxytone)
[aXrjOi^s)
',

good-will

(€vvov<s).
-cv,

A

wisdom (credos) aX-^Oeca, truth few nouns in -eid (paroxytone)
;

evvota,

are

from verbal

stems in

and denote the result of action

as /5ao-tXcta,

kingdom

(^ao-tXevoj) ; TratSeta, instruction (TraiSevo)).
ii.

Substantives in
also denote
iXerjjxoa-vvrj,

-oo-vvtj
;

connected with adjective stems in
as o-w^poo-vVry, prudence,
(eX^rjfjiwv)
;

ov-,

rarely

in
ov-

0-,
;

quality

from

aaxfifmv,

stem

compassion

StKatocrvvr},
-w,

righteousness (StKaios);

ay Lwo-vvrj, holiness
ceding syllable.
b.

(aytos), the o-

becoming

because of the short pre-

(Compare

§ 42.)

Second Declension. 1. Masculine Nouns. The termination -jids (oxytone) appended to verbal stems denotes action as from ^vw (Ov-), Sometimes o- intervenes, as in 8€o-/>io9, hond^ to rage, Ovfjtos, passioyi. from Be-, Sew, to hind; or 0, as KXavOixos, lamentationy from KXaf-,
;

KAato), to loeep.
2.

(See

§ 96, c.)
i.

Neider Nouns.
Thus,

The ending

-rpov,
;

instrument.
ii.

\v-,

Avw, to release

from verbal Xvrpovy ransom.
is

roots,

denotes

diminutive as from Trals (iraiS-), a child; TratStW, a little child. To -tov is sometimes prchxed tlie syllabic ap- or i8- as TraiSdpiov, a Utile hnij; kXlvlSloi', a

The termination

-lov,

from substantive stems,

:

:

§

141.]
bed,

WORD-FORMATION
from
kKlvtj^

—SUBSTANTIVES.
adjectives in

145
as.

little

a couch;

dcrcrdpLov,

a farthing, from Latin,

(See § 154, a.)
Diminutives in
-lov
:

must be distinguished from neuters of
e.g., IXaaT-qpiov,

-tos,

used as substantives

propitiatory.
-io-kos, -iVkt]

The masculine and feminine terminations
sionally used as diminutives.

are also occav€avL(TKo<s,

Thus, vcavias (stem

a-),

a youth;

a lad.

So,

iratBLorKYj,

a damsel.

Neuter nouns generally retract the accent. DimiAccentuation of A^euters. 'lov are, however, paroxytone, except when a short syllable precedes nutives in
this termination.

c.

tone),

Third Declension. 1. Masculine Nouns. i. The suffix -evs (oxystem if-, denotes an agent as ypa/^/xarcv?, a scribe, from YpainxaT-,
:

ypa/z/xa,
ii.

a

letter.

(For the declension of these substantives, see
-ririp

§ 30,

iii.)

The terminations
an agent
pe- (iu
:

(oxytone) and -rwp (paroxytone, stem rop-)

also signify

as ^coo-r-^p, luminary,

from

c^ois,

light; prp-u^p, aii

orator,
2.

from

the obsolete verb pew, to speak).

Feminine Nouns.
justification ;

i.

The ending
Thus,

-<rts

(gen.

-o-ews,

stem

o-t-),

from
Tliese

verbal stems, expresses action.
St/caitocns,

SiKaio- (SiKacow, to justify) gives

and

irpaY- (Trpao-o-w, to do), Trpa^ts, action.

nouns, a very numerous
see § 30,
ii.
i.

class, retract

the accent.

(For their declension,

b.)

The termination

-rqs (gen. -rr]Tos,

stem

•n]r-)

denotes quality, and
loroTrjs,

is

attached to adjective stems.
ayios, holy, dyL6rr}<s, holiness.
3.

Thus,

L(ro<;,

equal, gives

equality;

These

also retract the accent.
-\ia.

Neuter Nouns.

—i

The termination

(stem

jiar-)

denotes the

result of action, and
gives irpdyfxa,
p-^/xa,

is affixed to

verbal stems.

Thus,

Trpao-o-o), irpaY-,

a thing done, an action; and the obsolete

pew,

pe-,

forms

a thing spoken, a word.

ii.

The ending
cTSov,

-os

(from stem

es-,

see § 30, iv.) denotes, from verbal

stems, result; from adjective stems, quality.

Aor.

I saw

(see § 103, 4),

we have

eT^os,

Second an appearance; and from
/IS-,

Thus, from

Pa0v-, in Pa.6v<s, deep, p6Bo<s, depth.

nations of derivative nouns.

141. The following scheme exhibits at one view the principal termiThe nominative and genitive endings

146

WORD-FORMATION

— SUBSTANTIVES.
;

141.

are given as in Lexicons
will easily be traced.

and Vocabularies

but the stem and declension

Sisrnification.

Nom. and Gen.

Terminations.

Gender.

Agent
Do. Do.

-6VS,
-TTIS,

-ims

M.

-TOW
-TTJpOS

M.

-tVjp,

M.
M.
N.

Do. Instrument
Action

-TWp,
-TpOV,
-JAOS^
-<ris,

-TOpOS

-rpov
-|XOV

M.
F.

Do.
Eesult

-crews -eias

-€ia,

F.

Do.

lia,
OS,
TTJS,

-Haros
-ovs

N. N.
F.
P.

Do.
Quality

-rqTOS
-£as
-0(rvvT]S

Do. Do. Do. Diminutive Do.

-La,
-o(rvvt],

F.

-OS,

-ovs
-Cov
-la-KOv
-ICTKTJS

N.

-lOV,

N.
M.
F.

-lO-KOS,
-la-KT],

Do.

Classes of Adjectives.
1. The most common derivative Adjectives are of the First and the usual terminations are the following Form,

142.

:

a.

From

substantive roots, the ending
of,

-tos (-^a^), -tov, is

possessive,

i.e.,

belonging to. Thus, from ovpavo-, ovpavo^, heaven, is derived ovpdvLO';, heavenly; from njia-, Tt/xrj, honour, rt/xto?, honourable, The i of this termination sometimes forms a diphthong with a precious. final stem vowel ; so, from SUrj (8iKa-), justice, comes SUaLo^, just; from
has the sense
or

uyopa, marJcet-j^lace,

dyopaios, public.

To

this

class

also

belong the

*

Occasionally with prefix -6 or

-a.

?

Some

gf t^ege ftdjectives »rg

^*

pf two terminations."

(See § 34,

h.

§ 142.]

WOED-FORMATION
names

— ADJECTIVES.
(''E</)coro9);

147
and denoting
'lovSato?,

adjectives formed from the
their inhabitants.
('lovSata).
Accenttiation.

of cities or countries,

Thus, 'E^cVios, Ephesian

Jew

—The

others are proparoxytone,
h.

diphthongal forms are gert^rally properispomenon i.e., retract the accent.
--^j

;

the

The termination

-ikos,

-6v (oxytone),
:

roots,

marks ability or

fitness

as kpltlkoSj

from verbal or substantive capable of judging {Kpivm) ;

^acTLXiKos, royal (^ao-tXcvs).
c.

The ending

-tvos,

-t],

-ov

(proparoxytone),
is

from substantive
:

roots,

expresses the material of which anything

made

as $vXivo<s, wooden

Note.

—The same substantive

last-mentioned forms.

made

of flesh,

stem may have a derivative of each of the two Thus, from aapK- {<rap^-), flesh, are formed aapKivos, "fleshy;" and aapKiKds, of the nature of fl^sh, "fleshly." The

is only found in the received text of the New Testament in 2 Cor. iii. 3 ; but on the authority of j\ISS., many critics substitute it for the latter in Rom. Heb. vii. 16 (so W. H.). vii. 14; 1 Cor. iii. 1

former

;

Sometimes the termination

-cos

(contr.

-ovs)

denotes material

:

as

dpyvpeos, apyvpovi of silver (apyvpo<s).
d.

The termination

-po?,

-pa,

-p6v (oxytone) denotes
:

the complete
as,

possession of a quality, like the English -ful or -able
i(r!(vs,

from

lo-xv-,

strength^ Icrxypo^j powerful.
-tfios, -ov, -<ri|jLos,

e.

Adjectives ending in

-ov

(proparoxytone) are occa:

sionally

8oKt/xo9, receivable,

receive;

formed from verbal stems, and express ability or fitness as current (of coin); so, approved, from 8€x-, Sexofxai, to Some proper names ^rfcnixos, useful, from xp^^-j XP°^°/^^^ ^^ '^^^(lit.

are of this class, as 'Ovijo-t/xos
/.
2.

profitable, see Philem. vers. 10, 11).

The

verbals in -tos

and

-t^os

have already been noticed

73, p. 61).
-€s

and
a.
(cf. §

-|jiov

Second and Third Forms. need only be noticed.
-tis

— Here the
it

derivative stem-endings

Adjectives in
140,
iv.).
c. 3, ii.),

(see § 41) are generally correlative to

nouns in
is

-os
€s-

the stem of which,

will be
false.

remembered,

also in

(§ 30,
b.

So

\l/evBo<s,

falsehood;

i/^cvSTJg,

Adjectives in

-jicdv,

derived from verbal stems, attribute the action
:

of the verb to the person

as kXa-, cAeew, to pity;

iXei^fXiov,

compassionate.

148

WORD-FORMATION— ADJECTIVES.
Scheme of Derivative Adjectives.
Signification.

[§ 143.

143.

Terminations of

Nom.

Sing.

Quality

-IIS,

-€S

Do.

complete

-pos, -p&, -pov

Attribute, locality

-los (-atos, -€ios, -otos)
-IKOS,
-iKirj,

-la

,

-tov

Property
Material

-iKdv

-IVOS, -CVT], -IVOV

Do.
Fitness

(-€os) -ovs

-€a

,

(-€ov) -ovv

-(<r)t|ios, -((r)iji.ov
-)jia>v,

Attribute
Possibility (verbal)

-jtov

-Tos, -nrj, -TOV
-T€OS, -T^a, -T^OV

Obligation (verbal)

Classes of Verbs.
Verbs from substantive or adjective roots ("denominative verbs") may signify the being, doing, or causing that which the noun Verbs in -dw, -i<a, -cvw, generally denote simply state or action imports. Thus, SovXevw, I am a slave; SovXoa), verbs in -ow, -aivw, -vvw, causation.

144.

ci.

i

I make a
observed
;

slave of another,

I

enslave.

The

distinction is not always

for instance, irXrjOvvo)
intransitive.

may be
-ilu

either

/ multiply,

transitive, or

/ abound,
I act the

Verbs in
14).

often have the sense of

or acting that

which the noun denotes.
(Gal.
ii.

Thus,

'lovSalos,

becoming a Jew; lovSdt^ui^
:

Jew

The

principal denominative verbal terminations are as follow
-aw,

as Tifxadiy
7ro\€/jL€(i),

to to

honour

(rt/xry).

make war

(iroXifio^;).

-6<a,

BovXooy,

to enslave (SovXos). to icork (^epyov). to ho2ie (IXttis).
to 'wJiiten (XevKo's).

-dtw,
-ttw,
-aivo).

ipyd^o/xai,
iXTTL^ia,

XcvKaiW,
jSaoriXevw,

to reign (/SacnXiv^).
to

'WW,

ttXtjOvvu),

abound, multij^ly

(ttX^^os).

§ 145.]
h.

WOIID-FOKMATIOX

—VEEBS.

149

Verbs from simpler verbal stems are inceptive s in -o-kw, as to grow old; frequentatives or emphatic verbs, as /SaTrrt^w, to baptise (/JaTrrw); and causatives, as /xc^vo-kco, to intoxicate (/xeOvw); To these, as anomalous ya/jLL^oi or yafjiL(TK(o, to give in marriage (yajxew). derivatives from Perfects, may be added o-ttJko), to stand, from the Perfect €(TTr]Ka; and yprjyopiu}^ to watch, from iyprjyopaj the reduplicated
yrjpaa-Kio,

Second Perfect of

eyeipw.

Geneeal Remaek ox Depjyatiox.
145.
that
it

It

often happens that the original of a derivative does not
its

appear in the language in
is

simpler form

;

and

still

more frequently,

not found in the

Xew

Testament.

On

the other hand, the

actual derived forms are far fewer than the possible.

The copiousness
of

and

fertility of

the Greek as a hving language depended especially on
it

the power which

possessed of expressing

new thoughts and shades

thought by words framed according to

strict analogy,

and therefore comin fact, is

petent to take their place at once without question in the vocabulary.

The language

of science

from the Greek

— furnishes an

pany, with equal step,

borrowed same power to accomthe progress of knowledge and of thought.
ourselves
illustration of the

among

—which,

150

WORD-FORMATION

—COMPOUNDS.

[§ 146

Chapter X.

ON THE FORMATION OF COMPOUND
WORDS.
either

146. Compound words are
their formation.

parathetic or synthetic in

In parathetic^ compounds, both words retain their form and meaning, subject only to the laws of euphony. They are, there-

merely placed side hy side, as it were, though they are written This is the case with all verbs compounded with as one word. prepositions, as i/c^dXka), from eV and /SdWco direp')(Ofjbai,, from diro and epyofxai KaOlcrTrjfjic, from Kara and Xarrjixt crvy^^^aipa), from avv and yaipw. (The changes in the terminations of some of the above prepositions need no explanation.) In synthetic^ compounds, the former word, a noun or a verb, while the latter often takes a form which it loses all inflection could not have had out of composition. The words are therefore placed in close union, and really make one word; as (j)iX6o-o(po<;, from ^tXo9 and ao^la.
fore,
;
;
;

;

Parathetic Compounds. 147. The former word
in the of a parathetic
e'.e.,

compound

is

ahnost always

New

Testament a

particle,

a preposition or an adverb; never

a verb.

The signification of many compounds can be satisfactorily ascertained only from the Lexicon, as the meaning of the prefix is often modified by that of the principal word.^ It will, however, be helpful to the learner to have at one view the chief significations of the particles used in composition. The following and a little thought will trace table {a) should be compared with that in § 124 the connection in each case between the primitive significations (printed in italics) and the secondary meanings that follow.
;

1

^

2 ^

From From

Trapd
<jijv

and 6e- {Tidr]}xi), "set side by side." and Be-, " set together or com-posed."
:

So in English

e.g.,

the particle over varies

its

meaning

in the words overthrow,

overtake, overrun, overtime, overhearing;
ever, discernible in all.

the fundamental signification being, how-

§ 147, c]
a.
d|i4»'-,

WOED-FOKMATION

— COMPOtTNOS.

151

The Prepositions, as used in CompositioiL

dva-,
dvTi-,
diro-,

rotmd about. zip, back again.
instead of, against, in return for.

atvay from, dismission, completeness.
through, thorough, between.

8ta-,
€ls-,

into.

€K- (e|ev- (cfie-iri-,

before a vowel,

67-

before a guttural), oul
p.),

of, forth, utterly.

before a labial mute, or

in,

upon, intrinsically.

wpoTi, to, in addition.

Kara-,
ft€Ta-,

dovm, downright, against.
with, participation, change.

irapa-, beside,
ircpi-,

beyond, along.

around, over and above, excess.
before, forward.

irpo-,

irpos-,

towards, in addition

to.
(x
;

<rvv- (<rv[i-

before a labial mute, or

<nry-

before a guttural),

ivith,

association, compression.
vir€p-,

above, excess.

viro-,

under, concealment, repression.

b.

Separable Particles (Adverbs) in Composition.
afxa), together, as airas (-vt-), all together.

d-

(from

dpTi-, lately,
6V-,

only in dprtyo^nyTo?, neio-born (1 Pet.

ii.

2).

well, prosperously.

iroXiv-,

again,
5).

only in

TraXtyycvecrta,

regeneration

(Matt.

xix.

28

j

Titus

iii.

irav-, all
TTjX6-,

(from neuter of
off,

iravr-).

afar

only in

Tr)\avyC)<;, distinctly

(Mark

viii.

25).

c.

Inseparable Particles in Composition.
:

d-

(from avd), intensive

perhaps only in

arevL^o), to

gaze steadfastly.

d- or dv-, not,
8vs-,

the usual negative prefix, answering to our unr.
ill,

hardly or

like our dis-, mis-, or un-,
rjfjitOavrjs,

^Hi-, half (Latin, semi-), only in

half-dead,

and

rjfUiJipiov,

half

an hour.

152

WORD-FOKMATION

—COMPOUNDS.

[§ 147.

The Pretositions (Table a), when used in the composition of nouns and adjectives, generally mark a secondarij formation, t.e., a derivation from a compound verb. Thus, aTroo-roXo?, apostle, is not from oltto and o-ToA.09, but from aTroorreXXo), to send forth ; so, airooToXriy apostlesliip. Again, from cKXeyo/xat, to clioose out, come iKXiKTo^i, chosen^ elect; and iKXoyrj, election. Some such nouns and adjectives, however, are found without any corresponding compound verb. The Adverbs and Inseparable Particles (Tables b, c) (except anegative) are generally used with substantives and adjectives, not with
verbs.

Two

Prepositions

may be combined

in the fonnation of a word, the

characteristic formative force of each being retained.
to establish,
dTroKaOto'TrjfjLL,

Thus,

KaOia-Tiqixi,

to restore; Trapa/caXeo/xat, passive,

to be

com-

forted,'^ o-vfjLTTo.paKaXeofxaL, to be

comforted together; ela-dyw, to introduice,

irapaa-dyo), to introduce
V. 20),
(lit.,

entered by the way.
of,

by the bye (2 Pet. ii. 1). So irapucrrjXBev (Rom. Again, dvTtXa/x/3avo/zat is to help, generally
is to

" to take hold

over against"), but o-vvamAa/x/Jai/o/xat

help

by coming into association with (as

Luke

x.

40; Rom.

viii.

26).

Synthetic Compounds.

148. In
never a

synthetic compounds the former word
a noun,

is

a

noun

or a verb,

particle.

When
-o,

the former word
-o-

is

if

its

stem does not already end in

the vowel

is

commonly added
is

as a connective,

when
is

the latter

word begins with

a consonant, as

from KapSla,

Kaph-o-yvixxrrrj^.

When
as

the former word
dpx<Jiy

a verb, the connecting
;

vowel

usually

-i-,

from

dpx-i-crvvdyiDyo^

but sometimes

-a-,

as iOeX-o-Oprja-K^La.

The form

of a verbal

noun

is

often employed,

as

from SetSw

(Seto-ts),

Compound
composition
:

verbs of this class usually take their form from a
in a shape

compound

noun ; the verb thus appearing
as, cvxapto-rctu, to
;

give thanlcs,
be

and

xapto-rew

^iXort/xeo/xat, to

which it cannot have out of from cv^dpLo-ro^, not from ev ambitious, from ^tXoVi/xos, not from

tf}LXos

and

T6/xeo/xat.

^

Literally, to be called to one's side: i.e., for purposes of consolation, or, it niiglit

Hence the word UapdK\r)Tos has the threefold of exhortation or advocacy. meaning of Comforter, Exhorter, Advocate. (Sec John xiv. 16, 26; 1 John ii. 1.)
be,


§ 149.]


WORD-FOKMATION

— COMPOUNDS.
:

153

word generally has the leading significance, and is defined or modified by the former. The following compounds illustrate the foregoing remarks
In synthetic compounds the
latter
olKo-S€(r7r6Tr]<;,

hottseholder.

KttK-ovpyos, evildoer (xaKog tpyov).
alixaT-€K)(y(rLa,

hloodshedding

(at/xa, c/c^^ro-ts

from

Ik

and

;;(€(f)a)).

KapSL-o-yv(x)(TTr)<s,

one who knows the heart.
ruler of the synagogue.

apx-t'-o'vvdyoiyo<s,

fxaKpo-Ovixo's (adjective), ixaKpoOvp-la (substantive), long-suffering.

ScoSc/ca-^vA-ov (neuter-substantive), ten tribes
SevTepo-TTpoyro?, second-first

(Luke

vi.

1),

(Acts xxvi. 7). probably " the yi»^^ sahhath

in the second year of the sabbatical cycle of seven years."

See Wieseler's
Wicseler fixes

" Clironological Synopsis of the Four Gospels," u.
the year as 782 a.u.c.^

ii.

4.

Illustkation of the Varieties of Dejiivatiox and Composition.

149. The root Kpi-, verbal stem Kpiv-, primary meaning to may be taken as illustrating the variations and combinations of
word.
First

separate,

a Greek

we have simple

derivatives, formed as in Chapter IX. :—

-

KpLvoij to separate,
KpL(TLS,

or judge.

the process of separation, ot judgment. the act or result of judgment, sentence.
a standard of judgment, or tribunal.

KpLfxa,

Kpirrjpiov,
KptTT^s,
Q.

judge.

KpLTLKos (adjective), able to judge, a discovei'er (Heb. iv. 12).

Next we note the composition of the verb with
sitions
:

different prepo-

avaKptVo), to inquire, estimate.
8iaKptVa>, to distinguish, separate,

decide; middle, to hesitate,
(2 Cor. x. 12).

iyKpLvio, to

judge, or reckon,

among

cTTtKptVo), to

adjudge (Luke

xxiii. 24).

*

But W. H. aud the

Revisers'

Text omit the word

altogetlier.

154

WORD-FORMATION
judgment

—COMPOUNDS.
condemn.

[§ 149.

KaTaKpLvu), to give
(TvyKpCvwy to

against,

judge together, compare.

aTTOKpLvo/xai, to aTiswer.

avTaTTOKpLvofxaL, to
wroKpLvojjLaL, to

answer against (Luke xiv. 6
dissemble with any one (Gal.

;

Rom.
ii.

ix. 20).

dissemble (Luke xx. 20).
13).

(TvvvTroKpivofjLaLj to

We

may then

note the various

compound
:

be compared with the corresponding verbs
dva/cpto-t?,
(XTroKpto-t?,
8LaKpL(rL<;,

substantives, which

may

an examination (Acts xxv. an answer.
condemnation.

26).

the act of distinguishing, discernment.
dissimidation, hypocrisy.

KaTdKpL(TL<s,
vTroKpLCTL';,

aTTo/cpt/xa,

a sentence^ as of death, or response (2 Cor.

i.

9).

KaTaKpLfia, a sentence of condemnation.
TTpoKpcfxa,
di

prepossession, prejudice (1 Tim. v. 21).

v7roKpLTT^<;, lit.

a stage-player, a lujpocrite.

We
iii.

now

take a group of negative compounds

:

dStaKpiTos,
17).

not subject to distinction, impartial or

si?icei'e

(James

aKaraKptTo?, uncondemned.
avvTTOKpLTos, unfeujned.

Finally, the JSTew Testament contains three instances of the composi*

tion of this root

with nouns and pronouns
iii.

:

avTOKaTctKptTo?, self-condemned (Titus
elXiKpLvr)^

11).

(perhaps from

€l\rjy
i.

cognate with ^Atos), judged of in the
iii.

sunlight, ^w?"e, sincere (Phil.
€tXiKpti/€ta

10; 2 Pet.

1).

(from the above), sincerity.
of this root exist, but these are all

Many other compounds New Testament contains.

which the

§151.]

LANGUAGES OF PALESTINE.

155

Chapter XI.

FOEETGN WOEDS IN TESTAMENT GEEEK.

NEW

Languages of Palestine.

—Hebkew.
;

150. Two languages were spoken and understood in Palestine. Tlie one, called in the New Testament "the Hebrew tongue" (Acts xxii. 2

xxvi. 14), was in reality a very considerable modification of the Old Testament Hebrew, and is generally now termed " the Syro-Chaldaic,"
or
'*

Aramaic" (from Araw,, the Hebrew word

for Syria).

This was the

language of the people, and, to some uncertain extent,^ remained in
colloquial use until the destruction of Jerusalem.

Matthew's Gospel was originally written in Aramaic, and that the book as it appears in the New Testament is a more or less literal translation. In this opinion we do not concur ; but there can be no doubt that in the days of our Lord the ancient language
critics believe that

Some

St.

was still most fondly cherished by the people. Expressions that fell from the Saviour's lips in moments of deep emotion, in the performance
of signal miracles, in Gethsemane, and on the Cross, are carefully recorded ; and other words of technical character, or religious association, or homely use, are also found in the native tongue of IsraeL

Introduction of Greek.
151. But as a direct result of the conquests of Alexander the Great and his successors, the Greek tongue had been carried into almost all the
countries of the civilised world,
cial intercourse,

and had become the medium

of

commer-

the language of the courts, and, in fact, the universal

literary

tongue of the provinces afterwards

absorbed in the

Koman

The natives of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, of Ephesus, and even of Rome, alike adopted it ; everywhere with characteristic modifiEmpire.
cations,

but substantially the same.

translate the

had become a necessity to Old Testament Scriptures into Greek and as this great
it
;

Hence

^

See on the whole subject, Dr. Roberts' " Discussions on the Gospels."

156

Li^NGUAGES OF PALESTINB.
its

[§ 151.

work was executed by Alexandrian Jews,
the influence of the
peculiarities

language not only shows

Hebrew

original,

but contains special forms and
This translation, or

of expression indigenous to Egypt.

"the Septuagint,"^ naturally became the basis of all subsequent Jewish Greek literature, and in particular of the IS'ew Testament, which, however, to the Egyptian superadds Palestinian influences. It was in the Greek of the Septuagint thus modified that, in all probability, our Lord and His apostles generally spoke. The dialect of Galilee (Matt. xxvi. 73) was not a corrupt Hebrew, but a provincial Greek. The New Testament writers, it should be noted, differ considerably
from one another in
classical models,
style.

The Book

of Revelation, for instance,
All, again,

is

very

unlike the waitings of the Apostle Paul.

vary greatly from

both in vocabulary and syntax, exchanging the elaborate

harmonies of Attic Greek for simpler constructions and homelier speech.

Infusion of Latin.

likely to

152. The Roman conquest and tenure of Palestine may be thought have stamped some lasting traces on the language. Such traces
;

of the

undoubtedly appear in the New Testament but, considering the might dominant people, these are marvellously few. The Romans could impose their laws, their polity, their military power, upon vanquished nations, but not their speech. Certainly, there are some Latin words in
the

New

Testament

;

but these are almost wholly nouns denoting mili:

tary rank or civil authority, coins, or articles of dress

a valuable historic

testimony, were there none beside,

how

''

the sceptre had departed from

Judah, and a lawgiver from between his

feet."

By way
the
chief

of illustration to the foregoing remarks, lists are here

Aramaic

(or

Syro-Clialdaic)

appended of and Eoman terms contained in the

New

Testament.

Hebrew and Aramaic Words and Phrases.
153. The Hebrew
the Greek language
;

root

is

but

is

few cases assimilated to the forms of oftener simply transcribed and used within a

out declension or conjugation.
1

That

is

" the Seventy"

(often (juoted as

LXX.), from the traditional number of

translators.


§ 153,5.]
a.

——
NEW TESTAMENT.
:

LATIN AXD HEBREW IN THE

157

Assimilated words are the following

Metro-ia?,
i.

MESSIAH, "the Anointed."
;

This word occurs only in John

42, iv.

25

the Greek equivalent, Xpto-ros, from xpiw, to anoint, being

everywhere

else

employed.

<I>apto-ato9,

Pharisee, from a

Hebrew word meaning
and "Moralists."
riches (Matt.

to

separate,

and

SaSSovKatos, Sadducee, from another, meaning to be righteous, are of

constant occurrence
/xa/A/Acova? (gen.
9,

— "Separatists"
dat. -a),

-a,

mammon,

vi.

24

;

Luke

xvi.

11, 13).

Its derivation is uncertain; but there is
it

no reason for sup-

posing that

appa/Swv, -wvos,

was anywhere the name of a false deity. a pledge, or earnest (2 Cor. i. 22, v. 5).
b.

On

crdpiSaTov, sabbath, see § 32,
-7}<;,

yiewa,

phorically,
Isa.

from two words signifying valley of Hinnom ; hence, metafor the place of future punishment (see 2 Kings xxiii. 10;
vii.

XXX. 33; Jer.

31).

b.

Indeclinable words are more numerous.

i.

The following may rank among proper names, on
see further, § 156:
i.

^vhich class of

words

'AKeXSafid, field of blood (Acts

19).

BccX^c^oA, lord of dung (Matt. xii. 24, etc.), perhaps a contemptuous turn to the name of the Ekronite god Beelzebub, " lord of flies " (see
2 Kings
i.

2, 3).

Hence

" prince of the demons."

Sons of thunder (Mark iii. 17). TappaOd, the Pavement, or Tribunal (John xix.
Boav€/oy€9,

1

3).
;

Mark of sJadls (Matt, xxvii. 33 XV. 22; John xix. 17), called in Greek Kpaviov (Luke xxiii. 33), where our word Calvary is taken from the Vulgate.
VoXyoOd, the Place of a
skull, or
'P€/x(^aV,

probably the planet Saturn (Acts

vii.

43,

from

Amos

v. 26,

LXX.).
ii.

Other Sjrro-Chaldaic nouns are as follow

:

Rom.

'A^^a, Father, in confidence, endearment, or entreaty (!Mark xiv. 36 viii. 15 ; Gal. iv. 6).
Koppav, gift

;

(Mark

vii.

11),

Koppavaq

(decl. INIatt. xxvii. 6), treasicry.

fxdwa,

lit.

"what

is

thisf manna (Exod.
17).

xvi.

15; Jolm

vi.

31, 49,

58;

Ileb. ix.

4: Rev.

ii.

158
fi(j)pi,

HEBREW WORDS
fool
I

IN

THE NEW TESTAMENT.
(/xwpos),

[§153,
but
is

h.

(Matt. V. 22)

may

be a Greek vocative

more

probably an Aramaic word of similar sound, denoting utter mental and

moral worthlessness.
7raor;(a,

Passover.

pajS/Si,

my

master/
x. 51),

lit.

"my

great one!" (Matt, xxiii. 7, etc.)
16).^

So,

pa/SfSovL
paKtt,

(Mark

and pappowi (John xx.

a term of contempt, from a
v. 22).
i.e.,

Hebrew

root signifying emptiness^ or

vanity (Matt.

cra/3aw^, hosts,
(TLK€pa,

the hosts of heaven (Rom.

ix.

29

;

Jas. v. 4).

strong drink

(Luke

i.

15).

X^pov/Sifji,

cherubim,

Hebrew

plural of cherub (Heb. ix. 5).

c.

Aramaic Phrases.
!

dXXyjXoma, praise ye Jehovah

(Rev. xix.

1, 3, 4, 6.)

d/A^v, after ascriptions of praise, so let it be ;
icf>cf>a6d,

before assertions, verily.

be

opened/ (Mark

vii.
;

34.)

'HXi, 'HXt, Xafxa

aapaxOavL

My

God,

my

saken

me?

(Matt, xxvii. 46,) from Ps. xxii.
original

God, why hast Thou for1; the last word being the
'HAt
is

Aramaic equivalent of the
the

Hebrew

verb.

my

God, from

Hebrew El.

Mark

xv. 34 reads 'EAwt.
(1 Cor. xvi. 22.)

fxapavaOd, Tlie

Lord Cometh/

(The word preceding,

avdOefjLa, accursed, is

pure Greek, and should be followed by a colon or

period.

Mapav dOd.) raXiOa Kovfu, maiden arise/ (Mark v. 41.) wo-awa, save now/ (Matt. xxi. 9; Mark
write
cxviii. 25.

W.H.

xi. 9,

10; John

xii.

13,)

taken from Ps.

I.ATIN WORDF^.

154. a. Names of Coins. KoSpdvrr]^, "quadrans," farthing (Matt. Mark xii. 42), the fourth part of the V. 26 da-a-dptov, "as" (diminutive term), also rendered farthing in E.V. Luke xii. 6), the sixteenth part of the (Matt. X. 29
;

;

^vdpiov, " denarius," rendered
coin worth about 7^d.

penny

(as in

Matt,

xviii. 28, etc.), silver

^

W. H.

read in both

passa.sjes '?a^^ovve(.

§ 154,/.]
b.

LATIX WORDS IN THE

NEW TESTAMENT.

159

Judicial.

<f>payi\\iov,

" sicarius," assassin (Acts xxi. 38). t^paycXAow, " flagellum, flagello," scourge (noun and verb)
o-tAcapio?,
;

(John
c.

ii.

15

;

Matt, xxvii. 26

Mark

xv. 15).
4-4,

Military.

Kcvrvpioiv,

" centiirio," centurion (Mark xv. 39,
is

45).

Elsewhere the Greek e/carovTapxo? (or -X^^)

employed.
v. 9, 15;

Kova-ToiSia, " ciistodia," giiard (Matt, xxvii. 65, 66; xxviii. 11).

AcycW, "legio," legion (Matt, xxvi 53
-rrpaLTUipiov,

;

Mark

Luke

viii.

30).

" praetorium,"
i.

officei^'s

or governor's quarters, palace (Matt,

xxvii.

27

;

Phil.

13, etc.).

cnriKovXaTiop, " speculator,"
d.

member of the royal guard (Mark
;

vi. 27).

Political.

Kriva-o<Sj

"census," tribute (Matt. xvii. 25
xvi. 12).
vi. 9).

xxii. 17).

KwXwna, "colonia," colony (Acts
Xt/JepTtvot,
e.

" libertini," freedmeii (Acts

Articles of Dress.

—XcVnov,

" lenteimi,"

toicel

(John

xiii. 4, 5).

"semicinctium," ap'on (Acts xix. 12). o-ov8aptov, "sudarium," handkerchief (LxikQ xix. 20,
ctl/jllklvOlov^

etc.).
xiii.

/.

General.

^t^aviov,

"zizanium,"

if;^7cZ

cZa/'weZ,

"lolium" (Matt.

25-40).

KpdppaTo^f "grabbatus," mattress or small couch (Mark ii. 4, etc.). /MttKeXXov, " macellum," shambles, meat-market (1 Cor. x. 25).
fxefiPpavT},

" memhiaiia" parchment (2 Tim. iv. 13). fuXLovy " milliare," mile (Matt. v. 41). /x.o8to5, " modius," a measure (about an English peck) (Matt.
ii(TTr)<s,

v. 15, etc.).

" sextus, sextarius," a small 77ieasure (about a pint and a half

English), pitcher
peSrj,

(Mark

vii. 4).

"rheda," chariot (Rev.

xviii. 13).

Ta/3epr»7,

" tabema," tavern (Acts xxviii. 15).

TtVXos, "titulus," title, superscription

(John xix. 19, 20). "forum," part of the name AppH Forum (Acts xxviii. 15). <f)6pov, \aprr)% " charta," ^a^er (2 John 12).
(For Latin Proper Karnes, see Chap. XII.)

160

PROrER NAMES.

[§ 155.

Chapter XII.

NEW TESTAMENT PEOPER
of the

NAMES.

Testament are in general derivative or composite words, originally with a specific meaning. They belong to three languages Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (compare Chap. XI.) a circumstance which causes some little difficulty and confusion, especially since the Hebrew names sometimes appear in the forms of the Greek declension, sometimes, as in their original shape, indeclinable. Our translators, too, have occasionally adopted various renderings of the same Greek name, and in many cases have made the New Testament English form different from

155. The personal names

New

that in the Old.

Hebrew Names.
156.
any
*Ho-au,
rt.
;

The
as,

original indeclinable
e.g.^

Hebrew forms may end

in almost

letter

'A^tovSj 'A^/aaa/x, 'lo-paT^A, 'EAtcra^er,
are generally oxytone.

'lecfiOai,

Nwc,

'Icpt;(a).

Such forms

So, 'EfxjxavovijX,

God

WITH
b.

us.

The following names
:

are

found both

in indeclinable

and declinable

forms

'lepovcraXi^fji

and

'Icpoo-oAv/xa, -o)v,^ Jei'usdlem,

2aovA and 2avAo9, Saulr Jacob (Old Testament), and 'IaK(o/?o9, James (New Testament). ^v/x€(iji/, Simeon (Old Testament), and St/xwv, -wvos, Simon^ (New
'IttKw^,

Testament).
Acvi, Levi (Old

Testament), and Acvts, Levi (Matthew,
§ 32, c.)

New

Testa-

ment).

(Compare

^
''

Once, "[epoadXvfxa appears as a feminine singular (Matt.

ii.

3

;

so,

perhaps,

iii.

5).

The Hebrew form occurs only

in the accounts of Saul's conversion (Acts ix.,

xxii.,
^

xxvi.); except xiii. 21, where the reference is to the Old Testament king. Twice, however, the apostle bears the Old Tebtanient name (Acts xv.
i.

11;

2 Pet.

1).

g

157, c]
c.

PKOPER NAMES.
in -ah appear in the

161
-as (see § 20, a).

Hebrew names

in -iah, or -Jah, a

form of the name of
-Las
:

Those the Supreme Being, Jehovah, are
form
These,

rendered into Greek by

as 'HAta?, Elijah ; 'Hcrata?, Isaiah.
-ov.

however, take a genitive in
derivation.)

(Mecrcrtas,

Anointed^

is

of a different

The circumflexed termination -as (gen. -a) marks some names To belonging to the later Hebrew (or Aramaic) as K>;</)a9, BapayS^a?. or Jona. these must be added, 'Icuva?, Jonah, Jonas,
d.
:

Iklore frequently,

however,

-ds indicates

the contraction of a Greek or

Latin name, as shown

§§ 158, h, 159, d.

Double Names.
157.
CL-

^Vlien two

names
(or

are

applied to the same person, one
its

is

sometimes the Hebrew
into Greek.

Aramaic) appellation, the other
Didijinus
is

translation

Thus, Tahitha (Hebrew) and Dorcas (Greek) both signify

" gazelle " twin."
h.

;"

Thomas (Hebrew) and
So
also

(Greek)

both stand for
" stone."

Cephas (Hebrew)
are

translated

by

Peter,

mere vocal imitations of the Hebrew, the Thus, Judah, or Judas, becomes Theudas (Acts v. 36) while Levi may have given rise to the form Lehhoius. Some, again, have thought Alphams (Matt. x. 3, etc.) and Clopas (John xix. 25) to be only two forms of the same Hebrew word. Cleopas (Luke xxiv. 18) is a different name from the latter. It is possible that Paid, ILavXos, may in like manner have sprung from the Hebrew Saul ; or it had a Latin origin. (See § 159, c.)
sound being imperfectly transferred.
;

Some Greek names

where two names are borne, one is a surname, either (1) from some characteristic circumstance, as Cephas or Peter of Simon, and Barnabas of Joses ; or (2) a patronymic formed by the Aramaic Bar, " son," as Bar-Jesus (son of Joshua, 'Ir;crovs) of Elymas, and
c.

In many

cases, again,

possibly Bar-tolmai, Bap^oAo/xato?, of Xathanael
tion, as Iscariot (Hebrew, " a

;

or (3) a local appella-

man

of Kerioth," see Josh.

xv. 25)

and

Matjdalene (Greek,

of Magdala"). Observe that Canaanite (R.V., Cananiean), properly " Kananite," Kavavtrv;? (Matt. x. 4 Mark
;

"a woman

iii.

18), is

not a local name, but probably the Greek form of the

Hebrew

word

for zealot^ rendered

(Luke

vi.

15; Acts

i.

1

3) Z7;A.wt7Js.

M

162
d.

PROPER NAMES

— GREEK.

[§ 157, d.

When

the

name

of the

Hebrew

style,

the former
;

same person appears in a Graecised and a would naturally be employed among the

Gentiles and Hellenists

the latter
starts

among the

Palestinian Jews.

So

Said becomes Paul when he
xiii. 9),

on his first missionary tour (Acts and ever afterwards retains the name, (See § 159, c.)

Greek Names.
158.
a.

Pure Greek names are common, whether

of Hellenists

(i.e.y

Greek-speaking or foreign Jews) or of Gentile converts. It has often been noticed that the names of all " the seven" (Acts vi.) are Greek. So " Euodias," EvoSta (Phil. iv. 2), is a throughout most of the Epistles.
feminine form, and should have been rendered Euodia (R.V.).
h.

Many Greek

composite names are contracted into forms in -as
i.

:

as

7; 12); Artemidorus into Artemas (Titus iii. 12); Nymphodorus into Nymphas (Col. iv. 15); Zenodorus into Zenas (Titus iii. 13); Olympiodorus into Olympas (Rom. xvi. 15);

Epaphroditus into EpajyJiras (Col.

iv.

Hermodorus
from

into Hei^mas

(Rom.

xvi.

14).

hCipovy gift ;

and the former parts

of

The termination -doi^s is these compounds are from the
;

Greek mythology.
Other contractions are Parmenas^ for Parmenides (Acts vi. 5) Denias, probably for Demetrius; Antipas, for Antipater; AjmUos, for Apollonius. ^wTrarpos (Acts XX. 4) and ^Swa-tTrarpos (Rom. xvi. 21) seem to be the

same name in

different forms.

Latin Names.

159.

a.

in letters written to or from
Priscilla or Prisca,

The Latin names occur chiefly where we might expect them, Rome. The chief are Cornelius^ Aquila,
Caius
(i.e.,

Gains), Urban,^ Rufus, Jidia,

Tertius,

Marcus or Marl; Clement (KXTJ/xr/s, -ivroq), Pudens, Some have thought that Claudia, and perhaps Linus (2 Tim. iv. 21). household of Caractacus. the last-mentioned was a Briton, Lin, of the
Quartus, Fortunatus,
^

Rom.

xvi. 9.

This

nounced

as a dissyllable.

name is written in A.V. "Urbane," but The R.Y. has "Urbauus."

it

must be

pro-

§ 159,
b

d.~\

PKOPER NAMES

— LATIX.
are also

163

found in the Xew Testament in a Latin form, Augustus, Avyovo-ros (Luke ii. 1 ; but the Greek equivalent, 2c/3acrT09, is found, referring to Xero, Acts xxv. 21, 25); Three name^ of

Eoman Emperors

Tiberius, Tt/5eptos (Luke iii. 1); and Claudius, KXavStos (as Acts xi. 28). The surname Ccesar, Kalaap, is applied to Augustus (Luke ii. 1), to Tfberius (Luke iii. 1, etc.), to Claudius (Acts xi. 28), to Xero (Acts

xxv. 8
c.

;

Phil. iv. 22, etc.).

Caligula

is

not mentioned.

If the

word IlavAos be

not, as is

transcript of the

Hebrew name

Said,

it

most likely, an imperfect Greek must also be referred to the class

was the name of a noble house. Some have thought that the apostle's family, on receiving the rights of Roman others, with even less citizenship, had been adopted into this house
of Latin words, as in
it
;

Eome

likelihood, connect his assumption of the

name with

the conversion of

Sergius Paulas (Acts
d.

xiii.

7-12).

Latin names, like Greek,

may be
is

contracted.

Thus, Luke, AovKas

(rendered l^wcas in Philem. 21),

Lucawws.

Similarly, Silvanus (StXouavos)
is

an abbreviated form of the Latin name and Silas denote one person.

Amplias (Rom. xvi. 8) AmjMatus. For the significance
consulted.

probably a contraction of the
these various

Roman name
may
be

of

names, the Lexicon

.64

SUBJECT—COPULA— PKEDICATE.

f§ 160.

PAET
Chapter I

III.

SYNTAX.

CONSTEUCTION OF THE SIMPLE
SENTENCE.
Subject

— Copula—Predica

te.

160. The laws of Universal Grammar, with regard to the construction and arrangement of Sentences, should be clearl}^ borne in
mind, that their special exemplifications in tlie Greek language may For the most part, it will be convenient to show be understood.
the application of these laws under the heading of the parts of

speech or forms of inflection severally affected by them.

A brief

summary may, however,
rules of construction.

first of

all

be given, with the essential

161. A Sentence, or more Propositions.

or " thought expressed in words,'' consists of one

162. The
Predicate.

essentials

of

a

Proposition

are,

the

Subject and the

163. The Subject
is affirmed, desired,

expresses the person or thing of which something

or asked^

and must,

therefore, be a

noun

substantive,

or the equivalent of one.
Equivalents to nouns substantive are
vised expressions, for which see § 202.
(1)

personal pronouns, or (2) substanti-

164.

Tlie

Predicate expresses that which
its its

is

affirmed, denied, or
it

asked respecting the subject; and in
substantive or

simplest form
its

is (1)

a noun

equivalent, or (2) an adjective or
of an adjective
is

equivalent.

The equivalent

a participle.

165. The
the Copula.

simplest

form of

Proposition

is

that

which connects
to
be,

Subject aud Predicate by a tense of the substantive verb

called

§ 168.]
Acts
xxiii. 6
:

SUBJECT

—COPULA— PREDICATE.
elfii,

165

eyw ^a/jicrato?
:

I am a

Pharisee.

Matt. xvi. 18
Matt.
Phil.
xiii.
iii.

crv

A

IleTpo?, tliou art Peter.

38
:

:

6

ayp6<i

lo-ny 6 Koa/xo';, the field is the icorld.
17

3

r^fxtU €o-p,€v
:

TreptTOfjLrj^
;

we are

the circumcision.
?

Acts xix. 15

v/xets rtVcs l<rT€

u'ho are ye
elori,

Eph.

V.

16
:

:

al rj/xipai TTovrjpaL

the

days are

evil.

Luke
Luke
down.

V. 1

avros ^v

co-rcu?,

he teas standing.

xxi.

24

:

'lepova-aXrjfx 'icrrai Trarovfjievr],

Jeimsalem shall he trodden

The verb
appear;

dfj.i,

to he, is

the true copula
to he

;

but some other verbs admit a similar

construction, such as uTrdpxw,

essentially ; yiyuofiai, to hecome; (paivofiai, to

KaXovfiai., to he called; Kadiarafxai, to he set doicn as or constituted. These are called Copulative Verbs, as they agree with et/t' in their construction, although in reality embodying part of the predicate. See § 181.

166. The Copula
to arise

is

often omitted, where ambiguity

is

not likely

from
V.

its

absence.

Matt.

5

:

fxaKapioL 01 Trpact?, blessed (are) the meek.
:

2 Tim.

ii.

11

ttlctto^ 6

\6yos^ faithful (is) the word.
6 avTo?, Jesus Clirist (is) the same.

Heb.

xiii.

8

:

'iT/crovs X/dictto? ...

For the

way

to distinguish

between an attributive adjective and a predicate in

such cases, see § 206.

167. The Copula and Predicate
which
is

are

most generally blended in a verb,
Thus,
eya> •ypd4>«,

then caUed the Predicate.
elp-i

/

write, is

very

nearly equivalent to eyco

7pd(})«v,

/ am

writing.

term predicate is applied to the and the verb in different senses. In the latter case it really means An adjective or substantive predicate is somecopula and predicate combined. times called the "complement" of the verb with which it stands connected.

The

careful student will observe that the

adjective

168. The
John
viii.

substantive verb

may become

itself

a Predicate, involving

the notion of existence.

58
1
:

:

...

eyw

eljii,

Before

Abraham
Irt,

was,

I am.

Rev. xxi.

t)

OaXaa-cra ovk t<mv ^
el/xi, it

the sea is 710 more.
;

Mark
4,

But the phrase, 670) vi, 50 John vi.
;

is I,

occurring in the Gospels (as Matt. xiv. 27

20,

xviii. 5, 6, 8),

may mean

one of three things

:

iyd)

being

(]

)

subject or (2) predicate, or (3) the verb being predicate.

(Cf. Isa. xli.

LXX.)
^

For the accent see

§ 110, note.

166

SUBJECT AND PHEUICATR.
Subject,

[§ 169.
is
;

169. The
if

when a

personal pronoun,

generally omitted,
the

person of the verb

no special emphasis or distinction is intended itself showing its reference, § 332.
v. 18,

number and
unto
yoti, is

Thus, Xeyo) vfuv (Matt.
;

20;

viii.

10, 11, etc.),

I say

unemphatic (v. 22, 28, 32, 34> 39, 44), our Lord pointedly contrasts His own teaching with th-at of the Had the Rabbis. So (v. 21), ov <f>ov€v(T€L<s, thou shaJt not murder. reading been <rv ov cf>..., the meaning would have been "thou, in partiIn Luke x. 23, 24 we read, " Blessed are the eyes cular," shalt not.
but in
ly<a

Aeyw

v/xtv,

I say

unto you

which
that

see the things that ye see" (/JAeVerc, unemphatic)

*'
:

for I tell

you

many
(v|Ji€is

prophets and kings have desired to see those things which, ye
^XeVere, emphatic,

see"

by way
i.

of antithesis to "prophets
o-wo-ct,

kings").

Again, orwo-a

is

he shall save; avrbs
21).

and he (emphatic, and
vi.

none other) shall save (Matt.
(avTos)

See

also

Mark
the

45, " until he
it.

should send away the people," for no
avroC,

one else could do
Beatitudes

Observe also the repetition of
V.

they,

in

(Matt.

4-8).

The
Acts

empliasis conveyed by the insertion of the pronominal subject
;

is

often too

subtle to be expressed by translation
iv.

20

;

1 Cor. xv. 30, etc.)

but it is always worth noting. (See The emphatic eyw (John xvi. 33 ; 1 Cor. ii.

1, 3) is

very noticeable.

So in many other passages.

170. The omitted Subject of the third person plural is often to be understood generally. Compare the English expressions. They say, etc.
Matt.
V.

11

:

oTav
i.e.,

6v€i8C(rw(riv v/xa<s

kol 8i«|w(ri, tchen they reproach

and

persecute you;

men

in general.

John

XX. 2

:

%av

rov YLvpiov, they have taken

away

the

Lord;
(i.e.,

i.e.,

some

persons have.

See also Matt.
to time);
iii.

viii.

16,

Mark
John

x. 13,

they loere h'inging

from time

Luke

xvii. 23,

xv. 6 (A.Y. "

men,"

RY.

"they"), Acts

2, etc.

171. Verbs in the third person singular, without a Subject expressed, frequently imply some necessary or cenventionally understood Subject of their own.
1 Cor. XV. ,52 o-aXir^o-ci, lit., he shall sound the trumpet, a classical expression, implying 6 a-aXTTLyKTrj^, the trwnpeter, equivalent, as A.V., to the trumpet shall sound.
:


§ 174,
a.]

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
head are
to

167
as pp^x"> originally understood
:

To
it

this

be referred

many

so-called impersonals

rains (in First Aorist,

James

v. 17).

The Greeks
with
all

and sometimes expressed
thunders,"
\iyii,

Zcv?, or 0eos,

such words.

"

He

rains,
<}>Ti<ri,

etc.
it

;

hence passing into the impersonal usage.
cVpiiKc,

Again
4)
;

he or
it

says; once,

he or

it

hath said (Heb.

iv.

once,
:

elirc,

he or

said (1 Cor. xv, 27), are used as formulas of quotation

^ ypa^ri,

the Scripture, to be supplied (compare
(see Matt. xix. 5).

Kom.
16,

iv. 3, etc.);

or 6 ©co9,

God
<}>ticri,

See, for
1

Xe'-yci,

2 Cor. vi. 2, Gal.
viii. 5.

iii.

Eph.

iv.

8,

etc.

;

for

Cor. VL 16,

Heb.
but

Once,

4)T)ori

seems to be used jn the general sense, as
;

plural, they say

(2 Cor. X. 10)

many MSS. (W.
is

H., marg.) there read ^aa-L

172. The Nominative
tical rule called

the case of the Subject, and the Subject and

Predicate must correspond in

number and person

;

whence the gramma-

the

First Concord.

A Verb

agrees with

its

nominative case in number

and person.
For other uses of the Nominative, see §§ 242-244. All these are connected with its true use as Subject. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the learner that the key to every proposition, however compHcated, is in the nominative case and verb
;

that

is,

in the Subject

and Predicate.

To

these all the

other words are only adjuncts.

173. The great apparent exception to the First Concord Neuter Plural nominative often takes a singular verb.

is

that a

John
Acts

ix.

3

:

Iva

<j>av€p«0]g

rd ^pya tov 0€ov, that the works of

God may

he manifested.
i.

18
ii.

:

cIcxvOt]
:

Trarra

to,

<nrXdYxva avrov, all his howels gushed out.
^'^ipova,

2 Pet.
worse.

20

yiyovv/

rd

'ifryjxTo.

the last tilings have become

So in many other passages.
The reason
for this
life,

idiom

is

undoubtedly that, as neuters generallj" express
is

things without

the plural

regarded as one collective mass.

174. Variations in
a.

this idiom are as follow

:

When
is

the neuter nominative plural denotes animated beings, the
in the plural number.

verb

commonly

168
Matt.
rise
X.

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
21
:

[§ 174,

a.

liravaorTTJo-ovToi
...

riKvo. ... koI

8avaT<£<rov<rtv,

children shall

up against
:

and

kill.
<j)pCo-o-ovo-tv,

James ii. 19 and tremble.
b.

ra

Saijidvia irio-Tevovo-iv Kat

the

demons

believe

The

usage, however,

is

by no means

fixed.

Thus, things without

life

are occasionally associated with a plural verb.

Luke
John
c.

xxiv. 1 1
xix. 31
:

:

€^dvTi<rav ...to. pi^iiara, the loords

appeared.

tva KaT6a7«<riv

ra

<rKeXr],

that the legs might be broken.

Living Subjects are also found with a singular verb.

1

John

iii.

10

:

cjiavepd ccttiv to, rcKva,

k.t.X,, the

children of

God and

those of the devil are manifest.

Luke
d.

viii.

30

:

Saijiovia iroXXa cla-fjXOcv,

many demons

entered.

In some passages the singular and plural seem used indiscriminately

with the same Subjects.

John X. 4 ra Trpopara avr<2 clkoXovGci on him because they knoiv his voice.
:

ol'8a<rtv,

k.t.X.^ the

sheep follow

Ver. 27
sheep hear

:

to.

irpopara

...

aKovei

(W.

H., dKOvovcTLv) kol olkoXovGovo-C

/x,ot,

the

my

voice
:

and follow me.
(rvvc'Paivov

1 Cor. X. 11

Tavra iravra
.

(W. H.,

-€v)

... 6Ypd<}>Tj

8c, all

these

things happened

.

.

and were

ivritten.
this matter has been a fruitful source of

The uncertainty
various readings.

of the usage in

It is often difficult, if

not impossible, to decide whether the
text.

.singular or the plural

formed the original

175.

ct.

When

the Subject

is

a collective

noun

in

the

singular,

denoting animate objects, the verb

may be put

in the plural

number.

This construction
Matt. xxi. 8
:

is

known

as

Rational Concord.^

6 Se TrXeio-Tog 6x\os ^o-Tpwcrav, k.t.X., the gi'eater part of

the multttude strewed their (plural) garments in the way.

Luke
Rev.

xix.

37

:

*ip|avTo aTrav ro irXf]0os, k.t.X., all the

multitude of the

disciples began to praise
xviii.

God, rejoicing

(plur.

masc).

4

:

cleXGeTc, 6 Xa<5s /xov,

Come forth^ my people !

^

Constructio ad sensum, or Synesis.

§ 176,
h.

b.]

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
are

169

The Singular and Plural
vi.
...

combined in some passages.
60€wpo\jv,

John

2

:

-fjKoXovGct ...

©xXos ttoXv? ort

a great multitude was

folloiving

because
:

tliey loere seeing. 8€

Acts XV. 12
became
silent
,

e<riYno"6v
icefre

Trav

to

irXiiOos

/cat

<]kovov, tlie ivliole

number

and

listening.
is

The

singular, however,

the more usual construction.

176.

<^'

When

two

or

more nominatives, united by a copulative conis

junction, form the Subject, the verb

generally in the plural.

If the nominatives are of different persons, the first is preferred to

the second and third, the second to the third

;

that

is,

/

(or we)

and

you and
Acts

lie

are resolved into
1
:

we ; you and he into

yoti.

iii.

IIcTpos l\ koX 'Iwdv-^s ave'paivov, Peter
:

and John

icere

going up.

John
1

X.

30

c-yw

koX 6 irar?|p Iv

eVjjtcv,

/ and my Father

are one.

Cor. ix. 6

:

e-yw /cat

Bapvdpas ovk

Ixok-^v, k.t.A..,

have not I and Barnabas

authority]
1

etc.
:

Cor. XV. 50

o-dp^ Kat atjxa ...ov SvvavTai,^ flesh

and blood cannot

inherit

the
b.

kingdom

of God.

The verb, however, often agrees with the nearest Subject.

In this case the Predicate is to be understood as repeated with the other Subjects, or that with which the verb agrees is thrown into prominence, the others being subordinate.
It should

be observed that in this construction- the Greek verb icsually pre-

cedes the nominatives.

Acts xvi. 31
house.
1

:

(r«0Tj<rTj

<rv

Kat 6 oikos (tov, thou shalt be saved

and thy

Tim.

vi.

4

:

e^ wv YCvcrai

<|)0ovos, ^pis, pXa(r<|)Ti|xiai,

k.t.A..,

from which

comes envy,

strife, railings, etc.
is

In these two cases the "verb

repeated in thought.

John

ii.

12:

KarepTi

.

.

.

avrbs

Kat

ot

fia0T]Tal

avTov,

He

went down to

Capernaum, Himself and His
Here the one Subject
is

discij^les.
;

throAvn into prominence
is

common
Matt.
xxvi. 30

one when the principal Subject
3;

placed nearest the verb.
is do-Trdferai.

and the construction is the Compare
15, xx. 3;

xii.
;

Luke

xxii.

14; John

ii.

2, iv. 53, viii. 52, xviii.

Acts

Philemon

23, 24,

where the approved reading

^

W. H.

read duvarai,.

17

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
177.

[§ 177.
is

When

the Predicate of a simple sentence
copula,
it

a

noun

or pronoun,

united to
the

the subject by the
viz.
:

corresponds with the Subject by
,

law of apposition,

A

substantive employed to explain or describe another, under the
is

same grammatical regimen,

put in the same case.
i(TTL,

John
number.

XV.

1

:

6 IlaTTjp jxov 6 y€oipy6^

my

Father

is the

husbandman.

It is not necessary that the substantives should correspond in gender or

2 Cor.
2 Cor.

i.

14
3

:

Kavx^H^o- v/xtov cV/acv, ive
ecrre eirio-ToX'fi

are your boast.
epistle.

iii.

:

Xptarov, ye are Chrisfs

178.

When

the Predicate
its
:

is

an adjective, including adjective pro•

nouns and participles, Second Concord, viz.

agreement with the Subject comes under the

Adjectives, pronouns, and participles agree with their substantives
in gender, number,

and

case.
sqq.

For further exemplitication of this Concord, see Chapters IV., V., §§ 315,

In simple sentences the case is, of course, the nominative. The agreement in gender and number may be illustrated by the following
:

Matt.
Matt.

vii.

29

:

^v

8i8d<rK«v,
:

he was teaching.
r/

xiii.

31, etc.

6|xoia ka-riv

pao-tXeia, k.t.A., the

kingdom

of

heaven

is like, etc.

Mark
Luke
John
1

v. 9

:

iroXXoi Icrix^v,
:

we are many.
things are ready.
toell is

xiv.

17
:

^Toijid co-rt iravra, all

iv. 1 1
V.

to 4>p€ap eVri pa0v, the

deep.

John

3

:

at IvroXal avrov papctai ovk

ctcrti/,

His commandments are
these

not grievoiLs.

Kev.

vii.

14:

olroL

da-tv

oi

cpxofJ^evoi,

k.t.X.,

are they that are

coming out of the great

tribulation.

179.
is

When
vii.

the Subject

is

a collective noun, the adjective Predicate
§ 173.)
. . .

sometimes

plural.

(Compare
6xX-os

John
accursed.

49:

6

ovto?

eirdparoC

ciVtv,

this

multitude

are


§ 183.]

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
adjective Predicate
is

171

180. An
1
1

occasionally generalised
is

by being put

in the neuter gender,

though the Subject
lit.,

masculine or feminine.
we)'e this (these things).
is nothing.

Cor.
Cor.

vi.
vii.

11

:

ravrd nves ^t€,
:

some of you

19

17

ircpiroixT^ ovSe'v eo-rt,

drcumcision

re-stated in the

181. The laws of apposition and concord, form of the following rule
:

as above applied,

may be

Copulative verbs require the Nominative
before them.
For the chief copulative verbs, see
§ 165, note.

case

after

as well as

John

i.

14

:

6 A070S €7€V€to o-dpl, the
:

Word

hecame flesh.

Acts xvi. 3
2 Cor.
or
xiii.

"EXXiiv
:

iixfjpxev,

he was (originally) a Qreek.
that we should appear app'oved^

7

tva

rijitis

Sokijioi 4>avwp.€v,

"be manifestly approved."
Matt.
V.

9

:

viol

0€ov

KXTiOrjo-ovTai, theij

shall be called sons of God.

Acts

X.

32

:

St/xwva, 8s 4'iriKaX€iTai

IXcTpos,

Simon

(accusative), loho is

suimamed

Peter.

Rom.

v.

19

:

afJtapTwXol

KaT€<rTd0T](rav

ol

iroXXoC,

SiKaioi

KaTa<rTa0^(rovTat

01 iroXXof,

the

many

were

made

sinners, the

many

shall be

made

righteous.

182. Hitherto

the rules and examples given have been designed to
of the

show the main elements alone

simple sentence.

Other words,

however, are very generally added to the Subject, to the Predicate, or to
both, for the purpose of further explanation.

These words are called

the complements of the simple sentence, and are variously said to com>plete, to

extend, or to enlarge the Subject or the Predicate, as the case

may

be.

183. The
extended (1)
(4)

Subject,

which is by another noun
phrases.

essentially a

noun
(2)

substantive,

may be

in

apposition,

by the qualifying

force of adjectives, pronouns, or the article, (3)

by dependent nouns, or

by prepositional

For Apposition, see § 177. For Adjectives, see Chapter TV., For the Article, see Chapter II.,

§§

315, sqq.
193, sqq.

^

172

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

[§ 183.
for prepositional

For the dependence of nouns one upon another, and
phrases^ see Chapter III.

184. The
manner

Predicate,

when

a noun,

may be extended

in the

same

as the Subject.

185. When an

adjective

is

Predicate,

it

may

be extended by depen-

dent nouns, by adverbs, or by prepositional phrases.

186. Verbal Predicates may be variously extended. Any verb may be qualified by an adverb. Prepositional phrases may be employed in
this

connection

also.

Especially, the

meaning

of

a

verb transitive

requires to be completed

by the Object or Objects, direct or indirect. For the direct Object^ see § 281. For indirect Objects, see on the Genitive and Dative cases, §§ 246, sqq.
a verb, as
therefore,

187. The complements of a simple sentence cannot include this would introduce a distinct predication. Verbal clauses,

forming part of a period are termed accessory clauses^ and a sentence with one or more accessory clauses besides the principal one is called
a

COMPOUND SENTENCE.
Accessory clauses, as related to the principal, are either co-ordinate or

subordinate.

188. Co-ordinate accessory
conjunctions.

clauses are similar in construction to
it

the principal, and are often connected with
(See § 402, sqq.)

and with one another by

189. Subordinate
It
is

clauses are dependent upon the principal or upon

the accessory clauses, or upon single words or phrases in either.
plain

that

subordinate

clauses

may

be

co-ordinate with one

another.

190. The methods
various.
(2)

of introducing
(1)

subordinate

clauses are very
(§§

The

chief

are,

by the Kelative Pronoun

343, 344),

and

by the use of the Participials (participle (3) by the Particles (§§ 383, 384).
Otherwise
:

or infinitive) (§§ 385-396),

subordinate clauses are Substantival, Adjectival, or Adverbial.
tiie

A

substantival clause expresses

subject or object of a verb, or stands in
infinitive
;

apposition,

and usually employs the
is
;

an adjectival
is

clause, qualifying

a word or sentence, employs a participle

introduced by a relative pronoun or conjunction, or
introduced by a conjunction,

and an adverbial clause

or employs a participle or the oblique case of a noun.

§ 192.]

COMPOUND SENTENCES.
is

173
is

191. It complement

often difficult to determine whether a certain phrase

a

of the Subject, or of the Predicate.

Many

illustrations
:

might be given from the Epistle to the Komans.

For instance ch. i. 17 (Hab. ii. 4.), 6 St/<atos ck ttco-tcw? ^TJo-erat, lit., the Are we to understand the preporighteous (man) from faith shall live. sitional phrase Ik TrtVreajs as the complement of the Subject o SiKato?, or
In other words, are we to translate "The man from faith (he that is righteous, or justified by faith) shall live?" or, "The righteous man shall live from faith?" Again, iv. 1 are we to attach the prepositional phrase, Kara cap/ca,
of the Predicate ^TJa-eTat?

righteous

:

according to the flesh, with the word irpoTrdTopa, forefather, in apposition with Abraham, the Subject of the accessory clause, or to the Predicate liath found 1 that is, does the Apostle ask, " "What shall we say that

Abraham, our father
shall

as pertaining to the flesh,

hath found

?" or, " A^Tiat

we

say that

Abraham our

father hath found as pertaining to the

flesh r'

The
For

true connection of accessory clauses
instance, in Acts
iii.

is also

occasionally doubtful.

21, it

may

be fairly discussed whether the

relative clause, ivhich

God hath
word

spoken by the mouth of all His holy

prophets, belongs to the

time^, or to all things.
;

Such questions

of interpretation are not proposed for consideration here

their

settlement must often depend not only on the laws of construction, but on the Reference is made to them only to shoAv the signification of individual words.
necessity, to a right interpretation of a passage, of distinctly analysing the parts

of every

compound

sentence, and of assigning to each its right position.
in Greek,

In our

own language
indicates the

this is comparatively easy, as the order of the sentence in general

mutual relation of

its

parts
is

;

through the number and

variety of the inflections, the order

of little importance to the structure of

the sentence, though of

much

to its emphasis.

192. As hints
lowing
verb,

may
first

for disentangling a compound sentence, the be valuable:

fol-

Search

—then

for the predicate, or thing affirmed

usually, of course, a

for the subject.

Th-ese once fixed, every other verb will

mark

an accessory clause, which wdl have to be regarded apart.

The remaining

words, generally in close grouping with the Subject and Predicate, must be assigned to tliem respectively as their complements, according to the
usages of the several parts of speech and forms of inflection.
it is

To

tliese

now

necessary to turn, in order,

174

THE ARTICLE AS DEMOXSTEATIVE.

[§ 193.

Chapter

II.

THE

AliTICLE.
Hence, anarthrous,

Latin, Articulus ; Greek, apOpov (a joint).
"

without an

article."

Construction of the Article.

193. The

Article,

6,

t|,

to,

the (see

§ 12),

is

usually employed, as

with nouns substantive. The Second Concord appHes to this relation the article agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case.
;

in other languages,

194. This general usage, however, admits of many variations, attributable to the fact that the Article was originally a demonstrative pronoun.i
Its demonstrative use is clearly seen in the Apostle Paul's quotation (Acts
xvii. 28), Tov

I

yap

/cat

yivos

ea/ji^v,

we arc

his offspring.

195.

A

remnant of the old demonstrative use

is,

that the Article

often stands without a

noun
6

expressed, like our this, that; the sense of
is to
.

the phrase showing who or what

be understood.
.
.

For example, the phrase
the other.

jjl^v

. .

6 hi signifies this

.

that, or the one

.

.

Acts xiv. 4

:

ot

y.\v

rja-av

(Tvv rots *IovSat'ois, oi

84

avv tols

d7rocrToA.ots,

some were with the Jews, others with the
In Matt.
Kovra,
xiii.

apostles.

23

Se is repeated
sixty,

:

6

|iiv

e/carw, 6 84 k^rjKovTa, 6 84 rpta-

some a hwidred, some
xxii. 5
;

some
5
;

thirty.

See also Matt.
iv.

Mark

xii.

Acts

xvii.

32

;

Gal.

iv.

22

;

Eph.

11

;

Phil.

i.

16, 17

;

Heb.

vii.

20, 21.

^

The student may be reminded that the English
le,

article the, the

German

dcr, the

French

are also ori;'iuai demonstratives.

iSo in

other

lanffi;a<'es.

§ 198.]

THE ARTICLE AS DEMOXSTRATR^E.
6 64
is

175
6
fj-^f,

When

used in narration, even without a preceding

it

ahvays

implies some other person previously mentioned, as

Matt.

ii.

5

:

ot
:

5e

etTroi',

and

they said.

Mark
Acts

xiv. 61

6 5^ ia-iuira, but

he

was

silent.

xii.

15

:

ij

de dua-xvpiteTo, but she steadfastly asserted.

So in innumerable passages.

196. The
a genitive.
Matt.
X. 2
xii.
:

Article, disconnected

from a noun,

is

often followed

by

'laKw^o? 6 tov ZepeSaCov, James the (son) of Zehedee.
:

Mark
Ccesar.

17

aTro'Sore

rd Kaio-apos, rende)' the (things or rights) of

Gal. V. 24
of the

:

ot

rov Xpwrrov, the (servants or disciples) of the Christy

i.e.,

Anointed one.
ii.

2 Pet.
proverb.

22

:

to t^s d\r]6ov<; irapoifiias,

the (saying)

of the truthful

The
Ttt

plural neuter rd

is

very frequently used in this construction, as in

the second of the above instances.

So rd

tov v6p.ov, the things of the law;

TOV nv€v(taTos, the things of the Spirit; Td cavT«v, their

ovm

interests

(lit.

the things of themselves), and so on.
Similarly, the Article precedes
V.
i.

197.
Matt.

a Preposition with

its case.

15 36
39
:

:

tois Iv

Tig oiKi'a,

to those in the house.

Mark
Luke
Eph.

^t/xojv /cat oi jict
:

avTov,

Simon and

those with him.

ii.

Td KaTd tov
Td
€v

vo|iov,

the (things) according to the law.
...

i.

10

:

Tois

ovpavois

Td

c-iri

ttjs

Yfjs,

the

(things) in the

heavens ...the (things) on the earth.

Acts

xiii.

13

:

ot
i.e.,

irepl

IlavXov, those about Paid, including himself (by

a classic idiom),

Paul and
II.

his associates.

Any

of the

prepositions

may
§

follow the Article
etc.

;

for

their

several

significance, see

Chapter

288,

198.

A

construction essentially similar

is

that of the Article

with

Adverbs, the noun being supplied in thought.
Instances of this are
:

rh vvv, the (thing) note

:

the present (Matt. xxiv.

21
if

;

Luke

v.

10)

;

rj

onr|}i€pov,

to-day ;

i\

aiJpiov,

the

morrow (feminine),
So, in

as

from

rjfxipa,

day; Matt.

vi.

34; xxvii. 62).

many

passages,

176
6
TrXT](rlov, tlie

THE ARTICLE AS DEMOXSTRATIVE.
(man who
is)

[§ 198.

near, one^s neighhour; rd 4v«, the (things)
ot

above; rd Kdrw, the (things) beneath;
oirCo-w, ^/le

?|«,

^/i06'e

(people) loithout; rd

(things) behind; rd

?|XTrpoo-0€v, ^/le

(things) before, etc.

199. The Article

is

frequently placed before Adjectives, the suball

stantive being implied.

This construction belongs to

genders, and to both numbers.

In-

stances of its occurrence are very frequent.

Thus

:

Mark

i.

24
6

:

6 ^7105, the
:

Holy

(one).

i\Iatt. vii.

to Ayiov, the holy (thing).
:

Matt, xxiii. 15

t^v

iiipdv,

the dry (land).

Luke
Eph.
1

xvi.
i.

25
:

:

rd dYaSd, the good (things).

3

kv rots t-n-ovpavCois, in the

heavenly (places).

Thess.
ii.

iv.

16

:

ol vtKpol iv

Xpio-rw, the

dead in Christ.

Titus

4

:

tva auifjipovi^isicn rds v€as, that they

may

instruct the

young

(women).
Compare the ordinary English
abstracts, the true, the right,

phrases, the good, the great, the

ivise,

with the
is

the heautiftd.

In Greek, however, the usage

much more

extended, and

is

exemplified also by anarthrous adjectives.

200. The
Matt.
Matt.
i.

Article

is

commonly

also used before Participles; the

sense again supplying the noun.

22
4
3
:

:

TO

pT]0€v,

the (thing) spoken.

V.

ot ir€v0ovvT€s,
:

the (persons) mourning.

Matt.
Matt.

xi.

6 epxop.€vos, the
:

coming

(one).
i.e.,

xiii.

3

6 oTreipwv, the
:

(man) sowing,

" a sower."

Matt, 2 Cor.

xxiii.
ii.
.

37
:

tovs dirca-ToXixe'vovs, the (persons)
...

having been

sent.

15
.

kv tois o-w^opvois

cv tois diroXXvfie'vois, in the (persons)

being saved

.

in the (persons) ^perishing.

of translating the Article

from these and other instances that the most convenient way with the participle will often "be by changing the phrase into a relative and finite verb. Thus, in the last two examples,
It will appear

we

idiomatically and accurately render, those
.

who Jmve

been sod,

and

those

who

arc being saved

.

those

who are perishing.
see

For further details on this frequent and important construction,
YI.
§ 396.

Chap.

§ 203.]

THE ARTICLE AS DEMONSTRATIVE.
iDfinitive
substantive,

177

201. The
able neuter

Mood
and

iii

all its

tenses

is

treated as an indeclin-

is

often thus qualified

by the

Article,

the phrase expressing the abstract notion of the verb.
§§

(See ChajD.

YL
on

388—390.)
Matt. XX. 23: to
KaGio-au

€k Se^twv,

the

sittiiKj

(lit.,

"the

to-sit ")

my

right hand.
xiii.

Matt.

3

:

toO
ev
:

crrreipeiv,

(for the purpose) of do icing.

Matt.

xiii.

4

:

tw

inrcipeiv,

in the sowing.
after the rising.
...

Mark
Phil.

xiv.
i.

28
:

^era to
li]v

€7€p0f]vai,
...

21

TO

Xpicrros

to a-n-oGavetv k€/dSo9, Living (is) Christ

dying

(is)

gain.
-will

under the head of the luhuThe English form in -ing may be either an adjective or a substantive. Thus we may say, a living man, in the or Living is enjoyment. In the former case the word is a participle into or from Greek, the two must bo latter an infinitive and in rendering
This consti'uction
be more
fiilly

illustrated

itive.

One caution bere may not be out

of place.

;

;

carefully discriminated.

202.

Sometimes, again, whole phrases or sentences are qualified

by a neuter Article; especially quotations, before which some such word as saying, piwei'b, command, may be supplied, or expressions of a
question, problem, or difficulty.

Quotations are as in Matt, xix, 18

:

rh ov

4>ov€vo-€is,

ov jioixcvo-eis,

the

(command) " thou shalt do no murder, thou shalt not commit adultery.^^
See also Luke xxii. 37
;

Rom.

xiii. 9

;

Gal. iv. 25, to "Ayap, the (name)

Hagar;

Eph.

iv. 9

;

Heb.

xii. 27.

Expressions of the latter class are as in
KoXeto-Gat,

Luke

i.

62

:

to tC &v OeXoi

the (question) ichat he

would

like (him) to he called.

Luke

ix.

46
4

:

to tCs dv
:

d'r]

|i€tt«v,

the (dispute) loho shoidd he greater'.

Luke
him.

xxii.

to

irois

avTov irapaSw, the (scheme)

how he might

hetray

Rom.

viii.

26

:

to ti

irpoo-€v|«(jL€0a,

the (manner)
;

how we should pray.
iv. 1,

See likewise Luke xix.
passages.

48

;

Acts xxii. 30

1

Thess.

and a few other

203. The employment
discussion in § 220.

of the Article with

Pronouns

is

reserved for

IT

178

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.

[§ 204.

204.
virtually

Generally, an Infinitive, Participle, Adjective, or other word or

phrase, qualified

by the Article, is said to he mhstantivised^ a Noun, and treated similarly in the sentence.

i.e.,

made

Significance of the Article

:

its

Insertion or Omission.
;

205. The
languages, to

Article

is

strictly

definite

and

is

used, as in other

mark a
:

specific object of thought.
6<j>0aXfios,

Matt.

vi.

22

6

Xvxvos tov o-to/xaros Icmv 6

the

lamp of

the

body

is the eye.

206. Hence
The
subject

arises the general rule, that in

the simple sentence the
it.

Subject takes the article, the Predicate omits
is

definitely before the
is

class to

which the subject
is itself

referred, or

mind, the predicate generally denotes the from which it is excluded, but the

notion of the class

indeterminate.

Matt.

xiii.
iii.

39
:

:

ol Z\ ecpio-ral

^yyi\oL
Ik. Tr]<s

elcrtv,

the reapers are angels.

John

6

rh ye^(€vvr\^ivov

o-ap/co? <rdp| i(TTLv,

that which

is

hom

of the flesh

is flesh.

John John
1

xvii.
i.

17:6
0€bs

X070S 6

<rbs dXriGcid Icttlv,

thy word

is

tndh.

1

:

tJv

6 Xoyos, the
a-ydirTj

John

iv.

8

:

6 0cbs

Word ivas God. ia-TLVy God is love.

The Copula being frequently omitted

166), the presence or absence

of the Article with a nominative adjective will often decide

whether

it is

a Predicate or an attribute of the Subject.
ii.

Thus,

-rrto-Tos

6 X^^os, 2

Tim.

11,

must be rendered faithfid
loord.

is the ivord; 6

ttictto?

Xoyo? would have

been the faithfid
Matt.
V.

5

:

|iaKdptot ot irpaeis, hlessed (are) the
:

meek.

Rom.

vii.

7

6 vdp.os dp.apTia

;

is

the law sin?

From an examination
Article with the Subject,

of these examples, it will appear that the use of the

and

its

omission with the Predicate,

is

no grammatical
the article been

expedient, but arises from their respective definiteness.

Had

would have read thus T/ie reapers are the angels, the whole host iJint which is horn of the flesh is the flesh, i.e., is the part of human nature so denominated; Thy Word is the Truth, and nothing else can be so described the Word icas the entire Godhead, and God and Love are identical, so that in fact Love is God the blessed
employed with the Predicate
:

in the above case, the sentences
;

;

;

§ 209.]

yiGXIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
;

179
abstracts,

are the meek, and none others
§ 214,) i.e., are

is Hie

Laio Sin?

(see

on the Article with

Sin and

Law

the same thing?
altered.

The meaning

of every proposition

would thus have been materially

207. When
John
i.

the Article

is

found with the Predicate, an essential

identity with the Subject is asserted.^
4
:

T|

tw-f) r^v

to

c}>«s

rOiv av6po)7r(Dv, the life ivas the light

of men^

the only light.
2 Cor.
iii.

17

:

6 Be

Kvpios to

irvevjid

Icttlv^

the

Lord

is

the spirit^ to

which the passage
1

relates.

John

iii.

4

:

t|

ajiapTia eo-rtv

t|

dvojiia,

sin is transgression of laio ;

and

conversely, transgression of law

is sin.

Personal and other pronouns are very frequently the Subject
dicate
is

when the

Pre-

thus defined.

(Matt. v. 13, xvi. 16, xxvi. 26, 28; Acts xxi. 38, etc.)

by some other expression occurring So in English, we may say, "The with it, the Article may be omitted. house of my father," or " My father's house," the word father's in the
a

208. When

word

is

defined

latter

phrase rendering house definite.

This most frequently occurs in Greek
a substantive, omits the Article.

when

the qualifying word, being

Matt.
1

i.

1

:

pipXos

vcvc'o-ews,

the hook of the generation,

Thess.
1

iv.

15:
i.

Iv \6y<a Kvpfou, in the icord
:

of the Lord.
the Lord.

But

Thess.

8

o Xoyos tov Kvp{ov, the

word of

209. In the

four following cases, the Article, in conformity

with the general rule, marks definiteness.
(1)

or

Monadic Nouns. Objects only one of which is present

of

which there

is

but one of the kind,

to thought, are usually defined

by the

Article.

Thus,
Xcvs, the

6 ovpavos,

heaven;

i\

71],

earth;

i\

ddXao-o-a, the

sea; 6

fieyas pao-i-

great king.

Exceptions to this usage, and their reason, will be noted further on.

^

Logic), in

This form of sentence answers to the affirmative proposition which the Predicate is " distributed."

(in Sir

W.

Plamilton's

180

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
(2)

[§ 210.
of a class is

210.

Individua] Emphasis.

—When some
i.e.,

member
is

singled out as bearing a distinctive character, the Article

employed.

Examples.
xii.
f|

t|

Kp^o-is,

the judgment^

the final judgment, as Matt,

41, 42;
7pa<}>iq,

Luke

x. 14.

at ypa^aC, the
;

writing, writings,

i.e.,

the Holy Scriptures, as

Matt. xxii. 29
T|

John

x.

35

;

Eom.
30

iv. 3,

xv.

4.

^pTifxos,
iii.

the desert,
;

i.e.,

that of Judaea, Matt.
vii.
;

xi.

7

;

or that of Sinai
iv. l.i

John
Matt.
o

14, vi. 31

Acts

and perhaps Matt.
according to
§

o ircipatwv,
iv.

the temjiter (participle,
1

200),

i.e.,

Satan.

3

;

Thess.
the

iii.

5.

Ipxofievos,

Matt.

xi. 3, xxi. 9,

coming one (participle, present), i.e., the Messiah xxiii. 39 Heb. x. 37. Compare Rev. i. 4, 8, iv. 8.
;

211. (3) Singular for Collective. A noun in the singular number with the Article occasionally stands for the whole class. Compare such
English expressions as " he looked the king," " the good
to himself."

man

is

a law

Matt.

xii.

35

:

o dyaQos fivOpwiros,

the good

man, denoting good men

generally.

Matt.

xii.

29

:

tov 'wrxvpoO, of the strong

man, any one who possesses

that attribute.

Matt. XV.
Matt,
publican.

11

:

tov &v0p«irov, the
:

man, whoever he may
6 t€Xwvt]s,

be.

xviii.

17

6

IOvikos

koI

the heathen

man and

the

Luke
2 Cor.

X. 7
xii.

:

o epYart]?, the labourer, generally.

12

:

o-ry/xeta

tov diroo-ToXov, signs of the ap)Ostle,

i.e.,

of aiiy

rightful claimant of that character. Gal.
iv.

1

:

6 KXTjpovojios, one

who

is heir.

Strong reasons have been assigned for the belief that ** the wilderness" of our Lord's temptation was the same as that through which the Israelites journeyed to Canaan. See Mark i. 13, and compare our Lord's quotations with their original reference. Note also the parallels between our Lord's history and those of Moses and Elijah. Webster ami Wilkinson on Matt. iv. 1 may be usefully consulted on
^

these points.

§ 213.]
James
To
v.
tliis

SIGXIFICAXCE OF THE ARTICLE.
6
:

181

tov SiKatov, the righteous
also,

man, generally.
iii.

head

perhaps, belongs John

10, av el 6 SiddaKaXos; art thou

which thou hast been appointed? Or, as in the preceding instances, the word may mark a special emphasis, Nicodemus having in some eminent way the character of Rabbi.
the teacher? i.e., is that the position to

212.
definite

(1)

Renewed Mention.

—A

person

or

thing

is

often

made

by mention (without the

Article) in a paragraph, the Article

being employed in subsequent reference.
Matt.
ii.

1

:

there

came wise men,

jjid-yoi.

Yer,

7,

Herod having

called

the wise men, tovs jidYovs.

Matt.

xiii.

25

:

the

enemy came and sowed
tt^dvia.

tares, titavm.

Ver. 26, then

appeared the

tares,

tA

XX. 1 with xix. 41
ii.

In like manner compare Luke ix. 16 with ver. 13 ; John iv. 43 with ver. 40 ; 2 Thess. Acts xi. 13 with x. 3, 22 James ii. 3 with ver. 2 11, the falsehood, referring to ver. 9, (lit.) wonders of (in support of) a
; ;
;

falsehood.

Sometimes the reference
article,

is

implicit, the second expression, bearing the

being equivalent to the former, though not identical.
:

Acts XX. 13
sailed

cVt to ttXoiov, 07i

board the ship, implied in

ver. 6,

"we
he

away."
V.

Heb.

4

:

ti?|v Tip-riv,

the honour, referring to the first verse, " that

may

ofier gifts
ii.

and
t|

sacrifices."
k.t.X., the

1 Pet.

7

:

r\.\u%

preciousness

is

for

you who

believe,

i.e.,

that spoken of in the previous verse, " a corner-stone, elect, p)recious."

213.

It is a

mark

of great importance (AYiner) that " it is utterly
it is

impossible that the Article should be omitted where
necessary, or employed

decidedly

where

it is

quite superfluous or preposterous."

" It would be a revolution of the laws of thought to express as definite

which is conceived ness and suggestiveness
that

indefinitely,"

Attention to this will add vivid-

to

many

a passage in

which our Authorised

Version has failed to reproduce the force of the original.

number
selected.

of texts to
'

which this remark applies, the The Revised Aversion renders the force of the

From a great following may be
Article except in

the cases indicated.

182
Matt.
i.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
23
(Isa. vii.

[§ 213.

14)

:

rj

irape^vos, the virgin,

i.e.,

the personage so

denominated.
Matt.
spot.
V. 1
:

TO 6pos,

tlie

mountain
12.)
r-f^v

;

the high ground overlooking the

(See also
V.

Lnke
tov

vi.

Matt.

15

:

fidSiov,

XvxvCav,

tlie

modius, the lamp-stand, recogbelonging to the

nised articles of furniture in every house.

Matt. XV. 26
household.

:

tois

KwapCots,
vii.

to

the little dogs,

i.e.,

(So

Mark
:

27.)

Matt. xvii. 24

to.

8i8paxH.a, the half-shekels,

the well-known customary

payment.
Matt. xxi. 12
poor.
:

rds

ircpio-Tcpas,

the doves, the

accustomed offerings of the

Matt, xxiii. 24

:

tov Kwvwrra, t^v

KajiiiXov,

the gnat, the camel, of

some

popular fable or proverb.

Luke
Jolin

xii.

54
22

:

t^v

v€<j)eXT]v,^

the cloud, " rising out of the west," of that

peculiar character
iv.
:

which

foretells

much

rain.

(1

Kings

xviii. 44, 45.)

i^

<rwTt]p£a,

the

salvation,

expected by

Israel.

(R.V.

salvation.)

John

xiii.

5

:

tov vwrTfjpa, the basin, used
:

on such occasions.
in reference to this

John
John
John
Acts

xvi.

13

iraa-av t^v aX-qOctav,

all the truth,
v.

particular subject.
xviii.

(Compare Mark
t^v
o-ireipav,

33.)

3
:

:

the hand,

on duty

at the time.

xxi. 3

t6 irXoiov, the ship, belonging to the disciples, or hired

for their use.
xvii. 1
:

f|

Krvvo.y<ayi\ Toiv louSatoji',^

the synagogue of the Jeivs,

i.e.,

the chief or only synagogue of that particular district.

Acts XX. 9
ment.

:

eVt tt]s 0vpi8os, at the

window, or open

lattice of the apart-

Acts xxi. 38

:

tows

TCTpaKio-xiXiovs,

the four thousand,

the notorious

band

of desperadoes.

Acts xxiv. 23
cavalry

who

Tw iKaTovrapxti, the centurion, i.e., the captain of the had sole charge of the Apostle when the infantry (xxiii. 32)
:

had returned

to Jerusalem.

^

liev.

Text and W. H. omit the

article.

J

§ 214.]
1

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
i.

183
the foolishness

Cor.

21

:

8ta t^s /xwpias tov KiipvyjjLaTos, hy
i.e.,

means of

of the proclamation,
1

by the

(so-called) folly of the

preached Gospel.

Cor. iv. 5

:

o ^iraivos, tlie pi'aise,

which

is

due, respectively, to each.

(So R.y., his
1

p)'aise.)
:

Cor. Y. 9

iv rfi l-rritrToX^,

in the

lettei\

referred to thus as well

by

the Corinthians.

AA^iether the Apostle speaks of the letter

known he is now
(Comof

writing, or of

some previous
13:

one, is a question of interpretation.

pare 2 Cor.
1

vii. 8.)

Cor.

X.

t^
TO

?Kpao-Lv,

the

escape,

the

appropriate

means

deliverance.
1

Cor. xiv. 16

:

*A|jltjv,

the

Amen, the appointed and usual response
as to the one " horn out of clue

in Christian M'orship.
1

Cor. XV. 8

:

wo-Trepet t<3 €KTp«|j.aTL,

time,"

the

one Apostle specially bearing that character.

(R.V.

07ie

horn, etc.)

2 Thess.

ii.

3

:

rj

diroo-rao-io,

the falling aicay, or apostasy,

which the

Thessalonians had been taught to expect.
1

Tim.

vi.

12

:

rov KaXov ayCjva

tt]s

Tritmuis, the

good fig]it of the faith,
which hath the

the Christian faith.

Heb.
Heb.

xi.

10

:

r^v

roiis

OtficXiovs

t-xovaav irdXtv, the city

foundations,
xi.

i.e.,

the

Xew

Jerusalem.
tt|v

35

:

ov TrpocrSe^dfjicvoL

dTroXijTpwo-iv,

not accepting the deli-

verance, proffered as the re^vard of apostasy.

James
Rev.

i.

11

:

avv

t<3 Kav<r«vt,

with the hurning u'ind from the east, fatal
;

to vegetation.
ii.

(Compare Matt. xx. 12
:

Jonah

iv.

8

;

Luke
life,

xii.

55.)

10

tov crT^>avov

TTis

t^^s, the croicn

of the

the 23romised

crown of the
Rev.
(lit.,

life
:

immortal.
ck
tVJs

vii.

14

0Xir|/€ws

Tfjs

jxrydXiis,

out of the great trihulation
reference being to a special

the tribulation,

the great one), the

trial.

In ascriptions
Rev.
vii.

of praise, also, the Article
TTjv
TifjLTjv,

is

generally found.

Thus,

iv. 11,

T^v So^av KoX

thc glory

and

the honour ; v. 12, 13;

12.

is

individualised, as

214. Before abstract nouns the Article denotes that the conception an object of thought. It is often difficult to trace

184
the distinction, and

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
it

214

may even

be impossible to say in some instances

whether the insertion or the omission of the Article before abstracts would give the better sense ;^ but there are many cases in which the difference is clearly marked. For example, the Article is employed
:

a. 1

When
Cor.

the abstraction

is personified.

xiii.

4

:

t^

dYdin] fxaKpo6vfji€L, k.t.X.,
i\

Love

suffereth long, etc.

Acts xxviii. 4
to live.
1

:

ov

Sikt]

^r^v

ovk

etao-ei/,

whom
;

Justice permitted not

Cor. xi.
?

14:

ovh\

t)

<j>v(ris

avry]

SiSdcrKa

doth not Nature

itself

teach

So when the abstract term

is

used for the whole mass of individuals.
i.e.,

Rom.
Phil.

xi.
iii.

7

:

i]

Se €k\oyt|, the election,
ircpiToiiT],

the mass of the
i.e.,

elect.

3

:

i\

the

circumcision,

the

community

of the

circumcised.
h.

When
John
is

the abstraction

is

made
i]

a separate object of thought.
ayain], in this is love,
its
i.e.,

1

iv.

10

:

iv tovtio icrrlv

not merely

" this

an act of love," but, herein Love in
21

very essence stands

revealed.
1 Cor. XV.
:

8l

dvOpwirov 6 GdvaTos,

hij

man

(came) death, the uni-

I

versal fact, apart

from the consideration of special instances.
7ravo)VT€<s

Matt.

V.

6

:

kol

8ti//^oL>i/r€?

t-^v

SiKaioo-uvqv,

hungering and

thirsting after righteousness, as in itself a
c.

good

to

be obtained.
of

But where the
10

abstract

word expresses merely a quality
is

some

i

further object of thought, the article

omitted.
8iKaio(rvvT]s,

Matt.

V.

:

ol

SeSiwy/xei/ot

Iv^kcv

the persecuted

for

righteousness^ sake, such being

an element in their character.
Kocr/xio,
si7i

Rom.

V.

13

:

d|xapTia rjv iv
;

attribute of

human conduct
1
:

illustrating the
i\

was in the world, i.e., as an more general assertion of

verse 12, that Sin, in the abstract,
1

dfiapT^a, entered into the world.

Cor.

xiii.

lav

... iy.ya.i7y\v

fjirj

e^Wj Lf ••

I have

not love, as a feature

in

my

character.

abstract nouns in any given case,

In determining the reason of the omission or the insertion of the Article before it should be considered whether there is any

^

In

fact,

the subtlety of this distinction has given rise to a large

number

of

various readings.

^

;

§ 216.]

AETICLE WITH PROPER NAMES.
it,

185
(See

grammatical rule requiring
especially § 212.)

apart from the meauing of the term.

215. A definite attribute or property of an object Greek by the Article.
Thus, instead of saying,
eyes large.
;

is

marked

in

He has large eyes, the Greeks would say, He Jms the But when the connection was only accidental, the Article would be omitted thus. He liad a dee}) icouiid would be expressed without the Article, unless the wound had been previously mentioned, when the case would come under § 212. The Article may, therefore, in such sentences as the following be rendered by the possessive pronoun.
Acts xxvi. 24
:

6 ^-JJo-ros fxeydXy

ttj

<j>ft)vfj

cf>r]a-Lv,

Festus says with his
xiv. 10.

voice upraised, or "
1

with a loud voice," as A.V.
Ti\v

So chap.

Peter

iv.

8

:

cts

eavrovs

d-ydiriiv

iKTivrj

€;)^ovt€s,

having your

love to one anotJier fervent.

Heb.

vii.

24

:

dwapdl^aTov l^et

rfjv

t6p«o-vvT]v,

R.V.

He

hath his priest-

hood unchangeable.
The
Article, in
eflfect,

must often be rendered as an unemphatic possessive
his, her, its, their.

the Greeks saying

the,

where we say

216. With proper names, the Article may or may not be employed. The only rule, probably, that can be safely laid down on the subject is that a name does not take the Article on its first mention, unless in the
case of personages well

known

or specially distinguished.

For the

rest,

the habit or taste of the writer seems to have decided his usage.

may, however, be noted that indeclinable names in the oblique Thus we find tov, t«, tov, cases most frequently employ the Article.
It
'lo-paTjX.

So also in the genealogies. When a name is followed by some title or descriptive word, the Article is generally inserted. So, Mapta t) Ma78aXT]VTj, Mary the Magdalene
;
i.

'lo^jSas o *I<rKapiwTT]s,
1),

Judas

the Iscariot ;

'^oj(T6ivrj<;

6

dScXcjxjs

(1 Cor.

Sosthenes the brother.

a,

Of geographical names, those of countries, generally feminine in almost always take the Article. The probable reason is that they
^

Thus, in the Acts, the

name
still

of

Pc^^"?'

much more

seldom, but

frequently.

Paid almost always has the Article that of Both in the Gospels and the Acts
;

the

names

of the other a2)ostles usually omit the article.

186

ARTICLE AVITH PROPER NAMES.
7^,

[§ 216.

were originally adjectives, agreeing with
Judoia, properly "the Judaean land," or

land.

Thus,

rj

'lovSaia,
AI'yvtttos,

"land

of the Jews."

Egypt,

is

always used without the Article.

!N'ames of cities greatly vary in their use,

most generally omitting the
(neut.
plur.),

Article after prepositions.

'lepovo-aXr)}! (indecl.), 'lepocroXviia

Jerusalem,

is

almost always anarthrous.

217. The Divine Xames appear
use or rejection of the Article.
a.

to be

somewhat

irregular in their

We

certain,

with 6 ©eos. It however, that an explanation may very commonly be found
find 0€os, God, almost interchangeably

is

in

the rules already given.

Apart from these, the general distinction seems to be that the name without the Article throws the stress rather upon the general conception " One who is Omnipotent, All-holy, Infinite, of the Divine character whereas the word with the Article (the ordinary use) specifies the etc."^

revealed Deity, the

the Corinthians
1 Cor.
ii.

God of the New Testament. Parts may be taken by way of illustration
:

of the Epistles to

1

:

The testimony of God,

tov Gcov.

speak the loisdom of God, ©eov (without the Article), i.e., the wisdom of an Infinite and Perfect being, as contrasted with the world's wisdom, ivhich God, 6 0€6s (the God revealed in the Gospel),
Ver. 7
:

We

foreordained.

Chap.

iii.

6-9

:

6 0€bs rjviavev, (our)

God caused

the seed to

grow

.

.

.

for

we are God^s

fellow-icorkers, ye are

God's husbandry, God's building.

In

these three clauses

the word
is

is

used without the Article, as though the
for

Apostle reasoned, "It
is

a

God

whom^ we
;"

are labouring, a

God who

resuming, then, in verse moulding you, training you for Himself Article, ^^ accoi'ding to the grace of God, toO 0€ov, which is 10 with the

given me."

Thus, again, 2 Cor.

v.

18-21: "All things are of God,

(tov 0€oO,

our

God)

.

.

.

who hath given
1

to us the ministry of reconciliation, that God,

Compare a

line of Dr. Watts's " This was compassion like a God.''

^

Or, wiUi wltom.

§ 217,
(0€ds

C.]

ARTICLE WITH THE DR^INE NAMES.

187
. .
.

all

we can understand by
this

that

Xame) was

in Christ

AVe are
...

ambassadors, then, as though this God, (tov 0€ov,) were beseeching

Be

ye reconciled to
sin

God, (tw

0€<3)

.

.

.

Him who knew

not

sin,

He made
right-

on our behalf, that we might become (StKatoo-wry 0€ou,) God^s eousness, {i.e., partakers of a Divine righteousness,) in Him."
h.

The The name Kvpios, Lord, generally prefixes the Article. contrary usage, when not accounted for by ordinary rules, arises from this word having been adopted in the Septuagint as the Greek equivalent In the Gospels it usually signifies God; for the Hebrew name Jehovah. in the Epistles it commonly refers to Christ.^ Instances of its occurrence
without the
as 1 Cor.
iii.

article are (1) in direct

renderings from the Old Testament,

20, Kvptos ytvojcrKct rov^i StaXoytc/xov?, k.t.X., Jehovah

the thoughts, etc.
it

So 2 Tim.

ii.

19

;

Heb.

vii.

21,

xiii. 6.

In

1 Pet.

knows i. 25
0€ov);

is

substituted for the other

Hebrew Divine name (LXX.,
Kvpiw
;

(2) after prepositions, as in the ordinary phrase, Iv

(3) preceding

the appellation,

'I-qo-ovs

Xpio-r^s, Jesus Christ (generally in the gen. case),

as in the superscriptions
vi. 23,
c.

(Eom.
iii.

i.

7

;

1

Cor.

i.

3

;

Gal.

i.

3).

So in Eph-

and strikingly

Phil.

20.

The

title vlbs 06ov,
is

vios,

God's Son),

usual form
06ds).
iv. 3),

is 6 vlbs

a or the Son of God (more emphatically, 0eov found both with and without the Article. The tov 0€ov, the Son of the (revealed) God (comp. under
in the Tempter's interrogatory

Ytbs TOV 06oO occurs, as

(Matt.

where the supremacy of the revealed Deity is recognised, but the exclusive relationship of our Lord to the Father is at least left an open question while vlbs 0€ov expresses a view altogether less definite of our
;

Lord's dignity.

Thus, in

i\iQ\Y first
vlos.

confession, the disciples said, " Truly

thou art Son of God,^^ 0€ov

But afterwards Peter acknowledges,

"Thou
xvi. 16).

art

the

Son

of

the living God," 6 vlbs tov 0€ov, k.t.X. (Matt.

measure of faith

The centurion amid the miracles of Calvary expresses a certain " Truly this man is Son of God," 0€ov vlos, without an Article to either (Matt, xxvii. 54 Mark xv. 39 compare Luke xxiii. 47). But we read of Saul, the convert, how he preached at once in the synagogues of Damascus that " this man is the Son of God,'' 6 vlbs
:

;

;

TOV 0€ov (Acts xi. 20).2
^

-

The Name above every name, Phil. ii. 9, is Ki/ptos, Jehovah. Apparent exceptions to this course of remark occur Luke i. 35

;

Rom.

i.

4

Avliich

may

be

left to

the thoughtful reader.

188
d.

ARTICLE WITH THE DIVINE NAMES.

[§ 217,

d.

The name 'Itio-oOs, Jesus, when used alone, in the Gospels and Acts, almost always has the Article. The reason undoubtedly is that the word is strictly an appellative, being but the Greek form of the Hebrew for " Saviour." To the disciples, therefore, and the Evangelists, the significance of the word was ever present When the Savioiir. others employed the name, or it was used in converse with them, the Article might be omitted. See John vi. 24 (where for the moment the
:

point of view taken

is

that of the spectators).

So

viii.

59 (and, in

critical edd., xi. 51, xviii. 8);^

Acts

v. 30, xiii. 23, 33,

and a few other
this

passages.

When
is

the

name
is

stands in apposition with others, as Kvpios

or XpwTTos,

the Article

generally omitted.

In the Epistles

combination
6 Itio-ovs

most usual.

The Apostle
'It)o-ovs

Paul,
;

for instance, only has

alone four times, and

nine

his preference being for the

appellative Xpto-Tos, while his fervour adopts
titles for
6.

many

variously-combined

the Lord his Saviour.^

The employment of the Article with Xpiorrds, " the Anointed One," Christ, shows a remarkable difference between the Gospels and the Strictly speaking, the name is a verbal appellative, the Greek Epistles. equivalent of the Hebrew word Messiah^ "Anointed." Hence in our
Lord's time
accordingly,
it

is

was customary and natural the almost invariable form
ii.

to speak of the Christ.

This,

of speech in the Gospels
read,

and
is

the Acts.

Thus, Matt.
xi. 2,

4,

we should
;

" where the Clirist

born

;"

Matt.

*'the

works of
the

the Christ"

his possession of that character

Matt. xxii.

i.e., such works as attested 42, " what think ye of the

Christ?" John
" that
1 ^

xii.

34,

^'

Christ abideth for ever;" Acts xvii.

3,

it

behoved

the Christ to suffer."

So

W. H.
list

Mr. Rose, in his edition of " Middleton on the Greek Article," gives a

of the

appellations used

by

St. Paul,

with the number of times they respectively occur.

They

are

—in the

rec. text (but in

some the readings vary)
6 Kvpios 'It^ctoCs
'Irjaovs 6
..

6 'It/ctoCs
'It^ctoOs

4 times.
9
5>
>5

...

10 times.
1

K6pios

..


,,

6 X/)t(rr6s

95

6K.
6

'I.

Xpiards

..

5
...

'KpicTbs

122
'X^picfTos

JJ ))

Kijpios

'I.

X.
K.
rjfxuiu..

17
1

^\7]aom b

1

X.

'I.

6 Kvpios..
'I.
...

6 Xpiarbs 'Irjcrovs (read-

Xpia-Tos

1

„ „ „ „
.,

ings doubtful)
'LiCroUS

4

JJ

'I.

X.

6

K.
K.

XpKXTOS

39
58

"
JJ

6

K.

ijiiiQv 'I.

X...

... ...

35
9

T.pi7T6s 'lyjaovs

X.

'I.

6

ijfxoju..

§

217,./'.]

APvTICLE

WITH THE DIVINE NAMES.

189

however, the tendency was at work which in later days changed this appellative into a recognised proper name. Traces of this
Already,

may be

Acts ii. 38 ; and in the Epistles 1 ; Mark i. 1, ix. 41 usage appears entirely reversed, the omission of the Article of Paul the
seen in Matt. i.
;

being the rule (in the forms Xpio-rds alone,
'Itjo-ovs),

'Iii<rovs

Xpio-ro's,

and

Xpio-rbs

and its retention the exception. The descriptive title, " the Anointed," has not been wholly lost, but the personal name of Christ Somehas laid a yet deeper hold on the mind and heart of the Church. times, again, the Apostle employs one form in close repeated recurrence, " If ye be risen with the Christy seek the things that as in Col. iii. 1-4 are above, where the Christ sitteth ... your life is hid with the Christ ... when the Christ shall be manifested." Without the Article, we have after speaking of those the name thus recurrent in Phil. i. 18-23
: :

who preach

the Glirist out of

envy and

strife,

the Apostle adds, as with a

more personal love, "nevertheless C/msMs preached"... uttering then for me to live is his earnest hope " that Christ shall be magnified Christ ... yet to depart and to be with Christ is far better."
.
.

.

It

is

not asserted that the thoughtful reader will always 'tliscern the reason of
Often, however, unquestionably, most interesting and valuable sugarise
;

the employment or the omission of the Article in connection with these sacred

names.

gestions will
investigation.^

and the whole subject

is

worth the most painstaking

/.

The name of the
is

Hotij Spirit, nvcvjia

ei-yiov,

requires the Article

when He
omitted.

operation, gifts, or manifestation in

spoken of in Himself; but when the reference is to His men, the Article is almost invariably
objectively takes the

In other words, " the Spirit" regarded

Article, regarded subjectively is frequently anarthrous.

laws, as, for instance,

Apparent exceptions to this rule are but instances of more general grammatical when the term, although definite, follows a preposition or

precedes a genitive.

Accordingly,

when
i.

disciples of Christ are said to be jilled loith the

Spirit, to receive the Spirit, to ivalk in the Spirit, the Article is omitted.

See,
ii.

e.g.,

Luke

15, 41, 67,

ii.

25, xi. 13

;

John
is

iii.

5,

xx. 22

;

Acts

i.

5,

4, iv. 8, vi. 3,viii. 15,

17 (the Article in 18

a case of

renewed mention).

^

See a striking essay on

"The Greek Testament"

in the Quarterly Review iox

January, 1863.

190
xi.
iii.
i.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
;

[§ 217,/.
13,
vii.

16
3
;

Eom.
Eph.

viii.

9, ix. 1,

xv. 13, 16
i.

;

1

Cor.
ii.

ii.

4,
;

40
i.

;

2 Cor.

v. 18, vi.
;

18
i.

;

Col.

8

;

2 Thess.

13

1 Pet.

2; 2 Pet.

21

;

Jude 19

Rev.

10, etc.

An

instance of the force of the Article

XV. 26, xvi. 13, in all of

which passages

maybe seen we read to

in

John

xiv. 17, 26,

nv€v|xa.

But when
IlvevjJitt

the Spirit
d^iov,

imparted^ the Article disappears (xx. 22), XdjSeTi ^^ Receive ye (the) Holy Ghost."
is

218. Some monadic nouns
names,
Sim;
land;
others.

(see

§

209),

being

regarded as proper

may

be used with or without the Article.
loorJcl;
ovpavo's,
T||ji€pa,

Such
^f),

are

-flXtos,

Ko<r|xos,

ovpavoi,
vv|,

heaven or heavens;
night;
€KK\T]<r£a,

earth,

or

0dXao-<ra,

sea;

day ;
is

church, and some

The

iVrticle,

however,

most generally
omit

inserted.

219. Some
sions, at Jiome,

prepositional

phrases

the

Article

;

in

most

instances denoting time, place, or state.

Compare the English expres-

on land, by day, in church.
dir'

Examples.
els

d-ypov,

d^pov, into the country

from the country (Mark xv. 21 Luke xxiii. 26) (Mark xvi. 12); Iv d^pft), in the countiy (Luke
;

XV. 25).
ev

dpxfi)

^'^

l^^*^

beginning (John

i.

1,
i.

2; Acts xi. 15);
viii.

dir*

dpxrjs,

from
i.

the begijining (Matt. xix. 4, 8;
etc.); kl dpxTjs,

2; Jolin from the beginning (John xvi. 4). on
(lit.,

Luke

44;

1

John

1,

Ik St^iwv ...ki dpwTTcpwv,

olf )

the

right

.

the left

(Mark

x,

37

Luke

xxiii. 33, etc.).

«ls oiK^av,

into

tlte

house (2

John

10).

€v £KK\T](r{a,

in (the) church (1 Cor. xiv. 19, 28, 35).

eirl irpdo-wTTov,

on the face

(1 Cor. xiv. 25).
ii.

dirb

dvaToXwv, /?^om the East (Matt.
xii.

1,

xxiv. 27);

dirj)

hva-^S^v,

from

the
viii.

West (Luke
11
;

54; Rev.
29); ^ws

Luke

xiii.

13; both phrases combined. Matt, Svo-nwv, unto the West (Matt. xxiv. 27).
xxi.

€K v€Kpwv,

from
9,

the dead.

This phrase
airo
is

is

of constant occurrence, as
;

Matt. xvii.
Article
is

etc.

Occasionally,

employed
is

very rarely the

found.
condition,

Perhaps the omission

intended emphatically to

mark the

"from dead

'persons"

those, indefinitely speaking,

ivho are in that state.

§ 220.]

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.

191

Other instances of this idiom niight be added. The student, hovrever, must be cautioned against supposing that the preposition is itself a reason for the omission of the Article before a term intended to be taken as definite.^

220. Nouns
l<€Lvo^,

defined

by the demonstrative pronouns,
;

ovros, this,

that,

directly agreeing with them, take the Article, wliich

the pronoun being placed always immediately precedes the noun Thus we may have 6 AvOpwiros o5tos (Luke indifferently, first or last. ii. 25), or oOtos 6 fivepwiros (xiv. 30), this man, but never 6 ovros av^pwTros

and scarcely ever av6po)7ro<s ovro?.^ When the Article is omitted with the noun and demonstrative proThus (Rom. ix. 8), ov ... ravra tc'kvol noun, the latter implies a predicate.
or ovTo<: avOpcoTTo^,

Tov 0€ov, these are not children of God.

6

These rules apply for the most part to proper names, as Acts xix. 26^ IlavXos oStos, this Paul ; Heb. vii. 1, oStos 6 McXxwreSeK, this Mel-

chisedek;
after a

John vi. name often

42, ovx oStos ia-nv

'It^o-ovs,

Is this not Jesus

? ^

ovtos

implies contempt

:

Acts

vii.

40

;

xix. 26.

The pronoun toiovtos, Toiavrq, TotovTo, snch, is found with the Article when the person or thing which is the subject of comparison is definitely the omission of the Article shows that the before the writer's mind
;

reference

is

more

general, to quality or attribute.
k.t.A.,

Matt. xix. 14: twv toiovtwv,

of such (as these children)
such a

is the

kingdom of heaven.
2 Cor.
of
ii.

6

:

iKavov

t<3

toioxIto), sufficient

to

man

(as the offender

whom
Matt.

I write).
ix.

6

:

l^ovo-iav Toiavrr]v, s^ich
:

(kind of) power.

John
It

ix.
is

16

roiavra

<n](i,€ia,

such (kind of) miracles.

observable, however, that the two forms of expression, being separated

by
is

so slight a shade of difference,

may

often be used indifferently.

The

Article

generally omitted in the Gospels, generally inserted in the Epistles, except

that to the Hebrews.
^

See, for instance,

Alford on Matt.

i.

18,

ck

irvei''fiaros

ayiov.

The

Article

is

omitted, not on account of the preposition, but according to the distinction illustrated

§217,/. The demonstrative Sde only once occurs in the adjective construction, and follows the same rule: James iv. 13, els rrjvde ttjv irdXiv, into this city. ^ The learner should be cautioned against rendering, " Is this Jesus not the son of Joseph?" which would have required 6 'It^ctous. The comma at /esa^s in the R.V. conveys the proper stress.
*

in

192
221. The
Before
the

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
distributive pronominal adjective
'^Katrxos,

221

each, never takes

the Article in the

Xew

Testament.
(plur., so

too-ovtos, so

much

many), the Article

is

not found in

New

Testament, with the exception of Rev.

xviii. 17, 6 too-ovtos

irXovTos, the wealthy

which

teas so great.

222. The
meaning of
2 Cor.
iv.

Article
the same.

prefixed
(See

to

the

pronoun avros gives
Spirit.

it

the

§ 57, d.)

13

:

to avTo

irveOiJLa,

the

same

But Rom.

viii.

26

:

avTo to

irveviia,

the very Spirit, the Spirit Himself.

The New Testament MSS.
raura (plur. neut. of
oSros).

often vary between the contracted plural Tavra

and

See Luke

vi. 23, 26, xvii.

30

;

1 Thess.

ii.

14.

223.
John

ci.

A

possessive pronoun agreeing with a

noun not a Preall

dicate invariably takes the Article.
xvii.

10

:

to,

Ijaol

iravra era ecrrtv kcu

to, o-d e/xa,

(things)

mine

are thine, and thine are mine.

Acts xxiv. 6

:

Kara tov
6 Kaipos 6

iqp.€T€pov v<5p.ov,
{)|jL€'T€pos,

according to our law.

John
h.

vii.

6

:

your opportunity.

The

possessive sense
;

is,

however, generally given by the genitive of
iraT^jp (lov,

the personal pronoun

the article preceding the noun, as 6

my

father ; ol iraTcpes v|itov,

your fathers.
in the singular number, without
it
is

224.

a.

The adjective
it

iras,

all,

the Article, signifies every;
the object which
iroXis,

with the Article,
Thus,
irdo-a

means

the ivhole of
irdo-a
y\

qualifies.

iroXis
r\

every city;

or

r\

irdo-a iroXts,^

the whole of the city. the city, all of
it,

irdXis irdo-a

would have a

meaning slightly different So with abstracts.

" the city in every part."

Luke

iv. 1

3

:

crwreXeo-a? irdvTa

ireipao-jxdv,

(the devil) having ended every

temptation,

i.e.,

every form of temptation.
:

2 Cor.

iv.

2

Trpos irdo-av a-vvd%'r\a-\.v avOpuiiroiv,

to

ever^y

conscience of

men,
^

i.e.,

to every variety of

human

conscience.

A

construction only twice found: Acts xx. 18, rby irdvTa xP<i^ov; and

1

Tim.

i.

16,

tV

Trdaau

(W. H.

d-rraaav) fiaKpodvfiiay.

§ 224,
Eph.

b.]

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
15
:

193 and on
earth.

iii.

ira<ra iraTpid, k.t.X.,

every family in heaven

Some critics have questioned this translation on the authority of chap. ii. 21, where they read Trao-a oiKo^tofirj, and render the u'hole building. This, however, The R. V. correctly renders eaxih several building. is quite contrary to usage.
2 Tim.
iii.

16

:

irdo-a 7pa<j)T|

^co'ttvcvctto?,
is

k.t.A.,

evei^y icriting (i.e., of

those just mentioned, ver. 15)
inspired writing
is

divinely inspired,'^ etc., or every divinely

also profitable^ etc.

Luke

ii.

10

:

iravrl

t« \a«,
ii.

to all the
is

people of Israel.
'"'before the face

The phrase

in chap.

31

different:

of all the peoples,"

i.e.,

the nations of mankind.

1 Cor. xiii.

2

:

lav

e^t*^

irdo-av t^v mo-Ttv, k.t.X., if

I have

all the faith

requisite for such a task.
Col.
i.

23:

€v

irdcTT]

T^

KTia-ix.^

in all creation, R.V.
irdo-iis

creature," as
is

A.Y.

Compare

ver. 15,

KT^<r€«s,

not "to every where the rendering
;

accurate, of evei'y creature.
1

Tim.

i.

1

6

:

t^v irdo-av |xaKpo0u}xiav, all the longsuffering

which belongs

to the

Divine character.
:

R.V., all his longsuffering.
the

John V. 22 t^v Kp^o-iv irdo-av, k.t.X., The Father has committed this wholly

judgment

(of

men),

all

of

it.

to the Son.

With proper names, as may be omitted by § 216
ii.

of countries, cities, etc., the Article after ttSs

;

the signification being

still

the ivhole.

(Matt,

3
b.

;

Acts

ii.

36.)
irdvrcs,
;

The

plural,
is

almost always has the Article

when

the sub-

stantive
is

implied.

is &v9p«iroi,

almost always omits it when the substantive The few exceptions to the former are chiefly w^hen the noun men.^ The exceptions to the latter are w^here the idea is
expressed
Thus, irdvra
is all

collective.

things, severally

;

rd

irdvra, all things, as

constituting a whole.
Phil. iv.

13:

irdvra

tor;;(vo>,

/ can do

all things.

^

2
=*

^

Middleton R. V. marg. Ellicott; R.V. W. H. and Rev. Text omit the Article. See also Acts xvii, 21, xix. 17; 1 Cor. x.
; ,

1

;

Heb.

i.

6; 1 Pet,

ij.

i.

O

194
Col.
i.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
16
:

[§ 224,
created
in

b.

Toi

irdyra €f atro), k.t.A., all
1

things were
8, etc.

Him

(Christ).

See also

Tim.

vi.

13; Heb.

ii.

The usual
Twice (Acts
01

positiou of the plural, Travres,
xix. 7, xxvii. 37),
the

is

before the Article
it

and substantive.

with a special meaning,
at

stands between

them

iravTes dvdpes,

men

in all;

iraaai

i/'i'xctt,

the souls

(persons) in all.
it

Occasionally,

employed

after

the Article and substantive,

takes a strong

emphasis: as John

xvii. 10,

ra

i/xa

wavra ad

iari, mi)ie are all thine.

225. The
noun, as o\os

construction of 6\os, tvhole, in respect of the Article,
7ra?.

is
its

similar to that of
6

Generally the Article stands between
the lohole loorld

it

and

Koo-fjios,

(Rom.

i.

8).

Occasionally the
Koo-p-os
it is

noun and
{JXos,

Article precede^ with an added emphasis on SXos, as 6
it)

the worlds (y^a,) the -whole (of
Article,
vii.

(Matt. xvi. 26).^
is

A few
I

times

found without the
indefinite, as

and

its

force

expressed by the English

John

23, SXov dvOpwirov,

a whole
xi.

man

have restored

to

health.

The
xxviii.

other instances are Acts

26, xxi. 31

(before a proper

name),

30; Titus

i.

11.

226. The employment
dXXos,

of the Article with the adjective pronouns

other (numerically),

and

'^T€pos,

other

(properly

implying some
Singular,
43).^

further distinction), is analogous to the

English idiom.-

the

other; plural, the others (^T€pos only once so used

— Luke

iv.

John XX.

3

:

6
:

dXXos
ot

/Aa^r/rrj?,

the other disciple.

John
Matt.

XX. 25
vi. iv.

dXXot ixaQ-qraly the other disciples.
tvill love.

24 43
:

:

rov 'inpoy dyaTn^aeL, the other (master) he
rais ercpais TToXecTLv, to the other cities.

Luke

Article with the neuter iroXv (*' the much") is equivalent " the abundance " (see 1 Pet. i. 3). More common, however, is its to

227. The

use with the plural,

iroXXof, xoXXaC, iroXXd,

many,

to wliich

it

gives the

1

The observant
is
; :

reader

may
;

trace the emphasis in the other passages where this
;

order
iv.
iii.

53

Matt. xxvi. 59 Mark i. 33, found Rom. xvi. 23 Acts xix. 29, xxi. 30
fiXXos
xi.

viii.
;

36

;

Luke
23
;

ix.

2.5,

xi.
v.

36
19

;

John
;

1 Cor. xiv.

1

John

Rev.

10, xii. 9, xvi. 14.

^

3

In classical Greek, 6 Probably also Matt.

means

the rest of.
;

16 (W. H.

Rev. Text).


195

§ 228.]

SIGXIFICAXCE OF THE ARTICLE.

significaiice of the mani/, the generality, the

whole mass of the particular
:

objects of thought.

The only
17

instances are the following
iroXXoiv,

Matt. xxir. 12
cold.

:

ayaTT-r]

t«v

the love of the

many

shall

wax
the

Luke

vii.

47:

at

d/zapxiat

.

.

.

al iroXXai,

her sins

the

many,

i.e.,

whole of them

are forgiven.
:

Acts xxvi. 24

TO,

iroXXa ypd/jL/jLaTa, the

many

letter's ;

the mass, the

quantity of thy learning.

Eom.
1

xii.

5

:

01 iroXKoi,

the

many

of us

— the whole mass —

are one

body

in Christ.

(So
:

1

Cor. x. 17.)

Cor. X. 33
ii.

to t«v iroXX«v, the (advantage) of the

many.

2 Cor.

17
:

:

w?

ol iro\Xo£,

(we are not) as the many.

Rev.

xvii. 1
V.

rtov vharuiv

t«v ttoXXwv, of the

many

icaters.

Rom.

15-19

:

This most important passage, containing this idiom, has
:

been thus ti'anslated by the Revisers

[We have noted by
the

italics

the Articles which the A.Y. omits.]

For if by the trespass of 15 But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift. one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the
16

grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many.

not as through one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses unto
justification.

And

17 For

if,

by the trespass

of the one, death reigned through the one

;

much

abundance of {the^) grace and of the gift of {the^) righteousness reign in life through the one, even Jesus Christ. 18 So then as through one trespass [the judgment came] unto all men to condemnation even so through one act of righteousness [the free gift came]

more

shall they that receive the

;

unto

all

men

to justification of

life.

19 For as through the one man's disobedience the

even so through the obedience of the one shall the

many were made sinners, many be made righteous.
the Vocative
in direct

228.
§ 244.)

AMien the Nominative

is

used

for

address, the Article is prefixed.

(For an explanation of the idiom, see

Matt.

xi.
viii.

26

:

vai, 6 iraTrip,
:

even

so,

Father/
!

Luke

54

i]

irais,

cyetpov,

Damsel, arise

^

In the Greek, but not in R. V.

196

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ARTICLE.
xix. 3
:

[§ 228.

John John
Heb.

x^^P^ ° pao-iXcvs, hail,
:

King

!

XX. 28
i.

6

Kvpids /xov koX 6 ©cos

/xov,

my Lord and my God !
God
!

8

:

6 Opovo^ aov 6 ©eds,

Thy

throne,

(See also ver.

9,

and

X. 7.)

229. The
a.

Article

is

often separated from

its

substantive by qualifying

or explanatory words.

These

are, generally,

a preposition, with

its case,

other dependent

words being sometimes added.
Matt.
otcn eye.
vii.

3

:

t-^iv

8c Iv

tw

o-w o^^aX/xaJ SoKdv, hut the

beam

in thine

Luke
1 Pet.

xvi.
i.

10
:

:

6 cv iXaxto'no dSiKos, the

(man) unjust in the
€iri6v|i.CaiS|

least.

14

rats

Trporepov iv ry ayvota vfxtov

according to

the

former

(lit.,

formerly) lusts in your ignorance.

b.

Adverbs
iv.

also are often thus

employed

:

2 Tim.

10

:

dyaTrrjo-ag tov vvv aicova,

having loved the present

(lit.,

now)

wo7'ld.

230.

a.

to introduce

The Article is very frequently repeated some attributive word or phrase.
is

after its noun,

Clearly, this

a result of the original demonstrative force of the Article.
adjective or participle, a preposition with

The phrase introduced may be an
its case, or (rarely)

an adverb. The Article so employed gives the attributive a certain prominence or

emphasis.

Matt. xvii. 5
the beloved.

:

6 vlos fiov 6 d-yainiTds,

my

beloved

Son^

lit.,

my

Son,

Titus

ii.

11
lit.,

:

rj

x^P'-^

''"o^

®€ov

ij^ o-wrifjpios,

the grace of

God

that bringeth

salvation,

the grace
:

...

the salvation-bringing.
(i^^av,

Heb.

xiii.

20

tov Troi/Acva twv irpopaToiv tov

the great

Shepherd

of the sheep.
The absence of the Article before an attributive phrase is often significant. Thus, Rom. viii. 3 Kar^Kpive tt]v a/xapTiav iv rrj aapKi, He condcinncd sin in the The phrase depends upon KariKpipe. Had it been tt}v h rri aapKl, in the flesh.
:

fl^sh

would have qualified

sin.

^

W. H. omit

the article.

"

g 231.]
1

EMPHATIC USE OF THE ARTICLE.
i.

197
lit.,

Pet.

25

:

to

pyjfxa to tvayyikia-Qiv,

the loord that loas preached^

the word, the spoken-as-glad-tidings.

Matt.
heavens.

V.

16

:

rov

Uarepa

vfxCjv

tov kv tois ovpavois, you7'

Father

in the

Luke
Rev.
b.

XX. 35

:

t^s dvacTacrcws

tt]s

ck v€Kp«v,

of

tlie

resurrection

from

the dead.
xi. 2
:

t^v avXr^v t^v

^|«0ev, the

older court.
is

Occasionally, this emphatic form of expression
Article preceding.
:

employed when

the noun has no

Luke
those

xxiii.

49

ywaiKc?

at

o-uvaKoXov0ovo-ai avTw, (there stood) icomen,

who accompanied Him.
:

Jolin xiv. 27
give to you.
1

ilp-qvqv t^v l^^v BlSwijll vjxLv, peace,

(which

is)

mine,

I

Tim.

V.

3

:

XVP°-'^

"^^-^
'"'^H-^'-

^vt«s x^P*S) honour widows, those

who are

wtdoics indeed.

Rom.
James
perfect

ix.

30

:

hiKaiocrvv-qv 8c r^v

«

irfo-Ttws,

(he obtained) righteousness,

yea, that (which is) hy faith.
i.

25

:

cts vojxov

rekaov tov

ttjs tXcvOcpias,

(whoso looketh) into a

laiv,

that of

liberty.
;

latter limits

In passages like these, the former |lause contains the general description the it to a particular case. See also Gal. ii. 20, iii. 21 1 Pet. i. 10, " prophets, those who prophesied;" Jude 6, "Angels, (even) those, namely, that
;

kept not their

first estate.

231. The
(§§

defining

clause
of

being frequently participial,
the

it

may be

remarked, in anticipation

account to be given of Participles
implies a predicate.
the icorld; 6 ©cos

393-396), that with the Article the participle qualifies the noun,
simple epithet, while without the Article
6 iroi^oras tov Koa-fxov
is,

as a

it

Thus, 6 0€os

God who made

iroi^o-as, K.T.X.,

would

be,

In 2 Pet.

i.

18,^ again,

God having made, or ivhen He had made, etc. we render, not "the voice which iras borne from
it

heaven," but " the voice as
Sometimes
participle.
it

was borne."
the anarthrous

will

be important to observe the force of
controverted passage,
1

Thus, in a

much
^

Pet.

iii.

19,

20,^

roh

ev

<pv\aKy

In these passages the R.V.

is

not exact.

198
TTvevfiaai
. .

THE ARTICLE IX ENUMERATIONS.
aTeiO-qcaal wore,
'
'

[§ 231.

whatever be the true interpretaticm, the words must who were once disobedient, " but the spirits in prison when once they disobeyed. This usage will be further illustrated in the sections on Participles.
be translated, not
the spirits in prison
' *

232. In

the enumeration of several persons or things, joined by a

connective particle, an Article be/are the first only intimates a connection

between the whole, as forming one object of thought. This is termed *' combined enumeration." The repeated Article, on the other hand^
implies a separation, in themselves, or in the view taken of them.
Sometimes, however, the separation seems to be chiefly gi-ammatical, different
genders requiring the repeated Article.
a.

Combined enumeration.
Kol
7rpo(firjT<x)v,

—Eph.
kol

ii.

20

:

eVt

rw

OefxeXiw twv airoa--

ToXwv
all

upon

the foundation of the apostles

and

prophets,

together constituting but one basis.

Eph.

iii.

18

:

tl rh TrXaro?

fxrJKo<s

kol f3d9o<s kol

v\j/o?,

what

(is)

the

breadth and length and depth and height, one image of vast extension

being before the mind.
Col.
ii.

22

:

ra.

ivTaX/xaTa

kol

StSaaKaAtas

twv

dvOpuiiraiV

(obs.

the

different genders), the

commandments and teachings of men, together
kol iKXoyrjv, (your) calling

constituting one system.

2 Pet.

i.

10

:

t^v

kXyjctiv

and

election,

each

mutually implying the other.
Matt. xvii.
1
:

rhv

Herpov kol 'laKoi^ov kol

'lindwrjv,

Peter and James

and John, one inseparable group.
Titus
ii.

13:

Ti\v

/xaKapiav iXiriSa kol i7n(f>dv€Lav
'Irjo-Qv

Trjs

So'^s tov /xeyaXov

@€ov KOL

(T(x}Trjpo<s

^/xwv

XpLCTTov, the hUssed

hope and manifestation

of the glonj of our great

God and Saviour

Jesus Christ.

Here are two cases of enumeration, each with a single article: (1) the "manifestation" is but another expression for the "hope;" and (2) the latter phrase may imply, on the above-stated principle, either that God (the Father) and
Jesus Christ the Saviour are so inseparably conjoined that the glory of each the same (R.V., marg.)j or else, as the R.V. has it, and as Ellicott renders
in the translation above, that
is
it

God

in this passage
;

is,
i.

like
1.
i.

Saviour, an epithet

of Christ.
''the

Comp. Eph. v. 5 2 Thess. i. 12 God and Father of our Lord Jcsils Christ,'' Eph.
;

2 Pet.

See also the phrase,
3
;

1 Pet.

i.

3;

Rom.

XV. 6; 2 Cor.
b.

i.

3,

xi. 31 (1 Cor. xv. 24): not God, even the Fatlier, etc.

Separate enumeration.
TOLs

—Luke

xii.

11

:

IttI

rds o-vi/aywya? koX tAs

dp;(as KoX

i^ovaia^, to the synagogues,

and

the rulers,

and

the autho-

§ 233.]
rities,

OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE.
different
classes

199

three
xv.
1,

of tribunal.
scribes are

The reader may compare
spoken of as constituting

Mark

where the elders and
i.e.,

but one

class,
iii.

in the Sanhedrin.
to jXvkv kol to inKpov, the sweet

James

11

:

and

the

bitter,

from

their very nature separate.

2 Thess.

i.

8

:

tois ^rj etSoo-t (s)c6v, koI tois /x^ vTraKovovcrt, k.t.X., to those

toho knoto not God,
Jesits Christ;

and

to those u'ho

obey not the Gospel of our

Lord

two

distinct classes, incurring different degrees of punish-

ment.

Heb. xi. 20 evXoyrja-cv 'IcraaK tov 'laKoifS kol rhv 'Hcrav, Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau. Both received a blessing, but not together, and not
:

the same.
in different places with and "snthout the This arises from a difference in the wTiter's point of view in each particular case. So in 1 Thess. i. 7, the Apostle ^^Tites ttj MaveSovt^ koL TT] 'Axaia In the former verse he seems but in ver. 8, ry 'MaKedopig. Kal "Axai'g.

The same enumeration may be found

separating article.

;

to contemplate the different directions in

which the influence of Thessalonian
real,

Christianity spread

;

in the latter, the uniforvi spread of that influence.
slight,

Such distinctions may be

but they are

and must be noted

for

an

accurate understanding of the "Word of God.

translation

233. The omission of the Article marks indefiniteness, which in may be represented by our Indefinite Article in the singular,
plural.

and by the anarthrous
Matt.
...

This point,

also,

has occasionally been

neglected in the A.V., and generally (not always) observed by the R.Y.
xii.

41, 42

:

AvSpes NivemTat

...

pao-i\io-o-a

votov,

men of Nineveh
shall

a queen of the

south.

(R.Y., the men, the queen.)
pp6<j>os, i/e

Luke
Acts

ii.

12

:

evpya-ere

shall find

a

babe,

which

be the

sign that the promise
i.

is fulfilled.
rj

7

:

xpovovs

Kaipovs,

times or seasons, generally.

Acts

xvii.

23
2,

:

dYvwo-TO) 0€<3, to
:

an unknown God.

accused by Jews; that they should bring such a charge being the wonderful feature in the case.
7

Acts xxvi.

iyKaXov/xat vtto 'lovSa^wv,

/ am

(R.Y., the Jeivs.)

Rom.

ii,

14

:

orav yap
;

^0vt],

k.t.A..,

For

tvhen GentiUs do the things

contained in the law
1 Cor.
iii.

not the Gentiles, as though the case were ordinary,
WrjKa,

10

:

e^jxeXiov

I

laid a foundation.

200
1

ARTICLE WITH
Cor. xiv. 4
:

vofios,

LAW.
an assembly,

[§ 233.
antithetic to

cKKXtio-iav otKoSo/xa,

edifies

lavTov, himself.

(R.Y., the church.)
:

2 Cor.
Gal.

iii.

6
:

SiaKovovs Kaivfjs

SiaGTJKTis,

ministers of a new covenant.
7iot

iv.

31

ovk

ia-jxlv Trai8io-KT|s

reKva, we are

children of

a hond-

woman.
Phil.
iii.

5

:

'E/SpaLo<s ii 'Eppaiwv,

a Hebrew of Hebrews,

i.e.,

of

Hebrew

parents,
1

Thess.

iv.

16

:

ev

<^iiivrj

apxav^cXou,

amid

the voice of

an archangel.
a Son,

(R.Y., tvith the voice of the archangel.)

Heb.

i.

2

:

iXdXrjcrev

rjfjuv

iv

vi<a,

God

spake to us by

(in)

i.e.,

by

one possessing that character, in contradistinction to the proj)hets of
former ages.

234. The

use

of

the

word

vd|xos

deserves

special

attention.

With the Article, it invariably denotes the Mosaic law, except where its meaning is limited by accompanying words. Without the Article, in cases where the omission is not required by grammatical rule, the term appears to have a wider significance sometimes referring to the Mosaic law as the type of law in general, and sometimes to law in the abstract, In the including every form of Divine command or moral obligation. following passages the R.V. generally has the laic in the text, and law in
;

the margin.

Rom. Rom.
Rom.
laio, etc.

ii.

12
be

:

octol iv vo^ta y/xaprov,

k.t.X.,

as

many

as sinned under

law shall
ii.

judged by law.
:

23

og kv voixw Kavxaa-ai, k.t.X.,

who

maJcest thy boast of law,

or of a law, through breaking the law, etc. (renewed mention).
ii.

25

:

iav vojiov
;

Trpao-o-Ty?,

if thou keepest law,

i.e., if

thou dost

obey, in general

so the

verse continues,

but if thou be

a breaker of

by deeds of law shall no flesh be The omission of the knowledge of sin. justified for by law is the Article shows the truth to be universal, applicable to all men and to
iii.
.

Rom.

20

:

i^ tpymv

vdjxov, k.t.X.,

.

.

Compare ver. 28, Gal. ii. 16, which passages the Article is consistently omitted.
every form of law.

iii.

2, 5,

10, in all

A few

passages further need only be mentioned.
iii.

Rom.

31

:

"Do we make

law void

? ...

yea,

we estabhsh law."

§ 234]
Rom. Rom. Rom.
Rom.
Gal.
V.

AETICLE ^VITH
20
9
: :

v6|ios,

LAW.

201

" there came

in

by the way a

law.''

vii.

:

"I was once
" Christ
is

alive withmit law."

X. 4
xiii.

the end of law."

10
:

:

" love

is

the fulfilment of law."

through law died to law that I might live to God." " For if the inheritance is of law, it is no more of promise." James iv. 11 " He that speaketh evil of his brother, and judgeth his brother, speaketh evil of law, and judgeth law ; but if thou judgest law, thou art not a
ii.

19

"I
:

Gal.

iii.

18

:

doer of law, but a judge."

These passages, taken in connection with the numerous instances in which the is specifically spoken of, Mill illustrate the importance of a constant attention to the usage of Scriptui'e in respect to the Article.

Law

202

THE NUMBERS OF

^^OUKS.

[§ 235.

Chapter

III.

THE NOUN SUBSTANTIVE.
NUMBER.

235. The ordinary usage
detailed
illustration,

of the Singular

but the following
noted.

rules,

and Plural needs no explaining some

peculiarities,

must be

236.
a whole

A

Masculine Singular Noun, with the Article, often represents

class.

Instances have been given already, § 211.
passages like
is

The omission

of the Article in

Rom.

i.

16,

ii.

9,

10, 'Invdaico re KaVEWrjui., to both

Jew and

Greek,

owing

to the antithetic form.

(See § 233.

237. Some
plural,
TO,

words, like

<r«|jLa,

body, KapSia, heart,

when

predicated

of several individuals,

are occasionally

employed in the

singular.

The
and

however,

is

more common.

Thus we
r\

read, rh o-oina vfxdv

o-wfiara v/xwr,

yoUT body or bodies;

KapSia or al KapSiai avruiv, their

heart or hearts.

The word

wpoa-wirov, face, is

always singular in such phrases as they fell upon

their face, except in the Revelation, vii. 11, xi. 16.

238. Many
Mark
James
2 Pet.
vii.
ii.

abstract

nouns are used in the

plural,

for

repeated

exemplifications of the quality denoted.

22:
1
:

irXeovcliai, iroviipCat, covetousnesses, loickednesses.

Iv irpoo-wiroXTnixl/iais, in

regard (regards)

to persons.

iii.

11: iv dytats dvao-Tpo4>ais kol tva-€^dais,

lit.,

m

hoIy conducts

and

godlinesses.

239. The
by a speaker
vii.

plural is occasionally used, like the English rhetorical of himself.

tve,

See especially the passage 2 Cor.

ii.

14

where the Apostle changes incessantly from singular to plural. The reason, however, may be that sometimes he is conscious of speaking on behalf of himself and his associates sometimes, again, for himself In any case the idiom in question is not a common one. alone.
16,
;

§ 240,

a.]

THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS.
instances,
is

203
is

240. In some

where only one agent or object
employed.

actually meant, the plural

Strictly speaking, these cannot be called instances of the plural put for

the singular, but arise, either (a) from the object being regarded in

its

constituent parts, or (h) from the writer having formed the conception
generally, without limitation.
a.

A familiar

instance of the former

kmd

is

in the plural

names

of

cities, as *A0f]vai,

Athens, KoXo<r<rai, Colossce, where the words expressed

in the first instance the several districts of the place, or the difi'erent
tribes

which formed

its

population.

So, in Greek, Jerusalem

is

often

*l€po(roXv(ia (neut. plur.).

Analogous words are avaroXaC, east;
TO,

Svo-^aC, icest;'^

tA

8€|id,

the right;

dpio-T£pd or

€v(ovv}jLa,

the

left,

supplied.

These words are

also

where some such word found in the singular.
way

as ^jarf6"

may

be

Some

miscellaneous terms to be explained in a similar
:

are

Luke xvi. 23 Ad^apov h tois koXttois In ver. 22 the singular had been used.
John
Heb.
i.

airrov,

Lazarus
bloods

ill

his (Abraham's) hosmn.

13: ovk i^

aifiaToov, not

of blood,

lit.,

—a peculiar phrase, with

a

reference, perhaps, to
ix. 12, etc.:

both

parents.'^ the Sancticary,

ets

rd dyia, into

as in ver. 3, dyia ayiuv, Holies of holies,^ suggesting that every spot

"the Holies," sometimes, and every

object there

was consecrated.
:

Names
X. 22)
;

feast

iyKaivta, feast of dedication (John of unleavened bread (Matt. xxvi. 17, etc.); yeveaia, birthday (Matt. xiv. 6; Mark vi. 21). So ydfioi, Tnarriage feast, from the various
d^vjxa, feast

of festivals are sometimes plural

observances and festivities accompanying.
aiwj/es, ages, is plm-al, to

mark the

successive epochs of duration, especially of
all

the Divine plan
as one

;

the singular either referring to one such epoch, or including

Hence the phrase for ever may be represented either by ets Tov aiwva (Matt. xxi. 19; John vi. 51, 58; 1 Pet. i. 25, from Isa. xl. 8, etc.), or by ets rous aiCJva^ (Luke i. 33; Rom. i. 25, ix. 5; Heb. xiii. 8, etc.); while the emphatic /o?" ever and ever is expressed by ets rous alCovas tCjv alibvcjv, to the ages of ages (Heb. xiii. 21 1 Pet. iv. 11 and Rev. ^^a^siwi). (See Vocabulary.)
mighty whole.
;
;

^

sets there

Or perhaps the plural in these words may denote " again and again."

repetition.

The sun

rises or

2 Of the plural in this sense there is no other instance in the Scriptures, and only one in the classics. The phiral of blood is often found in the LXX. (from the Hebrew), where violent bloodshedding is denoted. In this expression (not in the other), some would read dyla (fem.), as referring to a noun, like X'^/sa, place. This is, however, most unlikely.
"*

204
ovpauoi, heavens, is

THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS.
found with meaning indistinguishable from

[§ 240,
oi/pdvos,

a.

heaven.

The

plural usage probably arose from the Hebrew, where the

plural:

"the

parts of the firmament."
plural
;

Matthew almost always has the
most usually the singular
;

always There is also "the third heaven." Luke, almost always the singular Mark,
is
;

word

John, the singular always, except in Rev.

xii.

12.

The other

2)arts of

the

New

Testament vary between the two almost equally.
sufficiently explained in the Vocabulary.

Other plurals of this kind will be

b. 1. In the second above-mentioned class maybe included those cases where persons are said generally to do what was really done by one of their number. Thus, Matt. xxvi. 8, " his disciples said. To what purpose," etc. while in John xii. 4 we read, " one of his disciples, Judas" Compare Mark vii. 17 with Matt. xv. 15; Matt. xiv. 17 and Mark vi. 38
;

with John vi. 8, 9 ; Matt. xxiv. 1 with Mark xiii. 1 Matt, xxvii. 37 with John xix. 19; Matt, xxvii. 48 and Mark xv. 36 with John xix. 29. So in Luke xxii. QQ, Xcyovt^s, when in all probability only one is meant. See also the same idiom in John xi. 8; Luke xx. 21, 39, xxiv. 5 (tlirov);
;

Matt. XV.

1,

X^YovTcs

;

xv. 12,

Xc'-youo-iv.^

These instances will help to explain apparent discrepancies.

Thus

it

may

be

that only one of the crucified malefactors actually blasphemed, notwithstanding

the plural in Matt, xxvii. 44 and the narrative of the cure of the blind men at Jericho (Matt. xx. 30-34 Mark x. 46-52 Luke xviii. 35-43) may possibly be
;

;

;

harmonised in a similar way, although some expositors have thought that two different transactions of the kind then took place. ^

from the above, yet related under the same head, are those cases in which a general statement suffices, although a particular one might also have been made.
2.

Somewhat

different

John vi. 45 Acts xiii. 40 the pro2)liets is a general reference, when we (juote from "the Bible" without specifying a particular part.
;
:

as

Matt.

ii.

20

:

nOvrjKaa-iv oi tiiTovvTes, k.t.X., they are

dead who

seek, etc.,

when Herod
Matt.
ix.

specifically is
:

meant.

(See Exodus

iv.

19.)

8

rov hovra i^ovaiav roiavT-qv tois avOpwirois, 'Who gave such
i.e.,

power

to

men,
i.

as instanced in the case of Christ.
veKpQ)v,

Rom.
^ -

4

:

c^

tti/ao-rao-ctos

by the resurrection of the dead; the

Xew Testament Syntax." Lee on Inspiration, p. 393 Burgon's " Inspiration and Interpretation," p. 67. See, however, " Bible Handbook," part ii., § 148 Trench on the Miracles,

Stuart's "

;

p. 429.

§ 242.]

NOMTXATIYE AND VOCATIVE CASES.

205

context showing the reference to he to the one great illustration, in the
case of Christ, of this general fact.
1 Cor.

It

is,

however, incorrect to interpret

XV. 29, on the authority of this passage, as referring to baptism " in the name of Him who was dead, z.e., Christ."

Heb.

ix.

23

:

Kpdrroa-i.
;

0v<riais,

with

better

sacrifices,
it

i.e.,

whatever

those sacrifices might be

the question being, as
to

were, left open for a

moment, although the aim was
could avail.
For the use of singular

show that

in reality only one sacrifice

adjectives, pronouns, etc., in

agreement or apposition

with plural nouns, or the contrary, see § 317.

CASE.
The Nominative and Vocative.
properly the case of the Subject hence also of the Predicate after copulative Verbs. See §§ 163-165.
is
;

241. The Nominative

242.

In some passages a Nominative

is

found, unconnected

\\'ith

the

grammatical structure of the sentence; calling attention, emphatically,
to the thing or person

spoken

of.

This

is

called a

Suspended Nomina-

tive (" nominativus pendens

").

Matt.
idle

xii.
.
.

36

:

irdv pTJjia

apyhv

.

.

.

aTroSwcrovcrt Trepl
it.

avTOv Aoyov, every

word

.

they shall give account of

Acts

vii.

40

:

6 Mw<ri]s oStos

...

ovk

oiha^ev,

k.t.X.,

this

Moses

...

toe

knoiv not, etc.

Rev.
cometh,

ii.

26

:

6 vikwv koI 6 rrjpwv

...

Stoao)

aurw i^ovciav, he that over-

and

that keepeth ...to

him I
xii.
is

will give authority.
;

So

iii.

12, 21.

So

also Matt. x.

42

;

Luke

10

John

vii.

38, etc.

A

"suspended Nominative"
three days.
ix.

occasionally employed in expressions of time.
fj.oi,

Matt. XV. 32:

Sri, ijdT] rj/xepai rpeTs, TrpoapLevovai

because they continue icith

Me now
Luke

So Mark
. .

viii. 2.^
it

28

:

iyivero

.

Cicd ijnepai oKTib,

came

to

pass, about eight days after

the sayings.

^

In both passages the ordinary text has
(See § 286.)

ijfi^pai,

the usual case in such construc-

tion.

But aU

critical editions give

the Nominative

206
Snch
cases

NOMINATIVE AND VOCATIVE CASES.
may

[§ 242.

possibly be resolved into ellipsis, as, in the former instance, of
;

the substantive verb

true Subject of tyevero

some such word as 5id(rr77/xa, interval, the and in apposition with ijfxepai.. Some so-called "suspended Nominatives" are really instances of apposition. Thus (Mark vi. 40), Trpaaiai frpaaLai, rank by rank, is in apposition with the
in the latter, of
;

Subject of aveireaov.^

In

ver. 39, (rvp.wb<na is in the

Accusative in apposition with iravTas.

243. The Nominative
cases following
a.
:

is

sometimes elliptically used,
adverb
i8ov, heJiold.

as in tlie

The Nominative
iii.

after the
<|>«vtj

Matt.

17: tSov,

ck

twv

ovpavtoi/, helioJd

(there

was heard) a

voice out of the heavens.

Heb.

ii.

13

:

Ihov iy<a koI

to, iraiS^a,

K.r.X., behold,

(here

am)

I,

and

the

children which
h.

Thou

gavest Me.

The word

ovo|ia,

introducing the
oi/o/xart,

name
bfj

of a person or place,

is

generally found in the Dative,
sionally,
cate,

name,

(See

§

280.)

Occa-

however,

it

occurs in the Nominative, with the

name

as predi...

avT<2

'IoDaj/i/77?,

and the copula omitted. there was a man
:

So John
.

i.

6,

eyeVero

avOpojiroq

6vo\ia

.

.

his

name (was) John.
'E/x/xaous, to

Luke xxiv. 13 ets name (was) Emmaus.
c.

KoifjLrjv

...-^

6vo\ia

a

village

...

whose

A

peculiar Nominative phrase

is

used in the Revelation as an inde-

clinable noun, equivalent to the
6
tov

Kal 6

Tjv

Kal 6 €pxoK"€vos,

Hebrew name Jehovah (chap. i. 4), airo from Him icho is, and icho ivas, and who

Cometh.

244. The
The usage
pronoun,
Matt.
crv
vii.

use

of

the

Nominative for the Vocative has been

already noted, § 228, where see examples.
is

in fact elliptical, the true Vocative being in the personal
{i/xcis,

or

omitted

:

Thou

.

.

.

who art

I or,

Ye

...

loho are I

23

:

airoxoipeiTe

... oi

cpYatofievoi tyjv avojxiav, depart, (ye

who

are) the workers of iniquity !

Mark xiv. 36 tt/3/5a 6 irar^p, Abba, (Thou who art) the Fathei' So when the Nominative adjective is in apposition with the Vocative
:

case.

1

See Rev. T. S. Green's "Greek Testament Grammar,"

p. 86.

!


207

§ 247.]

THE GENITIVE CASE.
ii.

Rom.
(I

1

:

w

avOpoiTrc,

irds 6

Kpivwv,

man

!

(thou)

who

juchjest,

mean) every one
In Luke
xii.

I
is

20 the Article

omitted, "kt^pwv, and, accordingly,

we must
:

understand, " How foolish thou art!"
ToKalirwpos 670?
irXovTov,

not a direct address, as A. A".,

A

Thou fool ! but an exclamation, parallel instance is to be found in Rom. vii. 24

&v6pcjiros,

v:rctch€d

man

tliat

I am

!

and

xi. 33,

w

^6.60%

the depth of the riches !

245. With
chiefly in

the Vocative proper, the interjection

«

is

employed,

vehement expressions.
:

Matt. XV. 28
faith
!

«

Tvvai, /xeyoAT/

<rov

r]

Trccrrtg,

woman, great

is

thy

Acts
Gal.

xiii.
iii.

10
:

:

<S

irXripT]?

?ravTos SdXov,

full of all deceit

1

»

6.v6x\ro\.

raXdrai,

foolish Galatiaus !

Sometimes, however, the interjection is employed (as in classical Greek) where no special vehemence is intended. So Acts i. 1, xviii. 14. But in such cases S3 is more usually omitted (Luke xxii. 57 Acts L 16, xiii. 15, xxvii. 25).
;

The Genitr^e.
246. The
Genitive Case (see
§

11) primarily signifies motion from,

answering to our question, Whence ? From this general meaning arise many modifications, including the several notions expressed in English by the prepositions of ox from.

247. These

modifications
1.

may be

classed imder the following heads
4. 5.
6.

:^

Origin.

Partition.

2.
3.

Separation.
Possession.
7.

Object.

Relation.

The Genitive Absolute.
(See § 291, sqq.)

The Genitive with
^

Prepositions will be treated of hereafter.

These significations are again reduced, by Dr. Donaldson and others, to three
1.

:

Ablation.

2.

Partition.

3.

Relation.

The name of the
thing
is referred,

case, yeviKri, designates it as expressive of the
it

genus to which anyit

whether as belonging to according to others, the source from which

or classed under

(Max

^iiiller); or,

it is

generated, or supposed to spring.

208

THE GENITIVE OF ORIGIN,

[§ 248.

I.

Origin.

248. The
1

Genitive

is

often used after substantives, to

mark

the

source or author.
Thess.
i.

3

:

fxvrifMOV€vovTe<; v/jliov
v7rofiovy]<;

tov epyov

ttjs irCcTews

kol tov kottov
^

TT]s dYd-rrris

kol t^9

Tf]s c\irC8os,

remembering your work of faith

and labour of
from
hope.
2 Cor. xi. 26
faith,

and endurance of hope, i.e., the work springing the labour prompted by love, the endurance sustained by
love,

:

klv^vvols iroTap,wv, KLvhvvoL<;
i.e.,

X-jicttcSv,

in dangers of rivers^

in dangers of robbers,

occasioned by them.

Rom. Rom.
Col. Col.
i.

iv.

13
:

:

ha. StKaLoa-vvrjs rnVr^ws, through the righteousness of faitJi.
8ta rrys Tra/oaKXrjo-ccos twv Ypa<|)wv, through the comfort of

XV. 4

the Scriptures.

23

:

ttTTo

T^? eXTTtSog tov cvayycX^ov,
ttio-tcw? rfis cvcp-ytCas
i.e.,

from

the hope of the Gospel.

ii.

12: 8ia r^?

tov ®€ov, through the faith of

the

mighty working of God,

mightily wrought by Him.

249. The
mental

Genitive, after

many

verbs

expressive

of

sense

or

affections of various kinds, indicates the source

from which

the sensation or affection proceeds. The
full force of

the Genitive

is

evident also in these cases.

Thus, to smell a
flower.

flower, really

means

to receive a certain impression
taste o/diflerent viands.

from the
is

Compare

the ordinary phrase, to

In another use, the object of
expressed by the

sense itself becomes subject of the verb, and its quality

following Genitive, as this rose smells of musk. Again, to recollect is to remind myself of the object of thought; the influence

being regarded as passing from the object to the person.

In like manner

may

be explained the phrases denoting other mental aflections.
a.

Verbs of Sense.
ix. 7
;

(1) dKovw, to
ix.

hear

:

Mark
John

Luke
to,
:

35

:

avrov aKoverc, hear

him

I

X.

3

:

Trpo^ara
^kovctc

rr\<i <|)wvf]s

avrov

clkovcl,

the sheep hear his voice.

Luke

XV. 25

<ru|jL<|>u)vias

^at x°P"v, he

heard music and dancing.

It Avill be seen that this verb is construed with a Genitive either of the person or the thing. Generally, however, the thing is in the Accusative, as tlic immediate object (especially \byov, \6yovs, Matt. vii. 24, xiii. 20, etc. ). When

both are expressed together, the thing is in the Accusative, and the person in the Genitive (Acts i. 4); sometimes with a preposition (2 Cor.xii. 6 Acts x. 22).
;

:

)

§ 249,

h.]

THE GENITIVE OF ORIGIN.
of the thing probably inclines to the partitive sense.
it is said,

209
Compare
hearing the

The Genitive
Acts
ix. 7,

where of Saul's companions

aKovopres

ttjs (pcovrjs,

voice, with chap. xxii. 9, ttjv (pwvriv ovk -rjKovaav, they heard not the heard of the voice, i.e., its souml, but not ivhat it said.

voice.

They

(2) 7€vop,ai, to taste

:

Luke

xiv.

24:

ovSets

...

yevo-crai

fjLov

tov Seiin'ov, no 07ie shall taste of

my

supper.
:

Mark ix. 1 ov /x^ ycvo-tovrat Gavdrov, So Luke ix. 27; John viii. 52 Heb. ii.
;

shall
9.

hij

no means taste of death.

In Heb.
®€ov

vi. 4, 5,

the Genitive and Accusative are used in successive

clauses, ycvcra/xei/ovg rfjs Swpcds,
pTi|xa,

having tasted of the gift

;

yevara/jL^vov^

having tasted the tcord of God.^

(3) eiYyavw, to touch:

Heb.

xii.

20

:

kolv OrjpLov Oiyrj

toO 6povs,

and even

if

a beast touch the

mountain.

So

xi. 28.

\l/r]\a^d(i}, to

handle,
1

to

touch closely, governs the Accusative (Luke xxiv. 39

,•

Acts xvii. 27

where this

John i. 1). "A (mount) that might be touched" (Heb. xii. 18), word is used, does not contradict v. 20, as it simply refers to the
;

nature of the mountain, paljxiblc or ''material."
h.

(See R.V. marg.

Verbs expressive of mental

aflfections;

as

desire, caring

for,

despising

Acts XX. 33 no one^s
Titus

:

dp'yupiov

rj

xpvtriov

tj

ijxaTto-|xov ov^€.vo<i iTreOv/xrjcra,

I desired

silver or gold or raiment.
iii.

8

:

ha
:

<^/3ovTt^wcrt

koXwv ^p^wv,
loorks.

tliat

they 7nay be zealous of

{careful to maintain, E..V.)
1

good

Tim.

iii.

5

ttcos

€KK\T]<rias
?

©eov

iTnfjieXi^creTaL,

hoio shall he take care

of the church of

God

Heb.

xii.

5

:

^xr]

oXtywpct TraiSeias Kvptov, do not slight the cliastisement

of the Lord.

in the

Mr. Jelf (Kiihner's Greek Grammar) explains the difference simply as a vaiiation mode of expression the Accusative calling attention rather to the action, the Genitive to the material, as in English, "He eats some meat" (Gen.); "He
^
;

" 'The gift,' " he says, "can be only partially received in this life; while 'the word' essentially belongs to us now." But see Alford's note, comparing the Accusative with that in John ii. 9.
eats

meat" (Ace).

Bengel's view of this passage

is

more

subtle.

210
c.

THE GENITIVE OF

OlilGIN.

[§ 249,

C.

Verbs of remembrance and forgetting
xvii.
xii.

Luke
Hob.

32
:

:

fxvrjixoveveTe ttjs "ywaiKos

Awt, remember Lofs
j/e

wife.

5

iKXeXrjo-Oe Tfjs irapaKXTio-ews,

have entirely forgotten the

exlLortation.

Many grammarians prefer to class the Genitive after under the head of " Partition." (See § 261, sqq.)

all

these verbs

250. Verbs
the charge,
i.e.,

of accusing, condemning,

etc.,

take a Genitive of

of the suurce of the accusation.

Acts xix. 40

:

eyKaXetcrOaL crTa<r€ws, to be accused of sedition.

The Genitive
Matt.
xii.

of the person

is

used after KarT/yopew,

to accuse,

lit.,

" to

assert ai^ainst one."

10

:

Iva.

KaT-qyoprfcrmcnv avrov, that they

might accuse him.

the like, are followed
filled, etc.

251. Adjectives and Verbs signifying plenty, want, fulness, and by a Genitive of that from which another is
14
7rXi]pr]<;
:

John

i.

:

xaptTos kol a\r\Q€ias, full of grace
...

and

truth.

John

xxi. 11
i.

TO Slktvov

jx^cttov

lx0v«v, the net ...fall

of

Jishes.

Luke
things.

53

:

TretvcuvTas iv€7r\r](T€v d-yaOwv,

He filled

the liuugry with

good

John

ii.

7

:

ye/xtcrare tcls vSptas iiSaros, fill the water-j^ots

with water.

Rom.

iii.

23:

Travre^

.

.

.va-TepovvraL

tt]s 86|t]s

tov ®€oZ\ all ...come short

of the glory of God.

James

i.

5

:

ci

rt? vfxiov /Venrerat o-o0ta?, if
is

any of you lacketh icisdom.
;"

This GLMiitive

referred

by some to the head of " Separation

by others

to

" Partition."
II.

Separation, or Ablation.

252. Verbs
hindrance,

of separation, as those denoting removal, difference,
like,

and the

take a Genitive

as

the

case

of

their

secondary object.

(See § 186.)

Prepositions, however, are more generally inserted.

Acts xxvii.

43

:

tKuiA-Do-ei/

avrovq tov povXT||iaTos, he restrained them

from
the

their purpose.
ii.

I'ph.

12

:

dTrrjXXoTpHjifJiivoL Tr\s

iroXndas tov ^lapa-qX, alienated

Jrom

commonwealth of

Israel.

-

§ 253.]
1

THE GENITIVE OF SEPAKATION.
i.

211
liaviwj (jonc wide

Tim.

6

:

<Sv

rtve? acrTox'qcravTe';,

from which some

in aim.^
1

Pet. iv.

1

:

TTCTrairrat ajtoprias,

he

liatli

ceased from sin.

253. Under
object
verbs, or,

this

of comparison

head may be placed the important rule, that the is expressed by the Genitive, whether after

more

usually, after adjectives in the comparative degree.
;

See on the Comparative, § 320. This Genitive, also, is one of Separation the two things compared being mentally set apart from each other. So in Latin,
the Ablative case
AVlien
tlie
is

employed.
is

word than

expressed in Greek (by the conjunction

17),

the thing.s

compared are put in

ai3i3osition.

After Verbs implying comparison
1

:

Cor. XV. 41

:

aa-njp yap do-repos Sia<f>ip€L, for star differeth
implies superiority.
vfjieh,

from

star.

The verb
Matt.
X.

diacpepu} often

31

:

woWQv
12;

arpovdiuv 5ia<p€peTe

ye arc of more value than

many

sparrows.
So, vi. 26,
xii.

Luke

xii. 7,

24; Gal.

iv.

1,

"is no better than a slave."
:

After Adjectives in the Comparative degree

John

xiii.

16

:

ovk

€(ttl

bovXos

fxcL^oiv

tov Kvpiov avrov,

a servant

is

not

greater than his master.

John
these ?
1

xxi. 15

:

dyaTra?

fx€

ttXclov

tovtwv

;

lovest

thou

me more

than

Tim.

V.

8

:

ea-nv airifrrov

;)(etp(ui/,

he

is

worse than an unbeliever.

The
object.

subject of comparison

is

sometimes repeated by implication in the

Mark

iv.

31

;

ixiKponpov ov irdvrwv t«v

o-ireppidTCDv,

being less than all

the seeds, although itself a seed.

So Matt.

xiii.

32.

1

Ellicott.

'

The Hebrew language yet more

clearly identifies comparison

and separation, by

its

use of the preposition /Vyy// with the simple adjective.

Thus, "greater than he"

would be expressed by the phrase, "great from him;" the Hebrews "conceiving pre-eminence as a taking out, a designating from the multitude" (Gesenius). So in Homer, ck wclvtuv, inorc fhau all. In modern Greek the preposition airo is ubed after
the comparative.

212
1

THE POSSESSIVE GENITIVE.
Cor.
xiii.

[§ 253.
is f/reater

13:

/xct^wv he tovtcov

y dyaTn;, loue

than these;

love, nevertheless,

being one of the three.
and superlative are combined
me, who
in

A

coini)arative

Eph.

iii.

8,

so that the fol:

lowing Genitive
€1x61 Tip

may

be referred to this rule or to the partitive construction

iXaxi-CTOT^pii} irdvTwv ayiiav, to

am

less

than the

least

of all saints.

III. Possession.

254. The most frequent
case, generally

use of the Genitive

is

as the Possessive

with substantives.

Here also the fundamental meaning of the case as denoting whence is very From the notion of origination, by an easy transition, comes that of possession. Thus, " the sons of Zebedee" may be taken as " the sons begotten 5?/ Zebedee," or "the sons belonging to Zebedee;" "the kingdom of heaven" may mean " the kingdom set up by heavenly powers," or "the 'kingdom governed by these powers." So, again, the notion of "belonging to" attaches to the Genitive where that of " originated by" has disappeared.^
apparent.

Mark i. 29 rj\6ov ets t-^v olKiav home of Simon and Andrew.
:

Stuwvos koI 'AvSpiov, they came into the

Rom.
Christ.

i.

1

:

na{)Aos SoCAos

*Iiio-ov

Xpto-rov,

Pauly a servant of Jesus

255. The
mi/ daughter;

Genitives of the personal pronouns are mostly employed in
So,
rj

this sense instead of the possessive adjectival forms.
ol fiaO-qTol

Ovydrrjp

|iov,

avrov, his disciples.

(See

§ 333.)

256. Words denoting
with a proper name.
inserted.
1.

kindred,

etc.,

are often

omitted before a
in apposition
is

Possessive Genitive, especially
(See

when they would stand
Ai'ticle of

Sometimes the

the omitted noun

§§ 194, 196.)
iv.

vios.

Matt.

21

:

'laKwySov t6v tov ZeySeSatov,

James

the {son) of

Zebedee.

John John
2.

vi.

71: tov 'lovhav
:

^t/xwi/os, {the)

Judas

{son) of

Simon.

xxi. 15, 16, 17

'^lixcdv
:

'Iwva,

Simon

{son) of Jonas.

iraTTjp.

Acts

vii.

16

'Efxfxop rov ^i^x^V'

^f ^«^'^^^'

^^^^

{fathei')

of

Shechem.
1

Compare

Mliller's

" Lectures on the Science of Language,"

vol.

i.,

p. 105.


g 258.]
3.
|i^rr]p.

THE POSSESSIVE GENITIVE.
Luke
xxiv. 10
:

213

Mapta
1.

r]

^IaK0)j3ov,

Mary

the {mother) of

James.
4.

So Mark xv.

47, xvi.
;

d8cX(j>os.

brother)
5.

Luke vi. 16 of James (See Jude
Matt.
i.

Acts
1).

i.

13

:

'lovSa? 'laKM/Sov,

Judafi (the

-yvW).

6

:

e/c Trj<i

rov Ovpcov,

from

the (wife) of Uriah.

So

John
6.
7.

xix. 25.
oI'k€ioi.

1 Cor.
8a)|j.a.

i.

11

:

viro tu)v XXot/?,

by the (kinsfolk) of ChJoe.

oTkos or

Mark

v.

35

:

a-Tro

rov dpxf-o-vvaywyov,
is

from

(the house)

of with Jesus.
Acts
ii.

the ruler of the sijnayogue.

This

clear, as

the ruler Avas himself

So, perhaps,
:

John

xviii. 28.

27, 31

ct?

aZov} "thou wilt not abandon

my

soul" to (the
read aSov,

habitations) of

Hades

a classical phrase
xvi.

;

or,

" to (the power) of the

unseen world."
others a^Y}v.
In Luke

In Ps.

10 some copies of the

LXX.

roh rov irarpos fiov has been variously read, in my Father's my Father s house (R.V.) (plural, as in John xix. 27, ra tdia). The former gives the wider significance " among my Father's matters" (Alford). So all the versions of the English Hexapla, Luther, De Wette.
ii.

49,

h

business (A.V.), or in

:

257. Attribute or quality is often expressed by the Possessive Genitive of an abstract substantive.
In such cases the person or thing is spoken of as belonging to the virtue, vice, The phrase may often be idiomatically rendered by turning Thus, Luke xvi. 8, rov oIkovoixov rijs ddiKias, the the Genitive into an adjective. steward of injustice, may be read the unjust steward. But such renderings lose
or other abstraction.

the force of the original.

Rom.
Heb.
hearer."

i.

26

:

Tra^r; artjifas, lusts
:

of dishonour.
ordinances of flesh.

ix.
i.

10 25
:

Stxatw/xara
d/cpoar^s

o-apK<$s,

James James

liriXTio-p.ovTis,

a hearer of forgetfulness^ " a forgetful
J2idges of evil thoughts^ " evil-

ii.

4

:

KpiraX 8iaXo"yi(r|iwv

Tro\y\p(aVi

thinking judges."

258. To

the strictly Possessive Genitive belong several phrases which

have been otherwise interpreted
^

W. H.

read

aS-qv.

214
2 Cor. iv. 6
:

THE rOSSESSIVK GENITIVE.

[§ 258.

God,

i.e.,

t^s yviba-eui ttjs do^Tjs rod Qeov, of the knowledge of the glory of the glory Avhich belongs to God, and which He reveals in Christ; not,
'*

certainly,

the glorious God."
:

Eph.
**

i.

6

els ^iraivov So^rjs riji

grace, i.e., the glory

x^P^"^^^ airrov, to the praise of the glory of His which characterises Divine grace; not "glorious praise" or

glorious grace."
Col.
i.

11

:

Kara to Kparos

ttjs 86^r]s,

according

to the

might of His glory (R.\.);

"not 'His

glorious power' (A.V,, Beza, etc.),
;

peculiar characteristic of His glory'

hut 'the power which is the the Genitive belonging to the category of

the Possessive Genitive" (EUicott).
i. 3: tw p-Zj/xan rrjs dvydfxeojs ain-ov, by the word of His power ; belonging as its true utterance, " not," says Alford, " to be weakened into the com" paratively unmeaning 'by His powerful word.'

Heb.
it,

to

See also Rom.

vii.

24

;

Col.

i.

13

;

Rev.

iii.

10.

259. The

Genitive

is

occasionally used

by way of

apposition, as if

with some such
city.

ellipsis as contiinting of,

or bearing the

name

of.

Comis

pare the English idiom, the city of Jemsaleniy where Jerusalem
an exception to the ordinary construction.

the

This rule

is

The usual idiom

in

Greek
2 Pet.

is

the city, Jerusalem.

ii,

6

:

ir^Xeis 21o8o|x«v Kal

Fojiidppas,

{the)

cities

of Sortom anrf

Gomorrah.

John

ii.

21

:

Trept

tov vaov tov otwimitos avrov, concerning the temple of

his body.

Rom.
cision
.

iv.

11:

<rTi}i€iov

cXa^c

ircpirofjLijs,^

he received the sign of circum-

So
V.

Acts iv. 22.
1
:

2 Cor.

Tj

oUCa tov

o-ki^vovs,

the house of our tabernacle,

2 Cor. V. 5

:

rhv appapwva tov irvcvfiaTos, the earnest of the Spirit.
viii.

So

chap.

i.

22.

Compare Rom.
vi.

23.vi.
1
to.
;

See also Eph.
The

14-16

;

Heb.

and many other passages.
Karurrepa
/x^pi}

difficult phrase,

Eph.

iv. 9, cts

ttjs yrjs,

has by

many
;

interpreters been regarded as an instance of the Genitive of Apposition

" to

the lower earth," "to earth beneath," contrasted with such phrases as

"the
the

height of heaven"

(Isa. xiv.

14).

See Bishop Ellicott's note, in which
is

opposite view (the descent into Hades)

maintained.

^

-

W. H. marg. irepLTOfx-qv. "The Hrstfruits (of our inheritance)
viii.

consisting of the

Holy Spirit"

(Dr.

Vaughau

on Rom.

23.

So Winer.).

J

— —
THE PARTITIVE
riENITIVE.


215

§ 2 6 2.

Position of the Genitive.

260.
classic

«•

The Genitive

is

usually jjlaced after the governing noun.

"When both nouns have the Article, each is usually preceded by its own. In Greek the Article of the governing noun usually stands first in the phrase then the governed Article and Genitive and lastly, the governing noun. This arrangement is very rarely followed in the New Testament 1 Pet. iii. 20, Tov Qeov fxaKpodv/jua, tlie longsuffering of God; Heb. xii. 2, rbv r^s 7]
; ; :

iriareus

apxfiyov,

the
is

author of the faith.

Occasionally the Article of the
;

governing noun
i.

rejjcated before the Genitive

also a classic idiom

:

1

Cor.

18, 6 X670S 6 TOV ffravpoO, the doctrine of the Cross.

For another arrangement,

see § 196.
b.

But the Genitive precedes
1.

When
iii.

one Genitive belongs to more than one substantive
:

Acts
2.

7

avrov ai ^daeis

/cat to.

a<pvpd, his feet arid ankle-hones.
is

"When the word in the Genitive

emphatic.

The emphasis may

arise
(a)

From
ii.

antithesis
:

Phil.

25

rbv (TvaTpaTnarqv

fiov, v/xuiv

8e aTroffToXov ,

my

fellow -soldier,

hit your messenger.
(ft)

See also Eph.

vi.

9

;

Heb.

vii. 22, etc.

From the Genitive containing Rom. xi. 13 edv<2v dirb<XTo\os, of
:

the principal notion
the Gentiles

an

apostle.

See also

1 Cor.

iii.

9

;

Titus

i.

7

;

James

i.

26, etc.

In Heb. vi. 2, §airTL(Tp.(2v bibaxv^^ it has been questioned which word is the Winer favours the governing one, doctrine of baptisms, ov baptisms of doctrine. latter (Grammar, § xxx. 3, note 4).

lY. Partition.

261.
Genitive
1

Closely
is
i.

connected with

the

that of participation.
1
:

fundamental notion of the The part is taken from the whole.

Pet.

cVAcKTot? Trape-mSi^/xoL^ Siao^opds, to elect sojourners of {the)

dispersion.

Matt. XV. 24

:

Ttt

Trpo^ara

to.

aTroXwAoTa oikov

'IcrpaTyA, the lost

sheep of

the house of Israel.

262.
tives, (2)

This Genitive

most commonly fonnd after (1) partitive adjecthe indefinite and interrogative pronouns, (3) the numerals, and
is

(4) adjectiATs in the superlative degree.

^

W. H. and R.V.

marg. read didaxW'

216
1.

THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE.
Partitive Adjectives
iii.
:

[§ 262.

Matt.
risees

7

:

ttoXXov? t«v

4>api(raL(»)v

kol 2a88ovKai«v,

many

of the Pha-

and Sadducees.
xix. 8
xvii.
:

Luke
Acts

ra
:

rjixLo-r]

t«v virapxovTcov, the half (halves) of

my

goods.

12
:

dv8pwv ovk oXtyoi, of

men

not afeu\

Matt. XV. 37
hrol'en pieces.
2.

to Trepia-a-ivov twv KXao-fxdTwv, the remaining [part) of the

Pronouns
ix. V.

Matt.

3
:

:

Ttve? t«v YpafifAar^wv,
eTna-Kidcrr) tlvI avrcSv,

some of the

Scribes.

Acts

15

might overshadoio some one of them.

Luke
3.

X.

36

:

rU

tovtwv

;

^oho of these?

Numerals
V. X.

— Cardinal,

Ordinal, Negative

:

Matt.

29
7
:

:

tv twv jjlcXwv ctov, one
<j>o)vi^Gras

of thy members.

Acts
servants.

Svo T«v oiK€T«v, having called two of his house-

Kev.

viii.

7 2
:

:

to Tpirov

rr\s yf\9,

the third of the land.

So

vers.

8-18.

Mark
4.

xi.

ot-Set? dvOpwirwv, lit.,

no one of men.
after

But the preposition
Superlatives
Cor. XV. 9
:
:

eV is

more frequently used

numeral

adjectives.

1

6 IXdxtcrTo^; twv diroo-ToXwv, the least of the apostles.

263. Verbs
1 Cor. x.

of partaking are followed
:

by a
17.

Genitive.

21

Tpair^t^s

Kvptov

/xeTe'xctv, to
Ik, ver.

partake of the table of the
children are

Lord.

Once
ii.

this verb is
:

found with

Heb.

14

to. TratSt'a

KeKOLv^vrjKev alijiaTos kol (rapKos,

tJie

partakers of flesh and blood.

This verb
1

is
;

found also with a Dative
2

Rom.

XV. 27
xii.

;

1
:

Tim.

v.

22

;

Pet. iv. 13

John

11.

Heb.

10

/xcTaXa^eti/

ttjs ol^iottitos

avrov, to partake his holiness.

264. So also verbs which when a part is implied.
Luke
Luke
hand.
XX. 35
viii.
:

signify to

take hold

of,

to

attain,

tov alwvos
:

Udvov

rvx^'iv^ to

attain that world.

54

KpaTrja-a^

tt]s x^'-P^s avrrjs,

having taken hold of her
by
this verb.
3, etc.

The
is

strictly partitive sense is well illustrated

When

the ivhole

grasped, Kpariw takes an Accusative, as in Matt. xiv.

§ 267.]

THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE.
of this class are followed in the

217

Some verbs
tive

Middle voice by a partiGenitive, whereas in the Active they would take an Accusative.
vi.

Matt.

24

:

Ivos av^e^erat,
:

he will cleave to the one.

Matt. xiv. 31

iireXdISeTo avrov, he took
§ 355.

hold of him.

For the force of the Middle, see
object"
is

"Holding

one's self

by the given

implied.

265. Adverbs
Matt, xxviii.
1

of time

and numeral adverbs are followed by a
and
at the end of the Sabbath.

partitive Genitive.
:

oij/e

8e o-appdrwy,

Heb.

ix.

7

:

aTra^ tov cviavrov, once in the year.
xvii. 4, xviii. 12.

So Luke
evening.

Compare the English

colloquialism, late of

an

266.

Certain Genitive phrases are used, in the partitive sense,

to denote time or place.

So Matt. ii. 14: wktos, by night; Luke xviii. 7: rijicpas koI vvktos, day and night; Gal. vi. 17: tov Xonrov, /o?^ the rest (future); Luke V. 19 iroCos (oSov) elcrcveyKoja-Lv avrov, by ichat {icay) they might bring him in.
:

Prepositions are, however,

more generally employed

to define these relations.

267. The verb
partitive sense.

to be is

often

followed

by a Genitive

in

the

Heb.
not of

X.

39

:

i^/xets

Se ovk iafxkv viroo^oXfjs

.

.

.

dWa

ttiotcws,

but

toe

are

a desertion
ix.

(literally),

but of faith.
6

Kom.
promise.

9

:

lirayycXias

yap

Xoyos ovro?, for this loord was one of

The Genitive
e.g.,

in this connection

may, however, have other
all things are ymirs.

significations, as,

that of Possession
iii.

1 Cor.

21

:

Trdura

v/jlup ia-riv,

1 Cor. vi,

19

:

ovk eare eavrcSv, ye are not your oivn.
to
he,

In general, the verb

followed by a Genitive, implies an

ellipsis,

such as

^rt,

characte7'istic, property, etc.

218

THE OBJECTR^E GENITIVE.
V. Ohjed.

[§ 208.

268. The
by various

Genitive case

is

often objectively employed, ^ that

is, it

expresses the object of some feeling or action, and
prepositions, as below.
is
it,

may

be ronderecj

The fundamental meaning of the Genitive
object of a sentiment heing, in another view of
existence.
(rod,

here also very apparent,

tlie

the source or occasion of

its

Thus,

^x^'''^

iriaTiv

Qeov

(]\[avk xi.

22),

have faith in {or toivards)

really means,
ii.

"have such

faith

as his character excites."

Compare

Col.

12

Luke
John
John
Acts

vi.
ii.

12
17:
ii.

:

iv

t-^

'irpo(r€vxxi

tov 0€ov, in

prayer

to God.'^

6 X,r^o<i tov oI'kov (tov, the zeal

concerning thy house.

Com-

pare Titus

14.
:

xvii. 2

c^ovo-Cav irdo-rjs o-apKos,
1

power over
;

all flesh.

For similar

constructions of c^ovo-ia, see Matt. x.
iv.

Mark

vi.

7

;

1

Cor. ix. 12.

9

:

cTTt €v€p7€<ria

dv9p«Trov ao-Ocvovs, as to the benefit conferred

on an impotent man.
Heb. xi. 26 with the Christ
1
:

tov 6v€t8i<r|xbv tov Xpio-Tov, the reproach
(as the

in

connection

hope of

Israel).

Pet.

ii.

19
:

:

8ta

o-vv€£8t]o-iv

0€ov,

on account of conscience toward God.

Eom.
Christ.

X. 2

yf^ov 0€ov Ixouo-tv, they have
:

a

zeal

toward God.

2 Cor. X. 5

€ts tt|v viraKo^v

tov Xpio-Tov, fo the ohedience rendered to
i.

But
ii.

viraKo-fj irio-Tcws,

Rom.

5, is

ohedience springing ivom. faith.
anrjels.

Col.

18:

0pT]o-K€£a

twv dyycXwv, worship paid to

(See Ellicott,

in

loc.)

269. Some

butive, subjective) or
the love of God,

phrases are susceptible of either a possessive (attriThus, rj dYdirT) GcoC, an objective signification.

bute, that

A
^

may mean, the love which Cod possesses as His attriwhich He bears to us, or that which is borne towards Him. few important passages may be subjoined by way of illusti'ation.
Compare Angus's " Handbook
Some,
less naturally, interpret

of the English Tongue," § 384.

-

])aring tlie passage v.ith

Acts

xvi.

the phrase, in the idacc of jyraycr to God, com13: "where we supposed there was a place of

prayer.''

(R.V., reading tvofxi^oix^v trpocrevxw "''"' with AV. II. " where prayer was wont to be made," ivo/xi^ero wpoaevxv ehai).

The A.V. has

— —

§ 270.]

THE OBJECTIVE GENITIVE.
siihjective

219

Passages with aydxr} and a
2 Cor.
xiii, viii.
iii.

Genitive

11

:

the love of

God

...be v.-ith you.
?

Rom.
Eph.

35
:

:

what

shall separate us from the love of Christ

So

ver. 39.

19

to
:

know

the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge.

2 Cor. V. 14

the love of Christ constraineth us.
us.

Not our

love to Christ,

but His love to

In the following the Genitive seems

objectively

used

John
1

v.

42
ii.

:

ye have not the
:

love of

God

in you.

So

1

John

ii.

15.

John

5

in
:

him hath the

love of

God been

perfected.

2 Thess.

iii.

5

the Lord direct your hearts into the love of God.

In Rom. v. 5, "the love of God hath been shed abroad in our hearts," Dr. Vaughan WTites of the subjective and objective interpretations, that tlie two
ideas

may

be included.
;

See

1 Jolin iv. 16, v. 3

:

" the two are but ojiposite
not the cause only, but the

aspects of the same love

essence of ours.

the sense of God's love 1 John iv. 19."

is

2 Cor.

V. 11

:

eiboTes tov <f>b^ov tov Kvpiov, TcTWwing the fear of th^

Lord

(R.A".),

generally taken as subjective, as A.V.,

"the

terror of the Lord," belonging to

Him

as

Judge

towards Him.
doubtfully.

but everywhere else the phrase is objective fear, i.e., reverence So Alford renders here, conscimis of the fear of the Lord but For other passages, see Acts ix. 31 Rom. iii, 18 2 Cor. vii. 1
;

;

;

;

;

Kph.

V. 21.

YI. Relation.

270.
are

Closely connected with the objective use of the Genitive

cases

where a more general relation

is

signified;

some

sucli

prepositional phrase as in respect of being applicable, while the context

shows the kind of relation intended.
This general
prehensive.

way

of expressing relation

is

often not so

much ambiguous as comGosjyel

Thus, in the frequent phrase, to evayyiXiov tov Xpiarov, the

of Christ, it is needless to ask whether the meaning be the Gos2)el from Christ as its author,^ about Christ as its subject,- or in the prerogative of Christ as its
administrator.^

Each of these thoughts

is

but one element in the analysis of

the phrase.

Mark

i.

4

:

pdTma-fxa

ficTavotas,

a baptism

which had reference

to

repentance.

^

^
^

So the Gospel of God, Rom. i. 1, etc. Compare the phrase, Gospel of the Kiiujdom, Matt.
In the language of the Apostle Paul,
(Roi.u,
ii.

iv. 23. ix.

3.').

my
2.5
;

Gospel

is

evidently the Gospel entrusted
ii.

to

and ^n-eadifd by me

16

;

xvi.

2 Tim.

8).

220
John
to life
V.

THE GENITIVE OF RELATION.
29
:

[§ 270.
resurrection in order

dvacrrao-tv

X<af\s ...

dvacTTacnv

Kplo-cws,

...

in order to condemnation.
:

John vii. 35 t^v Stao-Tropav twv among the Greeks (Gentiles).

'EXXi^vwv, the dispersion (of the

Jews)

Rom. Rom.
Rom.
Eph.
is)

V.
vii.

18
2
:

:

StKatwcrcv
aTro

Xfiir\%

justification in order to

life.
i.e.,

rev

vofjiov

rov avSpos,

from

the

law of her husband,

that which defines the relation. ^
viii.

36
:

:

Trpo/Jara

o-<j>a7f)s,

sheep

doomed

to slaughter.

iv.

16

Sta

Trao-T^? acfj^s ttjs lirixopTiYias,

through every joint (which

for the

purpose of the supply.
(TK€vrj
Trj<:

See

Ellicott, in loc,

who compares
of the

the phrase with ra
ministering.
Phil. iv. 9
:

Acirovpyta?,

Heb.

ix. 21, the vessels

6

0eo9

rf^s €ip'/ivT]s,

the

God who bestows peace ;
its

or perhaps

a Genitive of quality.
In most of these instances a preposition with
idiomatic usage.
case

would be an equally

used after adjectives, as after nouns kinds of relation. Examples of this in the general sense are such as the following
is also
(§ 254), to denote various
:

271. The Genitive

Heb.
Heb.

V. 1

3

:

a-Tretpos Xd-yov StKaioo-wiys,

xoithout experience of the

word of
to

righteousness
iii.

(

R. V. )
:

12

KapSta

Trovrjpa

dirio-TCas,

a heart loicked in

respect

imbelief (Winer).

James

i.

13

:

dTretpaa-ro? KaKwv,
evil).

unversed in things evil (Alford.

R.Y.

marg., untried in

272.
Matt.

Adjectives,

especially,

signifying worthiness,

fitness,

or

their opposites, take a following Genitive.
iii.

So also their adverbs. your repentance.

8

:

Kapirbv d|iov ttJs [icravoCas, fruit ivorthy of
:

Matt. X. 10

fi^ios

6 ipydTr]<;

Tf]s Tpo<|)f]s

avrov, the toorkman is woiihy

of his maintenance.
Sec Winer,

^

who quotes Old Testament

parallels,

Lev.

vii.

1,

xiv.

2,

xv. 32;

Numh

vi. 13, 21.

§ 275.]
1

THE GENITIVE OF RELATION.
:

221
are ye unwovtliy of

Cor. vi. 2

dva|ioC ecrre

Kpti-qpCwv IXayia-TOiv
?

;

(incompetent for) the least decisions

Rom.

xvi. 2

:

d|iws tcov a-yiwv, icortliily
iv. 1
;

of the
10
;

saiiits
ii.

(R.Y.).
12
;

See also Eph.

Phil.

i.

27

;

Col.

i.

1

Thess.

3

John

6.

273.
Matt.
sold for

So, in general, price, equivalent,

penalty,

and the

like,

are expressed
X.

by the
?

Genitive.
;

29

:

ov^t ^vo a-Tpovdta d<r<rapiov TrwXetrat

are not two sparrows

a fartldng
vi.

Rev.

6

:

x^*-^*^^

(tltov 8Tjvapiov koI rpets x^'^^'-'^c?

KpiO<x)v

Si^vaptov,

a

measure of ivheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny.

274. In
relations.

a

few instances one noun governs two Genitives in

different

Acts

V.

32:

ijixeh eafiev

avrov fxdprvpei tCov

p-qixdriav
tJiesc

ro&ruu,

we are his (jiossess.)
earthly house of

witnesses of (remote obj.), or in respect to,

things.^
)

2 Cor. V. 1

:

17

iiriyeLos

i]fj,Qv

ot/ci'a

tov oK-qvovs, our (possess.

the taherTuicle (appos.).

Phil.
service.

ii.

30

:

to vjxwv mriprjixa

tt}?

Xeirovpyia^,

your lack in

respect of the

2 Pet.
the

iii.

2

:

ttjs t<2v

diroffroXuv

vfju3u evroXris

tov Kvpiou, the

Lord

(orig.),

through (remote obj.) your apostles (R.V.).
is

commandment of The Text. Rec. has
TtjSepictSos,

r]fi(2v,

but even then the reading of A, V.
in

inadmissible.
ttjs

The two Genitives
the Gentiles), one
say,

John

vi. 1,

t)

daXaaaa

VdXiXaias, r^s

are

virtually in apposition, the sea of Galilee (as the

Jews

call it), of Tiberias (as

name denoting the

countiy, the other the city.

So we might

"the Lake of the Four Cantons, of Lucerne."
of successive Genitives on each other
is

The dependence

frequent, as

many

foregoing examples will show.

VII.

The Genitive Absolute.

275.

A

Genitive noun, in agreement with a participle expressed
i.e.,

or understood, often occurs in a subordinate sentence absolutely,

without immediate dependence on any other words.
these cases,
is

The noun,

in

to

be translated

first,

without a preposition, then the
marg.

^

But W. H. and Rev. Text omit

airroO, VN-ith (iu) ain($ in

222
participle.

THE CrEXITIVE ABSOLUTE.

[§ 275.

In idiomatic English, a conjunction must often be supplied,

either temporal (iclum), causal {since), or concessive (although).
It will be observed that the Genitive in this construction

must

refer to

some

other than the Subject of the principal sentence.
Etpiivalent idioms are in English
ablative absolute.

the nominative absolute,

in

Latin the

Matt. Matt.

i.

18

:

\i.vr](mvQd<rr]s ...

Maptas, Mart/ haviiig been hetr<>thed.

i.

20

:

raOra Se avrov
reflected.
'Itjo-ov

cv0u|j.t]0€'vtos,

and he having

reflected

on these

thing-^, i.e.,

when he
1
:

Matt.

ii.

tov

y€vvt]0€'vtos,

Jesus liaving been horn,

i.e.,

when
i.e.,

Jesus was born.
^latt.
ii.

13

:

avax«p'n<rdvT«v h\ avrwv,

and they having
6pov<;,

returned,

when they

returned.
:

^latt. xvii. 9

Karapaivovrwy ovtwv iK tov

they descending

from
(See

the mountain,

i.e.,

while they were descending.

Heb.

iv.

1

:

KaTaX€nro}jL€'vi]s lirayycXias,

a promise being

(still) left.

Alford's note.)

The Genitive Absolute,

says Dr. Donaldson,
case.

is

originally causal, in conformity

with the primary notion of the
uses as denoting accessories of

Hence arise, by way of analogy, its other time, manner, or circumstance. The tense of
(See § 393.)

the participle greatly determines the force of the phrase.

The Dative.
276. In
its

primary local sense

(see ^

11),

the Dative implies
its

juxtaposition.^

Hence the various
:

modifications of

meaning,

which may be classed as follows
1.

Association.

3.

Reference.
Accessory.

2.

Transmission.

4.

The Dative
Predicate, or a

in a sentence is generally an indirect

complement

of the

"remote
is

object."

(See

§ 186.)

^

The Greek Dative

therefore diametrically opposed to the Genitive.

1.

The
the

latter signifies separation, the

former proximity.
latter expresses

2.

The

latter denotes subtraction,
ditl'erent things,

the former addition.

3.

The

comparison of

former equality, or sameness.

Dr. Dunaldson.

§ 278,

a.]

THE DATIVE OF ASSOCIATION.

223

I.

Association.

277.
like,

(I.

Verbs signifying intercourse, companionship, and the

are often followed
ix. 9
:

by a Dative.
follow me.

Matt.

aKoXovdet
:

poi,

Luke

XV. 15

iKoXXrjOrj kv\

twv

ttoXltCjv,

he attached himself to one of

the citizens.

Acts xxiv. 26

:

w/i-tXet

avrw, he convei'sed with him.

Rom.

vii.

2

:

tivSpl Se'Serat, sJie is

hound

to

her hushajid.
v|iiv,

James iv. 8 iyyia-are tw He will draw near to y(ju.
:

06«,

/cat

cyytcret

draw near

to

Gody and

h.

Likeness, fitness, equality, and their opposites, are

marked by

a Dative after adjectives, verbs,
Matt,
xxiii.

and

participles.
KCKovia^Aevois,

27

:

n-apo/xota^erc

Td(j>ois

ye resemble whited

sepulchres.

Luke
Eph.

xiii.
i.

1
:

8

:

tivi ofxoKtxro) avrrjv

;

to

what shall I liken
is like

it 1

James

6 3
:

lotKe kXv8wvi OaXdcra-rjs,

he

a wave of
saijits.

the sea.

V.

KaOuis Tr/aeVct
:

o-yCois,

as

it

hecometh

Matt. XX. 12
with
c.
itfi.

icrous

avrov?

Tjjitv

eTrotT/ca?,

tltou

madest them equal

After a substantive verb, the Dative often denotes possession

or property.

Matt,
(if

xviii.

12

:

eav yivrp-aC tivi avOpwirw cKarov TrpofSara, if

a

man

have

there be to any man) a hundred sheep.

Acts
hast

viii.

21

:

ovk ecrn

<roi

fnpls ovbk

KX.rjpo<s

iv

tw Xoyw

tovt(o,

thou

7iot

(there
is

is

not to thee)

paH

noi' lot

in this matter.

The verb

sometimes omitted after a word of "association."
:

n? yap fxeroxT] SiKaioo-vvT) have ricjhteov^mess and lawlessness ?
2 Cor. vi. 14

/cat avojiC<j

;

for wliat fellowship

11.

Transmissicni.

278.

a.

Verbs of giving, whether active or passive, are followed

by a Dative of the person.

224

THE DATIVE OF TRANSMISSION.
is

[§ 278,

a.

After the active verb, the thing (Accusative)
(Dative) the indirect object.

the direct^ the person

(See

§ 186.)
kvo-i,

Matt.
the dogs.

vii.

6

:

/x-^

Score

TO aytov tois

give not that ivhich is hob/ to

Matt.
you.

vii.

7

:

atretre, koc hoOrja-eraL

v|iiv,

ask,

and

it

shall he giveii unto

Rom.
to

i.

11

:

tva

n

/xeraSco
gift.

;!(a/3to-/xa vjiiv

TrvevfiaTiKOV, that

I mag impart
for

you some spiritual

Heb.

ii,

5

:

ov yap dyyeXois vTrera^e

rrjv

otKOv/xevrjv rrjv /JiikXovcrav,

not unto angels did he subject the tvorld to come.

The Dative command.
h.

also indicates the receiver of information, tidings,

So

in the
xiii.

common
3
:

\iya

vi|iiv,

/ say

unto you.
he sp)ake

Matt.
1

:

kkaX-qa-ev avrots TroAAa,

many

things to them.

Cor. V. 9

€ypa\(/a v\uv iv ttj iTTLo-ToXrj,
:

I

ivrote

unto you in

my

letter.

Lnke iv. 18 cvayyeXiVao-^at tttwxois, to preach glad tidings poor ; LXX., Isa. Ixi. 1 (also with Accusative, Luke iii. 18, etc.).
Acts
i.

to

the

2

:

ei/T€tXa/Aei/os tois dirocrrdXois,

having given commandment

to

the apostles.

But KeXcvw,
c.

to order,

governs the Accusative in the N.T.
assistance, succour,
etc.,

Words denoting
iv.
1 1

are followed by a

Dative.
Matt.
:

koI ScrjKovovv avraJ,
:

and they ministered unto him.
Lo7'd, help

Matt. XV. 25
d.
etc.,

Ki^pte, /Soi^OeL

[loi,

me!

The object of a mental affection, as esteem, anger, worship, also obedience and faith, is often expressed by a Dative.
The Genitive
in a similar connection expresses the source of the feeHng.

(See

§249.)
tional precision

But the construction with prepositions and emphasis.
vi.

is

generally preferred, as giving addi-

Matt.
xii. 22.

25

:

{xrj

/aept/xvare ttj xj/vx^, care not
Trcpt,

But with
;

Matt.
1

vi.

So T^uke for your life. with vTrep, 1 Cor. 28, Luke xii. 26
;

xii.

25

with Accusative,

Cor.

vii.

32-34.

.

§ 279.]
Matt.
V.

THE DATIYE OF TEANSMISSION.
22
:

225
brother."^

6 6pyL^6fji€vo<s tw
xii.

d8€X<}>^,

he who

is

angry with his

With
Gal.

cTTt,
i.

Kev.

17.

10
ii.

:

t,r}Tw dvOpcoirois
:

apicTKav

;

do I seek

to please

men

?

Matt.

2

rjXOofxev Trpoa-Kwrja-ai avrw, ive

are come to worship
iv. 10,

him;
from
with

always with Dative in Matt., Mark, and Paul (except Matt.

LXX.), in other books with Dative
Matt. xxi. 25
iv
:

or Accusative.
;

ovk eTrtcrrevcraTc avT<3
els

believed ye

him not

?

also

and im (Dative), im and
Acts
v. 36, X.

(Accusative).

37
:

:

oo-ot Itt^lOovto avrw,

as

many

as obeyed him.

Rom.
gospel.

16

ov TrdvTes vTrrJKovcrav tw ivayy^ii?, they did not all obey the

III.

Reference.

279. The person
thing
is

or thing

in respect of

whom

done, whether to benefit or injure,^ or in

or which anyany other way,
generally be

may

be expressed by the Dative.

This reference

may

expressed in English by the preposition for.

Matt.
him.

iii.

16

:

aveioxOricrav

avr^

ot ovpavoi, the

heavens were opened for

Matt. xvii. 4
'HX£<j /xiav, let

:

ttol-qctu)

wSe rpcts CKiyvas, col

fxtav

kol Mwvo-et fxtav kol

me make

here three tabernacles, one for thee,

and one for

Moses, and one for Elijah.

Rom.
2 Cor.

vi.

2

:

otrtvcs dire^avo/Acv
:

rfj

a|iapT£ci,

we who died

to sin.

V. 1

3

€lt€

yap

iiea-rrjixev, 0c(p, ctre (roxfypovov/JLev, vjiiv,

for whether
(it is)

we were beside
you.

ourselves, (it

was) for God, whether we are sober,

for

James
Heb.

iii.

18:
is
:

KapTro?

.

. ,

a-Trciperat

rots

iroiovcriv

elprjvrjv,

the fruit of

righteousness
iv.

sown for them that make peace.
dTroXeiTreTat (Taf^^aTia-fio';

9

apa

tw Xaw tov ©eov, there

re-

maineth therefore a sabbath
Matt, xxiii. 31
:

rest

for the people of God.

/xaprvpctrc lavTots, ye bear witness against yourselves.

See also James

v.

3

;

and compare
«'/c^,

1

Cor. iv.

4.

^ The following word Rev. Text.)

witho^it

a

caiise,

should probably be omitted.

(W. H.,

'

Latin, DatiiMS

commodi

vel

incommodu

226

THE DATIVE OF EEFERENCE.
vi.

[§ 279.

Rom.

20

:

cXev^cpot ^re

rjj

8iKato<ri»vT),

ye ivere free in regard to

righteousness;

not

simply "from

righteousness,"

which would have
koX
i.e.,

required the Genitive.

To

this use of the

Dative

may

be attributed the phrase, rC
is

lixoX

col; what have I to do with thee? lit., what what have we in common ^ Mark v. 7 (Matt.

for

me and
;

thee]
ii.

viii.

29)

John

4, etc,

IV.

Accessory Circumstance.
is

280.
Acts
heart.
1

a.

The mode of an action
:

expressed
T7J<s

by the

Dative.
to)

xi.

23

TrapcKaXct Travras r^

irpoO^o'ei

KapStas

Trpocr/jtevcti/

KvpLw, he began exhorting all to cleave to the Lord ivith the purpose of the

Cor. X. 30
i.

:

ct

cyw

\6.p\.r\.

/xcTexo), if

I partake
,

ivith thankfulness.

Phil.

18

:

iravrl rpoirw, €tT€ irpo()>d(rci, ctrc dXT]0€{a, liLpKno^

KarayyeAXcrai,

in every loay, ivhether in pretence or in truth
See also Acts xv. 1
h.
;

Christ is preached.

2 Cor.

iii.

18

;

Eph.

v. 19, etc.

A

modal Dative sometimes emphatically repeats the notion of
See an analogous idiom with the Accusative

the verb.

282),

and
a

with the Predicate Participle
qualifying adjective.

394,

3, d).

This Dative

may have
^

James

v.

17

:

-irpoa-cvxxj

Trpoa-qv^aTo^ he

prayed with prayer

i.e.,

he

prayed earnestly.

Mark

v.

42

:

l^ia-T-qa-av
i.e.,

koT-do-ci

(JLCYdXt],

they wefre astonished ivith

a

great astonishment,

were greatly astonished.
see Matt. x%. 4
;

See also
;

1

Pet.
;

i.

8.

For other examples,
V. 28, xxiii. 14.

Luke

xxii.

15

John

iii.

29

Acts

iv. 17,

For modal Datives that have become actual Adverbs, see §§ 126, 399,
c.

a.

The Dative
iv.

is

used to denote the cause or motive.

Rom.

20

:

oi SuKpiOrj rg dirnrrCq, dAA* iviSwafxtoOr) tq iricmi, he hesi-

tated not through unbelief, but ivas strengthened through faith.
Gal. vi. 12
:

Iva

/xrj

t« a-ravpa tov XptcrTov SnoKiovTai, that they

may

not

be persecuted for the cross of Christ.
1

Pet.

iv.

12

:

fxr}

^ivit^tcrO^

t^ Iv vplv

irupwo-ci,

be not surprised

(lit.,

"be not
you,

as strangers") at the conflagration

(which has broken out) among

§ 280,
d.

e.]

THE DATIVE OF ACCESSORY.
is

227

The Dative
iii.

also the case of the instrument.
irvpl
a(r^i<rr(o,

Matt.
will

12

:

to Sk axvpov KaraKavcreL

but the chaj^ he

hum with fire
xii.

unquenchable.
hi

Acts

2

:

av^lXf.

'Iukw/Sov

. . .

jwtxaCpij,

and he

slew

James with

(the) sword.

Rom.

i.

29

:

TmrXrjpoyfJLivovs

tkio-tj

dSiKCa, iroviipCa, irX€ove|C<j,

KaKCq,,

being

filled (utterly engrossed)

by all unrighteousness, depravity, greed, malice. " Filled with" would have required the Genitive. Comp. (See § 251.^)
2 Cor.
vii. 4.
ii.

Eph.

5,

8

:

\6.pvTl ia-re <T€(T(j)(Tfi€voL,

by grace ye have been saved.

In

Rom.

viii.

24, rg

yap

tXirfSt

€(To)97}fjL€v

may be

rendered, for we were

saved by hope (instrumental), or in this hope (modal).
2 Pet.
i.

3

:

tov KaXco-avTO?

7]/Ma<;

IZCa

8(J|xi

"^^^ 0'P*''~n>

^f

^^'^'^

^'^'^

called

us by his own glory and virtue (R.Y.).
Tischendorf, Rev. Text,

The reading
is

is

that of

Lachmann,

andW. H.

marg., but the Received Text gives the

same meaning.

"To

glory and virtue" (A.V.)

manifestly incorrect.

(See Alford's note.)
See further 1 Cor. xv. 10; Eph.
other passages.
i.

13; Titus

iii.

7; 1 Pet.

i.

18; and

many

Hence the verb
Dative.
2 Cor.
iii.

xpaofiai, to

use as

an instrument,

is

followed by a

12

:

iroXXiJ

ira^pT]<r£q,

)(pu)fx€6af

we employ much
i.

boldness.
i.

So Acts

xxvii. 3, 17; 1 Cor. ix. 12, 15; 2 Cor.

17

;

1

Tim.

8, v. 23.

In

1 Cor. vii. 31, the best

MSS. (W. H.) read the Accusative,

tov Koa/xdv.

e.

From denoting

the instrument, the Dative sometimes appears to

take the signification of the agent, being used after Passive verbs where we might expect the more usual vtto with a Genitive (for which
see § 304).

Luke
2 Cor.

xxiii.

15

:

ovSev a^iov Oavdrov

icrrl

TrcTrpay/xcvov

avrw,

nothing

worthy of death has been done by him.
xii.

20

:

pare 2 Pet.

iii.

14,

Kayw evpeOC) vjiiv, and I should be found by you. and Rom. x. 20, from Isa. Ixv. 1, LXX.
conveys a different notion again, ^^that ye

Com-

*

In Eph.

iii.

19, cts

may

be filled

up

to

all the fulness of God,"

228

THE DATIVE OF ACCESSORY.
xxiv. 35
iv. 5.
:

[§ 280,

e.

Luke

ws

iyvixicrOrj

avrots,

how he was known by them.

Com-

pare Phil.

The

passive Aorist of opdoj, to see {&(p6r)v, see § 103,

4), is

generally construed,

with the Dative, as 1 Tim. iii. 16, CocjidT] dyyiXoLs, he toas seen by angels. Here, however, the notion is rather that of appearing to (Luke xxiv. 34), so that the Dative is regular. And in some of the other instances a somewhat similar explanation may be given, as in the last: *'he was made known to them."

to

In Matt. V. 21, ippWrj rots dpxaiois, the E.V. rightly renders, them of old time, not " by them," as A.V.
/.

it toas

said

That in which a quality inheres,
V.

*'

the sphere,"

is

expressed

by the Dative.
Matt.
TT]

3

:

ol Trrw^^ot

irvevjiaTt,

the

poor in

spirit.

Ver. 8

:

ot

KaOapol

KopSla, the

pure in heart.
:

Acts xiv. 8
1 Cor. vii.

dSuVarog rots
:

iroo-iv,

impotent in his feet.
irvcvpaTi,

34

iva

y dyta kol a-w^ari Koi
TratSid yivccrde rats

that she

may

be holy

both in body

and
20

spirit.
:

1 Cor. xiv.

fiiq

<}>p£o-tv

dAAa

ttJ

KaKCa vrjTna^eTe,

be not children in understanding, but be infants in malice (Dative of

mode).

Eph.
wrath.

ii.

3

:

-^/xc^a

reKva

^va-ii,

6pyrj<Sy

we were in nature children of

"local Dative"

This use of the Dative evidently springs from its original local import. The is not found in the New Testament, excepting (1) in the phrase
6d(^, oSols,
ii.

by the loay, or ways,

James

ii.

25

;

2 Pet.

15

;

where the way is regarded as the instrument : and (2) connected with the figiirative use of
ix. 31, xiv.

iropetJOfMai, irepLiraTiu}, to

walk, as Acts

16

;

2 Cor.

xii.

18, etc.

g.

Accessories of time are

marked by the Dative,

as

(1)

A space
xiii.

of time, for.
:

Acts

20 ws

'ino-i TcrpaKoo-Cois

kol ttcvH] kovtu, for about four

hundred

and fifty

years.
viii.

See also Luke
Std, § 299.)

The Accusative

is

29; John ii. 20 Acts viii. 11 Rom. xvi. 25. more frequently used. (See § 286 also the Genitive under
;
;

;

(2)

A point
vi.

of time, at, on.
:

Mark
birthday

21

'HpwST/g rots

Y«v6(r£ois

avrov Scittvov

iiroC-qa-e,

Herod on

Jiis

made

a banquet.

.

§ 281,

a.]

THE ACCUSATIVE WITH TRANSITIVE VERBS.
:

229

Matt. XX. 19
raised.

t^

rpCrrn

Ti(ji€p<j

iyepdrjarcTaiy

on the third day he shall he
on

Luke
the

xiv. 3
?

:

ct e^co-rt

tw o-appaTw

OepaTrevetv

;

is it laivful

to heal

Sabbath

The preposition iv is frequently inserted for the same purpose. But when only the time within which, not the point of time,
Genitive
is

(See § 295, 7.)
is specified,

the

used.

(See § 266.)

The Accusative.
281.
motion

The Accusative
is

primarily
its

directed.

Hence

towards which use to complete the notion of the
denotes
that

Predicate.!

The Accusative expresses the immediate Object of a transitive verb.
Matt,
i V.

21:

elSev dXXovs 8vo d8€\({>ovs
.

.

.

.

kol iKaXea-ev avTovs, he
active).

saw

othe^' tivo

brothers

.

and he

called

them (transitive

Acts
a.

i.

18

:

iKT-^a-aro x^p^ov,

he purchased afield (transitive deponent).

English are intransitive, i.e., complete in themselves as predicates, and which extend their meaning by the use of prepositions, are transitive in Greek, and therefore require an Accusative to complete their meaning.
It

should be noted that some

verbs which in

Thus, English

:

" whosoever shall be ashamed of
|Ji€

me and
(Mark

of

my

words."

Greek
also

:

os lav iTrato-xwOrj
i.

koI tovs

ejiovs Xo-yovs

viii.

38).

See

Rom.

16

;

2 Tim.
:

i.

8.
€K€tvT]V,

Acts xiv. 21
iKavovs,

evayyeXLcrdix^voi re tt|v iroXiv

Koi fjLaOrjrevcravTeg

having both preached the Gospel in that city and made
lit.,

many

disciples,

"having evangelised that

city anddiscipled

many."

The two verbs
(See Vocabulary.)

in this passage, however, with

some

others, vary in their use.

"The Accusative," says Dr. Donaldson, ''has the following applications in Greek Syntax :— It denotes {a) motion to an object {h) distance in space (c) duration in time {d) the immediate object of a transitive verb; (e) the more remote object of any verb, whether it has another Accusative or not (/) the Accusative of cognate signification, i.e., the secondary predication by way of emphasis of that which is already predicated by the verb itself {g) an apposition to the object of the whole
^
;

;

;

;

;

sentence; {h) the subject of the objective sentence,
infinitive

when

this is expressed in the

mood."

Greek Ch-ammar, p. 497.

230
h.

ACCUSATIVE OF THE OBJECT.
Generally, the

[§ 281,

b.

as transitive

employment of the same verb in different places and neuter may be explained by change of meaning, or a

variation in emphasis.

So

1 Cor. vi.

18
:

:

^cuycre t^v

tropvilav, flee

fornication, avoid

it.

1 Cor. X.

14

^cvyerc

airb Tr\s clScoXoXarpeCas, flee
it.

from

idolatry,

make

good your escape from
Matt.
the body
c.

X.

28

:

/xr]

<f)o(3r)6rJT€

dirb

twv diroKTCivovrwv to

criojia,

k.t.X.

. .

(f>oft€Lcr$€ Se
.
.

jxaWov tov

8wd|i€vov, k.t.X., be not afraid of those ivho kill

.

but the rather fear

him who

is able, etc.

Some

verbs, denoting the exercise of a faculty,

may be

read either

transitively or intransitively, according to the nature of the expression.

So in English we may
Matt. Matt.
vi.
vii.

say, "

/ see,"

or " I see you."
seeth in secret.
seest

4
3

:

6 pXiiroiv iv
:

tw Kpv7m2, he that
;

tC 8e ^AeVets to Kdp<j)os
:

but

why

thou the splinter

?

Mark
signifies

iv.

24

^XiireTe tl aKouerc, look to (take heed)
15, xii.

what ye hear.

In Mark

viii.

38, /SAeVcTc

d-n-o

lit.,

''look

away from"

beware of 2, /SXi-rreTe tovs kvvus, k.t.X., literally signifies "Zoo^ to the dogs, look to the evil-workers, look to the concision;"
in Phil.
iii.

But

caution being implied.^
d.

The immediate Object
to give heed.
xvii. 3
:

is
;

omitted after certain verbs, which are
as Trpoa-exin, to

nevertheless strictly transitive

apply (add tov

vovv, the

mind),

Luke

'7rpo<r€X€T€ eavrot?,

give heed to yourselves.

With
vii. 1

diro, to beivare of, lit., to
irpo<r€'x€T€ dirb

give heed (so as to turn) from.

Matt,

5

:

t^v

xl/€vSo7rpo<f)T]Tii)v,

beware of the false prophets.
vovv), to observe,
;

Other verbs similarly used are
Acts
iii.

eTrix<^

(add rbv
to

Luke

xiv. 7

5

;

dtarpi^o} (add rbv xp^vov),
^0 attack,

sojourn^ Acts xv. 35

iTriTidrifit

(add

rds x^^P^^))

Acts

xviii. 10.

282. Any

verb,

whether transitive or

intransitive,

may extend
is

its

This Accusative Accusative." meaning by connected with the verb in signification, often in etymology.
1

a " cognate

always

Ellicott.

§ 284.J
For
§

ACCUSATIVE OF DEFINITION.
;

231
Participle,

a similar use of the Dative, see § 280, 6
3, d.
ii.

and of the

394,

Matt.

10

:

exdpyjcrav

xapdv

jirydXiiv, lit.,

ihcy rejoiced a great joy,

i.e.,

" rejoiced greatly."

Luke
Col.
i.e.,

ii.

8

:

(f>v\a.(r(rovT€<;
i.e.,

4>vXaKds t^5 vvktos,

lit.,

icatcliing the icatches

of the night,
ii.

keeping watch by night.
a<5|Ti<riv

19

:

av^a t^v

rov ©eov, incveoseth the increase of God,

yields the increase given
See also John
vii.

by God.
vi.

24;

1

Tim.

12;

1 Pet.

iii.

14, etc.

Eph.

iv.

8

:

^Jx/^aAcoTevo-ev alxjioXwo-tav,

he led captive a captivity,

i.e.,

a train of captives.

Ps. Ixviii. 18.^

283. An Accusative
tion of the Predicate.^

is

often used

by way

of

more exact

defini-

John
Phil.

vi.

10

:

dvcTrcaav ol avSpe?, tov dpiOjibv ws
tho2Lsand.
StKaiocrvvrys,

Tr€.vTaKia")(LXioi,

the

men

sat doiun, in
i.

number about jive
:

11

TreTrXrjpwfjievoi

Kapirbv

jUIed

U'ith

the fruit of

righteousness.
§ 280, d.

So

Col.

i.

9.

Compare under Genitive,

§

251, and Dative,

The Accusative

strictly denotes the respect in

which fulness

is

attained.

More
is

generally, however, the Dative of accessory circumstance, § 280, employed. In Acts xviii. 3, " by their occupation they were tent-

makers,"
T€)(yr]v.

W. H. and

Kev. Text read tq

Te'xvn,

the Eeceived Text tvv

284. Many

transitive

verbs

may have two
;

objects,

and

be,

therefore, followed

by two Accusatives

generally of a person (" the

^

This passage

is

rather an instance of a cognate external object, the abstract

noun

representing a multitude

So Ostervald's

(Numb. xxxi. 12, LXX., "they brought the captivity"). translation, **il a mene captive une grande multitude de captives ;"
"er
fiihrte
is

and De
2

"Wette's,

Gefangene."

This Accusative
is

often said to be governed

by

kutol,

in respect

of,

understood.
act or

"It

only a variety of the cognate Accusative.
It is

It defines

more exactly the

state described
affected.

by a verb or adjective by referring it to a particular object, or part the Accusative of an equivalent notion the part wherein the act or

state consists."

Dr. Jacob.

232

THE ACCUSATIVE.
So verbs of

[§ 284.
asking",

external object") and a thing (" the internal object").

teaching, clothing and unclothing, anointing, with This Accusative of the " internal object" is analogous
(See §282.)

many

others.

to the cognate accus.

Matt.

vii.

9

:

8v atTT^o-ct 6 vtos avrov dprov, ivliom

Ms

son shall ask for

a

loaf.

(Occasionally the person with the prepp. Trapa, aTrd.)
:

John yiv. 26 cKctvos vp-ds StSa^ei iravTa, he (Once with Dative of person, Rev. ii. 14.)

will teach

you

all things.

Mark
Heb.

xv. 17

:

Ivhi^va-Kovcnv avrbv
ev

'irop<})xipav,

theij clothe
xi. 8.)

him

in purple.

(The preposition
i.

sometimes found, as Matt.
ore
.
. .

9

:

<ixP^(T€

'A.atov

dyaAAtacrco)?, he anointed thee with the
is

(But the Dative of material oil of gladness^ Ps. xlv. 8, LXX. times used, Acts X. 38, and with a\€C<|>« always.)
The Passive retains the Accusative of "the internal object."

some-

Luke and fine

xvi. 19: evedidvaKeTo iropcp^pav
linen.
:

/cat

^ijaaov, he

was

clothed with jpurple

Acts xxviii. 20
(See Heb. V. 2.)

tt]v

a\vcri.v

ra^Tr]v irepiK€i/Mai,

I am hound

with this chain.

2 Thess.

ii.

15: Kparelre rds Trapadoaeis

8ls

edLdaxOv'^, holdfast the instriictions

which ye
1

ivere taught.
vi. 5
:

Tim.

ducpdap/xiuuv dpOpibwuv rhv vovp, of

men

corrupted in mind.

The same remark

applies to verbs

which in the Active express "the remoter

object" by the Dative.
1 Cor. ix. 17: oUovofjilav
ireTr'KTTevfj.ai,
ii.

I have

been entrusted with
i.

a stewardship.
i.

So Rom.

iii.

2; Gal.

ii.

7; 1 Thess.

4; 2 Thess.

10; 1 Tim.

11.

285. The
In
verb,

Subject of an Infinitive Verb
is

is

put in the Accusative.

translation, the Infinitive

generally to be rendered as a finite

and the Accusative

as the nominative, with the conjunction that

prefixed.

For the

Infinitive, see § 387.

It is really a verbal noun,

and

is

used

to complete the predication. of definition! (§ 283).
1

The Accusative thus becomes an Accusative
trpoa-ivxia-Oai,

Tim.

ii.

8:

/SovXo/xaL

fSovko/xat TTpocTivxiarQai

"I wish for... a praying;" " I wish for a prayhig on the part of tovs dvSpas,
. . .

men," / wish men
^

to

pray.
§ 584.

Compare Dr. Donaldson's Grammar,


§ 287.]


INFINITIVE.

.

THE ACCUSATIVE AND
xxiv. 23
:
:

233
is alive.

Luke

ot Xiyovo-iv avrbv t^v, ivJio

say that he

Acts xiv. 19

I'o/xiJovTes

avrbv T€0vi]K€vat, thinking that he luas dead.
.
.

1 Cor. vii. 10,

11

:

Trapayye'AAtu
d<J>t€vai,,

.

yuvaiKa

(ztto

dvSpos

jJi-q

\<>ipia^r\vo.\.

. .

Koi &v8pa yvvalKa

/jltj

/
.
.

enjoin that

from her husband, and that a man Luke i. 74 rov Sov vat rjfuv pvo-Gevras,
:
.

a wife should not he separated should -not put away his wife.
Xarpevciv avrco, to grant unto

US

that

ice

being delivered

(ii|xas

implied in pvcrOevras) should serve him.

When
the same,
etc.,

the Subject of the Infinitive and of the principal verb is
it is

not repeated

in agreement with it
XV. 24
:

except for emphasis, and adjectives, are put in the nominative case.

Eom.
But
that

eXTri^w Stairopcvop.cvos 0€d(racr0at v/xa?,
see you.

/ hope

that wlien

I

pass through
Phil.

I shall
iii.

See also 2 Cor.

x. 2.
KaT6i\T](|>€vai,

13: cyw

cp-avrbv ov Xoyt^o/xat
ii.

/ do

uot reckofh

I myself have attained. So Kom. When the Infinitive is substantivised
Inf. gen.,
Inf. dat..

19; Luke xx. 20.
by the
Article, the relations

(see § 201)

expressed by the Genitive after nouns are denoted by the Accusative.

Acts
Matt.

xxiii.
xiii.

15
4:

:

irpb

tov eyyiiJaL avrbv ^ before his approach.
avrbv, in his solving.
fie,

h
:

ti^ a-rreipeiv

So xxvii. 12,

Inf. ace.

,

Matt. xxvi. 32

/aerd to iyepdrjval

after

I am

raised.

286.

Relations of space and time are denoted

by the Accusative.

a. Space.

—Luke
19
:

xxii.

41

:

aTreairacrOr]

(xtt'

avToiV wcrel XlOov PoXtjv, he

withdrew from them about a

stone's cast.
cI'koo-i

John

vi.

iX-qXaKOTes ovv ws crraStovs

Trivn

y rpiaKOvra, having

therefore rowed about twenty five or thirty stadia.
h.

Time.

(1)

An
. . .

(approximate) point of time

Acts

W.
iv.

X. 3: €tSev wo-et wpav evvdn^v, he saw, about the ninth hour, H. read Trepi, which is the more usual construction. But see John
;

52
(2)

Kev.

iii.

3.

Duration of time
XV. 29
:

Luke
thee.

roo-avra

iTr\

^ovXevui cot, SO

many

years

am I

serving

See also Matt. xx. 6; John

i.

40,

ii.

12, v. 5, xi. 6; Acts xiii. 21, etc.

287. The

Accusative

is

sometimes found in

elliptical or

apparently

irregular constructions.

234
Matt.
iv.

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE.
15: 65bv
dd\aa-<xijs,

[§ 287.
stands apparently without Old Testament connection,

the

way

of the

sea,
its

government. The regimen is to be sought in Isa. ix. 1, from which it is a citation. ^
:

Luke xxiv. 47 ap^afievov a-rrb 'lepova-aXrifi, beginning at (from) Jerusalem, the Accusative neuter participle in apposition with the objective sentence. (W. H. and Rev. Text read dp^dfievoL.)
Acts xxvi. 3: yvdxrTvv 6pTa ae, without any dependence. A verb
the preceding verse
:

The Accusatives here seem to stand probably to be understood from TJo^/iat, in especially as I regard thee as being acqiminted, etc.
k.t.X.
is

t6 dduvarov rov vbfiov, the impossibility of the law. The phrase is either (1) a nominative absolute (nominativus pendens) (see § 242) (2) Accusative, in apposition to the object of the sentence, ^ or governed by iirolrjaev
viii.

Rom.

3

:

;

understood; or
1

(3)

an anacolouthon

412, d.)

Tim.

ii.

6

:

to

iJ.apTijpi.ov

KuipoTs idiots, the testimony to be set forth in its

own

seasons,

an Accusative, perhaps, in apposition with the preceding sentence.^

ON THE CASES AS USED WITH PREPOSITIONS.
288.
cases.

Prepositions, as already stated (§ 118),

govern the Genitive,

Dative, or Accusative, and are auxiliary to the significance of these

J

Sometimes a preposition
frequently, however,
insufficient to specify.
it

is

simply emphatic,

i.e.,

it is

used where the case

alone would have expressed the same meaning, although with less force.

More

denotes a relation which the case of itself would be

their

Two points must be considered in relation to the prepositions first, own original force and secondly, the significance of the case or
:

;

cases to

which they are severally

applied.

Thus, Trapd is beside, denoting with the Genitive, fr'om (from beside) with the Dative, at or near (by the side of); with the Accusative, towards
or along (to or along the side of).
arise

From

these meanings, again, others

through the application of physical analogies to mental relations. Some prepositions from their meaning can govern only one case, as €/c,
Iv,

out o/(Gen.);

in (Dat.);

cts,

into (Ace).

Others

may

govern two, as

"We often make similar quotations almost unconsciously: e.g., " Christ and Him Him in that sentence appears crucified' is the theme of the faithful minister." plainly ungrammatical until we turn to the connection, 1 Cor. ii. 2.
^
*

^ '

Webster.
Ellicott.

The

difficulty here is that the preceding sentence is not objective.

It

would seem better

to take the Accusative as

more

directly

dependent on

Soi/s.

§ 290.]

PREPOSITIONS.
"but

235
excluding the idea of
rest, as

implying different directions of motion,
Kara,

dowmoards; with the Gen., doion from; with the Ace, down upon. Others are found with all three cases. Every preposition probably denoted at first a relation of place. (See Hence by an easy transition their reference to the scheme in § 124.)
time^

and

their use for purely mental relations.

It will be seen in the

following sections that most prepositions have this threefold use.

289.

Certain prepositions are very nearly allied in some of their

Hence it may be a matter of indifi'erence which is employed, the same circumstance being regarded from slightly different points of view. Thus it might be said of a commission given to a servant, that the, act was executed hy him or through him. It will be
significations.

seen, however, that there exists a real distinction in the notions, although

they meet in one transaction.

We

could not, for instance, infer that the

words through and hy were synonymous, or that one was used for, or interchanged with, the other. Such mistakes, however, have often been made in New Testament criticism ; and it is especially necessary, even where these important parts of speech appear most nearly alike in
meaning, to observe their real distinction.
(See further,
§ 308.)

290. No mistake is so common with learners as that of supposing that the words of one language must correspond individually to those of another. The fact is, that every word, as it were, fences off a particular enclosure from the great domain of thought and each language has its own method of division. The ways in which the English and the Greek, for example, have mapped out the vast territory do not mutually correspond. Perhaps, therefore, no one word Or, of the former claims a province that has its precise counterpart in the latter. to adopt another illustration, the words of two languages do not run in equal parallel lines, thus
; :

G.
E.

Were
thus:

it so,

translation

would be easy work.

Rather

may

they be represented

G.
E.

where in each language there are words that overlap those of the other, sometimes containing more meaning, sometimes less*; and a single word in one often including the significance or part of the significance of two or three in the other.

236

PREPOSITIONS.

[§ 290.

Table of Pkepositions.
One Case.

OVER AGAINST dird, FROM (exterior) €K, FROM (interior) wpo, in FRONT OF
avTi, ,

\
I

8ld,

Two Cases. THROUGH

Three Cases.
^
eirC,

UPON
BESIDE

\Gen.

Kara,
"®^'
(iCTo,

down
with
(esso-

irapd,

j

)
ircpi,

ciation)

Gen. Acc.

irpos,

'Dat. pat. TOWARDS ) Acc.

IN
<rvv,

^

vircp,

WITH

(co-ope- r Dat.

Oird,

AROUND OVER UNDER

ration)

ava,

UP TO
INTO
Acc.

Prepositions governing the Genitive only.
dvTi,
diro,
€K, irpo.

291.
Matt.

avrC,
:

OVER against/ Containing the notion
instead
:

of opposition, as

an

equivalent
V.

of, for.
6<j>0aX(iov,

38

ot^OaXiwv dvTt
:

an eye for an

eye.

Matt. xvii. 27

80s avrots dvrl e/Aou koX (Tovy give to

them for

thee

and

me.
Matt. XX. 28
:

Xvrpov dvrl iroXXwv, a ransom for many.
Tfjs 7rpoK€LjX€vr]<s

Heb.

xii.

2

:

dvri

avrw

I
for grace,

x^P^-Sj if^

return for the joy set

before him.

John
i.e.,

i.

16

:

iXd^oiiev

...

x^P'-^ ^^tI x^ptTos, tve received grace

grace within, as correspondent with grace without, the Divine gift
or (with most commentators), one measure and replace another " grace upon grace." ^
;
:

being as the Divine source
of grace to succeed

This preposition

is

phrase, avd^ &V (in return for
xix. 44; Acts xii. 23
;

employed with the neuter relative phiral in the adverbial which things) = because. (Luke i. 20, xii. 3,
2 Thess.
ii.

10.)

292.
1.

airo,

FROM THE EXTERIOR.

Separation, the preposition expressing removal, the governed noun
:

showing the point of departure
^

from.

The primal significance of each preposition will be shown by small capitals, the several applications of this by thick type. ^ " Unuuterbrochene, immer sich erueuerude Guade." Winer.

§ 293,

1.]

PKEPOSITIOXS WITH THE GENITIVE,
21
:

aiTO,

efC.

237

Matt.

i.

o-wo-ct ... airb

t«v

ajiaprioiv

avTwv,

lie

shall save ...from

their sins.

Matt. Matt.
Matt.
evil one.
2.

iii.

13

:

dirb rfis TaXiXatas,
airb rfjs

from

Galilee,

ix.
vi.

22 13

:

wpas

iK€Lvr]<;,

from

tlmt hour.

:

pvaai ^/xas

dirb tov iroviipov, deliver

us

from

evil, or,

the

Compare 2 Tim.

iv. 18.

Derivation, source, descent
vii.

:

from,

of.

Matt. Matt.
3.

16 29
:

:

dirb rpipiJXwv a-vKa,flgs

from

thistles.

xi.

fxaOere

dir'

Ijiov,

leaim of me.
:

Hence, especially, cause, occasion
:

from^ on account

of.

Matt. xiv. 26

dirb tov

<j>opov

tKpa^av, they cried out far fear.

Matt,
offences !

xviii.

7:

omt...dirb t»v <rKav8dX«v, woe,

on

account

of the

So, according to R.V., Heb. v. 7, elaaKova-dels awb

godly fear.
i.e.,

tt]s eiJXa/Setas, heard for his Some, however, understand "heard (and delivered) from his fear, from the calamity which he apprehended.^

4.

This preposition
like
xxi.
ii.

is

sometimes used after transitive verbs

elliptically,

a

word

some
10
:
:

(as the real object of the verb)

being understood.

John
Acts
5.

iveyKare dirb t«v

o^^apioiv,

bring of the fishes.

17
is

eK;(€(u dirb

tov irv6v|iaTos /mov,

I

will

pour out of my
dirb

Spirit.
then,

diro

frequently joined with adverbs,
;

as

ron,
;

from
etc.

Matt.

iv. 17, etc.

dir*

dpTi, henceforth,

Matt, xxiii. 39,

etc.

dirb |jtaKpo0€v,

from afar;

dirb dvcoOev,

from above;

dirb tov vvv,
is

from now,

In

all

these cases, a substantive of place or time

really understood.

293.
1.

€K, €|,

FROM THE INTERIOR (opposite

tO

Cts).

Out

of,

locally.
:

Matt. Matt.

iii.

17

(}>wvr}
:

U

t«v

o{ipavuv,

a

voice out

of heaven.

viii.

28

Ik

t«v

|ivii|ji€iwv

iicpxo/JievoL,

coming out of the tombs.

To
also

this

literally,

meaning may be assigned the phrase, iK de^icSv, on the right hand, "off from the right-hand parts" (Matt. xx. 21, etc). But ev 5e|t^ is
;

employed

see § 295, iv, 1.

^

The verb

c/o-a/cojJw

has a similarly extended meaning in Ps.
cites

cxviii. 5,

LXX.

But
xx.
9,

see Alford in loc,

who

Luke

xix. 3, xxiv. 41

;

John

xxi. 6;

Acts

xii. 14,

xxii. 11, as passages

where

airb

lueans on account

of.

238
2.

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE GENITIVE,
Originating
iii.

€K,

[§ 293,

2.

in, as place, parentage,

from,

of.

Matt.

9
7
:

:

Ik

t«v Xl0«v tovtwv, of these stones.

John
Phil.

iv.
iii.

70;^^

« tt^s

Sa^apclas,

a ivcmian of Samaria.
i.e.,

5

:

*E/3/oato? ii 'Eppatwv,

a Hebrew of Hebrews,

of

Hebrew

descent.
3.

Originating
xvi. 9
:

in, as

the source, cause, or occasion, from, by.
cavrots <^iXovs Ik tov (la^wva t^s dStKia?, maA;e ^0

Luke
i.e.,

TrotTycrarc

yourselves friends by

means of

the

mammon

of unrighteousness (R.Y.),

by (the proper use of) your wealth.
V. 1
:

Rom.

SiKatw^eVrcs Ik

irtcrrcws,

being justified by faith.

So in many

passages.
1 Cor. ix. 1 4
4.
:

Ik tov evoyytXtov ^ijv, to live

from

the gospel.
is

The material
:

or mass from
crrkt^avov
||

which anything

made

or taken, of.

Matt, xxvii. 29
5.

dKavGwv,

a crown of

thorns.

Belonging to a class, of; often with abstract nouns.
xviii.

John
truth.

37

:

6

wv

Ik Tf]? dXii0€Cas,

he ivho

is

(on the side) of the

Rom.
Gal.

ii.

8

:

ol l| IpiOelas,

they

who are of a

self-seeking spirit.

faith

—of circumcision,
So Rom.
is

iii.

9;

Tit.

i.

10:

61 Ik irlfrrews'

ol Ik irtpirojiTis,

they

who are of

i.e.,

who

range themselves under these opposite

symbols.

iv. 14, ol

kKvo^ov, they

who are of law,

etc.

This meaning
6.

closely allied with (3).
:

Springing from
4
ii.

of the state of

mind giving

occasion to any action,

from, out of
2 Cor.
1
ii.
:

Ik ttoXXtis 6Xt\|/€«s eypa\f/a, out
:

of much

affliction

I wrote.
0?*?*

Thess.

3

y

irapaKX-qa-L'; rjfxuiv

ovk Ik

irXdvi]S,

ovSe

dKa6ap<rCas,

exhortation was not from deceit nor from uncleanness.
7.

Used
vi.

of time, from, the future being infolded in,

and spriuging out

of the present.

John

66 33
:

:

Ik tovtov,

from

this time.

A.cts ix.

It«v 6kt«, for eight years,

S94.
1.

'n"P<5,

IN FRONT OF.

Before, in respect of place or person.

§ 295,
Acts
xiv. 13

2.]

PREPOSITIONS.
6
<f>v\aK€^
v. 9.
irpJ)

239
So
ch.

xii.
j

:

vph

rfis

6vpas,

guards before the door.
thy face from
^

James
xi.

Matt.
i.

10
i.

:

irpoo-wirov cov, before

LXX.

So Mark

2

;

Luke

76, etc.

2.

Before^ in respect of time.
xvii.

John
toorld.

24

:

irpb

KaTapoXijs

Koa-fiov,

before the foundation of the

1 Cor. iv. 5

:

firj

irph Kaipov Tt KpLV€T€,

judge nothing before the time.
(lit.,

2 Cor.

xii.

2

:

irpb

Itwv ScKaTco-o-dpwv, fourteen years ago

before

fourteen years,

i.e.,

counted backward from

the present time).

See also

John
3.

xii. 1.

Before,

by way

of superiority.
ir6cvr<av,

Only in the phrase irpb James Col. i. 17 xxi. 12
;

befm'e,

or above all things.

Luke

;

v.

12

;

1 Pet. iv. 8.

Prepositions governing the Dative only.
€V,

<rvv.

295.
1.

«v,

IN, correlative

with

cts

and

ex.

Of place, in;
ii.

so icithin, on, at.

Matt.

1

:

iv Bi]9X6^(i r^s 'lovSatas, in
:

Bethlehem of Judcea.

Matt. XX. 3

€v -ng d^opo, ev

in the market-place. in the vine.

John XV. 4
Heb.
Rev.
2.
i.

:

rg

dnireXo),

3

:

cv Sc^i^ tt}? /ieyoAoxrvi/Ty?,
:

on the right hand of the
throne.

majesty.'^

iii.

21

tv

tw

0p<Jv<{)

fiov,

ow

wiz/

Among, with
ii.

plurals or collective nouns.
r\'^i^6<r\.v

Matt.

6

:

€v rots

'lovSa,

among

the princes of

Judah; LXX.,
attended by

Micah

V. 2.

Luke
Acts

xiv. 31

:

ev 8^Ka xi^iao-iv,
;

among
Acts

ten thousands,

i.e.,

such a troop.
ii.

See Jude 14
:

also

vii. 14.
it

29

la-rlv iv i^Llv

a^pi t^s rjixipas ravri;?,

(the sepulchre) is

among u^ unto
elders

this day.
:

1 Pet. V. 1, 2

7rpc(r/3irrepovs
. .

tov's

iv

v[uv

...

to iv

vjiiv

ttol^ivlov,

the

who are among you
^

.

the

little

flock
e/c,

among

you.

Compare the use

of

§ 293, 1.

MO
3.

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE,
"

iv.

[§ 295,

S.

The

€v of investiture," in or

with; as

when we

say, "

The general
of the

came

in his sword, the peers in their robes."

The Greek

New

Testament extends this use of the preposition to accompaniments which do not literally invest. ^
1 Cor. iv.

21

:

^v

pdpSw eXOoi

7rpo<s

vfia?

;

am I

to

come

to

you with a

rod
1
.

?

Cor. V. 8

:

fxi]

Iv t,v^y\

iraXaia

.

.

.

aXX

iv dtv[JLois,

not in the old leaven

.

hut in the unleavened.
1

Tim.

i.

18

:

tva a-Tparevrj Iv
i.e.,

avrals, that

thou

may est

fight in them

(prophesyings),

armed with them.
...

Heb.
enters

ix.

25

:

6 dp^^tcpevs cla-epx^Tai

iv

ai^iiaTi.

dXAoTptiu), the

high priest
12.

...

in the blood of others.
:

Compare

ch. x.

19 with

xiii.

So, perhaps, Eph. vi. 2

ivroXr] irpdiTt] kv eirayytXCq,, the first

command-

ment

in,

or ivith promise.
this notion of investiture that of action is

To
51),

sometimes superadded (Luke
with the sword?

i.

Hence
b.

'^

the \v instrumental."

Luke
§ 368,

xxii. 49:

d

Trard^ofiev iv fiaxaipq,; shall ive smite

See

See also Heb. xi. 37, and Rev. frequently, as ii. 16, vi. 8, xiii. 10, xiv. 15. In Matt, V, 13, Mark ix, 50, iv rivi; may be rendered wherewith?
4.

The sphere

in

which the subject

is

concerned, as dwelling

or

acting, in.

So the phrases Iv djiapTfq,, in sin ; Iv •wCa-ni, in faith ; Iv <ro<|>C<j, in wisdom ; kv dYdirr), in love ; kv irvcvjiaTi, in spirit ; kv nvcvjAaTi, in the
Spirit (217,/).

Matt. xxii. 43; Kev.
phrase, iv Xpia-T(3 (so iv

i.

10, etc.

The frequent

Kvpicfj, etc.),

means, not simply attached
16;
ii.

to Christ as a follower, but in Christ, in the

most intimate abiding fellowship.^
Gal.
i.

So "Christ in you, me," Rom.
phrase
is

viii,

10;

20, etc.

A

similar

used of the revelation of
V.

God

himself,

"in us,"

1

John

iii.

24, iv. 13.

2 Cor.

19

:

0e6s

9}v

iv Xpicrri^, k.t.X.,

God was in

Christ reconciling, etc.
you.

Eph.

iv.

32: o 0e6s iv Xpicrrip ixapiaaro vfuv,
:

God in Christ forgave

See also Acts xvii. 31

in a

man whom

he hath appointed.

i
usage infrequent in classic Greek, and in the N. T. due to the influence of the Hebrew preposition 3, in, with, by, etc., for which the LXX. constantly uses iv.
^

A

^ "Nicht bios durch Chr. ben£.ficio Christi, sondern in Chr., in geistig kraftiger Winer. Gemeinschaft mit Chr."


§
296.]
h.

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE,
of,

eV,

(JVV,

241

In the power
ix.

hy.
Sat/xovtojv,
...

Matt.

34
34,

:

ev

tw dpxovri twv
:

hy the piHnce of the demons.

Matt.

V.

35

cv t<3

ovpavw

Iv -ng YQ) ^1/

heaven ...by earth.

So

elsewhere in asseverations.

In Matt.
€irt).

iv.

4 some
1

MSS.

read

Iv iravrl pTJiian,

hy every icord (W. H.,

Compare
€|jioC,

Thess.

iv. 15.
;

€v

1

Cor. ix. 15, xiv. 11

Mark

xiv. 6,

may

be rendered in

my

case.
6.

This preposition with
(4)

its

case is often equivalent to

an adverb.
or
xviii. 20,

Compare

preceding.

So we may

render Iv Swdjici, in poicei\

'powerfully ; kv 8oXw, craftily ; Iv rdxei, speedily, etc.
€v Kpvirrw is

In John

in secret , secretly y different from Iv tw Kpxnrrw, Matt, vi 18.
in.
Iv rifilpats
:

7.

Of time,
ii.

Matt.

1

:

'HpwSov, in the days of Herod.
KpLcr€(x)<s,

Matt.

X.

15

Iv

T|jtep<j

in the

day of judgment ;

xii.

36, etc.

Often with the infinitive treated as a noun.
Matt.
xiii.

4

:

Iv

<nr€tp€iv avrov,
iv y,

while he was sowing.
whilst,

With the
Luke
xii. 1.
is

relative pronoun,

as

Mark

ii.

19

;

h

oh, whilst, as
is

The only

difference

between the singular and the plural

that

the latter
8.

more general.
prcegnans.

Const ricctio

—This
is
...

preposition

seems

occasionally
:

to

include the sense of ds, and so " into, so as to be in."

used after verbs implying motion

Matt. xxvi. 23:
dish.

6 e|Ap*^*s

Iv

tw

rpv/JAtu),

he ivho dipped... in the

Luke
hewn

xxiii.

53

:

^$tik6v

avro

Iv

Mvrj/xaTt

Xa^evrw, he laid

it

in

a rock-

sepulchre.
ii.

Rom.

5

:

Grjo-avpt^cis

ccaurw

opyrjv Iv rj/Mepa opyrjs, thou

treosurest

to thyself

wrath

(to

be poured forth) in a day of wrath.

296.

II.

o"vv,

CONJUNCTION WITH (union, or co-operation).

With, together with.
Matt. xxvi. 35
:

o-vv <rol a-jroOavdv, to

die with thee.

R

242
Luke
viii.

PKEPOsiTioNs.

[§ 296.

45

:

Uerpos koI

ol o-vv avrw, Pete)'

and

those with him.
tiera).
vi.

Not merely coexistence, but association is generally implied (see Hence, avv is used of the fellowship of believers with Christ, etc. (Rom.
Col,
ii.

8

13, 20,

iii.

3

;

1 Thess. iv. 17, v. 10).

There

is

the further suggestion of

co-operation in such passages as 1 Cor, v. 4, xv. 10.

In Luke xxiv. 21, toqetJtcr with becomes nearly equal to beside; dWct ye koL cvv vdai TouTois, Yea, and beside all this (R.V.). Compare Neh. v. 18, LXX., "yet for all this" (A.V., R.V.).

Prepositions governing the Accusative only.
dvd,
els.

297»

avd,

UP

TO,
is

or,

UP Wi}

This preposition

of infrequent occurrence in the

New
Mark

Testament,

and always has a
1.

special meaning, generally distributive.

dvd

}ji€Vov,

through the midst
vii.

ofy

Matt,

xiii,

25

;

vii.

31

;

in

the rtiidst of] Rev.
2.
3.

17
1

;

hetween^ 1 Cor. vi. 5.

dvd

fi^pos,

hy turn,

Cor. xiv. 27.

"With numerals or measures of quantity or value, apiece, Matt. xx.
Siivdptov,

9,

10; dvd

a denarius

apiece.

Compare Mark
6
;

vi.

40; Luke

ix.

14, X. 1 (dvd 8vo, two hy two)]
4.

John

ii.

Rev.

iv. 8.

In Rev. xxi. 21, dvd

cts '^Kaorros,

the preposition must be rendered

as

an adverb, each one separately.

298.
1
.

€ls,

TO THE INTERIOR (oppositc to

eV,

and

correlative

with

eV).2

Of place,
ii.

into ; so, figuratively, of a state.
:

Matt.

11
1
:

eA^oVres
avi^-q
:

«ls

r^v oUCav, having come into the house.

Matt.
Matt.
ation.

V.
vi.

€15

rh 6pos, he icent
rifjia<:

up

into the mountain.

13

^xr)

€tcrev€yKr]s

els

triipao-iJKJv,

lead us not into tempt-

So with
^

collective words.

In some ancient Greek poets, with a Genitive and Dative. Latin, the preposition in includes the notions of eh and h, taking the Accusative and Ablative respectively ; and ds (really tVj), in fact, is only another
^ In

form of

iv,

as c^ of ex.

§ 298.]
Acts
xxii.

PKEPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE,
21
:

et9.

243

cU

?0vi]

e^aTroo-TeXw

ere,

/

will send thee forth into the

community
2.

of Gentiles.
to,

UntOj

where the context or the nature of the case limits the

movement

to the exterior.
:

Matt. xvii. 27

iropevOih ds 6dXa<r<rav, having gone to the sea.
els

John
1, 3,

xi.

38
5,

:

epxirai

to

|xvt]|x€iov,

Jie

cometh

to the tomb.

So xx.

4 (ver.
vi.
vi.

"he went not
:

in").

Matt.

26 20
:

iix^Xlif/are els

rd

ircTtivd,
els

look to the birds.
tovs (laG-qras,

Luke
Rev.

cVa/Da? tovs 6(fi0aXfjLovs

having raised his

eyes to his disrij^les.
X. 5
;

^pc

ttjv

x^tpa aurov

els

tov ovpavov, he lifted his

hand

toicards

the heaven.

found in relation to persons, marking direction of thought, speech, etc. Sometimes this implies hostility, against ; sometimes mere reference, in regard to.
3.

The meaning towards

is

especially

Rom.

xii.

16

:

to avro

els

dXXTjXovs <^povovvT€<s, being of the

same mind
one who

one toicards another.

Luke
Acts
him.
4.

xii.

shall say

10 ttSs os cpet Xoyov els t6v a tcord against the Son of man.
:

ulbv tov avOpwirov, every

ii.

25

:

Aa/?t8 yap Xeyct

els

avTov,

for David says in reference to

Towards, with respect to a certain result, in order
viii. 4, x.
:

to,

for.
to

Matt.

18, etc.:

els

jxapTvpiov avTots, /b;*
els

a testimojiy
is

them.

Matt. xxvi. 2
criicijied.

TrapaSt'SoTat

to (rTavpw0f)vai, he

surrendered to be

tovto 1 Cor. xi. 24 remembrance of me.
:

TrotctTC els

t^v

ejii^v

dvdjivrjo-iv,

this

do for the

2 Cor.

ii.

12

:

iX6o)v cts t^v

TpwaSa,
gospel.

els

to evayycXiov, having

come into

Troasfor (the preacliing of) the
5.

Into, symbolically, as

marking the entrance into

a state or sphere

(see

under

cv, 4).
els

So we enter

Xpio-rov, into Christ, actually

by

faith,

symbolicaDy by

baptism, Christians being ev Xpurrw, in Christ.

Rom.

vi. 3,

4

:

ocrot

efiaTTTLadrjfxev

els

Xpio-rbv 'IiycoCv,

els

tov OdvaTOV

244

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE, ek.

[§ 298.

avTov ipaTTTta-Orjixevy as

many

of

lis

as were baptised into Christ Je^us^ were

haptised into his death.

Compare Matt,
X.
2,

xxviii. 19,
iii.

xii.

13

;

Gal.
or,

remission of sins,
6.

"into the name," etc. Acts xix. 3 1 Cor. i. So Acts ii. 38, eis rrjv &(f)€<nv afxaprnSv, into according to some interpreters, as (4).
;

;

13,
th6

27.

This preposition

is

used in some important passages to denote
rendered for, or
o-apKa
v.
|iCav,

equivalence,^ and
Matt. xix. 5
:

may be
.
.

as.

taovrai
vi.

.

€ls

they shall become one flesh.

So

Mark

x.

8

;

1

Cor.
:

16

;

Eph.
ds

31

;

from LXX., Gen.
it

ii.

24.

Matt. xxi. 42
corner.

iyev-qOrj
xii.
iii.

kc^xxX-^iv ywi/tag,

became the head of the
cxviii. 22.
vii. 21,

So Mark

10

;

Luke

xx. 17

;

from LXX., Ps.

xiii. viii.

Compare Luke 22 Rom. xi.
;

5 (from Isa. xl.

4), xiii.

19; John xvi. 20; Acts
ii.

9
;

;

1 Cor. xiv. 22, xv. v. 3.
els

45 (see Gen.

7,

LXX.)

;

2 Cor.

vi. 18,

14

;

Heb.
:

i.

5

James

Acts xix. 27
as nothirig.

to

...

Upov

ovSev Xoyto-^^vat, the temple to be esteemed

Rom. Rom.

ii.

26

:

ov^l

rj

aKpo^vrrTia avrov

els

irepiTop.'fiv

Aoyta"^r;(7€Tat

;

shall

not his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision
ix.

1

8

:

Aoyt^crat

els (nre'piia, it is

accounted for a seed.

Rom.

iv. 3, 5, 9,

22

;

Gal.

iii.

6

:

iXoyia-Orj aur<p els 8iKaio<rvvT}v, it IVOS

accounted
7.

to

him

fm' righteousness.
et?

When

referring to time,
(b)

may mark

either (a) the interval

up

to

a certain point, during; or

the point

itself,

regarded as the object of

some aim or purpose, up
a.

to,

for.
els

Luke

i.

50

:

els

veveds vevewv, or

Yeveas

Kal Yeveds

(W.

H.), unto,

during generations of (or and) generations.
Matt. xxi. 19
:

els

rhv alwva, for ever,
els

lit.,

John

vi.

51, 58, "for ever."

tovs alaivas,

"unto or during the age," lit., "unto the ages," "for

els tovs alwvas t»v alwvwv, unto the ever," Rom. i. 25 ; 2 Cor. xi. 31. 2 Pet. ages of the ages, " for ever and ever," Gal. i. 5 ; 1 Tim. i. 17. " to the day of eternity" (§ 259). iii. 18, €19 rjfjiipav alwvo?,

So in the adverbial phrases, eh rh jxiWov, hereafter, Luke eh rb dir)v€K^s, continuously, perpetually, Heb. x. 12.

xiii.

9

;

1

Tim.

vi.

19

;

^

This answers to a

common Hebrew

use of the preposition h (equivalent to

iii)

after copulative verbs.

§ 299.]
b.

PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE, ek.
vi.

245
therefore

Matt.

34

:

fxrj

ovv

fxcpLfjLVQa-rjTe

€is

tt^jv

a<lpiov,
tlie

be not

anxious for
Phil.
i.

(lit.,

"project not your anxieties into")
T||i^pav

morrow.

12.

i. 10 Eph.

:

€ls

Xpicrrov, unto

the

iv.

30

is

slightly different, expressing

day of Christ. So 2 Tim. more prominently the

intent of the Spirit's " sealing."

Rev. ix. 15 T^Toi/xaa/xei/ot els t^v «pav Kat T|(jLepav /cat |xfiva koX lviavT<Jv, prepared for (or unto) the hour and day, and month and year, i.e., for
:

the precise time appointed.
Acts xiii. 42: cis to /xera^v ad^^aTov presents a little difficulty, as "on the next Sabbath" (A.V. andR.V.) seems rendering the preposition with undue We must interpret either "for the next Sabbath" the Gospel being licence.


iv

regarded as a treasure reserved for that time (and perhaps, by construct io
prcegnans [see
8.
81, %ip to

and

on)

—or during

the intervening

week (A.V. marg. ).
in

Constructio prcegnans.

— See

under

iv

(8).
els,

As

a similar

double

construction
iv.

implies the previous

so

ek here implies the

following

Mark
Acts

xiii.

16

:

6

els

rbv dypov &v,^
is

"he who

is

into the field,"
iv.

i.e.,

who

has grme into the field and
viii.

in

it.

Matt. xxiv. 18 has

40

:

^tAiTTTros 6vp^0T]

els

"A^wrov, Philip ivas found (to have

been led)

to Azotus.
:

Acts xxi. 13
to

airoOavetv els 'lepovcraki^ix,

"to die into Jerusalem,"

i.e.,

go into Jerusalem and die there.

Heb.

xi.

9

:

irap«KTi<r€v els y^v,
it.

" sojourned into the land,"

i.e.,

travelled

into the land

and sojourned in
6is

In one passage,

is
cis

apparently followed by a Genitive
ci5ou,-

:

Acts

ii.

27, 31

(LXX.,
ellipsis
;

Ps.

xvi.

10),

oMav, Imhitation, " Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the realm of the Unseen."

The phrase contains a classical being understood, and Hades being personified,
to

Hades.

Prepositions governing the Genitive
8id,

and Accusative
virep,
trird.^

Cases.

Kara,

(i^erd,

irepC,

299.
*

8«i,

THROUGH, from the notion of separation, disjunction.
Rev. Text omit &v,
(see § 2.56, 7, note).
irepi

W. H. and
W. H.
q-S-qv

—a

reading which more vividly illustrates this

construction.
2 ^

In classic Greek,

and

vTr6

may

take a Dative

;

also fxerd in poets.

246
a.
1.

hd, AVITH THE GENITIVE.

[§ 299.

With

the Genitive.
to place
:

In reference
iv.

through^ literally,

i.e.^

" through and from."

John
John
to the

4

:

eSct Se

avTov Sup^^eadat 8id

tt)s 2a|iap€ias,

and he must needs
no one cometh

go through Samaria.
xiv. 6
:

ovSet? €p;(€Tat Trpos rov Trarepa €i

/u,^ St* Ijiov,

Father hut through me
iii.

—the Way.
ws 8ia tov
irvpos,

1 Cor.

15

:

o-uidrja-eraL ...

he shall be saved as (one

who

has passed) througli the fire.

1 Cor. xiii.

12

:

pX^Trofxev

yap apri

8t* eo-oirrpov,

for

we

see noio

through

a miiTor
2.

(the image appearing to be on the opposite side).
to

In reference
i.

agency
vtro

:

through^ by

means

of.

Matt.

22

:

p-rjOlv

Kvptov 8ia toO

'irpo<|)TJTov,

spohen by the Lord
vtto

thi'ough the pvphet.

Here mark the
(a).
8t'

distinction

between

and

8ta,

and compare
1 Cor.
iii.

vtto, §

304

5

:

Slolkovol

wv

c7rto*TcvcraTc,

ministers through

whom

ye

believed.

2 Thess.
8t* Tifiwv,

ii.

2

:

p^rfe 8ia irvcvjJtaTOS, ixrjTC 8ia Xoyou, fxrjTe
spirit,

8i'

eiric^oXTjs, u)9

neither by

nor by loord, nor by

letter

as

from us (through

us as the mediate authors).

Eph.
Eph.

i.

1, etc.

:

8td
:

eeXrijjiaTos

0€ov, by the

loill

of God.

ii.

8, etc.

a-eaojcrixivoL 8td rfjs mo-Tcws,
8ttt

saved by faith.

2 Cor.
body.

V.

10

:

rd

tov <rw|xaTos, the things (wrought) by

means of

the

3

Jolm 13

:

ov OiXio 8id ji^Xavos

/cat

KaXd|j.ov

ypacf>€Lv,

I do

not wish to

ivrite ivith

ink and pen.
is

This preposition
Christ's mediatorial
i.

used, especially in such phrases as 5ia 'Irjeov Xpca-Tov, of
in all its manifestations. ^
i.

work
i.

(Rom.

ii.

16, v. 1

;

2 Cor.

5; Gal.

i.

1

;

Eph.

5; Phil.

11

;

Titus

iii.

6.)
1

Very

rarely it seems to indicate the primary agent.

Cor.

i.

9

:

Triarbs 6

Geos dC ov iK\^67)T€, k.t.X.,
called, etc.

God

is

faithfal, by [li.\ ., through) ichoin ye were
force of 8id is not lost.

Yet even here the proper

The Father

is

represented as acting on behalf of his Son, to bring Christians into fellowship

with Him.
^

Winer.

:

§ 299.]
3.

8cd,

WITH THE GENITIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.
to time, it

247
interval

In reference

marks the passage through an
of.

(a) during, or (b) after the lapse

(a)

Luke
ii.

v.
:

5

:

8i*

6Xt)s Tfjs

wktos, all night.
tTJv,

Heb.

15

8id iravrbs tov
8id (t^?)

all

through their

life.

The phrase
xxiii. 31.

wktos denotes hy night,
being specified, Acts
8t' T)(X€pwv

i.e.,

during

its lapse,

no

particular hour

or hours
i.

v.

19, xvi. 9,

xvii. 10,

So Acts

3

:

Teo-a-apdKovTo, at intei'vals

during forty

days.
(&)

Malt. xxvi. 61

;

Mark

xiv.

58

:

8id rpiwv ruitpwv, three

days

after-

tvards.

Gal.
xii. 2.)

ii.

1

:

8id 8€KaT€<r(rdp«v Itwv, fourteen

years

after.

(Cf.

2

Cor.

Compare Mark
p.

ii.

1

;

Acts xxiv. 17.

With

the Accusative.

0?i account of: as in the frequent phrase 8id tovto,

"on

this account."

So "because

of,"

" for the sake of."

''"With the Genitive, 8td notes the instrument of

an action; with

the Accusative,
Matt. X. 22,

its
:

ground,

ratio.''

'^

etc.
:

8id t6 ovo|id fiov,

for

my

name's sake.
of the ahoimding

Matt. xxiv. 12

8id to TrX^OvveTjvai ryjv avofxtav, because

of the

laivlessness.
ii.

Eph.

4

:

8id ti^v ttoXKtjv a.yatn\v avrov,
:

on account of his great

love.
i.e.,

John
Heb.

vi.

57

cya>

^w 8id tov

iraTcpa,

/

live

because of the Fathei',

" because he liveth."
V.

12

:

8id tov xp^^vov, on account of

{i.e.,

considering) the time

that you have been Christians.

Rom.
Spirit.

viii.

11: 8id to cvoikovv avrov

irv€v(ta,

on account of his indwelling

The distinction between the Genitive and the Accusative should be marked in such passages as Rom. xii. 3, xv. 15. "I say to you," writes the Apostle in the
former,
5ta
is
tt}s
x°-P^'^<>^>

through the grace given to me,
I
I

i.e.,

"the favour
ttjv

bestowed

the power by which

WTite;" but in the latter, dia

x<^^> on

account of the grace given me, "that

may

worthily vindicate

its

bestowal."

^

Winer.

248

Kara, WITH THE GENITIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.
;

[§ 299,

fi.

An instance of a different kind is in Heb. ii. 10 5i' ov rd iravTa /cat bC od to, wavra, for ivliom are all things and through whom arc all things, i.e., for his honour and by his agency. Compare also 1 Cor. xi. 9 and 12: 5id tt]v ywaiKa,
for the sake of the

woman;

5id ttjs yvvaLK6s, by the

woman,

i.e.,

in birth.

300.
a.
1.

Kara,

DOWN.

With

the Genitive, "

down

from."

Literally, of place,
viii.

down.
tov
Kpr]\i.vov,

Matt.
V.

32

:

wpfxrjcre Kara,

rushed down the

steep.

Mark
de-

13
1

;

Luke

viii.
:

33.

Cor. xi. 4

Kara

Ke<})aXTis cx'^'^'

having (something,

i.e.^

a veil,

pending) from the head.
See also
2.

Mark

xiv. 3

;

Acts xxvii. 14

;

2 Cor.

viii,

2.

Hence the more nsual reverse of vTrep, which see, §

signification, against^ in opposition to (the

303).

Mark
one.

xi.

25

:

et

n

e^eTe Kara tivos, if ye have

anything against any

Acts xiv. 2
brethren.
3.

:

eTrryyctpai/

Kara twv

d8€X<|)a)v,

they raised

up

...

against the

Occasionally in asseverations, hy.
:

Matt. xxvi. 63

i^opKL^u) crc Kard tov 0€ov,

/ adjure

thee hy God.

1 Cor. xv. 15 is probably to be referred to the same rule by God," though the rendering against might be admissible. " 0/God," (A.V. and R.V.) is plainly incorrect.

"We
4.

So Heb. have

vi.

13-16.

testified

As with the
iv.

Accusative, over^ throughout, a usage confined to Luke,
:

and

to the following passages

Luke
about.

14

:

Ka0*

(JXtjs

rr\%

ircptxwpov,

through all the region round

Luke
p.
1.

xxiii.

5

;

Acts

ix. 31, 42, x. 37.

With

the Accusative.

Throughout, among, with singular or plural.
viii.

Luke
Acts

39
1
:

:

Ka6' 6\t]v rf|v irtJXiv,

through the whole
'lovSaia?,

city.

viii.

Kard rds x"P*5

T7J<s

throughout

the regions of

Judwa.
Acts xxvi. 3
:

tCjv

Kard 'Iov8aCovs WCjv, of the customs

among

the Jews.

§ 300.]
2.

Kara, WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.

249

Over against^ locally.
ii.

Luke
peoples.

31

:

Kara

irpoo-wirov iravroiv

twv Xawv, before the face of

all the

So Acts
3.

ii.

10; Gal.

ii.

11,

iii.

1, etc.

In reference to time, at or of" Clover against").
Matt.
i.

in^

"correspondent with," "at the period

20, etc.

:

Kar Svap, in a dream.
|jL€(rovvKTiov,

Acts

x.vi.

25
6
:

:

Kara TO

at midnight.

Kom.
4.

V.

Kara Kaipov, in due time.
or time, distributively,
:

Of place
xiii.

from one

to another.

Mark Luke
V.

8
:

a-aa-ixol

Kara

rdirovs,

earthqnaJces in divers places.

viii. 1

StwScvc Kara iroXiv, he
;

VMS journeying from

city to city.

So Kar ^TOi, year by year, Luke ii. 41 kut oTkov, at different houses, Acts ii. 46, Kad' ijfxepav, daily, Kara irav (xd^^aTov, every Sabbath, Acts xv. 21 42
;
;

Matt. xxvi. 55,

etc.

(and the phrase Kad'
viii.

els,

or Kadeis, one by one, for

eis

Kad' eva,

Mark
5.

xiv. 19

;

John

9

;

Rom.

xii. 5).

From
ix.

the meaning " over against" arises that of according

to,

in

reference to some standard of comparison, stated or implied.

Matt.

29

:

Kara t^v

itCo-tiv v/xcov yevrjOrJTia^

according to your faith

be it unto you.

Luke

ii.

39

:

ra Kara tov

vofiov

Kvpcov, the things according to the laio

of Jehovah.
So in the phrases
vieiv;
/car

dvdpurov, as a

man;
Kar

Kar

^fie,

according

to

my

ability or

Acts

/card x°-P'-^> according to favoiir; The phrase /card Qedv xxv. 23, etc.

i^ox^v, by

way

of pre-emiiience,

means,

w accordance ivith the character
Thus
also,

and will of God, "divinely,"

as 2 Cor. vii. 9, 10, 11.

Rom.

viii.

27,

He

(the Spirit) divinely intercedes;'^
xi.

Rom.

xiv. 15,

Kar

dydTrijp,

according

to love.

Heb.

13: /card

iriffTiv

dir^davov, they died according to faith, i.e., in a
;

way

consistent with, corresponding to the spirit of faith

contented, though they had

not seen the blessing.
6.

Phrases like the foregoing often pass into an adverbial meaning.
etc.:
:

Matt. xiv. 13,

kut

ISiav, alone.

Acts XX viii. 16
^

Ka0' lavrdv,

by himself.

Winer here

prefers the rendering before, as (2) above, but, as it seems, without

sufficient reason.

250

fierd, irepL

[§ 301,
a-vvy

301.
a.
1.

^i'^o,,

IN ASSOCIATION
co-ojjeration,

which implies

WITH (locally), distinguished from and is not necessarily local.

With

the Genitive, " with and from," or separable connection.^
^^-iY/i,

Of persons,
i.

amidst, among.
... |i60'
t||jl»v

Matt.
Matt.

23

:

'E/A/xavov^X
:

6 0co9,

Emmanuel, God with

us.

xii. 3, etc.

ol (1€t

avrov, those loith

him, his companions.

So

of

two
iv.

parties to a conversation or controversy.
:

John

27

nerd -yuvaiKos cXaXct,
xii.

Jie

was

talki7ig

with a ivoman.

See also Matt.
2.

41, 42, etc.

Of attendant circumstances,
icith.
ixcrd

objects, states

of

mind

(not instru-

mental), together

Matt. XXV. 4

:

twv XaiAirdSwv avriov, ivith their lamps.
\Lira.

Mark
Heb.
1

vi.
xii.

25
17

:

cia-eX^ovcra
(icrd
:

<nrov87]s,

going in with haste.
tears.

:

SaKpvwv

lKt,y}Tr)(ra<i^

having sought with

Tim.

iv.

14

|1€t

lirieio-ews twi/ x«t/><^v, loith

(not hy) the laying on of

the hands.

Matt, xxvii. 66
3.

:

jierd rfjs Kovo-rwSCas,

together with the watch.
or the like,
is

spoken

The object of a deed of of, by this preposition,
X.

love, mercy,

sometimes

as associated with the agent.
|1€t

Luke

37

:

6 Trot^cra? to eXcos
i.e.,

avrov, he

who wrought

the compas-

sionate deed ivith him,

"
;

who showed mercy towards
1

him."

So in Acts
p.

xiv. 27, xv. 4

John

iv. 17.

With

the Accusative,
:

after, of

time or place.

Matt. xxvi. 2

^crd 8vo
:

ii|A€pas,

after tivo days.

Luke

V. 27, etc.

fi€Td ravra,

after these things.

Luke
Heb.

xxii.
ix.

20
:

:

jicrd

rh

8cMrvT]<rai,

after supper; 1 Cor. xi. 25.

3

licrd

t6 Scvrcpov KaTaireTcurjjLa, beyond the second veil,

302.
a.

TTcpC,

AROUND.

With

the Genitive, " around and separate from."

About, concerning; chiefly as the object of thought, emotion, knowledge, discourse, etc.
^

Donaldson.

fieTo, is

connected with

jxiaos,

midst.

§ 303,
Acts

a.]

'rrepi,

virep,
pao-iXeCas rov

251
0€ov (they believed

viii.

12

:

cvayycXt^o/xcVu)

trepl rfis

Philip), preacMiig concerning the

Mngdom

of God.
;

Matt.

vi.

28
18

:

irepl

iv8v|JiaTos

ri /xepLixvaTe

lolty

are ye anxious about

raiment

?
ii.
:

t«v XaXTi0€VTwv, they wondered about the things tlmt ivere spoken (this verb more generally has liri, " to wonder

Luke

iOav/xacrav

irept

at").

Matt.

ix.

36

:

iairXayxvLcrOr]

ircpl
cTTi,

avrwv,

he was comjnssionate about

them
1

(also

more generally with
v. 25, etc.
:

Dative or Accusative).
t||jl«v,

Thess.

Trpoa-ivxta-Of. irepl

pray for
. .

us.
dp-apTCas,
8,

Rom.
1

viii.

3

:

6 0eo9 t6v

iavrov vlov
sin.

Trc/xi/^a?

.

ir€pl

God
26;
303,

having sent his oivn Son... for

Compare Heb.
i.

x. 6,

18,
§

John

ii.

2, iv.

10

;

also,

perhaps, Gal.

4.^

(See under

virip^

a, 2.)
/?.

With

the Accusative, " around and towards."

1.

Around, of place.
viii.

Matt.

18

:

iSwv

...

o;(Xovs uepl avrov, seeing multitudes
iii.

around him.
loins.

Used
So

of dress, etc.. Matt.
;

4

:

irepl

ti?|v

6<r^vv avrov,

aboid his

xviii. 6

Rev. xv.

6^.

For the idiomatic expression,
2.

ot irepl IlavXov,

see § 197-

About, of time.
:

Matt. XX. 3
3.

-ircpl

TpCrrjv wpav,

about the third hour.

In reference
:

to,

aboid, of
ircpl

any object of thought.
iroXX^v SiaKoviav, she

Luke X. 40 Trcptco-TraTo much serving (ver. 41).
1

was cumbered aboid

Tim.

i.

19

:

ircpl

Tf|v

ttCo-tiv

ivavdyrja-av,

they

made shipwreck

in

reference to the faith.

See also

Mark

iv.

19

;

Acts xix. 25

;

1

Tim.

vi. 4, etc.

303.
a.
1.

vir€p,

OVER.

With
On

the Genitive, " over and separate from."
,

behalf of as though bending " over" to protect (the opposite of

Kara).

Of persons.
*

W. H.

read

virlp

with

Trepi

in marg.

252
Matt.
V.

virep,

with the genitive.
pray for^
i<TTLv,

[30^, a.
tJiose

44

:

7rpoo-cvx«<^^c vir^P twv 8iwkovt«v vfxas,

who
not

are pei'secutinr/ you.

Mark
against

ix.

40

:

os
us.
:

yap ovk

21s is

for

ta-ri Ka& Compare Rom.

yj/jlwv

\m\p
31.

f||x«v

he who

is

viii.

2 Cor. V. 14, 15
V. 6, 7,

inr^p

irdvrwv

aTreOaveVy
v.

he died for

all.

So Rom.
ii.

8

;

Gal.

ii.

20,

iii.

13

;

Eph.

25

;

Heb.

ii.

9

;

1

Pet.

21, etc.

Philemon 13:
for
thee.

iva vir^p o-ov

/xot SLaKovrj,

that he might minister to

me

As a

service

is

stead, the notion of'virip

often rendered on heJmlf of another by being offered in his may become interchangeable with that of avri, as in the
distinction
is
is,

last passage.

The

that

virip of itself leaves

in which the service

performed, simply affirming the fact
I,

undetermined the way avri, on the other
;

hand,
2.

is definite.

See Winer, § 47,

n. 2.

Of things, for
xi.
it.

their sake, in various ways.
tt)s

John
promote

4

:

vir^p

So^tis

tov @€ov, for the glory of God,

i.e.,

to

Rom.

XV. 8

:

v-n-^p

dXT]8€Cas @€ov,

for the truth of God,

i.e.,

to confirm

his promises.

2 Cor.

xii.
it.

19:

virtp Tfjs

vixwv

oiKoZo\i.f[s,

for your edification,

i.e.,

to

minister to
Phil.
ii.

13

:

virip rr\s €v8oKCas,

for

(his)

good pleasure,

i.e.,

to

accom-

plish

it.

Acts

V.

41
it.

:

vir^p

TOV ovofiaTos, on behalf of the
ix.

name

of

Christ,

i.e.,

to glorify
1
i.e.,

Compare
:

16

;

3 John

7, etc.
rj/xiov,

Cor. XV. 3
to take
Trcpt,

dniOavcv <m\p twv duapTiwv

he died for our
i.

sins,

them away.
§

Compare Heb.

v.

1,

Gal.

4,

etc.

;

and

see

under
3.

302, a.
;

About, " in reference to," simply

the notion of benefit or service

having disappeared.
2 Cor.
viii.
ii.

23
1
:

:

eirc iirlp Tirov,

whether (you inquire) about Titus.
rov KvpLov, in reference to the coming

2 Thess.

virip Tfjs irapovo-Cas

of the Lord.

The passage, 1 Cor. xv. 29, paxTi^d/ievoL virep tQv veKpuv, baptised for, or on behalf of or in reference to the dead, possibly refers to some observance (perliaps local) in connection with the act of baptism, of which the trace is lost.
^

More emphatic than

irtplin the

same connection.

§ 304.]
p.

virep,

viro.

253

With

the Accusative, " over and towards."

Beyond, above, used in comparison.
Matt.
X.

24

:

ovk

icm

ixaOr}Tr)<i

inrip

tov 8i8a<rKaXov,

a

disciple is not

above his teacher.
2
Cor.
i.

8

:

(nrJp

8vva(iiv

i/3ap-q6r]iJi€v,

we were oppressed beyond our

strength.

So occasionally after a comparative adjective xvi. 8 Heb. iv. 12).
;

to

add emphasis (Luke

Here, too,

may be referred

virkp \iav or virepklav,

the use of vwip with adverbs, as 2 Cor. xi. 5, xii. 11, beyond measure; also the "improper preposition" virepdpu
i.

(from dvd), up over, governing the Genitive (Eph.

21, iv.

10; Heb.

ix.

5).

See under vwd, § 304,

j8,

1.

304.
a.

viro,

UNDER.

With

the Genitive, " beneath and separate from."
fact, event, or

This preposition marks that from which a
i.e.,

action springs,

the agent
iv. 1
:

;

hence
avrj^Or]

its

meaning, by, especially after passive verbs.
tov irv€v|iaTOS TreLpacrOrjvai viro tov 8iap6\ov, he

Matt.

virb

was led
Matt.

up)
V.

by the Spirit

to be tempited by the devil.

13

:

KaraTrareto-^at virb t«v av0pwir«v, to be trodden

under foot

by men.
Note.

—The Agent
The The The The

is

signified

by

xmb.

Instrument, by the Dative alone. Minister of another's will, by 5td, with the Genitive. Motive or Cause, by 5id, with the Accusative. Occasion may be signified by dTo.

p.
1.

With

the Accusative, " under and towards."

Under, locally or figuratively. 15
:

^latt. V.

TiOcacTLv

avrov

virb

Tbv

fjL68tov,

they put

it

under the under

modius.

Rom.

vi.

14

:

ov yap ia-re

vnrb vd|iov

d\)C

virb

X'^-P''*'*

f^'^

V^

<^^6 f^ot

law, hut under grace.

In this sense, joined with the adverb Kartu (from Kara), viro forms the "improper preposition" {utokoLtw, down unde)', followed always by a
Genitive, as

Mark

vi.

11, etc.

254
2.

VTTO,

WITH ACCUSATIVE

eVt,

WITH

GlilNrnVE.

[§ 304,

yS.

suh,

upon ("under," as, e.g.^ under a wall, hill, etc.), like the Latin applied in the Xew Testament to time only, and in one passage
Close
V.

Acts

21

:

virb

Tov

<{p0pov, close

upon

the daivn,

"very

early in the

Prepositions governing the Genitive, Dative,
iiriy

and

Accusative.

Trapd,

irpds.

305.
a.

t-n-C,

UPON.
as, e.g.^

With

the Genitive, " upon, and proceeding from,"

a pillar

upon the ground.
1.

On, upon, locally.
vi. 10, etc.
viii.
:

Matt.

cm

tt)s Yf)s,

on the earth.

Luke
John
Acts

13

:

61 h\
ItcX

itrX Tfjs

ireVpas,

and

those

upon

the rock.

xix. 19
xii.

:

tov (rravpov,
lirl

upon

the cross.
sitting

21

:

Ka^tVas

tov p^p.aTos,
6.

upon the throne
iv. 9,

(lit.,

judgment-seat, tribunal).
vi.

So xxv.
Ittl

Compare Rev.

10, v. 13,

16, etc.

In Matt.

xix. 28,

in this sense has both the Genitive

and the Accusative.
2.

Ovei', of
vi.

superintendence, government,
ovs KaTaa-Trja-ofxcv
«irl

etc.
ravrrjs,

Acts

3

:

Tfjs

XP«^*S

whom

we Will

set

over this business.

Rom.
3.

ix.

5

:

6

tov IttI irdvruv,

ivho is over all

On

the basis
2
:

of,

liguratively, upon.

John

vi.

to, (j^/Acta

a

IttoUl

kirX

twv

d<r6evo\ivT«v,

the miracles which

he teas loorldiig uj)on the

afflicted.

Compare Gal.
Here, too,

iii.

16, etc.

maybe

referred the phrase,

eV

dXrjdelat, vi truth

(Mark

xii.

14;

Luke
4.

iv. 25, etc.), i.e.,

"on
of,

a basis of truth."

In the presence
Cor.
vi.

especially before a tribunal.
itr\

1

1

:

KpivcfrOai

r&v aS^Kcav koI ov\l

cirl

t«v aY^wv, to

be

judged, before the unrighteous,

and
9,

not before the hohj.
26, xxvi. 2
;

So Acts

xxiii. 30, xxiv. 19,

xxv.

1

Tim.

vi.

13.

§ 305.]
1

eiriy

WITH THE GENITIVE AND DATIVE.
8vo
:

255

Tim.

V.

19

:

cirl

r}

Tpiwv

liap-nupwv,

before two or three witnesses.

upon the testimony (mouth), But see 2 Cor. xiii. 1 cm where the preposition, from the LXX., denotes basis ; as in (3), above.
oTofiaTos, k.tA.,
5.

In the time
iii.

of.

Luke
Acts
Matt.
tio7i to

2

:

eirl
€irl

6.pxi€p4ws

"Awa,

in the high-jyriesthood of

Annas

(R.Y.).

xi.

28
11
:

:

KXavSlov, in the days of Claudius.
Ba/SvkCjvos, at the time

i.

lirt rfjs iieroiKeo-^as

of the deportaThess.

Babylon.
i.

Rom.
i.

10

:

iirX

t«v irpoo-evxwv

/xov,

at the time of

my jprayefi's;
Heb.
i.

1

2

;

Philemon
i.

4,

1 Pet.
iii.

20

:

hr €<rxdT«v Twv xpovwv,
H.).
iirl

ill

the last times;

2

;

2 Pet.

3;

Jude 18 (W.
In Mark
xii.

26;

tov ^drov, at the Bush, means,
"

"at the Old Testament

section entitled
6.

'The Bush.'

Construdio prKri7ians.
ev,

—This
...

preposition with the Genitive some-

times (see under Matt. xxvi. 12

8) implies the foregoing motion. ^oXovo-a

:

to fxvpov tovto
body,

€irl

tov <r«p,aTds /xov, having

poured

. . .

this

oiidment on
:

my

Mark
p.
1.

xiv.

35

^xiirrcv

e'lrl

Tfjs y^s>

he fell upon the ground.

With
Oriy

the Dative, " resting upon."

upon^ locally; like the Genitive, except that the point of view

is different.

(See
:

a,

1,

also y, 1.)
will not leave
...

44 ovk a(f>r](rov(nv ... \l6ov eirl Xl0«j>,i they stone resting upon stone. See also chap. xxi. 6.
xix.
2.

Luke

Over^ of snperintendence, etc.
xii.

(See

a, 2,

also y, 2.)

Luke
3.

44

:

€irl

tois virapxov<ri, over the goods.

071 (at), as the
iv.

groundwork
dpTw

of

any

fact or circumstance.

Matt.

4
:

:

ovk
eirl

err'

/xoVo) ^TJo-cTat,

shall not live

on

breads alojie.

Luke V. 5 down the net.
^

tw

pr\\x.ari

crov ;^aA,acra)

to Siktvov, at thy toord

I

will let

But

AV.

H. read \iBov

(cf.

y, 1).

In Luke xxi. 6 the Dat.
is

is

undisputed, and

the student will note that in the one case the verb

attive (implying motion), in

the other passive.

256
Acts
xi.

eVt,

WITH THE DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.
OXi\}/€(D';

[§ 305,

/S.

19

:

r^s

t^s

y€yofji€vr]<s

cVl ST€<j>dv&),

^Tie

aflicHon that

arose about Stephen.

Mark
Eom.
2 Cor.
fully."

ix. 37, etc.

:

lirX
ii.

tw

ovojiarC /xov,

m

my

name.

(Compare Matt,

xxviii. 19 -with
viii.

Acts
:

38.)

20

cir*

cXirtSt,

in hope,

i.e.,

"resting on the basis of a hope

that," etc.
ix. 6
:

eir'

€vXo7lais,

on a groundwork of
6 ©cos

blessings,

i.e.,

"bounti-

1 Tliess. iv.

7

:

ov yap iKoXea-tv

rjfjia^

eirt

6,Ka0af <rt(j,,
(5).

for

God

called

US not on the ground of impurity, or perhaps as
ness.)

(R.V., for unclean-

^ So the phrase e0' c^, "on the condition being (Rom. v. 12, etc.).
realised that," wherefore^

because
4.

Over and above, in addition
26
13

to; as

by one

fact resting

upon

another.

Luke
2 Cor.

xvi.
vii.

:

eul
:

irdo-i toutois,
tt|

beside all these.
rjfxwv,

eirl

irapaKXrio-et

(W. H.)

ill

addition to our

comfort.
5.

Constructio prwgnans.

— (See
.
. .

a, 6.)

The

force of the Accusative

also is

sometimes implied.
ix.

Matt.
U2:)on

16:

ouSets tiripdXXei

Itri

tjiarto)

-iraXaKu,

no one putteth

.

.

an

old garment.

y.
1.

With

the Accusative, " upon, by direction towards."

Upon, with motion implied.
v.
vii.

Matt. Matt.

15

:

TiOeaoTLv
:

cirl

t^v XvxvLav, they put
t-^iv

(it)

upon

the lampstand.

24

loKoSojxrja-ev cirl
:

ir^rpav,
iiSara,

he built upon the rock.
he walked upon the
loaters.

Matt. xiv. 29
Matt. xxiv. 2
ft
1, note.
:

TrepuTrdTrja-ev cVi

rd

Xt^os eVt XtGov.

The notion

there

is

See the Dative in the same connection, here, i)erliaps, of downof rest, simply
;

ward

pressure.

So

after the verb eXTrifw, to hope; irl,
V. 5.

with the Dat.,
is

1

Tim.

iv.

10; with the

Ace,
ii.
J^.

In the one case, the hope
a(;t.

said to rest upon, as a fact; in the
i.

other, to be placed upon, as an
Tlio dittereuce
is

So

after irddoj, 2 Cor.

9,

compared with

so sliglji, that the expressions are easily interchangeable.

.

§ 305.]

e7^^,

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.
Matt. xix. 28; 2 Cor.
iii.

257
15,

Gonstruciio iwcegnans.

—In
cirt

and some

other passages.
2.

Over, of authority, superintendence.
i.

Luke
Heb.

33

:

paa-cXeva-eL

rhv oIkov 'la/cwyS, he shall reign over the house

of Jacob.
ii.

7

:

KaricrT-qu-a^

avrbv

eirl

rd

'4pya, k.t.A..,

thou didst

set hint

over

the icorks of thy hands.

The three cases with this meaning seem "interchangeable," i.e., the notions which they respectively express are so nearly allied that any of them may be employed without materially altering the sense. The Dative, however, and not
the Accusative,
is

used

Accusative, and not the Dative,
2)

when the preposition folloAvs a verb of existence the when the verb is transitive. The Examples (a,
;

show that the Genitive may be with

either.

3.

To, implying an intention (for, against).
iii.

Matt.

7

:

ipxofjievov^ eVl to pairTio-jxa, comiJig

for his baptism.

Mark

v.

21

:

aw^x^V ox\os
to

ttoXvs

eV

avrov,

a great midtitude

icas

gathered togetlier
So Luke

him.

xxiii. 48.

Matt. xxvi. 55
robber
4.
?

:

w?

eirl XT)<rTi?|v

l^rjXOarc

;

are ye come out as agaitist

a

Toicards, the direction of thought, feeling, speech.
vi.

Luke
2 Cor.

35

;

auro? XPl^"^^^

Icttlv eirl Tous dxapio-Tovs koI irovtipovs,

he

is

kiiid to the
ii.

unthanlfid and wicked
3
:

TreTrot^ws

eirl

iravras vfids,

having confidence with regard to

you

all.

Mark

ix.

12

:

yeypaTrrat

eirl

tov viov tov avOpioTrov,

it

is

written with

regard to the Son of man.
G-TrXayxyi^opiaL em tov ^x^o^j I have compassion on the This verb and preposition arc also found with the Dative (see ft 3); i.e., the compassion may be conceived as moving towards, or as resting on, the multitude, Luke vii. 13. The verb has also Trept (Gen.), concei^ned about the multitude, Matt. ix. 36.

Matt. XV. 32

:

multitude.

6.

Of number
iv.

or quantity, ujy
to

to.

Acts

17:

eirl irXciov,

a farther

point,

"any

further."

258
Rev. xxi. 16
stadia.
:

eV/,
tVl

WITH THE ACCUSATIVE
trraSCovs

irapd.
to

[§ 305.

SwScKa

x^^'-^iSov,

twelve

thousands of

Matt. XXV. 40,

etc.

:

€<|>'

So-ov,

inasmuch

as.

So

of time, as long as,

Matt.

ix. 15,

Rom.
for

vii. 1.

With numeral
iipdira^, once

adverbs, Acts x. 16,
all,

xi.

10.

So in the compound adverb,
vii. 27, ix.

at once (Rom.

vi.

10; 1 Cor. xv. 6; Heb.

12,

X. 10).

6.

Of time,
x.

over, during, on.

Luke Luke
Acts

35

:

cVl t^v ailpiov, in the course

of the moirow.

xviii.
xiii.

4
:

:

ovk yOeXrja-iv

cttI

xpovov, he

would not for a time.

31

uifjiOtj eirl T|)iepas

irXctovs,

he was seen during several days.
place, or time,

xvii.

So in the phrase, 35 ; Acts ii. 1
;

eTrt

to avrb, at the
).

same

"together" (Luke

1 Cor. vii. 5, etc.

306.
a.

irapd,

BESIDE (of juxtaposition).

With

the Genitive, "beside and proceeding from."
:

With persons only from,
imparted.

generally with the notion of something

Matt.

ii.

4

:

iTrvvOdvero trap' avrwv, he inquired of them.
:

Phil. iv. 18

Se^a/xci/os irop' 'E7ra<|>po8iTov

ra

-jrap' iijicov,

having received

of Epaphroditus the

tilings

from

you.

John xvi. 27 Compare John i.
Matt. xxi. 42
doing," from

:

irapd toS irarpos iirjXOov,
14.

I came forth from

the Father.

:

irapa Kvpiov eyeVcro avrrj, this

was from Jehovah

— "his

LXX.,
:

Ps. cxviii. 23.
irap'

Mark

iii.

21

ot

avroO,

those

from him,

i.e.,

from his home or

family, his friends.
p.
1.

With

the Dative, " beside and

at."

With, near, of persons only, except John xix. 25.
xiv. 1 7
X. 6
:

John
Acts

:

irap'

{i|iiv

/xeVct,

he remains

toith yo?i.

^€vi^€Tai irapd rivt SCp,«vi, he lodges

with one Simon.

John
2.

xix.

25

:

irapd t<3 o-ravpw,

near the
of.

cross.

With, in the estimation or power

§ 307.]

irapd,

WITH ACCUSATIVE
:

7r/>09,

WITH GENITIVE.
Sk

259

Matt. xix. 26

irapa dvOpwirois

..

dSvvaTov, irapd

0€« iravTa hwardy

with

men

. . .

impossible ; hut icith

God

all things are possible.

Rom.

ii.

13: SUaiOL irapd tw
16
:

0€(5, jtist

with God.

Rom.
y.
1.

xii.

(fypovLjxoi -rrop' lavrots,

wise in your oion esteem.
of."

With

the Accusative, " to or along the side
;

By, near, after verbs impl}aiig motion

also rest

by an extended

object, as the sea.

Matt.

xiii.

4
:

:

cTrccre

irapd rf|v 68dv, it fell along the way, or path.

Acts

iv.

35

^tlOovv irapd tovs irdSas twv ctTrocrToXojv, they laid

them at

the apostle^i^ feet.

Acts
2.

X.

6

:

<J

eo-Ttv oiKia irapd 0d\a<r(rav,

wliose house is
to.

by the seaside,

Beside, as not coinciding with, hence contrary
xviii. 1 3
i.
:

Acts

irapd vdp.ov, contrary to law.
4>v<riv,

Rom.
Rom.

26

:

irapd
:

contrary to nature.
contrary to hope.

iv.
i.

18
:

irap*

cXiriSa,

Rom.

25

irapd tov KTiVavra, instead,

of the

Creator

;

or

possibly,

rather than, as (3) (R.V.).
3.

Beside, with the notion of comparison, superiority, above.
xiii.

'^

Luke
Rom.
Heb.
these.
4.

2

:

d/xaproDAot irapd irdvxas, sinners above all.

xiv. 5

:

Kpiva 17/xepav

irap' T|p.€pav,

esteems

day above day,

i.e.,

one

above another.
ix.

23
i.

:

KpeLTToo-t

OvcrLaLs irapd ravras,

with better sacrifices than
13.

So

4, iii. 3, xi. 4, xii.

24

;

Luke

iii.

From

juxtaposition arises the notion of consequence,- in the phrase

irapd TovTo, 1 Cor. xii. 15, 16, therefore.

307.
a.

'"•pds,

TOWARDS.

With

Genitive, " hitherwards."
of,^

Belonging to the part or character

conducive

to,

in one instance

only—
See virep. The difference is, that vwep affirms superiority, comparison, and leaves the reader to infer superiority.
^

irapd

institutes

"

'

So in Latin, propter, because of, from prope, near. So in classical Greek, irpos /ca/coO oLvSpdi.

260

77/309,

WITH THE DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.
irpos rfjs ii|i€T€pos

[§ 307.
is

Acts xxvii. 34
for your health.
p.

:

tovto yap

orwrr]pias

vwdp^a^ for this

With
xix.

Dative, " resting in a direction towards."
bi/

Near^ hard


:

Luke
John
and

37

:

irpos ttJ Kardpacrci, close to the descent. irpos tt| Ovpq. I^w, close to the
rfj Ke4)aXT)

xviii.

16
:

door outside.
iroo-Cv,

eJohn XX. 12

eVa irpos

kol eVa irpos Tots

one at the head

the other at the feet.
i.

Rev.

13

:

irpos tois jxaorTois,

about the breast.

These are the only undoubted instances in the
Rev. Text add
y.
1.

New

Testament.

W. H. and

Mark

v. 11,

John

xx. 11, in the

same

sense.

With
xi.

the Accusative, "hitherwards."

Unto, of literal direction.

Matt.

28

:

Sevre irpds

(i€,

co7ne unto me.

Matt, xxiii. 34: aTroa-TeWo)

irpos v|i.ds 7r/30(/»;ra?,
<r€,

I send unto you prophets.
2

Luke

i.

1

9

:

Xakriaai irpos

to

speak unto

thee.

1 Cor. xiii.

12

:

TrpocnoTrov irpos irp6<rwirov,

face to face.

John 12

;

3 John 14.
2.

After

tlie

substantive verb {constructio prcegnans),
:

icith.

Matt.

xiii.
i.

56
:

ovxt iracrai irpos
tjv irpos ^

T|p.ds etcrt

;

are they not all loith us

?

John
3.

1

6

Aoyos

tov ©cbv,

the

Word was

with God.

Of mental
xxiii.

direction, toicards, ayainst.
:

Luke
1

12

€v

^xOpa

6vt€<s

irpos

lavroiis,

being in enmity towards

themselves ;

i.e.,

the one with the other.
:

Thess.
vi.

V.

14
:

fxaKpoOvfji€LT€ irpbs iravras, be long-suffering

towards

all.

Acts

1

yoyyvcr/xos irpbs tovs 'Eppaiovs,

a murmuring against

the

Hebrews.
Col.
ii.

23

:

ovk kv

Tt/xrJ ni/t irpbs

ir\iio-p,ovV

"^^ (rapK6s,not of any value

against the indulgence of thefiesh (R.V.).
4.

From

the general notion of

mental direction
of.

arises

(i)

that of

estimation or proportion, in consideration
Matt. xix. 8
:

irpbs t?|v o-KXi]poKap8£av

v/xwv,

in

consideration of the

hardness of your hearts.
^

Very

siffiiificant h(M"e as

implying mofi'ni and

life.

;

§

309.]

7r/J09,

WITJI THE ACCUSATIVE.

261

Luke

xii.

47

:

irpbs to eeXtijia avrov,

in consideration of (in accordance

with) his

will.
viii.

Rom.
umoorthy
revealed.
5.

18:

ovk

a^ta
...

.

.

.

Trpbs

t^v (AcXXovcrav 8o|av
(jlorij

a.TroKaXv(f>6rivai^

(of

thought)

in consideration of the

that

is to

he

Also

(ii.)

that of intention, in order

to,

especially

with the Infin-

itive
1 Cor. X. 1 1
:

iypdcfir] Se irpbs vovGccriav rjfxwVy

and they were

loritten

for

our admonition.
Matt.
vi.

1

:

irpbs rb 0€a0Tivai avrot?,

in order to he gazed at hy them.

ON THE INTERCHANGE OP CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS.
308. Although no two
prepositions are synonymous, they often

approach one another so nearly in meaning as to be apparently interchangeable. It is sometimes important to notice the distinction at other times it appears to be of little or no importance.
;

Yet it is always safer to look for a real diiference in meaning. Compare what has been said on the meaning of eTri in the government of the three cases.
(See also §289.)

Without entering

into over-refined or needless details,

it

will be

sufficient here to cite

some

of the

principal instances of real or

seeming interchange, with such brief explanations as may indicate the general principles on which these cases are to be judged.

309.
1.
Kttt

Bid,

with the Genitive,

is

especially subject to these alternations

of expression.

With

€K.

Rom.
and

iii.

30

:

cts

6 0€O9, os StKatwcrct TreptTO/x^v €k irCo-Tews,

oLKpo/Sva-Ttav 8td Tfjs irio-T€ws,

God

is one, ivho ivill

justify the circum-

cision hy faith,

the uncircumcision hy

the former case the source of the justification
in the latter, the means.
See also 2 Pet.
2.
iii.

means of the (same) faith. In is more distinctly marked

5, etc.

With

(XTTo.

Gal.

i.

1

:

na{iA.05 airoaroXo^ ovk

ctir*

dv0pwTr«v

oi'Se

8i*

dvOpwirov,

Paul au

ajpostie

neither (originally commissioned)

from men.

262

INTERCHANGE OF PREPOSITIONS.

[§ 309.

nor through (the intervention of) amj

man;

the latter particular being

added to show how absolutely independent his designation had been even of human instrumentaliti/. The ordination to the ministry, in
general, is dirb 0€ov, but
3.
8i' dvepci-rrwv.

With

iv.

2 Cor.

iii.

11:

ct

yap to KaTapyovjxevov
is

8id

8o|t]s,

ttoAAw

/AttXAov TO jjLivov €v 8o|t),

for if that which

being done
(i.e.,

away

(was) by

means of (through the intervention of) glory mucJi more that ivhich abideth (is) in glory.
Other instances are in Heb.
xi.

a glorious display),

Rom. iv. 11, where ev when, though in uncircumcision, he believed but 5i' aKpo^vcrrias being ruled by irKTrevovTuv, sets forth the possibility of men believing, through the state of uncircumcision, from age to age. Rom. v. 10. "For if, being enemies, we were reconciled to God through the (merits of the) death of his Son, much more we shall be saved by (his intercession, with the teaching of) his (resurrection) life." 1 John v. 6. In 1 CJor. i. 21
2 (compare with 39)
life
;

6.Kpo§v(TTia refers to
;

that period in Abraham's

the distinction

is

plain

:

in the wisdom of God,

i.e.,

according to the wise

appointment of Him who left mankind to make the effort, the world by (did) its wisdom, i.e., by the exercise of its reason, kiiew not God (including both failure and perversion).
4.

In Romans

xi.

36 the respective meaning of
things are

ex, 8ta, ets

(the starting8i'

point, the course, the goal), are finely
els

avrov ra iravTa,

all

marked from him as

:

€^

avrov Kal

avrov kol

their author, through

him

as their controller, to
See also 2 Cor.
i.

him
16.

as their end.

Eph.
xii.

iv.

6 presents a
irdtriv,

8id irdvTwv kol ev
8,
.

somewhat who is oveo"

dififerent antithesis

:

6

cirl

irdvrwv koI
all.

all
:

and through
of

all

and
.
.

in
.

1

Cor.

9,
. .

has another

combination

TTvcvfia

€v

Tw avrw

irvevjiari,

Spirit; the
the

word

of

wisdom is given through the knowledge according to the same Spirit; faith, in

— "the word

8id rov irveviiaros

Kara rh ainh

same Spirit": the Spirit bestowing the gift according to His own love and might, while He himself becomes the element of the Christian
life.

310.
Matt.

€K

and

dir<J
;

may sometimes be
o-vWcyovcnv
dirb

interchanged without injury to
is real.

the general sense
vii.

although the distinction

1

6

:

ixtJtl

dKavOwv
?

(rTa(f)v\d<s

;

surely they do

not gather hu7ic]u's (f grapes

from

off tlLorvx

.

§

312.]

INTERCHANGE OF PREPOSITIONS.
vi.

263
for they do not

Luke
Heb.
€K

44
2

:

ov yap

i^

dKavOwv

crvXXeyovcrt

arvKa,

gathei- figs out
vii.
:

of thoi'n-hushes.
hcKar-qv dirb irdvrwv,

a

tithe

of

all.

Yer. 4

:

Sckcitt/v

.

.

T«v dKpo0iv(«v, a tithe out of the spoils.
1

Thess.

ii.

6

:

ovt€ ^tjtovvtc'S c| dvOpwirwv So^ai/, ovtc

d<j)'

v\imv

ovt€

dir'

dWwv,

no?'

seeking glory

from men,

either of

you or of

others.

See also Jolin
^^

out of

B.

In these passages it is immaterial Avliether the phrase xi. 1. thing" or ^^from a thing" be employed; but in the follo^^•ing there is
:

an evident distinction

John vii. 42 in tov and from Bethlehem.
:

(rv^pfMaroi Aaj3i'5 Kai dfro BrjOXe^/jL, out of the seed of

David

2 Cor.

ill.

5

:

ovx

6'Tt d<p'

iain-cSv iKauoi ea/xev
to

Xoyiaaadai

ti

ws i^ airnav, not that

we

are sufficient of ourselves

think anything as from ourselves.

311.

€v is
ii.
:

occasionally interchanged with a simple Dative.

So
Eph.

Col.
ii.

13:

v€Kpo\

ev^ tois irapairTwuao-i,

1

viKpoX tois irapairTwjjLaon.
;

So Matt.
:

vii.

dead in transgressions; 2 ev w (i^Tpo) fxerpeLTCy
:

in lohat measure ye mete

measure ye mete.
water
i.

Luke vi. 38 <^ yap Again, Luke iii. 16: iiSan
16; but

(iCTpa)

yLicrpetre,

with

u-liat

/JaTrrt^o),

/

baptise
iii.

with

; so

Acts

i.

5, xi.

ev iihan, in water,

Matt.

11

;

John

26, 33.

The expressions
eV

are evidently equivalent,

however the act be

understood.

The opposites
Thus, Matthew
the Lord thy
heart
;

and
in

e/c

may

(xxii. 37) gives
{ev) all

God
by

in some cases be used in the same connection. "the great commandment" as, Thou shalt love thy heart, etc. Mark (xii. 30), out of (e^) all thy
;

the love being regarded in one case as abiding in the heart, in the other
it.

as manifested

The LXX. (Deut.

vi. 5)

has

i^,

312. cU may
1.
T-^s

often be interchanged with other forms of expression.

With

TTpos.

Rom.
171

iii.

25:

els

2v8€i|iv

.

.

.

ver.

26:

irpos

ttiv

^vSci^iv

StKaLoavvrjs avrov,

order to the manifestation... tending to the mani^

festatyjn of his righteousness.

The former expression
still

refers to a com-

pleted manifestation, the latter to one

in progress.
Kvpiov 'Itio-oCv

Philemon,
1

ver.

5

:

" thy love

and thy

faith," irpos- tov

^

But W. H. omit iv. W. H. read ets with

wpos marg.

The

similarity of

meaning between

different

prepositions has occasioned

many various

readings, transcribers having caught at the

general sense without noting the finer shades of meaning.

264
Kol ds
sainf.^.

INTERCHANGE OF PREPOSITIONS.
irdvTas

[§ 312.
all

rovs

ayCovs,

towards the Lord Jems and unto

the

it is

This seems nothing more than a variation in expression, although by some explained on the principle of reverted parallelism

"thy

love
faith

and thy and
i.e.,

towards the Lord Jesus
to all the saints,"

love to the saints,

and

faith towards the

Lord Jesus.

2.

AVitli eVt.

These instances are very frequent, and need no special

remark.
Matt. xxiv. 16
tains.
:

(f>€vyeTO)crav

eirl^ to. opi], let

them
<{pt],

flee

up

to the 7)ioun-

Mark
iii.

xiii.

14

:

</)€vyera)o-ai/

ds

to,

let

them

flee into

the

mountains.

Rom.
" so
3.

22:

hLKaioorvvrj

0cov...

els

Travras

/cat

eirl

iravras- rov<i

ttlct-

revovra^, the righteousness of

God

unto all and upon all wIlo

believe, i.e.,

communicated

to as to

abide up)on."

Interchanged with a simple Dative.
V.

Matt.

21,

22:

tvo^o<i
...

rfj

Kpio-ct

.

.

.

€i^o;(0?

els

ti'*|v

•y^cvvav

tov irvpo^,

liable to the judf/ment
flre.

liable to

(up to the point of) the Gehenna of

Rom.
eXaiq.,

xi.

24:

iv€KevTpi(Tdr]<; els

KaWiiKaiov

.

.

.

iyKcvrpLcrOrjcrovTaL t^

iSCa,

thou wast grafted into a good olive tree

.

. .

they shall be grafted on

their oivn olive.
4. The remarkable phrase, 2 Cor. iv. 17, in wliicli et? is combined with Kara in one rhetorical expression, claims a reference here Ka0' vireppoXriv els vireppoXTjv, A.V., "far more exceeding," R.Y., "more and
:

more exceedingly," literally, according unto an abundance (to the realisation
5.

to

abundance (on a scale of vastness) of that which is immeasurable).
iv,

The many

instances in which eU seems to be used for

and
18,

vice

versa,

may

be explained by constructio prcegnans.
are
i.

(See § 295, 8.)
:

The
com16,

two prepositions
pared with

Mark

16

found in the same connection Matt. iv. Mark xi. 8, with Matt. xxi. 8 ; Mark ;

xiii.

with Matt. xxiv.

18.

^

"

W. H. e^s with W. H. omit Koi

lirl iirl

marg.
irdvTai.

— —
§ 314.]

IXTEKCHANGE OF PEEPOSITIONS.
-n-epi,

265

313.
For

about (with Genitive),

may be
e.g.

definite preposition,
1.

and the converse,

substituted for a more

8ia (with Accusative).
Ifik

John

x.

32

:

our Lord asks, 8id

irotov

avrCiv 2p7ov

Xi^a^ere
:

;

for

u'hirTi
^p-yov

work of

these

do ye stone me

?

The

answer is, ver. 33 for a good icork
2.

irepl

koXov

ov XiBai^o^iv ae

oAAa

ircpl

pXaar(j>T]|ilas,

ice stone

thee not, hut for hiasphemy.
vTrep

For

virip.

See under

and

Trepi, §^

302, 303.

Verbs signifying prayer, thanksgiving, etc., may be followed by either indifi'erently. / pray about you, irept, "you are the subject of my
prayers ;"
prayers."
or,

/

j^i'ay

for you,

imip, "

your welfare

is

the object of ray

So in the many passages in respect of the death of Christ, which theoIn some, as in Gal. i. 4, the logical inquirers will do well to examine. reading of good MSS. varies between imip and irepC.

314.
repeated

A

Preposition governing several words in one regimen

is

before

them

is to

each of them if a distinction, severally, between be marked; but if they are combined in one notion,
is

the preposition
This rule
is

not repeated.
(§ 232).

analogous to that respecting the repetition of the article

Yet the

article is often repeated

where the preposition

is

not.

Thus with the repeated preposition
Matt. xxii. 37
rrj SiavoLCL crov,
:

ev oXrj

KapSta

crov,

kol €V

oA.7y

rrj

^v)(y

crov,

kol cv 0X17

with all thy heart,

and

icith all

thy soid, and
311, note).
(ciTro)
;

ivith all

thy

undei'standinri.

Compare Mark
see

xii.
vi.

30

(e^, see §
;

For other instances,
{iv)
;

Mark

4 (ev)

Luke

xxiv. 27

1

Thess.

i.

5

John

xx. 2

[irpbs), etc.

With
John
iii.

the preposition not repeated
iv.

23

:

cv Trvev/xart kol aXyjOeia, in sjnrit

mind, 'viewed under a twofold aspect.
5, ii

In

vSarog kol Trveu/xaros, of one spiritual

and tmth, one state of manner we interpret baptism, not of two things
like
11.
Phil.
i.

(as the

outward and the inward).

So Matt.

iii.

For other instances, see Luke xxi. 26
frequently with proper names
vi. 9, etc.

(diro);

15 (Sia); and very
as
Phil.
i.

when

closely

connected,

2,

Acts

266

IJ^TERCHANGE OF PREPOSITIONS.
the nouns after the preposition are connected
(vr,

[§ 314.

Where
junctive

by the
ttoio)

dis-

the preposition

is

always repeated;
:

as also
rj

where they
ovo/xart

stand in antithesis.
€7roLT](raT€

Acts
in

iv.

7

cv

ttolo.

Svvd/xeL

ev

tovto

v/jl€l<s;

icliat

power or in what name did ye this?
la-rivy

John
that
is

vii.

22

:

ovx

on

ck tov Mtovcrea)?

dX\' €k twi/ TraTcpcDV, not

it is from Moses, but from the fathers. But where the antithesis formed by two adjectives agreeing with the same noun, the preposition need not be repeated. 1 Pet. i. 23 ovk Ik o-7ropas <ji0aprrrj<;, aXKh. onfiOdprov,
:

not of corruptible^ but of incorruptible seed.

Note ox Vekbs compounded with Prepositions.
For the general meaning of the Prepositions
cases the preposition has a simple
in composition, see § 147.

In most

notion, the preposition indicates originally

and evident force. The verb contains the general some space relation (§§ 124, 288) the
;

compound verb
relation.

expresses the general verbal notion limited to that definite space

Thus,

^pxofxai, to

come ;

e'KripxofJuii, to

come

in, enter.

/SatVw, to go

;

Trapa^aiuu,

to

go beside, transgress.

x^'-P^, ^o rejoice; ffvyxclpoj, to rejoice with.

The prepositions d-jro, e/c, /card have often an intensive force. As to tlie cases after compound verbs (1) the Preposition may blend
:

so intimately
;

with the verb as to form a practically simple transitive verb governing the Accusative or (2) the Preposition may retain its distinct prepositional force, when the verb
(a) is followed

meaning

;

(c)

by the same preposition (6) is followed by a preposition of kindred is not followed by a preposition, but governs the case appropriate.
;

Examples

:

1.

axoSidu/xi, to give
didcofii

away from
iiri

one's self, bestow,

pay back

;

followed

like the simple
2.

by

ace. of thing, dat. of person.
riva, to lay (hands) upon.

(a)

iiripdWu) (ras x^'pas)

Matt. xxvi. 50.

(b) iKjSdWo} diro rivos, to cast out

from,

]\Iark xvi. 9

;

Acts

xiii.

50 (gene-

rally with
(c)

e/c).

(TVfx^dWw

Tivi, to

dispute with. Acts xvii. 18.

The usage

of particular verbs

must be gathered by observation.


§ 316.]

ADJECTIVES

— CONCOED.

267

Chapter IV.
315.
agree
Adjectives,

ADJECTIVES.
and Adjective Pronouns, Gender, Number, and Case

as

also

Participles
in

with

their

Substantives

(according to the Second Concord, § 178).

An

adjective

may be an

Epithet (attribute) or a Predicate, the rule
as predicate, see §§

applying in both cases.

For the adjective

178-180.

stantive

316. Where the reference of the Adjective Compare § 199. is often omitted.
xi.

is

plain, the

Sub-

Matt.

5

:

tv<J)\oI

dvafi\e7rov(TLV kol \(a\ol TrepLTraTOvartv, XcTrpol KaOa-

pi^ovrai KOL

K<t)^oi olkovovctlv,

kol vcKpol iyeipovraL kol tttwxoI cvayyeAi^ovrai

*

blind (men) are restored to sight
cleansed

and deaf (men)
V.

hear^

and lame (men) icalk, lep'ous (men) are and dead (men) are r'aised and destitute
to them.

(men) have glad tidings brought

Rom.
Ta^a
die,
1

7

:

/xoAts

yap

vn-cp SiKaCov rts aTroOavcLTaL

vTrcp

yap tov

d'yaOov

Tis KOL ToXfjia aTroOaveiv for scarcely for a righteous (man) will one for on behalf of the good (man) one pei'chance even dares to die.

Cor.

ii.

13

:

irveuiiaTiKois
i.e.,

irvcviiaTiKot

arvyKpCvovTcs,

putting together

spirituals tcith spirituals,

"attaching spiritual words to spiritual
or,

things " (Alford) ; or, "interpreting spiritual things by spiritual;" " explaining spiritual things to spiritual men" (Stanley, R.V. marg.) ; " adapting spiritual language to spiritual matters " (Beza).

or,

The

last

example shows how an occasional ambiguity will

arise.

In general,

however, the application of the adjective will be perfectly plain.

Among
tively, are
X€tp,
yrj,

the

substantives most

frequently omitted after Adjectives,

beside the words for man, tvoman, thing, with the three genders respec-

the following
t|

hand, as
t|

Sella,

"the

right."
etc.).

land, as

oIkovjicvt],

the inhabited, "the world" (Rom. x. 18,
" on the morrow."
ij'vxpou,

rjfjLipa,

day, as

ttj lirtovo-T],

v8tup, watei', as iroTTipiov

" a

cup of cold

"

(Matt. x. 42

;

com-

pare James

iii.

11.)

268
Acts xix. 35
is

ADJECTIVES

—CONCORD.

[§ 316.

peculiar: tov Aiottctovs, of that which fell

from Zeus:
?.e.,

not "an image,"

probably a great meteoric stone.

For the neuter article, especially, as substantivising the Adjective, making it an abstract noun, see § 199.
Matt.
chap.
" the
V.

vi.

13:
;

pv<jai

r]/xa<s

a-n-b

tov iroviipoO, deliver us

from

evil.

So

37, 39

John
In
;

xvii. 15.^
1

Some with
13,

less appropriateness

render

evil one."

certainly masculine

in

John ii. Rom. xii.

14, the adjective (Accusative) is
;

9 (Accusative), certainly neuter

but

as the Genitive
vi.

16

;

and Dative of both genders are alike, passages like Eph. 2 Thess. iii. 3 1 John iii. 12, v. 19, can only be determined by
;

the context.
Ill

Matt. xix. 17 the best editors (W. H.) concur in the remarkable reading,
epojTas irepl rod

Tt

fie

dyadov

;

ivhy askcst thou

good? (R.V.) instead of why
xviii.

callest

thou

me concerning mc good? In Mark x.

that
18,

ivhich is

and Luke

19,

the received reading stands without any variation.

317. The number and gender of adjectives, participles, and pronouns are often determined (according to Sj-nesis, or Rational Concord) Compare by the sense rather than the form of their substantives.

^

1T5, 179.

Acts

iii.

11

:

crvveSpafxe Tras

6 Xabs

.

.

.

^K0a[ipoi,

all

the iwople ran

to-

gether, greatly vondering.

Acts

V.

16

:

o-DviypxeTo

.

.

.

TO TrX-qOos

.

.

.

<})€povT€s, K.T.A..,

the multitude rariie

togethe?', bringing, etc.

So Luke

xix. 37, etc.
. .

Eph.

iv. 17,

18: rd
. . .

^9vtj Tre/otTraTei

.

€o-KOTwjt€voi

.

.

.

6vt€s, dTn^XXoTpitoji^voi,

the Gentiles walk

hei7ig

darkened, estranged.

Luke
Rev.
saying.

ii.

13

:

ttXtjOo^ o-Tpands ovpaviov, alvovvrwv tov

®€ov koL XrydvTwv,

a imdtitude of a heavenly
xi.

host,

praising
/xeyaXai
. .

God and
.

saying.
there
iL'ere

15

:

eyeVovTo

<})wval

Xc'yovtcs,-

great voices,

In Matt.

xxi. 42, irapa Kvpiov iyevero avr-q Kal ^art OavfiaaT'fi, this (thing)
is

from
^

the

Lord, and

ivonderfid, the feminine gender

is

to be explained

was by the

The R.V.

in every instance takes the adjective as
tliat is evil)

masc, rendering tM

evil one

(Matt. V. 39, hivi

with

evil in

marg.

Matt.

vi. 13, see

pamphlet by Canon Cook On

For a discussion of the phrase in the Revised Version of the Lord's

Prayer.
'^

W.

H., Rev. Text (Received Text, X^yovaaC).

§ 319.]
Hebrew idiom.

ADJECTIVES

—CONCORD.

269
for

That language, having no neuter, employs the feminine See Ps. cxviii, 23 (LXX., cxvii.). abstract notions.
For Synesis with Pronouns, see §§ 335, 345.

318. An Adjective referring to two or more substantives, if an commonly agrees with the nearest, or is repeated before each if a predicate, is properly in the plural number, and follows
epithet,
;

the rule, § 179.

Luke
James
evefi'y

X. 1

:

eh

irdo-av ttoXlv

koI tottov, info every city

and place
every good

(dif-

ferent genders, agreeing with nearest).
i.

17

:

irao-a Sdcrts ojyaOiq koI irdv S<jiiprjjxa reXetov,

and

-perfect

yift.

So Mark

xiii.

1

;

Acts

iv.

7 (difierent

genders,

repeated).

Matt.

ix.

35

:

OepaTreviDV irao-av voarov kol irdo-av fxaXaKcav, healing every

(kind of) disease and every (kind of) infirmity (same gender, repeated). Matt.
iv.

24

:

iroiKCXais vocrois

koX ^ao-ctvot?, loith

divers diseases

and

torments (same gender, not repeated).

When

two adjectives stand as epithets
other."
:

generally stands between them.

"many and
John

This rule,
fxev

to one substantive, a conjunction Thus, for "many other," the Greeks say, however, is not invariable in the New Testament.

XX. 30
:

iroWa

ovv Ka\

dWa

arj/xeia,

many

otlier

signs Oierefore.

Acts XXV. 7

TToXXa koX /3apea aiTijofiara, inan,y heavy charges.
iii.

See also Luke

18

;

and on the contrary. Acts xv. 35 (substantive omitted).
is

319.

An
iv.

Adjective

often

employed

in

Greek

where

the

English idiom requires an Adverb.

Mark
neously.

28

:

avro|j.drr)

-q

yrj Kap7ro<^opet,

the earth yields fruit sponta-

Luke ii. 2 avrrj a7roypa<f>rj irpwrq first made^ (compare John xx. -i).
:

eyeVcTO, k.t.X., this enrolment

was

For the adverbial use of adjective forms, see
^

§

126.

Other translations have been proposed to escape the chronological difficulty. Thus, "the enrolment lirst took effect, when," etc., it having been originated some yeai's before or *' the enrolment icas made before Quirinus was governor " (compare
;

wpuTos

of Quirinus

i. 15). But Dr. Zumpt has recently shown the gi'eat probability having been governor of Syria at this early date, as well as a.d. 6, on the deposition of Archelaus. (See Smith's " Dictionary of the Bible," Art. " Cyrenius.") R.V. renders "this was the first enrolment made when Quirinus was

fjiov,

John

governor of Syria."

270

ADJECTIVES

— COMPARISON.

[§ 320.

THE DEGBEES OP COMPARISON.
The Comparative.

320. An

Adjective in the Comparative degree usually takes the

object of comparison in the Genitive case.

In English the con-

junction than
See
§

is

to be supplied.

253, with observations and examples.

The

object, as expressed

by the Genitive, sometimes corresponds, not

with the precise subject of the comparison, but with the general notion
of the sentence.

Matt.
lit,,

V.

20
36

:

irXciov

t«v YpajifiaTcW koX #api<ratwv (your righteousness),

more than
V.
:

the scribes

and

Pharisees.
[lelt^
toi)

John
have
1 is

cyw 8c c^w

rrjv fiaprvptav

'Iwdvvov, the witness 1

greater than John.
i.

Cor.

25

:

to

fJLOipOV

TOV ©COV

0-O(f>(OT6pOV

TWV dvOpwiTWV

eCTTt, K.T.X.,

the

foolishness of

God

is

wiser than men,

etc.

The beginner must beware of translating these genitives as possessives "than John's (testigoverned by an understood object of the comparative mony)," "than men's (wisdom)," etc. This the construction will not admit. God's foolishness is The form of expression is one of the utmost generality wiser," not only than men's wisdom, but " than men " themselves, with all that they are or can do. So of the other passages,^
:

*

:

'

'

'

321.
parison.

The comparative

particle

%

than,

may

also be employed;

the object then being in the same case with the subject of com-

Luke
no more

ix.

13: ovk

€l(rlv rj/juv irXetov

^ aproL 7r€VT€ koX t;(^ves 8vo, ive have

than five loaves
5
:

and two

fishes.

1 Cor. xiv.

licl^uv 6

7rpocf>rjT€v(i)v

^ 6 XaXwv yXwcrcrat?, greater is he
tongues.

who

pi'ophesies than he
is

who speaks with
employed

This particle
fiaWov, more.

specially

(1) after the comparative

adverb

Acts

iv.

19

:

v/xoiv

olkovhv |iaXXov

'f\

tov ©ecu, to hear you rather than

God.
^

Winer,

§

xxxv.

5,

f

§ 321.]

ADJECTR'EvS

—COMPARISON.
(ij-rrep),

271

It may be hardly necessary to remind the learner that GeoG is in the Genitive, not because it is the object of comparison, but because coupled by ^ with vfiwv, Gen. after aKoveiv, by § 249, a.

So

;Matt. xviii.

13

;

John

xii.

43

etc.

fiaXKov

ij

may

connect two
is

Tim. iii. 4, where a Greek classical idiom, of which there instance in the New Testament, would have admitted two comparatives.
adjectives, as 2

no

(2)

WTien the object
xiii. 1 1
:

of comparison is a clause.
. . .

Rom.
ichen

ffyvrepov

^^

8t6 eirio-Tevo-ajiev,

nearer (our salvation) than

we

believed.

(3) ^\Tien a
its object.

comparative governs, as an adjective, words other than

Matt.
be

X.

15: dvcKTorcpov

lo'Tttt yrj

SoSd/xcov

.

.

.

i^

tt)

WXct

cK€£vt|, it

shall

more
After

tolerable

for the land of Sodom (Dative, by
more^ and IXdTTwv, eXarTov,

§

279) than for that

city.
irXcfwv, TrActov,
less^

the particle

may

be omitted before numerals. Acts xxiv. 11
:

ov irXcCovs

ilcrL fxot

iwUpai 8d>S€Ka, k.t.X.,
iv.

lit.,

there are to

me no more days
Matt. xxvi. 53

(than) twelve.
:

So

22, xxiii. 13.

irXeCw

SwScKa Xryidivas, more than twelve legions.
^.

In some of these passages the Received Text has

A

peculiar

comparative

is

occasionally

made by

jidXXov

after

the

positive.

Mark
to give

ix.

42
:

:

koXov

Icttlv avrio jidXXov, k.t.X., it is better
i^

for him.

Acts XX. 35 than

(uiKdpidv iarrt (idXXov 8i8oVat

Xafi/Sdveiv, it is

more

blessed

to receive.
is

Sometimes ^aXXov
Matt,
xviii. 8, 9
:

omitted.
croi
...

KaXov

Icrnv ilcTiXOiiv
Ut.,

...

'^

...

pX-qOrivai, it is better
...

for thee to enter

...

than

to he cast',

"

it is

good

rather than."

So Mark

ix.

43-47.
§

Compare

also

Luke

xviii.

14 (rec, but

W.

H. read

Trap* iKilvov

Hence
or verb.

306, y, 3). ; also a comparative notion

may be
irrl

expressed by ^ after a noun

Luke
.
.

XV. 7
. . .

:

x^^Lpo, ... k-rrl

hi

...

^

evcvT/Kovra cwca, there shall be joy

.

over one

(rather)
:

than over ninety-nine.
.

Luke xvii. 2 Xuo-ltcXci avrw him ... (rather) than that he should
.
.

•i^

Tva crKarSaAtcrry,
offend.

it

is

profitable for

272
1

ADJECTIVES
Cor. xiv.
1

—COMPAKISON.
tw

[§ 321.
Xoyovs
.
.

9

:

GeXw TreWe \6yovs

vol /xov XaXrjaai ...^ /xvptov^

iv yXcotro-T/,

/ would

(rather) speak Jive words with

my

understanding

than ten thousand loords in a tongue.

322. For

the Comparative as strengthened by the prepositions

v-n-ip

and Trapa, see §§ 303, 306. Other emphatic modes of comparison

are specified, § 47.

323.
a.

A

Comparative

is

often

found without

any

expressed

object of comparison.

The

object

may be

supplied by the context, as Acts xviii. 26

:

dKpi-

P€crT€pov arrru)

iiiOevTO rrjv bSov tov ©eov, thei/ expounded to
accurately,
xix. 11
;

him

the

way
28;
4.

of

God more
ii.

i.e.,

than he had known
xv.

it

before (ver. 25).

Compare John
Heb.
1, etc.

Eom.

15;

1

Cor.

xii.

31

;

Phil.
;

ii.
i.

So

in correlative expressions,

Rom.

ix.

12

Heb.

Comparative may be a familiar phrase, as ot irXeCoves, the b. ;" 1 Cor. xv. 6 ; 2 Cor. ii. 6 (R.V., " the many majority, Acts xix. 32

The

;

A. v.,
c.

wrongly, "many"),
object
is

etc.

The

to

be supplied mentally, according to the general sense
apa

of the passage.^

Matt, xviii.
then (of us)
is

1

:

rtg

ixcL^wv

iorrlv

iv rfj /Jao-tXcia

twv ovpavoiv
?

;

who
be

greater (than the rest) in the
;

kingdom of heaven
"
lie

So Markix. 34
he that
i.e.,

Luke
less

ix. 46, xxii. 24.

In Matt.

xi. 11, 6 /juKporepos
is

may

rendered, he that is
is

than all

others, i.e.,

that

least," as

A.V. (R.V.,

but

little),

or he that is less than

John

(in

fame and outward honour),
i.

Christ himself; the sentiment being that of John

15.-

The following examples
tive
:

further illustrate this usage of the compara-

John
Acts

xiii.

27

:

that thou doest^

do more

quickly, rdxiov,

i.e.,

than thou

seemest disposed to do.
xvii.

the last

hear sortie neicer thing, n they had heard, " the later news." things that
21
:

to tell or to

Kaivorcpov,

than

Acts xvii. 22: ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are more addicted to loorship, 8€io-i8ai|iov€(rTepovs, i.e., than heathen nations
^

-

See Winer, § 35, 4. This latter is the interpretation of
critics.

many

of the Fathers, but

is

disallowed by

most modern

(Sec Alford's note.)

§ 324.]

ADJECTIVES

—COMPARISON.

273

generally (not merely, like them, worshipping recognised deities, but even the " unknown ").i

Acts xxiv. 22

:

the matters

pertaming

to the wai/ (the Christian doc.

trine) inore accurate!//, dKptpto-Tcpov,

than to need detailed information.

Acts XXV. 10
better,

:

to the Jeics

I have done no wrong, as
So 2 Tim.
i.

also thou knoicest

koXXiov,

than thou choosest to confess.

Alford compares our

current phrase, to

know

better.

18, better
do-<rov

even than I do.
TrapeXeyovro
tijv

Acts xxvii. 13
KprjTTjVy
i.e.,

:

they steered closer by
;

Crete,

than they had done before
259.

ver. 8.

On
its

Eph.
i.

iv. 9, see §
:

Phil.

12

rather, |xdXXov, /or the furtherance of the gospel than for

hindrance as
1

we

feared.
to

come unto thee more quicMy, raxtov, than to make such injunctions needful. (W. H.,cv raxn.) Comp. Heb. xiii. 19, 23. 2 Tim. i. 17: he sought me out more diligently, cnrovSaioTcpov, than if I
Tim.
iii.

14: hoping

had not been in
2 Pet.
i.

captivity.

(W.

H., a-TrovBaiws.)

19

:

kol l)(0^€v pePaiorepov rov TrpotfirjTLKOv \6yov,
i.e.,

have more sure the prophetic ward,

its

confidence even than before, testimony " upon the holy mount."
2 Pet.
ii.

lit., and v:e we hold that word with a surer inasmuch as we received a confirmation of

11

:

angels which are greater in 'power

and might,

neL^oves,

either greater than other angels, ^ as the archangel,

Jude

9, or (with

more

probability) greater than these presumptuous, self-willed men.^
the above explanations it Avill be seen that the Comparative in such cases not to be explained as "put for the Superlative," or as expressing the notions of " too " or " very," but retains its true and proper force.
is

From

Tlie Superlative.

324. The Superlative denotes the highest quality of any kind, and may be used when the objects of comparison are not explijcitly
intimated.
2 Pet.
i.

4

:

to.

TLfua kol (ifywrra eVayycX/iara, the precious

and

greatest

promises, or as A.Y. happily, "exceeding great and precious.""*
^

"Too

superstitious," therefore, misses the true

meaning both

of the

word and

the grammatical form;
2

R.Y. has

scnncivJuit superstiticms
3

(marg. religious).
etc.

Huther.

Winer, Alford, R.Y.,

*

R.Y.

{his precious

and exceeding

great promises) well renders the force of the

article,

but unnecessarily transposes the adjectives.

T

274
Ill

ADJECTIVES

—THE

SUPERLATIVE.

[§ 324.

Luke

i.

3

we read

Kpario-rc 0€o<^tA.€,
title is

most excellent Theox)hilus ; in

Acts

xxiii. 26, xxiv. 3,

the same

applied to Felix, and in xxvi. 25
of rank.

to Festus.

It

was simply a designation
the

325. For
§ 262.
xii.

Superlative followed
is

by a

partitive Genitive, see

An

emphatic Superlative

made by

the addition of irdvrwv,

Mark

28, the first

commandment of
tis

all (not iracroiv, as

Received Text).
in as great

The

particle

(JJn,

6irws),

with a Superlative, means "
15
:

a degree as possible."

Acts

xvii.

Xva ws

T6.\\.frro.

IkOma-i irpos avrov,

ihat they would come unto

him as
7rpioTo<;,

speedily as ])ossihle.

326. The
Acts
i.

Superlative

firsts

may be used where but two
the first (former) treatise
x. 9.
i.

things are compared.
1
:

Toi/ jxkv

irpwTov
;

koyov

liroL-qcra^yjv^
;^

I

made.

So John

xix. 32

1

Cor. xiv. 30

Heb.

So the expression
before you, xv. 18.

irpwrds /aou, before me^

John

15,

30

;

irpwros

{in<3v,

The

Genitive
ii.

is

analogous to the Genitive after the

Comparative.

On Luke

2 see note, § 319.
are

327. In Hebrew
Superlative
:

(i.)

by the use of the preposition
;2

simple adjective, as
strongest of beasts

two principal ways of expressing the in^ among, after tlie Prov. xxx. 30, a lion, strong among beasts, i.e., the (ii.) by the repetition of an adjective or noun in the
there

Genitive relation, as in the

common

appellation of the holiest part of the
ix.

Temple, the holy of
utterly enslaved.^

holies^

and Gen.

25,

a servant of

servants,

i.e.,

The
i.

New

Testament has instances of both these idioms
oru

:

(i.)
i.e.,

Luke
most
Tim.
1

42

:

6vXoYTi|i4ni
(ii.)

\v

yvva.\iji,

blessed art thou

among
holies.

v)omen,

blessed,
vi.

Heb.

ix.

3

:

d-yia

d^Uv, the holy of

Compare

15

;

Rev. xix. 16.
is

Neither of these constructions
occurrence in the
1

confined to the Hebrew, althougli their
fairly

New

Testament may

be assigned to Hebrew influence.
be,

But perhaps here the mental comparison might

net simply with

tlie

second

speaker, but with the rest of the assembly.
2

Compare the use
There
is

of a

Hebrew

preposition to give the force of the comparative

(§ 253).
3

yet a third method,
ix. 24, his son, the

i.e.,

the emphatic use of the adjective with the
his youngest.

I

article, as

Gen.

no example

of this in t\\Q

New

young, i.e., Testament, though see Luke

But perhaps there

is

x. 42,


§ 327.]
ADJECTIVES

—THE

NUMERALS.

275

Other so-called Hebraisms must be rejected.^ Thus, Acts vii. 20, darelos r^j QecS, must not be rendered, as in A.Y., R.Y., "exceeding fair," but beautiful Much less must the Divine name be taken as giving a heforc God, in His eyes. Col. iL 19 simple superlative force in such passages as Luke i. 15; 2 Cor. i. 12 Rev. XV. 2, etc,
;
;

NUMERALS.
the following
i.

328. The Cardinal ways
:

ds,

besides

its

ordinary use,

is

employed in

As an

indefinite pronoun, ^ nearly equal to rt?.

Matt.

viii.

19

:

cts

ypa/x/xarcvs ctTrev avrcp,

a
4

scribe said to him.

Matt. xxvi. 69
servant.

:

irpoo-rjXOev avT<2 ^£a TraLSia-Krjy there

came

to

him a maidev.)

John

vi.

9

:

lo-rt

TraiSapLov tv wSc, there is
;

a lad
;

here.

(W. H. omit

So Matt, xviii. 24, xix. 16 Mark x. 17, xii. 42 Rev. viii. 13, etc. Often with a Genitive following, as Matt. xvi. 14 Mark v. 22. Sometimes with e/c, Occasionally, eh ns combined, as Luke xxii, 50. as Matt. xxii. 35, xxvii. 48.
;

ii.

For the

correlatives, one

. . .

the othe)\ cts is

sometimes employed in
e^ rucuvv/xwv

both clauses.
Matt. XX. 21
thy Hght hand,
;

Mark
and

x.

37

:

cts

Ik Sc^twv koX
left.
;

ets

crov,

one on

the other on thy
;

Matt. xxiv. 40, xxvii. 38

John

xx. 12

Gal. iv. 22.

But
;

5\Xoj, ^repos, are
1 0.

more frequently used
iii.

in the second clause, as Matt. vi. 24

Rev. xvii.

For not one

(ovSci'?, /A'/ySct'?),

the

New
. . .

the

Hebrew

idiom, sometimes say one

Testament writers, following not, combining the negative
not

with the predicate.
Matt. X. 29
:

tv

i^ avrwv ov
fall.

TrccrctTac,

one of the7n shall not fall,
;

i.e.,

one of them shall

So chap.

v.

18

Luke

xii. 6.

But the adjective
expressions.

Tra?, every, is still

Thus, " everything
:

is

more frequently employed not ..." means " nothing is."
irdv
prj/j-a,

in such

Luke

i.

37

ovk aSwarrja-eL trapa

tw ©cu^

everything shall not

he impossible loith

God,

i.e.,

nothing shall be impossible.

^

See Winer and others.

^

The

"one."
'

indefinite article in the European languages is but a form of the numeral say " a or an ; " we should rather say " an or a," the longer being the

We

original form,

and an

=

Scottish ane

W. H.

read rod GeoD.

= oiu. So French, un ; German, dn, So R.V., tw woi'd from God shall he void of power^

etc.

276
So Matt. xxiv. 22
20
;

ADJECTIVES
;

—THE
John
ii.

NUMERALS.
iii.

[§ 328.
;

Mark
ii.
^^

xiii.
;

20; John
1

1

Cor.

i.

29

;

Gal.
;

16

frequent in

Hebrew
a7iy.''

forget not
ov
ttSs

"forget not
not all.
colter.

But when
vii. 21, ov

Rom. iii. The idiom is all his bemfits " (Ps. ciii. 2) of course means is connected with 7ra5, the meaning is simply
15, 16, vi. 39,xii. 46

21

;

Rev.

xviii.

22.

So Matt.

6 Xeyu}^

...
.

eiaeXeOarerai, not every one
.

...

shall

Had the reading been irds 6 meant "no one ... shall enter." See
ov xavres vir-qKovaav, not all obeyed.
**

\eyuv
]\Iatt.

.

ovk

elaeXeucreTai,
1 Cor. xv.

it
;

would have

xix. 11;

39

Rom.

x.

16:

iravres

ovx virrjKovaau would have been

they

all

disobeyed."
7rpu)To<?,

iv.

Instead of the ordinal
first

the cardinal

ct? is

used in the design-

ation of the

day of the week (another Hebraism).
1
:

Matt, xxviii.
week.

ctg

jiCav

o-ajBpaTwv,

lit.,

toioards the

day one of
19

the

So Mark
XX. 7
;

xvi.

2 (but ver. 9,

TrpojTri)
iii.

;

Luke

xxiv. 1

;

John xx.

1,

;

Acts

1 Cor. xvi. 2.

In Titus

10

;

Rev.

vi. 1, 3, ix. 12,

we find

one

and the

second as correlatives.

329. The
adverhiallyj

particles ws,

wo-cC, irov,

about, etc., are used with numerals
case.

i.e.,

without affecting the

Matt. xiv. 21

;

Mark

v.

13

;

Rom.

iv. 19, etc.

So with

cirdvo),

above,

which in other connections

is

followed by a Genitive.
1

Cor, XV. 6

:

(jh^Otj eirdvo) 'Tr€VTaKO(riois d8€\4>ois,

he loas seen by above
is

five

hundred brethren.

So Mark

xiv. 5

(where the Genitive

that of

price).

330. The names
designations.

of measures
:

and coins may be omitted

after

numeral

Acts xix. 19

dp-yvpiov [ivpidSas irtvTc (five

myiiads), fifty

thousands of

silver, i.e., Spa)(jj.wv

=

denarii.

Elsewhere the plural dp^vpia

(pieces of silver) is used, as Matt. xxvi. 16, etc.

331. The Greeks used

the phrase

" himself third," for

" he and
etc.

So two others," avrbs rpCros. Sometimes avVo? was omitted.
Testament.
2 Pet.
ii.

avTos T^rapros, he

and

three othei's,

This idiom occurs once in the

New

5

:

^y^oov

Nwc

.

.

.

c^vAa^cv, he preserved Noahy

and

seven others.

The

Distributive

Numerals have been

sufficiently explained, § 5.

§ 333.]

PRONOUNS

—PERSONAL

277

Chapter V.

PEOXOUXS.

The Personal Pronouns.
332. The
rules respecting the cases of nouns,

with prepositions, for the most part apply to
substantive Pronouns also.

employment the personal and other
and
their

For the oblique cases of the third personal pronoun, in both numbers and all genders, forms of the adjective pronoun avros are employed.
For the other uses of avrb^, see
§ 335.

The Nominative of the personal pronoun, when the subject of a (See § 169.) verb, is omitted, except where emphasis is required.

333. The

Genitive of the personal pronoun
;

is

very frequently-

used in a possessive sense

the adjective possessive pronoun being

comparatively
Matt.
fXBdToi
be thy
T|

rare.
:

(See § 255.)
T|fi<3v

vi. 9,

10

ndrcp

6 Iv rots ovpavotg, ayLacrBrfTia to Svofid

<rov,

pao-iXeia <rov,
etc.
:

k.t.X.,

Our

Fathei' ichich art in heaven, Itallowed

name,
vii.

Matt.

3

rt 8c ^Xeircts

to Kap^os rb ev
t<3 o-« 64)9aX(i,w

t<3 6cf>6a\fi^

tov d8€X4>ov o-ov

(personal pronoun), rrjv he ev
ov Karavoels
;

(adjective possessive) Sokov

and

ichy seest thou the mote in the eye of thy brothe)', but

discernest not the

beam in

thins oivn eye

?

The only

possessive for the third person in the

New

Testament

is

the

Genitive of avros.
Conversely, an objective genitive
adjective pronoun.

may

be expressed by the possessive

Luke
do for
throiigh

xxii.

19

;

1

Cor.

xi.
i.e.,

25

:

tovto

Trotctrc ets

r^v i\L^v

dvdfivi]o-iv,

this

my

remembrance,
to

"for remembrance of me."
;

So Rom.

xi.

31,
in,

mercy shown

you; xv. 4

1

Cor. xv. 31, ^^

my

glorying

you; xvi. 17, the lack of you.

278
John
XV. 9
:

PRONOUNS
/xetj/arc

—PERSONAL.
rf]
;

[§ 333.

iv

tt)

0,7011171

6|ifi>

ctbidG in

my

love,

has some-

times been taken in a similar sense

pronoun there as a true possessive.

but it seems better (Compare § 269.)

to take the

In one striking passage, Eph.
genitive
Christ."!

iii.

18, there

seems the omission of a
i.e.,

pronoun,

''

ichat is the

breadth?"

etc.,

"of the love

of

334.
Matt.
TToAAoi,

Occasionally, in a lengthened sentence, a seemingly redundant
is

personal pronoun
Vlll.

found. ^
oltto

1

:

KaTaf3dvTL Sk avra

tov 6pov<s yKoXovOrjaav avrw 6)(Xol
the moimtain, great multitudes

and

ivhen he

had come down from

followed him.

Acts

vii.

21

:

iKXiBivTa Se avrbv di/ctXaro avrbv

y]

OxryaTrjp

^apaw, and

when he

teas cast out, the

daughter of Pharaoh took him up.
is

Where
Rev.

the object of a verb
its

expressed in tbe nominative absolutely, for the
is

sake of emphasis,
iii.

place in the sentence

supplied by a pronoun.
tliat

(See § 242.)

12

:

6 vt/cwv voirjao}

avrbv <tt6\ov, he

overcometh,

I will nmke him

a ^nllar.

means very, self it is used in apposition with nouns of both numbers and of all cases and genders, as well as with the personal pronouns of the first and second persons. When employed in the nominative for the third person, it is always
avTos properly

335. As

emphatic, 3

i.e.,

not he simply, but he himself.
:

Rom.
John
1

vii. iv.

25

avrbs e-yw
avrol
:

...

SovXcvo),

I

myself

serve.

42
iv.

:

yap

aK-qKoafxiv,

for we ourselves have heard.

Thess.

9

avrol

yap

vpeis OeoStSaKTOL ia-re,

for ye yourselves are

taught by God.

pronoun of the third person may be used for that of the other persons where no ambiguity would be likely to
(!)

The

reflexive

occur.
1

See Ellicott.

'

W.

H., however, in both passages cited read a Gen. Abs., Kard^avTos S^

airrov^

(KTcdevTo^ 5k avTOv.
^

See Winer.

.

.

§ 335
a.

(3).]

pRo^^ouNS— auT09.
ifxavrov).

279

Singular (never for
xviii.

John
xix.

34

:

a<f)'

eavrovi (tv tovto Xcycts; say est thou this of thyself ?
;

So in some other passages where the reading varies
18 (Matt. xix. 19
is
;

as in quotations of Lev.

Mark

xii.

31

;

Luke

x.

27

;

Rom.

xiii.

9,

where the

approved reading
h.

ceavrbv).

Plural (more frequently).
iii,

2 Cor.

1

:

ap^ofxiOa

ttoXlv

lavrovs crvvLcrTavav

;

are

ice

beginning

again

to

commend
xiii.

ourselves?
.

2 Cor.
test

5

:

eavrovs -rrupat^ir^.

.

lavTovs SoKt/xa^cre, try yourselves

. .

yourselves.

So
xiii.

in the frequent phrase 'irpoWx€T€ lavrots, or pXcVcTc lavrovs, taJie heed

to yourselves.

Luke
8.

xii.

1,

xvii.

3,

xxi.

34

;

Acts

v.

35

:

and Mark

9

;

2

John

For the use of auros with the Article,
(2)

see § 222.

In respect of gender and number, avros often follows the rule (See § 317, and for a similar usage with of rational concord (synesis). the relative pronoun, compare § 345.)
a.

Gender.
:

Matt, xxviii. 19

fxaOrp-eva-aTe Tvavra tol

?0vt],

fSaTTTL^ovTiS avrovs, disciple

all the nations, baptising them.

Col.
avTovs,

ii.

15:

aTreKSuo'a/xevos

ras dp\ds ^at ras

i|ov(rias

...

Opiajx^cvcra^

having stripped away from himself the principalities and the
. .

powers

.

having triumphed over them.
41
:

Mark
h.

v.

Kparr/cra? tt}? xupof; tov TraiSiov, A.ey€t avT^,

having

talieil

hold of the child's hand^ he saith to her.

Number.
i.

Matt.

21

:

crwo-ct tov

Xabv avrov airo tCjv

ap,apTL(jiV avroiv,

he will save

his people

from
:

their sins.

3 John 9
K.T.X.,

typa\f/d Tt

np

€KKXT]<ria,

oAX' 6 <^tXo7rp(OT€uo>f avT«v

AtoTp€(/>7;9,

I

icrote

somewhat

to

the church, but Diotrephes

who

loves pre-

eminence over them.

So
(3)

in reference to o)(\o^, ttXtjOo^, etc.

This pronoun

may

also

refer to a substantive

implied in some

previous
^

word

or phrase.
aeavrov even here

W. H. have

—a reading not commonly accepted.

280
Matt. xix. 13
tJiem,
i.e.,
:

PRONOUNS

avTO^

;

POSSESSIVE.

[§ 335.

ot 8e fiaOrjTal lircTLfxricrav avrois,
;

hut the disciples rebuked
x. 13.

those that brought the children

Mark

John

viii.
it,

44

:

\f/€v(rTrj<s

ccrrt

koI 6 Trarrfp avTov, he is

a

liar

and

the

father of

i.e.,

of lying.
23
;

So Matt.
Eph.
V. 12,

iv.

Acts
ii.

viii.

5; 2 Cor. v. 19, 'Ho

them"

i.e.,

the inhabitants
aKpo^varia.
•*

of the world.

Rom.
those
6.

26, the concrete implied in the abstract,

"by

who walk

in the darkness," or (Ellicott)

the children of

disobedience," ver.

Possessive Pronouns.

336. On

the possessive use of the Genitive of Personal Pronouns,
of the Possessives as equivalent to the objective

and the employment
genitive, see § 333.
§

For the Article with possessive pronouns,

see

223,

The
cative,

various use of the Possessives as Adjectives, epithetic and predi-

may be
V.

exemplified by the following phrases
17

:

John

30
:

:

KpiVts

i\

€^^ ScKaCa
rfjs
€|xt]s

ia-Tiv,

my judgment
tJte

is

jlist.

Kom.
heart.

X. 1

17

cvSoKia

KapSta?,

desire

(goodwill) of

my

Phil.

iii.

9

:

fxij

t^inv k\L^v StKaioo-vvT/v rr)v Ik vojxov, not
is

having a right-

eousness of

my

own, ichich
:

from

law.
ccrTt,

John xvii. 10 to. ejAa and thine are (all) mine.
The
sins,

iravTa era

kol

to. tra. i|id, 7ni7ie

are all thine,

possessive adjective pronoun appears to have a greater emphasis

than

the genitive of the personal.
rjfjiuu,

Thus
;

1

John

ii.

2,

he

is (lie

propitiation for our
is

a general declaration

but in the next clause this
etc.
;

thrown into

strong antithesis
jective

not for ours onhj, bid,

and

here, accordingly, the ad-

pronoun

is

employed, ov

irepi

tQv

ij/jLeTipuiu

di fiovov.

The

genitive of a

noun

is

sometimes found in apposition with the

genitive notion in the possessive pronoun.
1 Cor. xvi.

21

:

-nJ €|i^
iii.

x*'P^ IlavXov, hy

my hand

(that is) of

me

Paul.

Col

iv.

18; 2 Thess.

17.

337. For a
is

possessive pronoun, entirely unemphatic, the Article

often employed (see § 215), and on the other hand an emphatic pos-

sessive is expressed

by the Adjective

tStos, oivn.

;

§ 340.]

PRONOUNS—DEMONSTRATIVE.
i.

281
ICSiov

John

41

:

€vpi(TKtL

ovrov

irpiiirov

tov aScX^ov tov

2t/xcova,

this

man

Jindeth first his
See also Matt.
ix.

own

brother Simon.
;

that

God was
Tim.
ii.

his

Luke vi. 44; John 1, xxv. 15 own father ;" Acts xx. 28 Gal. vi. 9
;

iv.
:

44,

v.

18: ''said

'Hts

own season;"

also 1

6

;

Titus

i.

3

;

2 Pet.

i.

20,

and many other passages.^

Demonstrative Pronouns.

338. The

demonstratives

ovto<;, avr?/, tovto, this

(the nearer, connected

with the second person), and

ckcIvo?, €K€LV7jy cxctvo, that (the

connected with the third person), with the correlatives
the laws of adjectival concord. For the use of the demonstratives with the
generally precedes
its

more remote, (see § 62), obey
220.
ovtos

article,

see §

substantive, tKeTyos follows

;

but to this rule there are

many

exceptions.
xviii.

Luke

14

:

KarifSrj

olros
icejit

ScStKaiw/xcvo? cts tov oTkov

avrov

Trap'

iK€Lvov, this

man

(the latter)

down

Jtcstifi£d to his

house rather than

that (the former).

339. The
first

demonstrative

oSc, this ("this, here,"
x.

connected with the
;

person), is found only
X^Y**-!

Luke

39

;

James

iv.

13

and

in the phrase

ToSc

i^^u^ (these

things) saith^ Acts xxi. 11,
ii., iii.

and the beginnings

of

the letters to the seven churches. Rev.
o5e
TttOra

marks a
is,

closer relation

than
;

oh-o^.

In Greek narrative generally, IXe^e
Tie

he said this that precedes

iXe^e rdde,

said this that follows.

There are a few other passages in which the Received Text has ode, but where the best editors (so W. H.) adopt other readings, as Acts xv. 23 2 Cor. xii. 19 Luke xvi. 25, where we should read, here he is comforted (R.V.).
;

340.
Acts
desei't.

In some passages,

(n}To<:

seems to refer to the remoter subject.
(the road, not the city of Gaza,) is

viii.

26

:

aiirr] eo-Ttv ^frqfios, it

2 John 7 o^^s larnv 6 TrXavos kol 6 avri-xpicTo^, this is and the antichrist, i.e., he who bears the character described mencement of the verse.
:

the deceive)'
at the

com-

*

xxii.

Winer notes the following passages as without emphasis (but query?): Matt. Titus ii. 9 5, xxv. 14 John i. 41 Eph. v. 22 ; Titus ii. 5 ; 1 Pet. iii 1, 5.
;

;

j

282
So
cKctvos
vii.

PRONOUNS

—DEMONSTRATIVE.
ckcivoi,

[§ 340.

may
45
:

refer to the nearer.

John

kol

cittoi/

avrots

and they

(the chief priests and

Pharisees just mentioned) said to theniy the officers spoken of before.
employed as an emphatic demonstrative, and sometimes on that seems appUed to the nearer antecedent. Thus 2 Cor. viii. 9 account Ye knoio the grace of the Lord Jesus Christy that for your sahes he beca'oic poor, rich as he was, that ye, through His (e/cetVou) poverty might he enriched. So
iKe7vos is
:

Titus

iii.

7.
ii,

Compare Acts
is difficult
:

iii.

13.

2 Tim.

26

e^coyprjfx^voi utt' airrou, els

to eKcivov
iii.

9e\rjiJ.a.

The two
seems best

pronouns can hardly

refer to the

same subject (compare
etj
:

9)

;

and

it

to connect the clause beginning with

with dvavrjxpoxnv, taking

t^coyfyrj/xivoi vir

" aud that they tnay return to soberness out of the snare of the devil {though holden captive by him) to do His tvill," i.e., God's. For other explanations, see Alford, Ellicott, etc. R.V. refers the avrov back to "the Lord's servant " (ver. 24), and the tKdvov to God.
avTov as parenthetical.
Ellicott

341. A Demonstrative often repeats the notion already expressed by a substantive. The pronoun thus occasionally seems redundant, but
perhaps was always intended to convey some additional emphasis.
Matt.
...

xiii.

20-23

:

6 Se

... o-Trapet'? ... ofirds €o-rtv,

that tvhich teas sown

this is he, etc.

So

X. 22, xiii. 38, xv. 11, xxvi.

23
10

;

John

vi.

46

;

John
i.

i.

18, 33 [cKelvos),

V. 11, x. 1, etc.

1 Cor, vi, 4, TovTovs
xii. 2.

;

Rom.

vii.

:

compare Acts

22

;

1 Cor. v.

5

;

2 Cor.

The Demonstrative
tJie

itself

may
...

be repeated in a sentence.
ttws odv Xe7ei oSros
;^

John
,

vi.

42

:

ovx

odrhs €<TTiv 'Irjaovs 6 vibs 'laj(r^0

/c.r.X.

Is not this Jesus,
vii.

son of Joseph

? ...

how

then saith this

man ?

etc.

(See also Acts

35-38.)

342.

A neuter
:

singular Demonstrative sometimes stands as equi-

valent to a clause.
Acts xxiv. 14
that, etc.

6/xoAoyto 8c tovto

o-ot, iJn, k.t.A,.,

hut this

I confess

to thee,

So xxvi. 16

;

Eph.

iv.

17, etc.

The neuter plural may be employed
John
XV. 17
:

for a single object of thought.
aYairaTC dXX-^Xor^s, this

ravra ivriXXofxai

v/xtv, I'va

I com-

mand

you, that ye love one another.

(But see R.V. and
ttcJj

§ 384, a, 1.)

*

But

\V.

H. read

vvv

X^ei

6'Tt.

§ 345.]
3 John 4
:

PRONOUNS—KELATIVE.
fxeiloTcpav tovtwv

283
(W. H.,
1
;(apiv),

ovk c^w yapav
not.

a more

surpassing joy than this
Ttv€s 5t€,

I have

Compare

Cor. vi. 11: koX Tavrd

and

this were
iii.)

some of you^ or " such in some degree were you."

(See §§ 180, 352,
In Heb.
of

xi, 12,

the phrase koL ravra, k.t.\., must be rendered, and that,
tis

too,

Mm who was as good
In Rom.
xiii.

dead.
vi.

Compare
6
;

1

Cor. vi.

8,

Received Text.
5 (W.H.), kuI tovto
is

11

;

1 Cor.

Phil.

i.

28

;

3

John

similarly resumptive.

On Eph.
For the

ii.

8, rrj

y&p

xciptTt icrre ceaua-fxivoi 5ia TrtVrews

'

Kai tovto ovk e^ vfiwv,

K.T.X., see § 403, d.
ellipsis of

the Demonstrative before the Relative, see § 347.

The Eelative Pronoun.
343. The
The

Relative Pronoim agrees with
This rule
is

its

Antecedent in gender,

number, and person.
clause in

termed the TJurd Concord.
is

which the Relative stands

called the Relative Clause,

and

is

Adjectival (see § 190), as qualifying the Antecedent.

The Case of the Relative
clause.

is

determined by the structure of

its

own

Matt.

ii.

9

:

6

acrrrip 8v etSov

Iv

tq i.vaToXy

Trporjyev

avrovSi the star

which they saw in the East, guided them forward.

Rom.
etc.

ii.

6

:

tov ®€ov, 8s aTroSwo-et,

K.T.X.,

of Gody who

will recompense,

344.
Relative.

A

clause, or clauses, may form a neuter Antecedent to the So with the Demonstrative (see § 342).

Acts

xi. 29,

30

:

Zpicrav eKacrro^ avVoiv
a8€X<J>ois'

els

SiaKoviav

Tr€'|x\|/ai

rots

Karoi-

Kova-iv €v TT)

*Iou8a£q.

8

kol iTToi-qarav, they

determined, each of

them, to send, to the brethren dwelling in Judcea for (their) relief ; ichich
they also did.
See also Gal. ii. 10 Col. i. 29 ; Heb. v. 11, Acts xxiv. 18 {h ah), xxvi. 12 ; Col. ii. 22.
;

etc.

;

and with plural

relative,

345.
Relative.

Synesis,

or rational
317.)

concord,

is

very frequent with the

(See

§

2S4
a.

PRONOUNS—RELATIVE.
Gender.
:

[§ 345.

Acts XV. 17
etc.
b.

Travra

to, ^Ovt]

€<|>'

oOs, ac.t.X., all

the Gentiles,

upon wliom,

So xxvi. 17;

Gal. iv. 19; 2

John

1.

Number.
ii.

Phil.

15

:

^evcds CKoXtas

/cat

8L€<TTpaiijX€vr]<;y iv ois ^atVccr^c, k.t.X.,

o/

a crooked and perverted generation^ among

icliom ye appear, etc.

relative

be implied in a singular phrase ; hence sometimes a plural Acts xv. 36 Kara irbXiv iroiaav, iv ah, through every city, in which {cities). So 2 Peter hi. 1.
plural

A

may

wth

a singular antecedent.

:

On
TjfxipaL
t'^

the contrary, a singular

may be impHed
from

in a plural phrase.
iii.

Acts xxiv, 11;

dwdcKa

d<p'

ijs,

twelve days

that oiiichich ; Phil.

20: oipavoh

...

But here In John i. 42,
o5.

e^ ov
6'

may

be adverbially taken, whence.
6pofia,

agi-ees

with

name, implied.

346. The
Attraction
a.

Relative

is

often drawn, or

**

attracted,'* out

of its

proper gender or case by some other word.
is

of

two kinds.

Attraction of the Relative to the Predicate.

—The Relative

Subject

may

take the gender of

its

own

Predicate rather than that of the

Antecedent.

Mark
Gal.
Christ.

xv. 16

:

eo-cu tt]s avXijs

^ eo-rt irpaiTcopiov, ivithin the hall

which

is

the Proitorium.
iii.

16

:

t<S xnrip^a.rl

crov,

6s

i(TTL

Xpio-rds,

to thy seed,

ichich is

Eph.

vi.

17: t^v fxa^aipav rov Trvev/xaTO?, o
is the

ecrrt prjfxa

0eov, the stvord

of the Spirit, which
Col.
i.

word of God.
tovtov
... iJs^

27
of

:

Tov
. .

|jiv<rTr]pCov

icrn Xpitrrbs iv
etc.

this mystery

.

ichich

is
iii.

Christ in you,
1 6,

vfxlv, k.t.X., of This text explains the

meaning

1

Tim.

provided this reading

be adopted

;

con-

fessedly great

is the mystery of godliness, Ss^ who icas manifested in flesh, i.e., the Mystery
h.

c<|>avcp(o0Ti

kv o-apKl, k.t.X.,

is

Christ.

Relative which Attraction of the Relative to the Antecedent. be in the Accusawould properly, by the rules of Its own clause,
tive case,

—A

may conform
»
-

to

a Genitive or Dative Antecedent.

W.

H., 6 with 5s marg. So W, H., and R.V. (He who was manifested,

etc.).

§ 347.]

PE02>"0UNS

— RELATIVE.
for
Scocro) airrw,

285
all the evil things

Luke
John
Acts

iii.

19

:

Trept iravrwv

»v

iiroLrjcre Trovrjpwv,

ivhich he did.
iv.

14

:

e/c

rov ilSaros o5 eyw

of the water which I Will

give to him.
i.

1

:

TTcpt

irdvTwv wv r^p^aro 6 'IrycroOs Trotetv t€ Kat 8i8a(7K€tv, COTl-

cerning all things ichich Jesus began both to do

and

to teach.

Luke
Acts
deeds

ii.

20
:

:

liri irdo-iv ols

^Kovo-av, for all things ichich they heard.
<rr]|j.€iois,

ii.

22

Swdfico-t /cat r^pao-i /cat

ots eTroLrjcre, k.t.X.,

by mighty

and wonders, and

signs ichich (God) wrought, etc.
of

So in a great number
2 Cor.
i.

passages.

The Kelative

is

occasionally
i.

"attracted" out of other cases than the Accusative,
4.
is

See Acts

22;

Sometimes the Antecedent
called inverse attraction.

put in the case of the Kelative.

This

is

In other words, the noun to which the Relative belongs is understood in the antecedent clause, and expressed in the relative, instead of being (as usual)
expressed in the former and understood in the latter.

Mark whom I

vi.

16

:

8v
is

eya>

air€K€(f>d\Lcra 'Iwdvi^v, ovTO<i
...

yy epOrj,

this

John

beheaded
:

raised, instead of ov

ovro<; 'luidwr}';.

Rom. vi. 17 vTrrjKovcraTe ... cts 8v 7rape860r)T€ rvirov 8tSa^^9, ye obeyed the fanu of doctrine into ichich ye icere delivered, for vtttjk ... t<Z rvino
... CIS ov.

See also Luke
K.T.X.,

xii.

48

;

Acts xxi. 16, xxvi. 7
:

;

1

Cor, x. 16, etc.
...
ii.

;

and the

repeated quotation from Ps. cxviii. 22

Xidov 6v dvedodfjiaaav
1

odros iyevrfdr],
7 (in this last

Matt. xxi.

42; Mark

xii.

10; Luke xx. 17;

Pet.

passage W. H. have XiOos).

347. When the Antecedent would be a demonstrative pronoun,
it is

very often omitted, being implied in the Eelative.

So in English, for "he gave me that which I asked for," we say, "he gave me what I asked for;" the relative form "what" implying both words. But Greek the same form is used whether the demonstrative antecedent is expressed

m

or implied.

Matt.

X.

27

:

8

Xcyw vpuv

€v rfj (tkotlo.
.

...

Kat 8 cts to o*s d/covcrc,

what

I say

to

you in the darkness

.

.

and what ye hear

(into, § 298, 8) in the ear.

The Relative and the implied Antecedent may be

in different cases.

286

PKONOUNS
vii.

—RELATIVE.
whom

[§ 347.

Luke
is

47

:

a

Sk oXtyov d^c'erat, oXtyov dyaTra, but (he) to

idiom

little

forgiven^ loveth

little.
ov'*^

John
Heb.

iv.

18

:

8v ex^'?

^ort o-ou avrip, (he)

thou now host

is

not

thy husband.
V.

8

:

e/xaOev

a(f>

wv

e-rraOe ty]v

vnaKorjv, he learned obedience

from

those things ichich he stiffered.

348. The pronoun
This
is

avro?

is

occasionally inserted in apposition with
it.

the Relative, as a kind of complement to
a

Hebrew idiom

;

the relative in that language being indeclinable, and

requiring to be complemented by a pronoun.

Matt.

iii.

12

:

ol to tttvov iv rrj x^tpi avrov, tvhos&fan is in his hand.
:

Mark

vii.

25

% cT^c to OvyaTpiov
spirit.

avTfjs Trvevfia

aKaOapTOVy ivhose

little

daughter had an unclean

Acts XV. 17

:

l<^

ofts

liriKeKX-qTaL to ovo/xd jxov

lir

ovtovs,

upon whom

my name

has been called;
i.

Amos
iii.

ix. 12,
;

LXX.
ii.

So also Mark

7

;

Luke

16

1 Pet.

24 (not

W.

H.), etc.

349. The Compound
Trds 8s oLKovei, every

Relative,
Jiears,

6o-tis, is

strictly indefinite.

Thus,

one ivho

hearing;" but

Trds JJo-ns d/covct,

would denote " every one who is now as Matt. vii. 24, is " every one, whoever
ivhosoever smites

he be that hears."
Matt.
V.

39

:

(Jo-ns paTri^ct

.

.

.

8<rTts ayyapevcrcLy

. . .

who-

soever shall impress.

Luke
more

X.

35

:

iJ,Tt

av

Trpoo-SaTravTyo-r;?,

ivhatsoever thou shall have spent

(for

mood
the

see § 380).

John

ii.

5, xiv. 13,

xv. 16, etc.^

From
is

indefinite

character^ kindj reason,

meaning of Stms arises a suggestion of as marking the class to which this Relative
os, is

applied.

For example,
Matt.
vii.

oort?,
:

and not

used in the following passages

:

15

"beware

of the false prophets,

who come

to you,"

i.e.^

such as come.
Matt.
foolish
vii. 24, 26 "a wise man who built his house upon the rock, a man who built his house upon the sand;" in each case the kind man who did what is described.
:

of
*

The

instances of
8ti, conj.,

8,

n, neuter, are very few
(as, e.g.,

;

and there
iii.

is

much

variation of

reading,

being often preferred

in 2 Cor.

14).


§350,ii.]
Matt. XXV.
1


PRONOUNS
relative
iclio
:

interrogative.

287

:

" ten virgins
i.e.^

having taken their lamps went forth to

meet the bridegroom,"

who

acted in accordance with their function.
force.
z.e.,

In this way the compound Relative acquires a kind of logical

Rom.

vi.

2

:

inasmur.h as

we who died to sin, how shall we we died. Compare Phil. iv. 3.
"
6(xti^ is

longer live therein!"

With proper names,
xxiii.

frequently preferred to
viii.

os.

See Luke

11.

4, ix. 30,

19

;

John
is

viii.
;

53

;

Acts

15, xvi. 12 (on the attraction, see § 346),
;

xvii. 10, xxviii. 18

passages there

Rom. xvi. 6, 12 Gal. iv. 26 2 Tim. ii. 18. In an implied reference to character, position, calling;.
;

all

these

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns.
350-. The interrogative pronoun
i.

tIs; ri; is

used in various ways.

Simply, with or without a Substantive, or with an Adjective used

substantively

Nominative.
Genitive.
this

Matt.

iii.

7

:

tis vTreSet^cv vfxiv

;

u'lio
rj

waimed you
i7nypa(j)rj
;

?

Matt. xxii. 20

:

rlvos

rj

etKwr avrr] kol

tvhose is

image and

supei'scription ?
xii.

Dative.

Luke

20

:

a Se

rfToifxao-a^;,

tIvi

lorat
?
•••

;

now

the riches'

which thou didst ainass, for ichom shall they he
Accusative.

Matt.

v. 46,

47

:

rfva fxia-Oov

^x^'''^

>

tC irepLcra-ov TrotctTc;

what reward have ye

? ...

what do ye over and above
v. 1

?
;

With
it

Prepositions.

Matt.

3

:

Iv t£vi

dAto-^rjo-eTat

icherewith shall

he salted ?

Matt.

ix. 1 1

:

8id ti

^

/xera ruiv tcXcovcov kol

afxaprwXwv iaOUc

;

ichere;

fore eateth he with the publicans
xiv. 4
ii.
;

and

sinners

?

So Matt.

xiv. 31

Mark

John

xiii.

28.

Elliptically,

with im, that (" that what may happen

?•"

or where-

foi-e

?)—
ix.

Matt.

4:

Xva tC ivOvfieLcrOe
?

-rrovrjpd

;

wherefore are ye imagining

malignant things
1

Cor. X. 29
1

:

Xva ri

yap

rj

iXevOepLa fxov KpiveraL

;

for wherefore

is

my
;

liberty judged,

In quotations from the Old Testament, some editors (not
Matt, xxvii. 46
;

W. H.) have

\va.r[

Acts
^

iv. 25, vii. 26.

Some

editors (not

W, H.

)

read

5tar/.

288
iii.

PRONOUNS
Adverbially, neuter,

— THE
;

INTERROGATIVE
(or as

rt?.

350,
tl

iiL

hoiv (is it) that ?

tl

why?

an exclamation, how/)

on

Matt.

vi.

28

:

irepl

cVSv/xaros rC jxepLfivaTi

;

why

are ye anxious about

raiment
So

1
vii. 3, viii. 26, xvi. 8, etc.

Matt.
gate !

vii.

14 (Lachmann,

etc.)

:

tI crrivr]

rj

irvXr)

!

how narrow

is the

But
49

this rendering is doubtful,

as well as the reading itself

(\V. H., In).

Luke

ii.

:

ti oti c^t/tcitc
v. 4, 9.

/itc ;

hoxo (is

it)

that ye loere seeking

me

?

See also Acts
iv.

In alternative questions, where the
;

classical

idiom requires .TroTcpos,
rts

a, ov

whethei' of the two
ix.

?

the

New

Testament employs
;

Matt.
easier ?

5

:

ri

yap

iariv

€VK07ro)T€pov

for luhich

of the two

is

Matt. xxi. 31
the tivo did the

:

t£s iK

twv Svo

ciroir/o'C

to 6iK-qp.a rov Trarpog; which of

^

ivill

of his father21
;

? 1 Cor. iv.

So

xxiii. 17, 19, xxvii. 17,

21

;

Phil.

i.

22 (see

§ 382, c).

351. The simple
tions,

interrogative,

rts, ti, is

also
etc.,

used in indirect quesin objective sentences.
6,ti,

and

after verbs of
d.

knowing, thinking,

See § 382,

The

classic

Greek idiom requires dans,

though not without

frequent exceptions.

Matt. XX. 22

:

ovk otSaTc

ri aiTcto-^c,

ye knoio not what ye ash.

Luke
he

vi.

47

:

vttoSci^w vpXv tCvi icrrXv o/Aotos

/

will

shew you

to

whom

is like.

John

xviii.

21

:

iptiiTrjaov

tovs (XKi/KooTas ri ikaXrja-a avrots
to them.

a>sk those

toho have

heard what I said

So in many other passages.

from the interrogative to the indefinite pronoun can easily be traced. It comes to almost the same thing whether we say, " What man is there among you who will give his child a stone for
transition

352. The

bread ?"

or,

" Is there any

man among you who

will ?" etc.

Thus the only difference between the forms and the position in the sentence.

of the two

is

in accent


§ 352,


Tt9.

iii.]

PRONOUNS-^THE INDEFINITE
rts, rt,

289
or without

The

indefinite,

may be used

(i.)

simply, with

a

Substantive expressed

Luke Luke
Acts
tlting

i.

5

:

kyeviTo

.

.

.

tepevs tis, there teas

...

a certain priest.

So, very

often, AvOpwiros ns,
xxii.
iii.

a certain man.
/xtJ

35
:

:

tivos vo-Tcp^o-arc
ti Trap

;

did ye lack anything

1

5

TrpoaSoKwv

avrojv Xa^cir, expecting to receive some-

from them.
xvii.

Luke
into

12

:

u(T^p\oix.€vov avrov ets

nva

Kwfir]v,

as he was entering

a

cert a ill village.
:

Acts XV. 36
Phil.
iii.

jjura 8e rivas rjfiepaSj

and

after certain days.

15

:

koX

ct

ti cTipm^ cf)pov€iT€,

and
1

if in anytliing ye he otherti,

wise

minded
ii.

(for

Ace,

see § 283).

So ppaxv

for some shmi time,

Heb.

7

;

y.ipo%

n, in some

paH, partly,

Cor. xi. 18.

With

a Genitive following
:

1 Cor. vi. 1

roXjxa tis
ti twi/

vfJL(Dv

;

dares any one of you

?

Acts

iv.

32

:

virapxovTwv avrw, aiiy of his goods.
airb,

So
(ii.)

V. 15, etc.

"With

Luke

xvi. 30

;

with

iK,

Heb.

iii.

13.

Emphatically; "somebody important," " something great," "any-

thing "—

Acts

V.

36
viii.

:

Xiymv
9.
ct

eTvat

Tiva

eairroi^,

saying that

lie

was somebody.

Compare
Gal.
vi.

3

:

yap
is

8oKet rts civat Tt

p.y]h\v

wv, (^pcvaTrara eavrov,

for if

any one thinks he
See also
1

anything, being nothing, he deceives himself.
iii.

Cor.

7

;

Gal.

ii.

6

aud

(of things) 1

Cor. x. 19

;

Gal.

vi.

15.

Compare Heb.
(iii.)

x. 27.

"

A
i.

kind 18
:

of"—
to ctvat
r]fx.a<s

James

cts

aTrap^^r/v tiv(i, tJiat

we might he a kind of

jirstfruits.

See also (in the opinion of some interpreters
in some degree were you.^

;

not R.V.)

1 Cor. vi. 11,

such

But

see § 342.

i

Wahl.

U

290
(iv.)

PRONOUNS
"With

—THE

INDEFINITE
approximately

TL<;.

[§ 352,

iv.

numbers,

" some,"

(or

perhaps

simply

redundant)

Luke
Acts
called

vii.

19

:

7r/30(rKou\co-a/Acvos

Svo rivas twv

/xa^T/Ttuv,

having called

some two of his
xxiii.

disciples.
:

23

7rpo(TKa\€(TdfX€vo9

Bvo rivds twv €KaTovdp)(wv, having

some two of the centurions.
;

These are the only instances for the construction in Acts xix. 14 For efy, one, instead of rts, and in conjunction with it, see § 328, i.
(v.)
€T€po<;

is

different.

In alternative expressions we find both
5

rtvcs

...

rtves

and

rts

...

Phil.

i.

1

:

nv^s

fxev

/cat
...

Sta c}>06vov

.

.

.

rivh Sk

/cat

Sc

evSoKtav,

some

indeed even from envy

hut others also
;

from

goodioill.

Compare Luke
1 Cor.
iii.

ix. 7,

8

1

Tim.

v. 24.

4

:

orav yap Xiyrj

ns

..^ ^repos Se,

for lohen one saith

...

and

another.
(vi.)

The negatives
and

of rt? are ovBcCs,

firiSci's,

no one.

For their coniii.

struction,

for the Hebraistic negative, ov Tras, see § 328,

in

The compounds, oxjtls, firiTis, are not found in the New Testament. The latter, John iv. 33 (Rec.) should be /xr) ris (W. H.). For the interrogative /MrjTi,

see § 370.

;

§ 354]

THE VERB

—VOICE.

291

Chapter VI.

THE VERB.

VOICE.
353. The
distinction of " voices," in respect
to

and Passive), belongs
Transitive verbs

Etymology.
of

oifonn (Active, Middle, The Verb in Syntax is considered

as transitive, intransitive, reflexive, or passive.

may be
or

Active or Middle form.
intransitive

A

transitive

Active verb

may
is

in its middle voice retain the transitive

meaning with
reflexive.

certain modifications,

may become

or

The

passive sense

conveyed by the Passive form.

Intransitive, or " neuter " verbs, in like manner,

may be

Active or

Middle in form.

The Active
354.
meaning.
Matt.
1

Voice.
sometimes takes a transitive

An
V.

intransitive

Active verb

45

:

tov yXtov avrov dvarcXXti,

he causes his sun to arise
i.

dvareXXo) being generally to arise, as 2 Pet.

19, etc.

Matt, xxvii. 57

:

€|i*®^'^^°'^

(Rec.)

is

intransitive, he

was a

disciple.
;

"W. H., however, read

€|jLa9i]T€v0T]

(though with

e/xa^rjrcvo-e

marg.)

and

elsewhere the verb

is

transitive, chap. xiii. 52, xxviii.

19; Acts xiv. 21.

av|dvw, to grow, is usually intransitive. Matt. vi.
iii.

28

;

but in

1

Cor.

The Englisli verb is similarly used 6, 7, 2 Cor. ix. 10, is transitive. (" wheat grows ;" " he grows wheat"). So of many others.
<rTp^<}><D,

to turn, generally intransitive in
vii.

the Middle, once in the Active

also.

Acts

42.

may often mark the influence of language attaches to neuter verbs a causative conjugation (Hiphil). In the LXX., both the neuter and the Hiphil are often rendered by the simple verb. So 1 Kings i. 43, e^acxiXevae, he made (Solomon) king ; although
^

In the change of intransitive to transitive, we
wliieh

the Hebrew,

l^aaiXfvu}

properly means

to

be

a king.

292

THE VERB

— ACTIVE
Vo-ttjjjli,

AND MIDDLE
and

VOICE.
intransitive

[§ 354.
meaning,

Some

verbs vary between the

transitive

according to form.

Thus,

a regularly transitive or causative verb,

has (with some few others) an intransitive sense in the Perfect (with
Pluperfect) and the Second Aorist.
imperative,
A-yc,

(See

§
let

108, 3.)

&70), to

lead,

has

go

;

subjunctive,

&7«jjl€v,

us go.

The

intransitive

imperative only occurs in the

New

Testament

interjectionally, go to!

(James

iv.

13, v. 1).

The verb
hence " to
Matt.
iv.

ellipsis of a

becomes neuter before an adverb, through the pronominal object, "to liace one's self in such a manner;" be so," the adverb being often translated as an adjective.
?x*^j

i^ have,

24
is

:

rov^ kukms ^xo^^as (those having themselves evilly), those

who

icere

ill;

Mark
an
xi.

v.

23

:

to Bvyarpiov

fxov
:

ccrxaTws
Trais

'dxa,

my

little

daughter

at

extremity.

So Acts
vii.

xv. 36

^x^^^^s

how they

do.

(See also John

17; Acts

1

;

1

Pet. iv. 5, etc.).

So in the

parti-

ciple, TO vvv ^xov, the

present time (that which has itself now).

For variations in other verbs, see Vocabulary.

The Middle Voice.
355.
1.

As compared with the Active Voice, the Middle generally
Action upon one's self: the

expresses one of three things:
refiejcive sense.

2. 3.

Action for one's self: the appropriative
Action, as caused or permitted
:

sense.

the causative sense. ^
;

1. The reflexive sense of the Middle is comparatively rare pronouns being usually employed with the Active.

reflexive

Act.

^latt. viii.

25

:

ij^cipav avVoi/,
:

they aroused him.

Mid.
Act.

Matt. xxvi. 46
1 Pet.
iii.

€7€tp€<r0€, aywftci/, rise,
:

hi us

go.

10 (LXX.)
evil.

iravo-aTw ttjv yXwcrcrav diro KaKov. let

him

refrain his tongue

from

Mid.

1

Cor.

xiii.

8: ctre yXwcrcrat, Travo-oyrai, whether {^xave, be) tongues

tht'y f<]iall cease.

Soe also Matt, xxvii. 5
sense the Active
is

;

Mark

vii.

4

,

Luke

xiii.

29

;

1

Pet.

iv.

1.

In

tliis

transitive, the ]\Ii(ldie intransitive.

*

Dr. Donaldson, § 432.
(See
2.

(1)

may

be called the Accusative middle

;

(2)

the Dative

middle.

§ 855.]
2.

THE YEEB

—ACTIVE
is

AND MIDDLE
tlie

VOICE.

293

As

the reflexive sense

equivalent to

Active with the imme-

diate pronominal Object (Ace), so the apjiropriative sense corresponds

with the Active and the remote Object (Dat).
cavTots
iroi^o-aTc

Thus, Luke xvi.

9,

might have
24

been

fully

expressed

by the one word,
shall receive.

iroii^o-ao-Oc.

Act.
j\Iid.

John

xvi.

:

oXnln koX
ovk otSare

X-qij/ea-Oc,

ask^

and ye

Matt. XX. 22

:

tl alrcio-Oc,

ye hnoio not what ye ask (for

yourselves).

Act.

Acts

xxii.

20
15

:

<|)vXd(ro-wv

to.

IfidTLa,

watching the clothes (of

Stephen's murderers).

Mid.
i.e.,

2 Tim.

iv.

:

ov kol
to

a-v <|>\»Xd(r<rov,

of

whom do

thou also heicare,

watch him with a view
2 Pet.
*

thy
:

own

safety.

Act. and Mid.
€K\oyrjv
'iroi€i<r9ai

i.

10

o-TrovSaorarc /Jc^atav

v^dv

ttjv kXtjo-lv

kol

ravra yap

irotovvrcs, k.t.X., give diligence to
;

make your
etc.

calling

and

election sure for yourselves

for doing these things,
ttoi^cj,

For other instances of the IMidcUe of
i.

see

Luke

v. 33,
;

xiii.

22
;

;

Acts
Phil.

1, XX. 24,

XXV. 17, xxvii. 18
i.

;

Rom.

i.

9, xiii.

14, xv. 26

Epli. iv, 16

i.

4

;

Heb.

3,

and a few other passages.
is

In this sense, the Middle
the verb.

transitive, retaining the direct object of

Hence the

difficulty of

always distinguishing between
;

the.

Active and the Middle signification

as to

perform an

action,

and

to

perform
coincide.
(xix.

it

for one's self are notions that

may

approach so as almost to
Tra.piC\iro

Compare,

for

instance, Trapcixc

(Acts xvi. 16) with
gain,

The same object, Ipyaa-iav, Demetrius had undoubtedly a more direct
24).

follows

in

both

cases.

interest in his gains than the

damsel in
It
is

hers.

doubtful whether the Middle

is

ever to he taken as simply conveying an
tlie

intensive force.

Compare John
iii.

i.

5,

darkness cmnprchended

it

not

(act.,

KUT^Xa^ev), with Eph.
all saints,

18, that ye

may

comprelcend (mid., KaraXa^ia-dai.) vjifh

what is the breadth, etc. The appropriative sense is here very decided. The careful student may note the middle verbs in ilatt. xxi. 16 (Ps. viii. 3, LXX.) John xiii, 10 (compared with the rest of the passage) Matt, vi. 17 Luke x. 42 Acts ii. 39, v. 2, 13 ix. 39 (eViSet/cj'uyaej'at) Rom. iii. 25 Acts
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

XX. 28

;

Gal. iv. 10

;

Eph.
iii.

v.

16

;

Phil,

i,

22

;

2 Thess,
is

passages.

In

1

Tim,

13 the dative pronoun

iii. 14, and many other added to the Middle verb.

3.

The

causative Middle expresses the interest of the Subject in the
:

result,

and yet implies a mediate agency

" to allow a thing to be done,"

294
"to have
it

THE VERB

—MIDDLE

AND PASSIVE
its

VOICE.

[§ 355.

done," " to provide for

being done."

Here the Middle

partakes more nearly of the nature of the Passive.^

Luke
and

ii.

5

:

diroYpd\(/a<r0at
:

avv Mapia/x,

to get enrolled tvith

Mary.
vii.
4,

1 Cor. X. 2

cpa-n-TCo-avTOj^

they got baptised.

Compare Mark

especially Acts xxii. 16.
too,

Hence,
mid., to

in

some words a change of
dTroStSco/At, to

signification

;

both voices

taking the accusative Object.
sell, i.e.,

give off or a way; diro8(8o|iat,

auuy for one^s self, i.e., to get money by the off' Compare Matt, xviii. 26-34 with Acts v. 8, vii. 9. Sam^w, to act. Luke vi. 34, 35. horroiv ; Savci^ojiai, to lend., Matt. v. 42
give

or

;

The causative meaning and cause others to do."
John
ix.

in

some

cases

becomes reciprocal: "to do...

22

:

(twcWOcivto ot *IovSatot, the Jews

had agreed amongst
law; Rom.
4:

themselves.
See also Matt.
KoX
viK-qa-rjs

v.

40 and

1 Cor. vi. 1
<re,

:

Kplvecdai, to contend at

iii.

ev Tt^

Kpiveadai

and

that thou mayest overcome

when thou comcst

into trial,

i.e.,

with the chikh'en of

men

;

the image being that of two parties to
ivlieii

a suit
in the

—not,
New

when thou

judgest, as A.V., Ps. K. 4, nor

thou art judged, as

Testament quotation.'^ For the special meanings of different verbs the Vocabulary must be consulted. The threefold division now given covers most of the relations of the Middle with
the Active.

The Passive
356. As
in

Voice.
of the Active
also

other languages, the direct Object verb becomes the Subject of the Passive. the Subject of the Passive.
Genitive.

But in Greek, the remoter Object of the Active may
Acts
xxii.

become
accused

30

:

KarTi-yopcirai vtto tCjv *IovSaiojv,

he

is

hy the Jews (for the gen. with
Dative.

Kar-qyopia), see § 250).

Rom.

iii.

2

:

i'in<rrtvQr]<rav

ra \6yia Tov @€ov, they were entrusted

with the oracles of God.
So
^

1 Cor. ix. 17

;

Gal.

ii.

7

;

1

Thess.

ii.

4, etc.

; Germ., sich lasscn. So "Winer, § xxxviii. 3 H. liave e^avTiaOrjaav in marg ^ TheR.V. retains A.V. in O.T. passage, but in Romans lias correctly ivhen thou comest into judgment.

Lat., curare

'"

W.


§ 358.]
Heb.
report
xi.

THE VERB
2
:

—PASSIVE

VOICE.
elders

295
obtained a good

iiu>.prvpy]Qr](rav

ol

Trpeo-^irrcpot, the

(lit.,

were attested

to).

So Acts XVI.

2, xxii. 12, etc.

Heb.
divinely

viii.

5

:

Ka^w?

K€)(jpr\Y.o.T\.<nt».\.

Mcdvo-tJ?,

according as Moses has been

commanded.
a.

For the dative after the Active of such verbs, see § 278,

Where the Active governs two Accusatives (pei-son and thing), or a Dative of the person and an Accusative of the thing, the Passive may take also the Accusative of the thing. (See § 284.)
2 Thess.
ii.

15

:

KparctTe ras TrapaSoorets ds iStSaxOiiTc,

hold fast the

instructions which ye ivere taught.
See also Mark xvi. 5
;

Acts

xviii. 25, etc., for

verbs of the former class.
2,

For verbs of the
nected passages.

latter class, note

Rom.

iii.

quoted above, with the con-

357. After Passive
Genitive
;

verbs, the agent

is

marked by
as
ciTro,

viro

with the
Trpos
)

occasionally

by other

prepositions,

Ik,

irapa,
e,

sometimes by the Dative without a preposition.

(See

§§

280

304.)

Middle and Passive are alike, it is someintended. In considering this question, decide which regard must chiefly be had to the usage of the particular verbs, and to
of the

358. As many forms
difficult to

times

is

the general construction of the sentence.

The following
Matt.
xi.

is

a selection of instances

:

5

:

Trrwxot evayycXitovrai,

the gospel preached to tliem.

poor men preach the gospel, or have The verb may be middle or passive,^ but
then? are we superior? (mid.),
requires the former meaning.

the sense of the passage seems decisively for the latter.

Rom.
or,

iii.

9

:

t'l

ovv

;

•irpo€xoH.€0a

;

ivltat

are we surpassed

? (pass.).

The context

Some, however (see Dr. Yauglian), prefer the passive, but render are we prefeiTed ? a sense without authority elsewhere. For other suggested renderings, see Alford's note.

The R.V. has are
?

loe

in wm'se case

than they
*

?

with marg. do we excuse ourselves
i.

For the middle, see Luke
xvi.

19,

ii.

10,

iii.

18, iv. 18, 43,
iv. 2, 6.
6,

and many other passages;
passive
is

for the passive

(\nth a personal subject), Heb.
i.

The

also found,

Luke

16; Gal.

11;

1

Pet.

i.

25,

iv.

the subject being that which was

preached.

296
1 iclio

THE VERB
Cor.
call
i.

—MOODS

AND TENSES.

[§ 358.

2

:

cvv Tract rots

eiriKaXovp,evoL9

to ovofia tov Kvpt'ov, 7cith all
bf/

upon the name of

the Lord, or tvho are called

the name.

The
14

usage of the word clearly pronounces for the former.
vii.

Compare Acts
ver.
is
;

59, ix. 14, 21
i.

;

Rom.

x.

13 (Acts

ii.

21),

compared with

1

Pet.

17,

etc.

Acts xv. 17 (from LXX.,

Amos

ix.

12)

quite

different.

2 Cor.

ii.

10

:

koL

yap eyw b

Kex.dpi(r|iai,

ct tl Kcxapia-jiai,

8t* v/Act?.

Some

render the verb here as pass.,
else

means
vi.

I have been forgiven; but ;)(api^o/xat nowhere " to be forgiven," and the ordinary rendering gives a sense
10
evSwajtova-Gc iv Kvpiu).
:

harmonious with the context.
Eph.
the
:

This verb

is

always passive in

New

Testament

^'be .strengthened."

(See Ellicott.)

THE MOODS AND TENSES.
359. The
is;

Indicative

Mood

is

objective, describing that

which

the Subjunctive and Optative are subjective, describing that
is

which

conceived to

be.

Hence the various usee

of the three

Moods

in

independent and subordinate sentences.

The
The
Indicative

Indicative.

Mood

is

used in declaration^ whether affirmative or

negative,

and

in interrogation.
ft

-360. As the force of the Tenses will be best seen in the first instance by their use in the Indicative, an account of them is here introduced. See the Table of Tenses, § 65. Let it be remembered that Tense expresses both time and state. Time is present, past, and future state is imperfect, perfect, and indefinite.

;

The Tenses

to

be considered are
1.

The present

imperfect;, or "Present."

2. 3.

The The
The The

past imperfect, or " Imperfect."

future indefinite, or "Future."
past indefinite, or " Aorist."
perfect, or " Perfect."

4.
5.

The present

6.

past perfect, or "Pluperfect."

;

§ 361, c]

THE TENSES

— PRESENT.

297

The

future imperfect, the present indefinite, and the future perfect,

are expressed in other ways.

The

three

past

tenses

are

termed " historical tenses," the others

"principal tenses."

The Present Tense.
361.
as Xryoj

The present expresses a ifXLv, I say unto you.
«.
iii.

state or action as

now

existing

Matt.

10

:

17

a^ivq Trpos

T7]v

pt^av rdv SevSpcov

Kcirai,

the axe is lyinff

at the root of the

trees.

John iii. 36 on the Son hath
:

6 Trta-Tevwv cts rov vlov
life eternal.
:

ixi\. t^iarjv

alwvLOVy he that heHevetli

Matt. XXV. 8

at

Xa/xTraSe?

yjixdv

o-p€vvvvTai,

mir lamps are going out

(R.Y.); not "are gone out," as A.Y.
Gal.
i.

6

:

Oavfxd^ui ort ovtu) Ta;(€(u? (i€TaTi0€(rO€,

I marvel

that ye are so

soon changing.
h.

It is also used to denote
vi.
vii.

an habitual or usual

act.

Matt.
Matt.

2

:

wcrvrcp 61 vTroKpiTal iroiovo-iv,
:

as the hypocrites do.
t^-qrCiv

8

ttSs 6

atrwv Xajipdvei, koX o

€vpio-K6i,

every one icho

asJiS receives,
c.

and he

tcho seeks Ji7ids.
is

In vivid narration the Present
1

employed

of past

time

(Historic Present).
]Matt.
iii.
:

iv Se rais

rj/JLipaL^;

cKciVat? irapa-yCvcTai 'Iwavv^?, a7ld in those

days cometh

Jolin.
:

John

i.

29

t^

iiravptov pXeirci tov ^Irjcrovv

...

kol Xfyti,

0)1

the next

day

he seeth Jesus, and saith.

Sometimes the Historic Present
narration.

is

ueed with Aorists in the same

!Mark
0€wpov(rt

v. 14,
...

15:

?<|)V'yov

koL airriyyctXav

.

.

.

/cat

^X0ov
...

.

.

.

Kat ^pxovrai
...

.

.

,

Kai

Kat

€<|>opTiOi]<rav,
...

come

...

and

he!told

and and they feared.
they fed,

related

and came

and they

Variations

may

same narrative.

here be noted in the comparison of different evangehsts in the Thus, ^latt. xxi. 23, xxii. 23, we read, irpoa-TjXdoi', they came to
comc.^

him ; Mark
Luke
^

xi. 27, xii. 18, ^pxovrai, therj

Compare

also Matt. xxiv. 40

;

xvii. 34.

As a

rule,

the narrations of

Mark

are

more vivid than those of the other

evansjehsts.

298
d.

THE TENSES

—PRESENT.

[§ 361, i.

The Present is employed we say, To-morrow is Sunday."
**

to express certain futurity, as

when

Matt. xxvi. 2

:

^cra Svo two days

rjfxepa'i

to Traor^a Yivcrai, kol 6 vto9 tov avOpwTrov

irapo.StSoTai, after

is the

passover,

and

the

Son of man

is betrayed'.
8C86)p.i,

Luke

xix. 8

:

ra

rj/xLcna fiov

twv

virap-^ovrtav Kvpie tois Trrto^^ot?
to the

the half of

my

goo(h. Lord,

I give

poor; not "I

am

in the habit

of giving"

now; but "I
:

will give," immediately.

John
John
1

XX. 17
xxi.

dvapatvw,
:

I ascend.

Compare

xvi. 16.

23
is

dieth not,

i.e.,

on 6 /xaOr}T7]<: e/ccti^o? ovk diro0vTi<rK€t, now and will be exempt from death.
:

that that disciple

Cor. XV. 26

lo-xaro?

l^Opo^ KarapYciTai 6

6dvaTo<;,

death the last

enemy is destroyed, or more lit., is being destroyed. In this case, and in some others, the notion of futurity is perhaps associated with that of the
process

now

being conducted.
^pxofj.ai,

meaning, carries with the present tense a coming.'' (See Luke xii. 54 1 Cor. So Matt. xvii. 11 'HXt'as kpx^rai, Elijah is coming; and especially xiii. 11.) John xiv. 3 irdXiv ^pxofJ.ai Kai 7rapa\7ji/'0/iat vfids, I ani coming again, and ivill

The verb

because of

its

future reference.

So in English,
:

"lam

;

:

receive you.
to)

1 Cor. xvi. 5

:

Ma/ce5oj/taj/ 5iepxofJ.aL

pass through Macedonia, not
fact.

"I am

must be rendered, / (am about passing through," which would be

contrary to
frequent

The participle of this verb, 6 €px6/j,€vos, tJie coming one, is a the ]\lessiah (see § 210), and in the Revelation denotes the eternal self-existence of Deity, who wast, and art, and art to corne, lit., "who
title of

comest."

On / am
Heb.

the other hand, the verb,
come.

^/cw, in

Luke xv. 27

:

6
I

ddeX^os aov

the present, has a perfect signification: iJKei., thy brother is come ; John ii. 4
;

;

X. 9 (not

simply " Lo,

come," but Lo, I am come)

1

John

v. 20.

The Impeefect Tense.
362.
gospel
b.

a.

The Imperfect expresses what was in progress at a
;

definite past time
;

as

iK-qpva-a-i

to

cvayyeA. lov, he

loas 2>r('ac/ting

the

tpairrCtovTo, they

were being baptised
refer to

Hence the Imperfect may
2

an action not continuous,

but statedly repeated; also to anything customary.
Acts
iii.
:

ov IrL^ow KaO' rjfxipav, ichom they used to lay
:

day by day.
a7id at each

Mark

xv. 6

Kara h\

kopTrfv onreXv^v avTo7<s Iva SicTfXLOVj

passover he used
See also
1

to release to

them one prisoner.

Cor. xiii. 11

§ 362, c]
c.

THE TENSES

—IMPERFECT.
from

299
the

The Imperfect should be carefully distinguished

Aorist, or simple Past, although the A.V. generally confuses the two The R.Y. is far more exact, and the use of the Parallel X.T. tenses.^

(A.y. and R.V.) will often suggest instructive references to the Greek.

So Luke xxiv. 32
Matt.
for
all,

:

icas not

our liPaH bu/minr/ withm us
to us the scriptures ?

(cliile

he was

talking icith us hy the way,
ii.

and openina

4

:

Herod was inquiring
;

of the priests

and

scribes, not

once

but repeatedly

(Aorist,

one act)
xiv. 7
V.
:

and when they had of the Magi what they had

replied,

he

asceiiained

seen.

Luke
John

how they
tlie

were selecting the chief seats.

16

:

Jews

icere persecuting Jesus,

and

icere seeking to kill

him, because he was doing (used to do) these things.

Acts xvi. 4

:

as they

icei'e

going through the

cities

they were delivering

the decrees to the churches.

Matt.

iv.

11

:

ayycAot

irpoo-i^XOov

kol

Sitjkovovv

avnZ, angels

came and

icere rainistering to

him.
(^ireo-cv)

Matt.

xiii.

8

:

other seed fell

upon

the

good ground, and was

yielding (cSiSov) fruit.

Matt. XXV. 5
(€Kd0€v8ov).

:

they all fell asleep (cvvo-ralav),

and

icere slumher^ijig

Mark
Luke
Cor.

vii.

35

:

Ids ears icere opened (8n]votx0'no-av),(cXvOi]),

and

the bond of his

tongue teas loosed
viii.

and he

teas speaking (eXdXct) plainly.

23

:

a whirlwind came down

(KaWpi]),

and they were

filling

(«rvv€ir\T]povvTo)
1
iii.

and were in danger
:

(eKiv8vv€vov).

6

The

transitory

/ planted, Apollos (catered, God was giving the increase. acts of human teachers are expressed by Aorists, the conby the Imperfect. So, 1 Pet. ii. 23, 24, denote continual and repeated acts ; but an
all.

tinual bestowal of Divine grace

we have

three Imperfects to

Aorist to denote an act (" he bare our sins") once for
See further, Matt. xxi. 8-11;

Mark

xi.

18

;

John

vii.

14, xi.

13,

xx. 3-5

;

*

It

may be

noted, however, that the absence of any tine Imperfect in English, and

the necessity of employing a
dilticult to

somewhat cumbrous circumlocution, often makes

it

render the Greek tense without loss of elegance, and has led to the loose
read
fjvoiyijffay.

eiiiploynient of the English preterite,
*

W. H.

300
Acts
Gal.
xi. 6
;

THE TENSES
1

— IMPERFECT.

362,

f.

23 {the night on which he was being betrayed) and many other passages. In parallel passages we occasionally find different tenses. Compare Matt. xix. 13 and ^lark x. 13, where the one writer regards the action as momentary, the
Cor. x.
ii.

3, 4, xi.

;

ii.

12

;

James

22,

other as continuous.

Some common

verbs, as \^7w, are generally used in the

Imperfect rather than in the Aorist.
d.

The Imperfect sometimes denotes an inchoative
,14

act,

i.e.,

one

begun, but not carried out.
Matt.
iii.
:

SickwXvcv avrov, he teas hindering him,

i.e.,

was doing so

until checked

by our Lord's words.
:

Luke
Luke
began

i.

59

koX

eKoXow avTo

. . .

Za;(aptai/,

and they began and
their

to call

him

Zacharias.
V.

6

:

Sit^p^-ywro Se to Blktvov avTiov,

nH was
entered

hreahing,

to give

way.

Luke
Heb.

xxiv.

27

:

SnipfiTjvcvcv,^

began

to
all,

interpret,

upon the
his only

explanation, rather than " expounded "
xi.

as

A.Y.
offering

17

:

tov

fxovoyevrj

irpo<rc(|>cp€v,

he was

wp

begotten,
e.

when

the angel's voice arrested him.

From

the inchoative sense arises a peculiar usage, in which the
of verbs

Imperfect
potential

expressing desire
icishing,
i.e.,

sense

:

/

v:}as

" I

seems to take a kind of was on the point of wishing,"

nearly equivalent to " I could (almost) wish," " I should like."

Acts XXV. 22
also to hear the

:

€Pov\o)jli]v

koI auro? tov avOpwTrov aKOvcraL,

I should

lilce

man

myself.
is

Sometimes the wish
Gal.
iv.

one which cannot be carried out.
-rrpo^

20

:

<j0€\ov Se

irapuvai

v/xas a/art,

/ could wish

to be present

with youjiist now.

Or

there
ix.

may
3
:

be a moral impossibility in the way.

Kom.

iivxoh^IV

yap dvdOeixa

tivai avro?

cyw

aTro

tov XpicrTOi) vTrtp

Toiv d8€X<j>u}v fiov,

I could

even myself

pray

to be

anathema from Christ on

behalf of

my

brethren.
take this as a simple imperfect, referring to the apostle's un"There was a time when even I myself (as you do now) begged

Some
to

critics

converted state.
behalf of

be anathema from Christ;" this l)eing a parenthesis, and the words "on my brethren" being attached to verse 2. The exposition deserves

*

W. H. and

Rev. Text read

5n)pfi-oyev<r€v.

55

363,

h.'\

thp:

tenses

—future.
is

301
a forced and im-

attention as an attempt to evade a moral difficulty, but

probable one.
/*.

A

compound

(or "resolved") Imperfect

(imperf.

of

ci/xt',

and

pros. part, of the

verb) throws
§

emphasis
i.

on the continuity of the

action.

See instances in

394,

1.

For the Imperfect in conditional expressions,

see § 383.

The Futube Tense.
363.
as
Swo-b),

a-

The Future expresses, in general,
and
is

indefinite futurity
etc.

;

/
V.

will give;

employed in prophecies, promises,

Matt.

5

:

aurot irapaKXTjOTjo-ovTau^

6o

in all the

Beatitudes,

save

vers. 3, 10.
Pliil.
iii.

21

:

o?

fi.€Ta<rxTjfiaTt<r6i

to (rw/xa

Trjs Ta7reti/<ocrccus

rjfiijjv,

who

icill

tramform

the

body of our humiiiation.
:

Rom.
2

vi.

14

afiaprla

yap

vfiiov

ov

Kvpicvo-cij

/or sin shall not have

dominion over you.

Isot a

command, but a promise.
xap!-?,

John 3

:

^crrai /xc^'
4,

rjiiiliv

grace shall he icith us, as R.Y.
15, the

In Matt, xxvii.
of a threat
h.
^^
:

24,

Acts

xviii.

second person future has the force

you shall

see to Vtat.''

But compare next paragraph.

Commands
if
:

are often expressed

by the Future second person
thou shalt call his

(by the third,

speaking of the person commanded).
to ovo/ta avVov
'Ir/crovr,

Matt.
Jesus.

i.

21

koX^o-cis
i.

name

Luke
So Matt.
In
1

13, 31.
48, xxii. 37, 39 (and parallels, as
;

V.

Rom.

xiii.

9

;

Gal. v. 14)

;

1 Cor. V. 13, rec. text

W.

H.,

etc.,

read imperative.
is

Tim.
:

vi.

8 the expression of a resolution as to the future

indirectly a

command

roi^rois ipKeadijffofMcda,

we

will be content with these things.
so).

Especially in prohibitions (from the Old Testament, but not only

Matt.

vi.

5

:

ovk

i(<r«<r6€

wa-nep

ot

viroKpLrai^

ye shall not

he as the

hypocrites.

So ch.
*

iv. 7, V. 21, 27,

33

;

Acts

xxiii. 5

;

Rom.

vii. 7, etc.'^

So

W. H.

marg.

;

text KXijpovofirjaovffi.

between this and the classic idiom is, that in the latter the future, with ov, is the mildest form of prohibition. In Hebrew (and so in New Testament Greek) it is the special language of legislative authority, and is the idiom used in the Decalogue. So Winer.
^

The

ditierenee

302
c.

THE TENSES

—FUTURE.

[§ 363,

C.

in

The Future sometimes denotes what is usual, and is employed maxims, expressions of general truths, and the like (** ethical
").
:

future

Epll. V. 31

KaTaX€l\|/€t

avOpuywos Trarepa Kal firjTepa^ k.tA., a
etc.

man man

shall

leave father

and mother^
:

Gal. vi. 5

l/cao-Tos

yap ro

tStov

^opriov

/Sao-rao-ct,

for each

shall

hear his

own

load.

So wifh a negative.
by works of laio
d.
sJiall

Rom.
no flesh
is

iii.

20

:

i^ ^pyiov v6/xov oi SiKatcod-fia-eTai irda-a (rdp^,

he justified.

A

strong negative
ov

negative infj. and the idiom will be found explained,
Instances with the Future
are,

The

Subjunctive, however,

expressed by the Future with the double is more generally employed
§ 377.
:

Matt. xvi. 22

this shall
:

never he

!

Mark harm
e.

xiv. 31

:

/

icill

never deny thee !

Luke

x.

19

nothing shall ever

you.

Future imperfect (*' resolved future ") is formed by the Future of the verb €ijj.c with the Present participle.

A

Luke

i.

20

:

io-r\ o-iwircSv,

thou shalt he
;

silent.
;

So Matt.

X. 22, xxiv. 9

Mark

xiii.

25

Luke

v. 10, xvii.

35

;

1

Cor. xiv.

9.

(See §394,1.)

The Future
/.

Perfect has been sufficiently explained, § 101,
(icXXw, to he

i.

Auxiliary Future Verbs are
former, which
is

ahout

to ;

and

e^Xw, to

loill.

The

scarcely over represented in the A.V., gives emphasis
'

to the notion that the thing is to happen,

fixed

and hence is often used of and appointed purpose.^ Tli£ reader may study the following passages in which /xeXXto occurs, noting especially the R.V.
Matt.
ii.

13, xvii. 12, 22, xx. 22, xxiv. 6

;

Mark

xiii.

4; Luke

vii.

2
;

[was at the point of death), ix. 31,44, x. 1 ; John vi. Acts V. 35 {lohat ye are ahout to do), xvii. 31 ; Rom.
to die)
;

6,

xiv. 22, xviii.

32

viii.

13 (you are sure

1

Thess.

iii.

4

;

Heb.

xi.

8 (tvhich he was to receive), and

many
is

other passages,

to jacXXov, part, neut., is " the future."
rt fxcXXas
;

Once the verb
Acts
xxii. 1 6.

used in the sense of delay,
Still

why

tarriest thou ?

more important

is it

to

mark the use
auxiliary, will,

of 0A.w, as implying con-

scious volition.

The English

ought here to be read as

emphatic.
*

See Ellicott on

1

Thess.

iii.

4.

;

§ 364,

a.]

THE TENSES
40
(if

—AOEISTS.
:

303

man wills to do so), xi. 14, xvi. 24, 25 if any wan u'ills to come aftei' me ...for whosoever wills to save his life will (future) lose it ... but whosoever shall lose his life for my saJfe will find it
Matt.
V.

any

So exactly Mark viii. 34, 35 ; Luke ix. 23, 24 ; John V. 6, 40, vii. 17 if any man wills to do his will, he shall know of the the lusts of your father ye choose to do; Acts xvii. 18 doctrine; viii. 44
(simple futurity).
:
:

:

tchat does this

babbler icant to say
as

?

Eom.
ii.

xiii.

3

;

1 Cor. xiv.

35

:

if

they tvish
1

to,

or,
:

in

other passages, if they icoidd learn anything

Tim.

V.

11

they leant to

marry ; James

20

:

wiliest

thou to know

?

3

John

13, etc.

The Aorist Tenses.
364.
tain.
a.

The Aorist denotes what
cis

is

absolutely past, and answers
ilpos,

to the English Preterite, as dvepT]

to

he went

up

into the

moun-

The

First

and Second Aorists have precisely the same meaning, except
3.

in the

few cases specified, §§ 100, 108,

between the Aorist and the Imperfect between the Aorist and the Perfect, § 365, b.
distinction

The

is

noted, § 362, c,

When

the past time

is

not strongly marked, the English idiom often includes

a past act in a period reaching to the present time, and hence uses the Perfect, where in Greek the Aorist is the usual tense.

Luke
good").

i.

1

:

iTretSi^Trep

ttoXXoI cirex^ipTio-av
to

undei'tookj it seemed

good also

me

("

forasmuch as many have undertaken," "it has seemed
. . .

^So^c KafxoL,

Luke

i.

19

:

aTrto-raXiiv

XaXrjdat Trpos

(xi,

I (Gabriel)

icas sent to

speak

unto thee ("have been sent").

Luke

ii.

48
?

:

T€Kvov, tl

e-n-oiTicras rjfXLV

ovtws

;

child, ichy didst fhou thus

deal u'ith u^

(" hast thou dealt").
:

Matt,

xxiii. 2

IttI rrj^

Mwvo'eoos Ka^eSpas eKadio-av
"

ol ypa/x/tarets

Kac ol

KfyapicraLOL,

the scribes
sit,"

and

the Pharisees seated themselves in the chair

Moses (not "
occupied
it."i

simply).

They found the

seat virtually empty,

of and

1

T. S. Green.

304
1

THE TENSES
John
iv.

—AOKISTS.
a knowledge of
Rom.
is.^

[§ 364,
(iyvui)

a,

8

:

he

lolio

loves not, never got

experimentally,

—not having
short, etc.
;

God;

at
;

any time known what love
viii.

See also Luke xiv. 18, 19
aiid so are

John

29, xvii.

4

;

iii.

23, all shincd,

coming 5
:

1 Cor. vi. 11.
*

2 Cor.

V. 1

ets virlp iravTiav air^Oavev

apa

ol 7rdvT€<s dircOavov

*

one died

for

all,

therefore all died.
iii.

Compare

2

Tim.

ii.

11.
i.e.,

Phil.
life,

8

:

/

suffered the loss of all things,
i.

at the crisis of his

ver. 12.

James

11 (a vivid, descriptive delineation).

So

ver.

24

(a Perfect interposed).

knoivhig that the putting off of miy tabernacle cometh swiftly, even as our Lord Jesus Christ signified unto me (R.V.). By the
2 Pet.
i.
:

14

^^hath

showed me"

(of

A.V.) we lose altogether the special allusion to an
life,

historic
at once
h.

moment

in the Apostle's

to

John xxi

18, 19,

have come out had

iZr^fatri /xot

been rendered,

which would ^showed me.""^

may

In narration, an Aorist that starts from a time already past be translated by the Pluperfect
:

Matt. XX viii. 2
quake.

o-etcr/xos

c-yevtro /xcya?,

there

had heen a

great earth-

Luke

ii.

39

:

ws

crcXco-av TrdvTa,
;

when they had accomplished
xL
30, xviii. 24
(?), etc.

all things.

See also Matt. xiv. 3
c.

John

vi. 22,

The Epistolary

Aorist,

so

called (as ^Ypai|/a), takes the reader's
is

point of view, in which the writing of the letter

viewed
^^

as past.
ivritteii."
1

Our
Cor.
it.^

idiom requires us to take the writer's point of view,

I have

Rom.
ix.

XV. 15; 1 Pet. v. 12 (referring to the whole letter);
1

15

:

John

ii.

21,

and

perhaps 1 Cor. v. 9, referring to a part of
to

Gal.

vi. 11,

referring

either

the whole or to part, according to the

interpretation adopted.

But ^paxf/a
letter,

has, in other cases, its ordinary Aorist force, referring to a former
ii.

"/

wrote," 2 Cor.

3, 4, 9, vii.

12

;

probably 3 John 9

;

and perhaps

1 Cor. V. 9.

The word
1

^-rrcixxj/a

also exemplifies the Epistolary Aorist,
;

^^

I have

sent,"

Cor.
^

iv.

17

;

2 Cor. ix. 3

Eph.

vi.

22

;

Rev.

xxii. 16.

Other passages in which

fyj/wj/

has been regarded as standing

for the Present

may

be ex})lained in a similar way.
-

Arch])ishoi) Trench on the Authorised Version of the

New

Testament,

p. 146.

^

See EUicott on Gal.

vi. 11.

§ 365,

^.J

THE TENSES

—PERFECT.

305

d. In classical (ireek, the Aorist is frequently used to describe an act which has taken place in time past, and may take place at any time again. Here in English the Present is the usual tense. Accordingly, in the Xew Testament there are a few passages where the Aorist may best be translated by the Present.

Matt.

iiL

17

:

cv

w

ev86KT]<ra,

in

whom I am
.
.

ivell

pleased^

i.e.,

"I was,

and am."

So
viii.

in parallel passages.

Rom.
glorifies;
e.

30:
did,

IkAXco-^

.

.

.

eSiKalwo-c

.

e8<J|a(r€,

7ie

calls

...

justifies ..,

"he

and does."^
is

The completeness of an act
xiii.

occasionally

marked by the
Son of man

Aorist.

John
1

31

:

vvv eSo^ao^i] 6 vtos rov dv^pwTrou,
series of events
. . .

now

is the

glorified ; the

whole
:

being brought to a

crisis.

Cor.

vii.

28

thou didst not

she did not

commit a

sin.

Sq
xviii.

in several of
23, xxii. 2),

the parables wfioiwOr], is likened (Matt. xiii. 24, " a9 if the mould had already received its shape,
:

though the cast was yet
Compare Luke
i.

to issue.
;

"^
29.

51-53

John

viii.

The Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses.
The Perfect denotes an action or event as now complete its point of view is, therefore, in the present, as 6 yiy^a.^a, It denotes also a past act YeypcwfKi, ivhat 1 have icritten, I have written.

365,
;

a.

whose consequences remain,
abides
;" it is ivi'itten.^

as -YeypairTai,

"

it

has been written, and

b. The distinction between the Aorist and Perfect is thus very marked. Thus, Te0vTJKa<ri (Matt. ii. 20), they are dead ; 20avov {aTriOavov) would have been, they died. Compare Mark xv. 44. Even where either tense would be suitable, the proper force must be given to the one

employed.
Matt.
ix.

13

:

ov yap ^Xdov KaXccat SiKatovs, for

I came

not to call

righteous persoTis.

Luke

V.

32

:

ovk cX-^XvOa KoXiaai
1

8t/catov9,

/ am

not come, etc.

Alford interprets differently.
T. S. Green.

See his note.

2

^

Luther, stcht geschrieben.

306
In the following

THE TENSES
passages,
:

—PERFECT.
others,

[§ 365,
the

&.

among many
cavrov,

distinction of

tenses is strikingly apparent

Mark iii. 26
rose

:

et

6 iSaraj/a? dve'cm]

i(f>

/cat ]i.i[Lip\.<rrai,^

for if Satan

up against himself and has become
:

divided.

Acts xxi. 28

he hrought

(clo-^va-yev)

Greeks into the temple^ and has

profaned

(k^koIvwkc) this holy place ;

the single act, the abiding result.
e-y^^epTai, a7id

1 Cor. XV.

4

:

koX 6tl

€Td<|)T],

koL

on
all

that he

was buried,

The simple So historical fact is announced by the aorist, "fiyepBi], Matt, xxviii. 6, 7 Mark xvi. 6; Luke xxiv. 6, 34 (John xxi. 14); Eom. vi. 4, etc. For the perf. part., see 2 Tim. ii. 8, compared with the aor. part., 2 Cor. v. 15.
and
that he is risen again.

through this chapter.

Col.

i.

16

:

on

iv

avTw

kKri<r9r\ to.

Trdvra

... to,

Travra
...

St'

avrov kol

cts

avrov

^KTiorrat,

because in

created by
Col.
iii.

him were him and for him.
:

all

things created

all things

have been

3

dircGdvcTc yap, Kat

7]

^oir]

v/xwv KiKpynrrai

.

.

.

for ye died^ and

your

life

remains hidden.
7
:

Kev.

V.

^XBc Kat

6\;Xti4>€,

he came, and he hath taken the book (which
destiny).
40
;

he

still retains,

as

Lord
iv.

of
;

human
viii.

See also Luke

18

John

Heb.

ii.

14

;

1

John

i.

1.

but rarely used in the New Testament. It denotes that which was completed at some past time as, t€0€(1€XI«to cttI ttjv Trerpav, it had been founded on the
Pluperfect, or Past Perfect,
is
;

366. The

rock.

Acts xiv. 23

:

irapiOevTO avrovs T(3 Kvpio) €.U ov

ircirio-TcvKcio-av,

they

commended them to the Lord, on

whom

they

had

believed.

367.

The Perfects of many verbs are used as Presents

;

and

correspondingly the Pluperfect takes a Past signification. Tliis arises in each case from the simple meaning of the verb, as coming into a state Perf., being in (having come into) that state.
:

So

KTOLO/xai, to

gain

;

K^Krrj/xai, to possess,

which

(h)os not,

however, occur in the

New

Testament.

See Luke

xviii. 12:

irdvTa oca KTw/xai, not of all that

I possess,
shall

but of all that I gain your souls " (R.V.).
1

— the income,

not the capital.

So

xxi. 19,

"

?/c

win

But W. H. and Rev. Text read

ifieplaO-^.

——

§ 368,

b.]

THE INDICATIVE— LVTERROGATIVE FOEMS.
Ka0tt«, Kd0T,jtai.

307
Luke

For example,
xvui. 35, etc.:

Mark xi.

7

:

UdQicev, he mounted.

^K(i07,To,

he was

lam
hence

aslee2\
:

1

Cor. xi.
...

Jolin XI. 11

Ad^apos
(See
its

I know.
and

I fall asleep; K€Kot|iT„iai, 30: Koi,i«vTat I/cavot, many are falling asleep. K€Koi>r]Tai, Lazarus sleepeth. ol8a, / have seen:
sitting.
Koi^dojiai,

g 103.)

r<rTT||Ai

compounds
resisteth,

«<miKa,

I stand,
IV.
6.

especially exhibit this " Present Perfect."

as Acts xxvi. 6.

So

kvi<m^Ki, is

imminent, 2 Thess

ii

2

dvG^o^Ke
2 Tim.

(trans.),

Rom.

ix.

19, xiii.

2;

^<|>^o-Tt,Kc

^^^

a^
/'

/.a^
arViKa),
i

Prom

Icrr-qKa

comes a new Present

(intrans.),

Rom.

xiv. 4, etc.

^

For other words used in a similar sense, see Vocabulary.

Interrogative Forms.

368. The
tively,

several tenses of the Indicative are
its

employed interroga-

The interrogative may be indicated by the appropriate pronouns or particles, or simply by the order of
the words, or the general sense of the passage.
a.

each with

proper force.

With
i.

interrogative words
:

Matt. XXV. 37

ttotc a-e tlhofxtv ircLvCjvTa;
;

when saw we

thee

hungry

?

John

19

:

crv tCs ct
:

who

art thou ?
;

John words?
John

V.

47

rr&s rots ifxols prjiiaaL Trio-TevVcTc

how

will ye believe

mu ^

xi.

34

:

irow
:

TeOeUaTe avrov
y€ yivwo-Kcts

;

whei'e

have ye laid him

?

Acts vin. 30 dpd what thou readest ? Luke
b.

a dvayii/wcTKas ; unde)'standest thou then

xviii. 8

;

Gal.

ii.

17.

Without
IX.

interrogative words
:

Matt.

28

Trto-revcTc otl Bvvafiai

tovto

Troi^crai

;

believe ye that

able to do this

lam

?
:

Rom.

vii.

7

6 v6fxo<s a^apTia
6
;

;

is the

law sin
21-23.

?

So John

xiii.

Acts xxi. 37

,

Rom.

ii.

Hence
1

arises occasional
i.
:

ambiguity.
;

Cor.

Lachmann
Rom.

13 fxefi^piffTai 6 Xpiards reads this as an assertion

is

Christ divided? (R.V.,
i.e.,

W

H

marg

)

:

Christ is divided,

which rend asunder his body (R.V. marg.,
viii.

by your

dissensions,*

W.

H.).

33, 34.

Many
-

critics

and answer, as A.V.

Who

read this as a series of questions, not question shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect ?

308

THE INDICATIVE

—INTERROGATIVE

FORMS.
it

[§ 368,

h.

Shall God who justifieth ? "Who is he that condemneth ? Is See Alford's note on the passage.) etc. (So R.V. marg.

Christ

who died ?

"

An
some

elliptic
siicli

question

is

made by
us,

the use of the particle

A,

if,

phrase as say, or

tell

being understood.
§

In

this case the

sentence

is

really dependent.

(See

383.)
6epa7r€V€Lv
;

Matt.

xii.

10:

€l

c^co-ti toIs a-dp/Saa-L
(tell

is it

lawful to heal

upon

the sahhath
:

?

us

if

).

Acts xix. 2

el

Trvev/xa aytoi/
?
;

iXd^€T€

7ri(rT€vcravTcs

;

received ye the Holij

Ghost when ye believed
So Acts
vii. 1
;

xxi. 37

xxii. 25.

369. An
formula

affirmative

answer

is

given, in a few passages,
:

by the
is

o-v X^^eis,

thou sayest y with or without addition
xxiii.

Matt, xxvii. 11

Luke

xxii.

70

;

3

;

John

xviii. 37.

o-v

etiras,

thou didst say,

similarly used, Matt. xxvi. 25, 64.

370. Negative
expected.
a.

questions are framed according to the answer

ov

presumes an affirmative reply.
vii.

Matt.
in thy

22
?
:

:

ov

tw

cru)

oi/o/xart

iTrpocfyyTevcrafXiv

;

did we not prophesy

name

1 Cor. ix. 1

ovk

ei/xt

Ik^vOcpos
?

;

ovk

eljxl

aTrdcrToXos

;

k.t.X.,

am I

not

free

?

am I not
xiii.

an
:

apostle

etc.
;

Acts
ing
?

10

ov Travarrj Stacrrpe^cDj/

Wilt thoit not ceose

from

pervert-

the affirmative answer being intimated as that which ought to be

given.

So Mark

xiv.

60

:

dost thou not answer anything

?

Once
thou
h.

ovKovv is found.

John

xviii.

37

:

thou art not then a king, art

?

Y-'h

expects a negative answer.
vii.

Matt.

9

:

|jl^

XiOov eViSojo-ct avTio

;

will he give
;

him a

stone

?

Rom. God ?
c.

ix.

14:

ii-rj

dSiKia Traph. tu) 0e(p

is

thei'e

unrighteousness with

fji^Ti

suggests an emphatic negative.

j\latt. vii.

16

:

JJh^ti

(rvWiyovaLv

utto aKai'OCjy (rTa(f>vXa<;

rj

d-nro Tpt/3oAa>»'

a-vKu;

men do

not gather grape-dusters of thorns, or figs of thistles, do

they?-

^

§ 373,

a.]

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.
:

309
iitjti

Matt. XX vi. 22, 25
€t/ti, pa;^/?t';

{xtjti

eyw
it is

etyut,

Kvpte
/, is it,

;

(from the disciples),

eyw

(from Judas),

not

Lord?— is
!

it,

Rabbi

?

See also
It
^

Mark

iv.

21

;

John

xviii.

35

("/a Jew

").

would sometimes appear as though dawning conviction would fortify resistance by a strong negative. So ]\ratt. xii. 23 may be understood /i^n ovtos i<TTLv 6 vios Aa/3.5 this is never tJie Son of David?
:

;

The Imperative Mood.
371. The Imperative
Matt.
Matt.
V.

is

used for
i^Opovs

command

or entreaty.

44

:

dYa-jrdTc tov<;
:

v/jlwv,

love you7' enemies.

viii.

25

Ki^te,

o-oiorov,

aTroXkvfjieOa,
is

Lord, save,

tve

perish
(See
§

/

The negative with imperative forms John vi. 20 eyw dfxi (if| f^o^da-Qe, it is
:

always

|i^.

375.)

I, be

mt

afraid.

372. The form
permission
is

of

command

is

sometimes employed where simple

intended.
:

Matt. xxvi. 45

Kae€v86T€ Xoiirhv koX Avairaveo-Oc, sleep

on now, and take

your

rest.'^

See also
*

1 Cor. vii. 15, xiv. 38.

''Rev. xxii. 11

is

a challenge {Aufforderung):

the fate of

all is as

good as already determined.' "

373. Of the Imperative
tinuance or repetition. The Aorist expresses a
is

tenses,

the Present implies present con-

command generally, or implies that the single or instantaneous. The Perfect (very rare) refers to an action complete in itself, yet continuous in its effect. Its meaning coincides with that of the Present in verbs where the Perfect indicative has a present meaning.
action
a.

The

Present.
:

Matt.
1 1

vii. 1

(a^ Kptvcrc,
:

judge

not.

Cor. IX.

24

ovrw rpixtre Zva KaTaXdpT]T€, so run that ye
:

may

obtain.

Thess. V. 16-22

Trai/rorc x*tp«T€,

dStaActTrra)? irpoo-€vx€<r0€,

h

iravrl

^

Winer,
Bengel.

xliii.

1.

-

" Sleep,

if

you

feel at liberty to

do so

;

" not in irony, not (as some) a

question.

310

'iHE

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

[§ 373, a.

€vxapi<rT€iT€, K.T.X., vejoice

evermore ; pi'ay without ceasing; in everything

give thanks, etc.
h.

The

Aorist.

Matt.

vi.
. . .

6

:

el'o-cXOc ets

to

ra/xtetoi/

aov KaX

.

.

irp6a-fv^aij

enter into thy

chamber
Matt.

and pray.
9-11
44
:

vi.

in the Lord's Pra^yer,

a^iao-GiiTa) ... y€VTj0TJTw ... 80s ...

John him go.
c.

xi.

:

Xvo-arc auroi/,

Kat

&<J)€T€

avTov VTrdycLV, loose him^

and

let

The

Perfect.

Mark
The

iv.

39

:

o-tojTra,

'ir€<j)t(ia>(ro,

peace! he

still f

contrasted force of the Present and Aorist

is

shown where both
up thy bed and
rrj

are used in the

same passage.
'ir€piirdT€t,

John
walk.

V.

8

:

dpov rov KpapaxTov aov kcu

take

Rom.
your

vi.

13

:

ix-qh\

Trapto-TdvcTc to. fxiXy v^xuiv oirXa

dStActa?

d/xapria,

aXXh. Trapa<rTi]o-aT€ kavTov<s
lives),

tw

0€(3, yield

not your members (as
sin,

tlie

habit of

as instruments of unrighteousness, unto

but yield, yoiir-

selves (a single act,

once for

all)

unto God.

For the employment of the Future Indicative in commands and prohibitions,
see § 363,
h.

For the similar use of the Subjunctive, especially in prohibitions, see The Infinitive may also be employed. (See § 392.)

§ 375.

In many instances the force of the Aorist and that of the Present

seem nearly
Matt.
V.

identical.
:

The former
Xap.t{/dTa)
:

is

the more vigorous expression.
v/xwi/,

might have been employed — "let your
continuance.

16

ovrw

to ^ais

k.t.X.

Here the Present
continuously."

light

beam

The

Aorist simply gives the general command, without the further thought of

John
me,
keep)

xiv. 15

:

eav dyaTrare
:

/xc,

ras hroXa.<;

ra.<;

ifxas r^p-fjo-OTCjl if

y^ love

my commandments
XV. 11
:

adopt this as the law of your
to. tOvr],

lives.

Kom.

alvctrt,

Trdvra

rov l^vpiov, koi ^iraiveo-dTuxrav avrov
;

7rdvT€? ot Xaoi, praise the

Lord, all the nations
to

and

let

all the

peoples

burst into

a song of praise
^

him.
rrjp'^aeTe, yc wlli keep.

W. H. and

Rev. Text read

§ 375.]
See also John
ii.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
8,

311

16

;

1 Cor.

xv. 34.

The

consideration of such examples will bring to light

many

subtle beauties'

of expression, which no translation, perhaps, could accurately represent.

The Subjunctive Mood.
Subjunctives in Independent Clauses.

374. The
Thus,

Subjimctivo, strictly speaking, cannot stand in an indepen-

dent sentence.
Loy/xevy let

Where
us go,
is

it

appears to do

so,

there

is

in reality

an

ellipsis.

really a final clause (Iva understood)

dependent

ever, this distinction

on some implied verb or phrase. In such cases as the following, howmay be disregarded, and the sentences taken as to all intents and purposes independent.
The tenses Compare also
in the Subjunctive
§ 386.

and Optative are distinguished as in § The Present implies continuity, the Aorist co)n2)Ietiou.

373.

375. The Subjunctive
first

is

used as a hortatory Imperative of the

person.
xix.

John
let

24

:

|x^ <rxio-w|x,€V

avrov,

aWa

Xax^H-^^j ^^^

'^^^

'^^^

^'^^^^

^^)

^^^

us cast

lots.

Rom. V. 1 and ver. 2, 3
So

:

dp-qv-qv
:

ix(a\i.iv

TTpos Tov ©cov,^ let

us have peace with

God;

KavxwjieOa, let us glory.
XV. 32
;

1 Cor.

1

Thess. v.
is

6.

The Subjunctive Aorist
prohibitions.'
^

used

instead of

the

Imperative in

W.

H,, R.V.

The MS. evidence

for this

reading

is

very strong

;

indeed, in any

ordinary case would be overwhelming.

On
;

internal grounds, however, Tischendorf

case, even the testimony of seems to have been a practice with some ancient transcribers to make Scripture, as they thought, more emphatic by turning a declaration or a promise into an exhortation. It could easily be done, as nothing more was needed than to change the o of the indicative into the w of the subjunctive. So John iv. 42, "let us believe " Rom. v. 10, *'l€t us be saved ;" Rom. vi. 8, "let us believe ;" 1 Cor. xiv. 15, " let me pray " 1 Cor. xv. 49, "let us bear the image of the heavenly" (so W. H.); Heb. vi. 3, "this let us do;" James iv. 13, " let us go, "etc.; and many similar passages. (See Alford's note on
it
;

and others prefer the rec. text, ive have peace. MSS. must be taken with great caution as

In such a

;

Rom.
"

V. 1.)
is

This

the regular classical idiom.

'Sl'2

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
i.

[§ 375.

Matt.

20

:

(i^ <|>oj3TidTJs,
ji-i^

fear

not.

^latt. V. 17:

voixio-iiTc,

tliink not.

Matt.

vi.

2

:

y.^ (raXirio-Tjs,

sound not a

triunpet.

This usage also depends upon the ellipsis of some phrase like "see," "take etc., with Xva. In a few instances, a positive command is expressed by IVa with the subjunctive (Mark v. 23 2 Cor. viii. 7 Eph. v. 33). For the complete phrase, see 1 Cor. xvi. 10 and with ellipsis of IVa, Matt. viii. 4.
heed,"
;

;

;

But the third person

of the Aor. Imp.

may

be used with

jirj

(]\Iatt. vi.

3

;

Mark

xiii.

16).

used in questions expressive of deliberation or doubt thus, t'l iroiwiicv (John vi. 28) ichat are we to do ? but ri iroiovjicv (Jolm xi. 47) ivhat are we doing? " what are we about '?" and TL TrotT|<r€i (Matt. xxi. 40) u'hat icill lie do ?
is
:

376. The Subjunctive
;

;

;

Mark

xii.

14

:

8«}j.€v
:

tj fxrj

8wp.€v

;

are

ive to give^

or not to give ?
Jioic

Matt. xxvi. 54

ttcos

ovv irXTipwOwo-iv at ypacfiai,

then slioidd the

scriptures he fid filled ?
1

Cor. xi. 22

:

rt cl'irw ?

vfuv

;

^iraivc'o-w

v/xas

;

ichat

am I

to sat/ to goii ?

am I to pyraise
The second
it

you

of these verbs

might be the
So in the

fut.

indie, the connection only showing
is

to be aor. subj.
is

As the two
meant.

tenses are alike in the first pers. sing., it
pres. of contracted verbs, rt ttoiw
;

often

doubtful which

377.
with
ov

A
|JLTJ,

strong
as ov
Y-'h

denial

is

expressed by the
®^
V-'h

Subjunctive Aorist
xiii. 5),

^^

"-v"? o^^'

^^ cYKaraXCTTw (Heb.
all

/

will

assuredly not leave thee, nor will

I at

forsake

thee.
:

elliptical,

This idiom arises from a combination of two phrases ix-q, with the subjunctive "fear lest'' (see § 384) preceded by ov, wdth the word (understood)
;

on which

fi-q

depends.

"There
17

is

not

any

fear or possibility lest

I should."

Matt.

V.

18

:

twra

ci'

fita

Kcpata ov

\i^ irapeXO-n,

one iota (the smallest
letter^) shall

letter of the alphabet), or one tittle (the

fragment of a

hy no

means pass.
Matt.
V.

20

:

ov
:

fx^ €l<r6X0TiT<,

ye shall in no
never will

icise enter.

Mark
^
-

xiv.

25

ovkItl ov

nf| irCw,

I drink

at al/.^

As, for instance, that which distinguishes

A from

A, or in Hebrew, n from

n.

The

additional negative adds strength to the negation.

§ 378,

a.]

THE OPTATIVE MOOD.
;

313
37 (twice), xviii, 17, xxii. 67,

See also Matt. xxiv. 2

]Mark

ix.

il

;

Luke

vi.

68

;

John
viii.

\'i.

37,

viii.

51, x. 28, xiii. 8

;

Acts xxviii. 26 (tAnee, from the LXX.;
Rev. xviii.
21-23

so elsewhere);

1 Cor. viii.

13

;

1 Thess. iv. 15 {ahull by no
i.

Heb.

11, 12

(LXX.)

;

2 Pet.

10

;

means irrcccdc), v. 3; with uiauy other
;

passages.
interest.

The study

of these emphatic negatives of Scripture

is

fraught with

(see § 363, d)
abiKyjffT})
;

In the following passages only (in the best MSS. and edd. ), the future is found Matt. xvi. 22, xxvi. 35 Mark xiv. 31 Luke x. 19 (\\ H. niarg.
:
; ;
.

John

iv. 14, x. 5,

xx. 25 (ambiguous).^

For the Aorist Subjunctive

in a Future-perfect sense, see § 383, p.

The Optative Mood.
Optative in Independent Clauses.

378.

a.

The Optative
i.

is

used in
x^P'^
v^jiiv

independent
koI
elp-qvrj

sentences to exijracfi

press a wish, as 2 Pet.

2

:

irX-qBuvQciT],

and

peace be multiplied unto you

!

As

stated with regard to the Subjunctive (§ 374), the independence of the
is

seeming only, a verbal notion on which the Optative depends beiug The Optative is in fact only another form of the Subiirax]. jective mood, "the Sulijunctive of the historical tenses." But this characteristic is almost lost in the Xew Testament, where the Optative is comparatively rare.
sentence
implied, as desire,

Rom.

XV. 5

:

6 8e
:

0eos

...

8«t] v/xtv,

now may God grant unto you!
ovatix-qv

Philemon 20

vat, dSeXt^e,

eyw
!

crov

Iv Kvpiio, yea, brother, let

me have joy
So Acts

of thee in the Lord
viii.

20;

1

Thess.
/u,rj.

iii.

11, 12; 2 Thess.

iii.

5, etc.

So with the negative,

Mark

xi.

14

:

ixtikcti

...Ik <toO

jjtT|8€is

Kapirbv

cjwxyoi,

let

no one ever eat

fruit of thee.
2 Tim.
iv.

16

:

n^ avTots
-ycvoiTo,

Xo-ywrOctT],

may

it

not be laid to their charge !

The formula

fi-?!

may
14) "

it

not come to pa^s ! rendered in A.V.
forbid
!" illustrates

(and R.V., except Gal.

vi.

God

the same usage.

Luke
^

XX. 16

;

Rom.

vi. 2, 15, vii.

13, etc.

The

future indie, with

oi5

/A/7

has no perceptible diiference of meaning from that

of the aor. subj. {Madvig, § 124, a, 3). Probably the future realises to the with greater vividness the possibility which is denied.

mind

314

I'HE

OPTATIVE MOOD.

[§ 378, a.

But a wisii respecting something past is sometimes expressed by 6<t)e\ov (really representing an old Second Aorist of a verb, I ought, and in classic Greek followed

by an

infinitive)

used in the
;

New
v.

Testament as a particle with the Indicative.
12; Rev.
iii.

1 Gor. iv.
h.

8; 2 Cor. xi. 1

Gal.

15.

The particle dtv gives a potential ssnse in affirmations and in questions.
Aots xxvi. 29
Acts
viii.
:

to the Optative,

both

6v|alfiT]v
ttcos

&v

to3

©ew,
;

/ could

icish to

God.

31

:

yap dv

8vvat}iT]v

nay, for hotv could

I?

The Moods
379.

in

Dependent Clauses.

A

Compound Sentence

(see § 187) consists of co-ordinate clauses,

or of a principal clause with subordinate (dependent) ones.

Subordinate clauses

may be

infinitive or participial, or

they

may be

connected Avith the principal sentence by relatives or conjunctions.
For the Infinitive and Participle, see §§ 385-397. For the Relative, see 343-349. For the Conjunctions uniting co-ordUmte clauses, see §§ 403-407. §§

a general rule, the moods and tenses in subordinate clauses are used as in principal ones. It must be especially noted that relatives or conjunctions, with Av (edv), the hypothetical particle, generally take the Subjunctive.
Matt.
V.

380. As

19

:

8s eav ovv Xvo-rj, tohosoever therefore shall break.

Matt.
Matt.

V.
vi.

20
2
:

:

edv (et av) fxy
(Jrav

-rrepio-o-tvo-T),

if

it

shall not surpass.

(ore av)

iroiTJs

iX.€r]fj,o(rvvyv,

when fhou

doest alms.

For oT€

Avith Indicative, see ^latt. vii. 28.
:

Matt. xvi. 28

^ws dv

l'8«cri,

until they shall have seen.

So with many other passages.
is occasionally found when a matter of Mark vl. 56 Acts ii. 45, iv. o5 1 Cor. xii. 2. The use of the moods in object-sentences^ in conditional sentences, and in intentional clauses, demands separate consideration.

But the Imperfect Indicative
is

fact

spoken

of.

;

;

Object-Sentences.

381.

When
That

the dependent clause expresses the object of any of
etc.,^

the senses, or the matter of knowledge, thought, belief,
^

it is

is,

when

it folloAVs

one of the " verha sentiendi et declarandi."

§ 382, c]
often introduced
is

DEPENDENT CLAUSES
by
8ti

—OBJECTIVE.
;

315

with the Indicative
seeing that he

although the Infinitive

more usual


:

389, a).
iSwv 8ti
IdOi],

Luke
Matt.

xvii.
ix.

15
:

was healed.
;

28

Tna-revcre 6ri Svvajiat tovto TrotrjcraL

believe ye that

I am

able to do this?

Mark V 29
xi. 13,

:

cyvw

...

8ti larai, she

perceived that she

is

healed.

So John

XX. 14.
the verb in the principal clause
is in past time, the subordinate verb be in present time {Iiulicativc), or else may change to the Optative.

When
may

still

382.
and
is

a. In the New Testament, quotation is generally direct, introduced without any conjunctive particle.
viii.
^^

Matt.
sayinff^

3

:

yij/aro avrov,

Acycov GcXw,

KaSapio-G-r^Ti,

he touched him^

I

will, be

thou clean."

The particle on, however, is often used to introduce the quoted words, and is in tliis case not to be translated, as it answers exactly to our "). inverted commas (''
Matt.
vii.

23

:

ofxoXoyqa-ai avrois, Srt ovScTrore lyi'ajv

vfxa's,

I

will

avow

unto them,

"I

never knew you."
:

Luke
dvyar-qp

viii.

49

Ipxeral rts Trapa tov ap\L(Tway(liyov Xcycov, 8x1 rWvrjKiv
orKvXXe tov StBacTKaXov, then cometh one

rj

<tov, fxrjKirL

from

the house
is

of the ruler of the synagogue, saying unto him, ^*'Thy daughter trouble the Master 7io more."
b.

dead,

In indirect quotation (oratio obliqua) the substance of the speech is given, not the words. Here, also, the Indicative is generally employed.

Mark
Imnsdf.

iii.

21
is,

:

It

c\cyov yap 8ti ct«o"'"l, for they said that he teas beside however, possible that the verb liere is a direct quotation

(Aorist, see § 364, d), they said, "ZTe is beside himself."

Of the Optative
example in the
ing paragraph,
c.
c,

in the oratio obliqim, so

common

in classic Greek, there

is

no

New Testament
y.

except in indirect interrogations, as in the follow-

Indirect interrogations, another form of the oratio obliqua,
particle

may be

connected with the principal clause by interrogative pronouns or adverbs,
or

by the

cl,

if,

whether.

316

OBJECTIVE CLAUSES

—INTEKKUGATION.
is

[§ 382,

C,

In such clauses, either (1) the verb responding direct interrogation, when

same as in the cor(a) the Indicative shows that the inquiry concerns matter of fact; (fS) the Subjunctive (^ 376) expresses objective possibility what may or should take place and always has
precisely the
:

respect to present or to future time

;

or (2)

when

the principal verb

is

in

a past tense, either (a) or
subjective
possibility

— that

(/3)

may become which may be
el ^^^r;

(y) the Optative,

denoting

conceived

to

exist

— and
icere

referring especially to the past.
a.

Mark
xii.

xv. 44

:

iOavfjcaa-iv

tcOvt^kc,

he icondered wliethei' he

already dead.

Acts

18

:

^1/

rapa^os ovk oXtyos
stir

iv rots (TTparLwraL^ rC iipa 6

l7€V€To, the7-e teas

no small

among

the soldiers

HeVpos

ichatever

had become

of Peter.

Acts

X.

18 (Pres. after Imperf.): cirvvOdvovTo^

d d

"^tixiDv

.

.

.

ivOdSe ^wllirai,

they loere asking whether

Simon
is

...lodges here.
:

Luke
eo-Ti,

xxiii.

6 (Pres. after Aor.)

eirtipciTTicrtv

6 oiv6po)7ros FaXtXatos

he asked if the

man

a Galilean.
iii.

For the Future Phn. i. 22.
p. Matt.
vi.

in the

dependent clause, see Mark

2

;

1

Cor.

vii. 1

6

2d

:

firj

yotept/xvare ... tI <j>a7i]T€

^

tL ttititc, be

uot anxious
xii.

...

what you are

to eat

and what you are
rjvpta-Kov

to drink.
irotiria-wartv,

Compare Luke
they

22.

Luke

xix.

48

:

ovx

to rC

found not

tchat they

should do.

Compare Mark
viii.
'Trpo(r€v|o|A€9a

xv. 24.

In Kom.

26, the reading varies

between

irpoo-cvlwjjLeOa

(rec,

W.

H.,

Lachmann) and
y.

(Tischendorf ).
cI't]

Luke

i.

29

:

SieAoyt^ero iroraTrbs

6 (xo'7ra(r/xo? ovT09j she U'as discussbe.

ing with herself of tchat kind this sahdation might

Acts

xvii. 1 1

:

dvaKptVoi/rcs ras

ypa^as

€l

^xoi

ravra ovrw?, searching the

scriptures if these things icere so.

Acts
to seek

xvii.

27:

t.-qr^lv

rov

©eoi/,'^

A dpa

76

x(/T]Xa<})T](r€tav

avrov koI

ciJpouv,

God, if by any chance they 'might feel after him and find

hi)ii.

The Indicative and Optative
i7rvv6dv€To rts
fi.v

constructions are combined in Acts xxi. 33
TrtTroiriKws,

Ar\

Koi ri co-ti

he asked u'ho he might

bcy

and

'

W. H.

marg.

;

text iirudovTO.

-

Uii([uestioiiably the true reading, not t6v Kvpiov, as rec.


§ 383,
tuhat he

;

a.]

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
done.

317
;

had

He must

have done something, this was clear

but

who he was seemed

altogether uncertain.
like,

d. After verbs of perceiving, knowing, declaring, and the both an object and an objective sentence are often found.

Luke
1

xix. 3

:

e^^/rei
(is).

tSetv tov 'I-qo-ovv,

t£s

co-ti,

he was seeking to see

Jesus, icho he

was
20
:

Cor.

iii.

Kvpto? ytvwcrKet tovs

8ittXo7to-|iovs

rwv

(to^ojv

in

clo-l

(jLaraioi

(LXX.), Jehovah knoiceth the reasonings of the
Mark
John
ii.

wise^ that they are

vain.
See also
2 Cor. xii.
xi. 32, xii.

34

;

iv. 35, v. 42, vii.

27

;

Acts

iii.

10, xv.

36
as

3, 4, xiii.

5;

1

Thess.
is

1, etc.

Compare

1
' '

Cor. xv. 12.

A

similar construction
;

occasionally found with

intentional

" clauses,

Col. iv. 17

Gal. iv. 11.

Conditional Sentences.

383.

A

conditional or " hypothetical" sentence contains two clauses,

often called "protasis," or condition, and " apodosis," or consequence.

The former expresses the condition Of these two the protasis is really

;

the latter, the thing conditioned.
the dependent clause, though the

apodosis contains the dependent fa^t.

Protasis
a.

{condition).

Apodosis

(conseqioence).

If he speaks,

I always listen. I will listen,
I should listen. I I

p.
y.
fs

If he speak,
If

he should speak,

J
*

If

he spoke,

I If he had spoken,

would listen. would have listened.

These four sentences illustrate four kinds of hypothesis
a.
)8.

The supposition
,,

of a fact.
of a possibility. of uncertainty.
of


y.
S.

,,

,,

something

unfulfilled.

Hence
a.

arise four distinct forms
A,
if,

The conditional particle

protasis,

assumes the hypothesis as a
or, in

fact.

with the Indicative, in the The apodosis may have
/xrj,

the Indicative or Imperative.
valent to future Indicative
;

[So the Subjunctive with ov

equi-

exhortations, equivalent to Imperative.]

;318

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
iv.

[§ 383, a.

Matt.

3

:

d

vlo<s

d rov

©eov,

etirc,

k.t.X., if
art.

thou art the Son of God,

command,
Xv0ii<r€Tai,

etc., i.e.,
:

assuming that thou
8c rt Trepatrepco

Acts xix. 39
legal assemhlij.
1

d

iTriX,r]rtiT€,

iv
it

rrj

evvofjuii

€KK\rj(Tia

iiri-

hut if ye inquire anything further,

shall he determined in the

Cor. XV. 16

:

el

the

dead arise
iv.

not,
:

yap veKpol ovk lydpovrai, ouSe Xpio-ros neither has Christ arisen.
iSiKamQt],

iyr\yiprai,

for if

Rom.
was
hoasting.

2

d

'A/3paa/x c^ epyoiv

€\eL Kav^i^/xa, if
so),

Ahraham

justified

hy works (assuming that he was

he hath

a ground of
4 (present, con-

See also
V.

many

other passages,

e.g.,

Matt. xix. 17; John
viii.

vii.

dition; imperative, consequence);

Rom.

25;

1 Cor. vi. 2 (pres. pres.);

John

47 (pres, fut.); 2 Pet. ii. 20 (pres. perf.); Matt. xii. 26 (pres. aor.); Matt, xxvi. 33 (fut. fut.); Acts xvi. 15 (perf. imperf.); 2 Cor. v. 16 (perf. pres.);

John Rom. Rom.

xi.

12

;

Rom.

vi.

5 (perf. fut.)
1

;

2 Cor.
iv.

ii.

5 (perf. perf.), vii. 14 (perf. aor.)

xi. 17,

18 (aor. imperf.);

John

11 (aor. pres.);

John

xv. 20 (aor. fut.);
firj;

V.

15 (aor. aor.).

(1 Cor. viii.

13 has pres. ind. and aor. subj. with oi

Gal. V. 25, pres. ind., pres. subj.)
yS.

Possibility,

or

expressed by €dv = €t tive in the conditional clause, and the Indicative or Imperative in
the apodosis. The condition hence
refers to fature time.

uncertainty with the prospect of decision, is dv (very rarely by el alone i) with the Subjunc-

The

Subj. Aor., with Hv,

may

be

rendered in most cases by the Future Perfect.

Matt. xvii. 20

:

cdv ^XT""* ttlo-tlv w5 kokkov (rtvaTretu?, epetrc, k.t.X., if ye
seed, ye shall say, etc.

have faith as a grain of mustard

John
Tov

iii.

3,

5

:

edv

jiij

tis ^cvvrjOp avayOev, ov

Svvarai iSctv

rrjv /Jao-tXeiav

©€oi>,

excepting one shall have been horn again, (or

from

ahove)y he

cannot see the kingdom of God.
2 Tim.
ii.

5

:

edv 8e koX bA\-^
strive in
to rule.

rt?,

ov aT€<f&