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As per the curriculum of Rajasthan Technical University for III year B.Tech.
Degree, I have completed my summer training of 30 days at ST Microsystems,
Ajmer. This is my summer training report which contains a detailed
description of scada and Plc systems. An industrial SCADA & PLCs system is
used for the development of the controls of machinery. This paper describes
the basics of SCADA & PLCs systems in terms of their architecture, their
interface to the computer and each other, the functionality and the application
development facilities they provide. Some attention is also paid to the
programming in plc and some of the examples.




Delegation of human control function to technical equipments

to increase production
to reduce cost
to reduce manpower
to improve safety working conditions
to reduce power consumption
to improve quality


Automated machines can be subdivided into two large categories—open-loop

and closed-loop machines, which can then be subdivided into even smaller
categories. Open-loop machines are devices that, once started, go through a
cycle and then stop. A common example is the automatic dishwashing
machine. Once dishes are loaded into the machine and a button pushed, the
machine goes through a predetermined cycle of operations: pre-rinse, wash,
rinse, and dry, for example. A human operator may have choices as to which
sequence the machine should follow—heavy wash, light wash, warm and cold,
and so on—but each of these operations is alike in that the machine simply
does the task and then stops. Many of the most

familiar appliances in homes today operate on this basis. A microwave
oven, a coffee maker, and a CD player are examples.
Larger, more complex industrial operations also use open-cycle operations.
For example, in the production of a car, a single machine may be programmed
to place a side panel in place on the car and then weld it in a dozen or more
locations. Each of the steps involved in this process—from placing the door
properly to each of the different welds—takes place according to instructions
programmed into the machine.
Other category in which automation is divided is:
a. Scientific Automation
(used by scientists)
b. Industrial Automation
(building management system)
c. Office Automation
(used by non technical staff)


Fig 1.1

1. Replacing human operator in tedious task.

2. Replacing humans in tasks that should be done in dangerous environment.
3. Making tasks that are beyond human capabilities such as handle too heavy
loads, too large objects, too hot or cold substances or the requirement to make
things too fast or too slow.
4. Economy improvement- sometimes some kinds of automation imply
improves in economy of enterprises, society or most of the humankind.


1. Technology limits- nowadays technology is not able to automatize all

desired task.
2. Initial costs are relative high.




scada stands for supervisory control and Data acquisition” It generally refers to
an industrial control system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a
process by which an operator can monitor and control the process parameters.
The operator can give commands on scada to control hardware in the field.
SCADA systems have become tools that now help field operators perform
their jobs more efficiently, provide an active interface for monitoring and
controlling plants.


Data acquisition is the process of retrieving control information from the

equipment which is out of order or may lead to some problem or when
decisions are need to be taken according to the situation in the equipment. So
this acquisition is done by continuous monitoring of the equipment to which it
is employed. The data accessed are then forwarded onto a telemetry system
ready for transfer to the different sites. They can be analog and digital
information gathered by sensors, such as flow meter, ammeter, etc. It can also
be data to control equipment such as actuators, relays, valves, motors, etc.


Today it is necessary to keep monitoring the compete plant so a supervisor of

company can monitor the complete plant on his pc. And also scada shows the
real state of the plant graphically to its user. By scada systems a user can also
control the field hardware from its pc without going in the field. It means
scada presents the complete plant in graphical form to its user for controlling
and monitoring. Thus at present time most of companies are using scada
systems because of its features.


A SCADA System usually consists of the following subsystems:

A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents

process data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator
monitors and controls the process. A supervisory (computer) system, gathering
(acquiring) data on the process and sending commands (control) to the process.

Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process,

converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the
supervisory system.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices because

they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-
purpose RTUs.

Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the
Remote Terminal Units


There are various features of scada that’s why it is mostly used in industries
present time.
The main features are described below

1. Dynamic Representation 7. Recipe Management

2. Alarms 8. Script
3. Trends 9. Networking
4. Security 10. Logging/Archiving
5. Data connectivity
6. Device connectivity

2.5.1 Dynamic Representation SCADA should have good library of

symbols so that you can develop the mimic as per requirement. Once the
operator sees the screen he should know what is going on in. the plant
It is the most important feature of scada because due to this the complete
plant can be represented graphically on pc screen and it looks like that live
plant is running. So in scada we can create the model of a plant on which
operator can continuously monitor the whole plant. And company mangers,
supervisors are able to see that what is happening in the plant on their pc

2.5.2 ALARMS have a very important role in automation. Generally you
have alarm states for each inputs/outputs like your temperature should not
cross 80 deg or lever should be less than 60. So if the parameters go in alarm
state the operator should be intimated with alarm. Most of the SCADA
software support four types of alarms like LOLO,LO,HI and HIHI. Deadband
the value of deadband defines the range after which a high low alarm condition
returns to normal.

2.5.3 Trends Trends means graphical representation of data or a parameter

.There are two types of trends available in scada. Real Time Trend - This trend is used for real time monitoring of
varying parameters in the field (like Temperature) in graph form on the screen
of pc. So the user can notice the value changes and status of the parameter in
real time. So it is useful for monitoring varying quantities by graph
representation .These are dynamic and updated continuously during run time.
It allows user to chart up to 4 data values.

Fig 2.1

-8- Historical Trend - By historical trend feature it is
possible to record the data values up to 10 years so operator can check the data
of last ten years when needed .These are not dynamic and provide a snapshot
only of particular time. It allows user to chart up to 8 data values at a time.

Fig 2.2

2.5.4 SECURITY is on facility people generally look for. You can allocate
certain facilities or features to the operator, process people, engineering dept
and maintenance dept. for example operators should only operate the system,
he should not be able change the application. The engineers should have
access to changing the application. The engineers should have access to
changing the application developed.
When a new app is created the default user name is “Administrator”
with an access level of 9999(which allows access to all security commands).

2.5.5 Data connectivity- It means that the data values in scada can be shared
or monitored on an other application like excel etc. and the data can be stored
as a log file for future use and can access later when needed.
There are 2 options by which data can communicate with other software. Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)- If it is required to communicate data

between two softwares in same pc then this option is selected. Or we can say
DDE is the facility developed by Microsoft for communication of data
between two applications or programs.

Example - Data exchange between Scada and Excel. Suite link – This option is selected when the communication of data is
between two devices via Modem or a cable. Also by this option the scada on
different computers can be exchanged. So we can say it is used when hardware
communication is required.

Example – Data exchange between two different computers.

2.5.6 DEVICE CONNECTIVITY you will find there are hundreds of

automation hardware manufacturer like Modicon, Siemens, Allen Bradly,
ABB. Everybody has there own way of communication or we can say they
have there own communication protocol. SCADA software should have
connectivity to the different hardware used in automation. It should not happen
that for Modicon I am buying one software and for Siemens another one. The
software like Aspic or Wonderware has connectivity to almost all hardware
used in automation.

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2.5.7 RECIPE MANAGEMENT is an additional feature. Some SCADA
software support it, some do not. Most of the plants are manufacturing multi
products. When you have different products to manufacture, you just have to
load the recipe of the particular product.

2.5.8 Script – script is a way of writing logic in scada software. Each scada
has its own instruction set and according to then program is written and system
follows this program and works accordingly it.
So whenever a script is written the system follows the instructions
written in script and works.
There are various types of scripts.
2.8.1 Application – It is linked to entire application means it is common for
complete application.
2.8.2 Window – It is linked to a specific Window.

Fig 2.3

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2.5.9 Networking – Networking feature enables operator to link scada with
different devices like plc or with other computers and also various scada
systems on different computers can be linked together via network by which
they can communicate with each other.
These are the various features of scada that makes it very useful in
industries at Present time.
And today almost in all large industries scada systems are used.

2.5.10 Logging/Archiving - The terms logging and archiving are often used
to describe the same facility. However, logging can be thought of as medium-
term storage of data on disk, whereas archiving is long-term storage of data
either on disk or on another permanent storage medium. Logging is typically
performed on a cyclic basis, i.e., once a certain file size, time period or number
of points is reached the data is overwritten. Logging of data can be performed
at a set frequency, or only initiated if the value changes or when a specific
predefined event occurs


2.6.1 What is a Tag- a tag is a logical name for a variable in a device or

local memory (RAM). Tags that receive data from some external devices such
as programmable logic controllers or servers are refereed to as I/O tags. Tags
that receive data internally from software are called memory tags.
2.6.2 Analog Tags- store a range of values. EX temp, flow, density etc
2.6.3 Discrete tags- to store values such as 0 or 1. EX on/off status of a
pump, valves, switches etc.

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2.6.4 System tags- store information generated while the software is running
including alarm info and system time and date.
2.6.5 String tags- are used to store ASCII strings a series of characters or
whole word. The max string length is 131 characters.
2.6.6 Visibility- used to control visibility of an object based on the value of
discrete tag name or expression.
2.6.7 Blink- used to make an object blink based on the value of the discrete
tagname or expression.
2.6.8 Orientation- used to make an object rotate based on the value of a
tagname /expression.
2.6.9 Disable- used to disable the touch functionality of objects based on the
value of a tagname of expression. Often used as a part of a security strategy.
2.6.10 Value display links- provides the ability to use text object to display
the value of a discrete, analog or string tagname.
2.6.11 Percent fill links- used to provide ability to vary the fill level of a
filled shape according to the value of an analog tagname or an expression that
computes to an analog value.

Fig 2.4

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2.2.12 Application security- to an application is optional. It provides the
application developer with the ability to control whether or not specific
operators are allowed to perform specific functions within an application
Security is based on the concept of operator logging on to the application and
entering his user name and password and access level. For each operator
access to any protected function is granted upon verification of his password
and access level.


Wonderware Intouch provides a single integrated view of all your controls and
information resources. Intouch enables engineers, supervisors, operators and
managers to view to view and interact with the working of entire operation
through graphical representations of their production processes.



2.8.1 Window type – There are 3 types of windows displayed during work
with Intouch 9.5. Application manager – In this window user has asked to input the
location of saving the project, project name. The user enters these things to
proceed. Window Maker – In this window the project is developed or created

by the user.

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It is of three types and user has to select which type of window he wants to

Fig 2.5 Window viewer – It is the RUN time window where we can see our
project in running condition and we can mot modify the project in this window
and we have to go again in window maker to modify the project.
To switch between Windows maker and windows viewer a button is
provided in the upper right corner in the window.
When we are in window maker a button named RUN TIME will display
and clicking on that will take project in run mode and in run mode window
clicking on DEVELOPMENT will take it back again in window maker.

2.8.2 Tags- Tag defines a process variable. It is the name given to a process
Three types of tags are used while working with scada,

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temperature, distance etc are known as analog tags. Discrete Tag – The tag names given to discrete variables or the items
whose value can only be discrete such as switches, lights etc. It has only two
values either one or zero.
Examples – Light, Switches etc. String Tags – These Tags are used to display some message like reset,
high voltage zone etc.

Fig 2.6

2.8.3 Number of Tags – In wonderware scada minimum no of tags is 64 and

maximum are 64000.and the user can use the according to its need.

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2.8.4 Package – The scada is available in there packages and user can select
any one according to need. DR Type – In this package the user gets the feature of both
development and run Time means user can develop, modify and can see the
project in run time. DRN Type – In this package the user gets three features Development,
Run Time, Networking. This package is most costly. R Type – This type of package is known as factory focus and user
can’t develop and modify projects. It is used only to see the plant status. The
companies that provide scada also create the plant project of the company for
first time and install it. And the company members can only see the status of
the plant and they are not able to change it.

2.8.5 License of scada – The companies that make scada also provide
license for certain period as user’s need. The license is provided in two ways- Hard disk Type – In this type they installs scada on the system and
locate the product key or license on local
Hard disk. So this scada can not be used on other computer. Dongle Type – In this type of license the user can use the scada on
different system also because the license is provided in an usb device so the
user inserts the license via usb in the system when he wants to use scada.

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2.8.6 Companies that make scada -

There are various companies in world that makes scada software. The main
companies are listed below-

Company Name Scada Name

Siemens(Germany) Wincc(window control center)
Wonderware Intouch
Allen breadlly(Usa) R-s View(Rockwell solutions)
KPIT(Indian) Ashtra
Ge-Fanuc Cimplicity

Table 2.1 Companies That make Scada

Note – KPIT is only Indian company that makes scada. KPIT stands for
Krishna Palli Institute of Technology.


1. A SCADA system is "normally" significantly cheaper than a DCS.

2. SCADA can continue operating even when telecommunication are
temporarily lost.
3. SCADA systems allow a smaller number of operators to control a large
number of individual assets.
4. SCADA systems were designed to be used on large scale systems with
remote assets over a very large geographical area.
5. SCADA system improves operation, maintenance and customer service and
provides rapid response to emergencies.
6. It provides a high level of system reliability and availability.

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3.1 The Role Of The Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

Programmable logic controllers, also called programmable

controllers or PLCs, are solid-state members of the computer family,
using integrated circuits instead of electromechanical devices to
implement control functions. They are capable of storing instructions,
such as sequencing, timing, counting, arithmetic, data manipulation,
and communication, to control industrial machines and processes.
In an automated system, the PLC is commonly regarded as the
heart of the control system. With a control application program (stored
within the PLC memory) in execution, the PLC constantly monitors the
state of the system through the field input devices' feedback signal. It
will then depend on the program logic to determine the course of
action to be carried out at the field output devices.

Fig 3.1 A conceptual diagram of plc application

The PLC may be used to control a simple and repetitive task, or a

few of them may be interconnected together with other host controllers

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or host computers through a sort of communication network, in order
to integrate the control of a complex process.
Programmable controllers have many definitions. However, PLCs
can be thought of in simple terms as industrial computers with
specially designed architecture in both their central units (the PLC
itself) and their interfacing circuitry to field devices (input/output
connections to the real world).


A PLC consists of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) containing

processor, executive memory and application memory, Input and
Output Interfacing modules, which are directly connected to the field
I/O devices. The program controls the PLC so that when an input
signal from an input device is turned on, the appropriate response is
made. The response normally involves turning on or off an output
signal to some sort of output devices.
A simplified model of a PLC is shown in Figure 1-4. The input
modules convert the high-level signals that come from the field
devices to logic-level signals that the PLC's processor can read
directly. The logic solver reads these inputs and decides what the
output states should be, based on the user's program logic. The output
modules convert the logic-level output signals from the logic solver
into the high-level signals that are needed by the various field devices.
The program loader is used to enter the user's program into the
memory or change it and to monitor the execution of the program.

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Fig 3.4 PLC BLOCK diagram

The previous PLC Block Diagram, illustrating its basic functionality.

The control engineer (user) enters the control program on the program
loader. The program loader writes this program into the memory. The
logic solver reads the states of the sensors through the input modules,
then uses this information to solve the logic stored in the user memory
(program) and also writes the resulting output states to the output
devices through the output modules.


Some PLCs are integrated into a single unit, whereas others are
modular. Integrated PLCs are sometimes called shoebox or brick

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PLCs because of their small size. If an integrated PLC is available
with the capabilities that a user needs, it is usually the most
economical option. Modular PLCs consist of optional components
required for a more complex control application, as selected and
assembled by the user.

Fig 3.5 Allen Bradley Modular Type PLC

1. The Modular PLCs include the following components, as

demonstrated in Figure 1-5:
2. The CPU module, containing the CPU and its memory.
Input and output modules (I/O modules), to allow the PLC to
read sensors and control actuators.
3. A power supply module, to provide power to the CPU and often
to provide power to drive sensors and low-power actuators
connected to I/O modules.
4. A rack or bus, so that the CPU module can exchange data with
I/O modules. In some PLCs, this component isn't required

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because each module plugs directly into its neighboring module.
A PLC system with these components is all that is needed to
control an automated system. Since a PLC must be programmed
before it can be used, another component is required:
 A programming unit is necessary to create the user-program
and send it to a PLC CPU module's memory.

Fig 3.6 Modular PLC in Automated System


This basic scan cycle inherent in all PLCs is shown in Figure 2-1. Every time
the PLC finishes one scan cycle and starts another, the operating system also
restarts a watchdog timer. The watchdog timer runs while the scan cycle
executes. If the watchdog timer reaches its pre-set value before being restarted
(if a scan cycle takes unusually long to complete), the PLC will immediately
fault, and stop running.

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Fig 3.7 Standard PLC Scan Cycle


As mentioned previously, some PLCs are integrated into a single unit and
some are modular. A modular PLC consists of several components that can be
connected by being plugged into a common bus or rack. Every PLC needs:
• A CPU module
• A power supply module
• At least one I/O module


the CPU module contains the central processing unit and its memory. The
memory includes PROM

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(programmable read-only memory) containing the PLC’s operating system,
driver programs, and application programs, and RAM where the user-written
programs and working data are stored. PLC manufacturers offer various types
of retentive memory to save user programs and data while power is removed,
so that the PLC can resume execution of the user-written control program as
soon as power is restored. If the PLC has one of the following retentive
memory options, it doesn’t have to be reprogrammed each time it is 15 turned
on, so a keyboard and monitor don’t need to be included as a part of every Plc


During every scan cycle, a CPU module reads and writes I/O modules that are
part of the modular PLC. The CPU module is connected to each of those I/O
modules via a set of parallel conductors called a bus. In some modular
systems, the bus is in a backplane circuit card in a rack, and all PLC modules
are plugged into slots in the rack. In other modular systems, I/O modules are
plugged into the side of the CPU module or into the side of an I/O module that
is already plugged into the CPU, so bus conductors are connected through the
I/O modules. Bus conductors are used for data that the CPU can send to or
receive from the I/O modules, several bits at a time. The CPU must specify
which of the I/O modules the CPU wants to read from or write to. I/O module
addresses are assigned automatically according to how far the module is
located away from the CPU module along the bus. Some bus conductors are
used for miscellaneous control signals passed between the CPU module and
I/O modules and to provide power to run the circuitry inside I/O modules. The
bus does not provide power to operate the sensors or actuators attached to I/O

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power supply module converts available power to dc power at the level(s)
required by the CPU and I/O module internal circuitry. Usually, the available
power is typically 60 Hz/120 Vac or 50 Hz/220 V ac, although power supply
modules are available for other input power characteristics. Output power must
drive the computer circuitry at 5 V dc. Power supply modules may be
connected to the bus or may have to be wired to the CPU module in modular
PLC systems.


Input and output modules (I/O modules) allow the PLC to be connected to
sensors and actuators. The I/O modules isolate the lowvoltage, low-current
signals that the PLC uses internally from the higher-power electrical circuits
required by most sensors and actuators. The user purchases the types of I/O
modules that are needed for the sensors and actuators that need to be used, and
the user can connect several different types (or several of the same type) 19
of I/O modules to a PLC's bus. I/O modules offered by PLC manufacturers are
designed to work with that manufacturer's CPU module, so the user can be
confident that compatibility won't be a problem.

Fig 3.2 Input devices

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Fig 3.3 Output devices


intelligent I/O modules that handle the exchange of data via a communication
link. The user-program in the CPU writes data to the communication interface
module, and the module ensures that it is placed on the communication
network. Similarly, the communication interface module can accept data from
other computers via the communications network and hold it until the CPU
reads it from the module. Modern CPU modules can be connected directly to
communication networks, so communication interface modules are needed
only if communications requirements exceed the CPU's built-in capabilities.
20 When most PLCs power up, they perform a self-check that includes
searching the bus to determine how many modules are present, in order to
optimize the data exchange that will be performed each scan cycle. The PLC
often exchanges different amounts of information with different types of I/O
modules, so optimization of communication also requires the PLC to know
what type of module is in each slot of the rack. In a truly optimized data
exchange, a PLC will not waste time reading from an output module and will

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not try to write data to an input module. (The CPU module's memory will still
contain an input image and an output image data word for each slot, but the
data won't reflect sensor or actuator states).


There are various types of languages available when working with plc.
1). Ladder Logic Language
2). Function Block Diagram(FBD)
3). Statement Text List(STL)
4). Sequentially Function Chart(SFC)
5). Continuous function Chart(CFC)
Mostly ladder language is used today.


A set of rules for transmission of data. And the specifications of protocols

depends on Baud Rate, Number of Nodes and length. There are various types
of protocols used with Plc. The mainly are described below –

1) Rs 232 – It is mostly used with Allen Bradley Plc.

Baud Rate – 19.2 or 9.6 Kb/sec

Nodes – 1

Length – 15 meter

2) DH PLUS –

Baud Rate – 38.4 or 19.2 Kb/sec

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Nodes – 32

Length – 2000 feet


Baud Rate – 2 Mbps

Nodes – 126

Length – 1.2 km


Baud Rate – 100 Mbps

Nodes – Unlimited

Length – Unlimited


Allen Bradley is a us company that manufactures Plc’s and their scada on very
large scale . Their scada name is Rs view(Rockwell solution).

The family of allen bradley consists of following Plc’s which are tabulated as

PLC Name Software Driver Number of

inputs and

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Table 3.1 Allen Bradley PLc FAmily

3.8.1 Architecture Of Allen Bradley Plc(Micrologix 1000c)

Basically it consists of 5 parts which are given as –

1) CPU Module
2) Inputs
3) Outputs
4) Power supply

The basic architecture diagram is shown in the figure below-

Now we describe each part one by one as - CPU Module- The processor module contains the PLC’s

Microprocessor, its supporting circuitry, and its memory system. The main
function of the microprocessor is to analyze data coming from field sensors
through input modules, make decisions based on the user’s defined control
program and return signal back through output modules to the field devices.
Field sensors: switches, flow, level, pressure, temp. transmitters, etc. Field
output devices: motors, valves, solenoids, lamps, or audible devices. Inputs(6)- Input Modules converts signals from discrete or analog

input devices to logic levels acceptable to Plc’s Processor.The input devices
like sensors can be connected through this module and then the cpu or
processor process on them and according to condition or logic it actuates the
output. The various inputs that can be connected in this module are-

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Push Buttons, Relays, NO switches, NC switches, sensors, Temperature
sensor, Level sensor, Pressure sensor, Proximity sensor, switches etc

Discrete or digital Input-A discrete input also referred as digital input is an

input that is either ON or OFF is connected to the PLC digital input. In the ON
Condition it is referred to as logic 1 or logic high and in the OFF
condition maybe referred to as logic o or logic low. Outputs(4)- The output modules converts signals from the processor to
levels capable of driving the connected analog or discrete output devices.The
output Devices can be connected to plc via this Module .These output device
turn on or turn off according to the signal received from processor after
processing on input signals.
There are various types of output devices that can be connected in output
Module are motors, Heaters, Sirens, Lightings, Fans, Hooters etc.
There are various types of inputs and outputs that can be connected to This
Digital Output- A discrete output is either in an ON or OFF condition.
Solenoids, contactors coils, lamps are example of devices connected to the

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Discrete or digital outputs. Below, the lamp can be turned ON or OFF
by the PLC output it is connected to.

Fig 3.15 Discrete Output Power supply

The power supply for various components are given as

1) 24 V DC SMPS for plc

2) CPU – 5V DC
3) Input/output –
24 V DC
230 V AC
0 – 10 V DC
+ or – 10 V DC
4 mA – 20 mA

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3.8.2 Programming In Allen Bradley PLC -

The ladder language is generally used while programming with PLC’s.

Before proceeding with programming it is necessary to explain the
addressing syntax,NO-NC concept,different type of functions and they are
described below- NO and NC concept- these are normally open and normally closed
switches that will be used in programming that allows to pass the input
signal under close condition.

Fig 3.16 NO And NC Concept

Power flows through these contacts when they are closed. The Normally open
(NO) is true when the input or output status bit Controlling the contact is 1.
The normally closed (NC) is true When the input or output status bit
controlling the contact is 0. User Functions and instructions

There are various Types of user instructions available in RS-Logix 500.
1). BIT functions

1). No Button

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Fig 3.17 NO Button

2). NC Button

Fig 3.18 NC Button

3). Latch-Unlatch

Fig 3.19 Discrete Latch And Unlatch

4).OSR(one shot rising) – It gives 1 microsecond pulse and the output

connected to it will be turned on for only 1 microsecond . so the coil will
not appear as ON because time period is very less. While addressing,
Memory address is given to it.

Fig 3.20 OSR(one shot rising)

2).Timer/ counter

1). TON Timer – This is low to high pulse on timer . There are two bits in it
. EN bits goes high when timer is enable and DN bit is for done bits it goes
high when timer completes its timing or reaches preset value.

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Fig 3.21 TON Timer

2). TOF Timer – This is also low to high pulse timer and working is similar
to TON timer.

Fig 3.22 TOF Timer

3). RTO

Fig 3.23 Retentive Timer

4). CTU – It is for up counting and loaded with preset value and it goes on
increasing and when accumulator reaches to preset the DN bit goes high.

Fig 3.24 UP Counter

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5). CTD - – It is for down counting and loaded with preset value and it goes
on decreasing and when accumulator reaches to Zero the DN bit goes high.

Fig 3.25 Down Counter


1).EQU – It compares the values in A and B and the output connected to it

goes high when A=B

Fig 3.26 Equal Instruction

2).LES - It compares the values in A and B and the output connected to it

goes high whenever A<B condition is met

Fig 3.27 Less than Instruction

3).GRT- It compares the values in A and B and the output connected to it

goes high whenever A>B condition is true.

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Fig 3.28 Greater than Instruction

4).LEQ - It compares the values in A and B and the output connected to it

goes high whenever A<=B condition is true.

Fig 3.29 Less than Or Equal To Instruction

5).GEQ - It compares the values in A and B and the output connected to it

goes high whenever A>=B condition is true.

Fig 3.30 Greater Than Or Equal to Instruction

3.8.3 Addressing in Allen Bradley Plc (Micrologix)

The general syntax for addressing digital inputs and outputs is given as

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File name: Location. Word number/Bit number

The file name for Digital input is I and for output is O for analog inputs and
outputs are Ai and Ao respectively.
The word number represents a memory area and each word consists of 16
bits. and location specify the in which slot the module is connected.
Normally it is 1 for input and 2 for output and 3 for analog input/output
module. For example The 16 inputs can be addressed as I:1.0/0, I:1.0/1,
I:1.0/2,……………. I:1.0/15.

In addressing of analog inputs and outputs the bit number is not used. So
the syntax is as

File Name: Location. Word Number

Example – Ai: 3.0, Ai: 3.1 ………etc.

The basic rules while programming that place inputs at the left side and
outputs in the right side. and assign address to each input and output used.
All these inputs and outputs are connected on a Rung which is vertical line
on the left size.

Program File-

The following Table shows program file that contains various file names
and their numbers that are commonly used in programming.

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File Name Name used in Number
Output File O 0
Input File I 1
System File S 2
Binary file B 3
Timer File T 4
Counter File C 5
Control File R 6
Integer File N 7
Float File F 8

Table 3.3 Program File In Allen bradley PLC

For example In 8th Number file Float file is save That means all instructions
related to float numbers are saved in that file.

Mathematical Instructions are saved in the control file , Integer file , Float
From the system file we can check the availability of inputs and outputs . It
also tells that how many inputs and outputs are left that can be used.

3.8.4 Examples of Plc programming -

It is a program for start/stop of motor by a plc

Often we have a little green "start" button to turn on a motor, and we

want to turn it off with a big red "Stop" button.

--+----[ ]--+----[\]----( )---

| start | stop run

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| |
+----[ ]--+
Fig 3.37 Program for Start/Stop of a Motor

Fig 3.38 Wiring Diagram and Ladder Program

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The pushbutton switch connected to input X1 serves as the "Start" switch, while the switch
connected to input X2 serves as the "Stop." Another contact in the program, named Y1, uses
the output coil status as a seal-in contact, directly, so that the motor contactor will continue to
be energized after the "Start" pushbutton switch is released. You can see the normally-closed
contact X2 appear in a colored block, showing that it is in a closed ("electrically conducting")
state. Starting of Motor

If we were to press the "Start" button, input X1 would energize, thus "closing" the X1 contact
in the program, sending "power" to the Y1 "coil," energizing the Y1 output and applying 120
volt AC power to the real motor contactor coil. The parallel Y1 contact will also "close," thus
latching the "circuit" in an energized state:

Fig 3.39 Start up of a Motor and its Ladder Logic

- 41 - Logic for Continous Running of motor When Start Button is

Now, if we release the "Start" pushbutton, the normally-open X1 "contact" will

return to its "open" state, but the motor will continue to run because the Y1
seal-in "contact" continues to provide "continuity" to "power" coil Y1, thus
keeping the Y1 output energized:

Fig 3.40 Logic for continuous running of motor


To stop the motor, we must momentarily press the "Stop" pushbutton, which
will energize the X2 input and "open" the normally-closed "contact," breaking
continuity to the Y1 "coil:"

Fig 3.41 Motor Stop LAdder Logic

When the "Stop" pushbutton is released, input X2 will de-energize, returning

"contact" X2 to its normal, "closed" state. The motor, however, will not start
again until the "Start" pushbutton is actuated, because the "seal-in" of Y1 has
been lost:

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SCADA is used for the constructive working not for the destructive work
using a SCADA system for their controls ensures a common framework not
only for the development of the specific applications but also for operating the
detectors. Operators experience the same "look and feel" whatever part of the
experiment they control. Where PlC controls the plant automatically if a
programming logic is downloaded in it . so SCADA and PLC systems are the
need of industries in order to accuracy , fastness , less chances of faults.

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1. User Manual, Allen BradleyTM Micro Logix 1000 Programmable Controller

2. Allen Bradley TM URL
3. Rockwell Automation URL

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