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From observer records, a count was made for each child, in a group of disadvantaged children
in an experimental preschool, of usage and acquisition of descriptive adjectives, with and with-
out noun referents. Procedures were sought which would effectively modify the low rates of
adjective-noun combinations in the everyday language of all the children. Time in school, in-
termittent teacher praise, and social and intellectual stimulation were not effective in changing
the low rates of using adjectives of size and shape. Group teaching effectively increased
rates of using color- and number-noun combinations in the group-teaching situation, but was
ineffective in changing rates of usage in the children's "spontaneous" vocabularies. By operat-
ing directly on the children's language in the free-play situation, making access to preschool
materials contingent upon use of a color-noun combination, significant increases in such usage
were effected in the spontaneous vocabularies of all the children. Preschool materials appar-
ently functioned as powerful reinforcers. Though traditional teaching procedures were effective
in generating adjective-noun combinations in that restricted situation, it was only through ap-
plication of environmental contingencies that color names as descriptive adjectives were effec-
tively and durably established in all the children's spontaneous vocabularies.

Reflected in the national concern for the both "restricted" in terms of range and detail
scholastic retardation of culturally deprived of concept (Hess and Shipman, 1965), and rich
children is the contemporary conviction that in forms of expressive speech which are not
the sources of academic failure are primarily used in middle-class-oriented school books and
environmental rather than genetic (Bijou, systems (Riessman, 1962). Thus, programs for
1963). That the environment of the culturally the development of language skills, the core of
deprived child can, and should, be changed, is all preschool programs for culturally deprived
not an issue; rather the questions are ones of children, seek to give the children education-
defining and producing those environmental ally appropriate forms.of speech, and to enrich
changes which will generate academic success. their descriptive vocabularies. In such pro-
The present consensus is that the behavior grams the children are directly taught, for in-
most correlated with public school success is stance, the appropriate use of adjectives of
verbal behavior, skill in language (Weikart, color, number, size, shape, etc., and the pre-
1966). As opposed to the linguistically skillful school environment is arranged so that they
and academically successful middle-class child, will use them in conversation and narration.
the culturally deprived child is characterized That is, "knowing"-the ability to respond
as having a language environment which is correctly when asked-is not considered suffi-
cient; the criterion for "skill" is usage, spon-
'This study is based upon a thesis submitted by the taneous emission as
senior author to the Department of Human Develop- functional language in
ment in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the everyday situations.
Master of Arts degree. The authors express appreciation There is general agreement concerning what
to Nancy Reynolds, Dianetta Coates, and Maxine should be taught to culturally deprived chil-
Preuitt for their able assistance in all aspects of the dren but
study. This research was supported by Grants (HD considerably less agreement about
03144) from the National Institute of Child Health and how to teach it most effectively. Many meth-
Human Development and (CG-8474) from the office of odologies have been employed, with varying
Economic Opportunity, Headstart Research and Dem- degrees of success (Weikart, 1966). The ur-
onstration to the Bureau of Child Research and the gency of the problem, and the need for practi-
Department of Human Development at the University
of Kansas. Reprints may be obtained from Todd Risley, cal solutions has led, however, for the first
Juniper Gardens Children's Project, 2021 North Third time in the long history of preschool educa-
St., Kansas City, Kansas 66101. tion, to empirical evaluation of the effective-

ness of traditional teaching procedures. Such dren's Project in Kansas City, Kansas, and in-
evaluation has frequently resulted in pervasive volved 15 children, all Negroes, from a lower
restructuring of the preschool environment in class community, selected from large families
order to achieve the behavioral goals set for with extremely low incomes. There were eight
the culturally deprived child (Bereiter and boys and seven girls in the group, all aged
Engelmann, 1966). Most important, it has re- from 4 to 5 yr. The average IQ, as measured
sulted in introducing into the time-honored by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was
preschool program those procedures which ex- 79.
perimental research has demonstrated to be The preschool sessions were 3 hr long, from
effective in teaching children. 8:30 to 11:30 A.M., five days per week. The
Research has repeatedly demonstrated that daily program was: breakfast, then free play
a child's behavior can be modified by its con- indoors, then group time, then free play out-
sequences. Such demonstrations have been doors, followed by story time at the end of the
made in a multiplicity of settings: in the labo- morning. During indoor and outdoor free
ratory (Lindsley, 1966), in institutions (Wolf, play the children could interact with materials
Risley, and Mees, 1964; Lovaas, Freitag, and with other children in one or more of the
Kinder, Rubenstein, Schaeffer, and Simmons, unstructured activities normally provided in
1966), in preschools (Harris, Wolf, and Baer, the preschool program, e.g., blocks, painting,
1964; Brown and Elliot, 1965), in the class- sand play, etc. Most, but not all, materials
room (Zimmerman and Zimmerman, 1962), in were available to the children during free
the clinic (Wahler, Winkel, Peterson, and play; items such as water and paint were dis-
Morrison, 1965), and in the home (Allen and pensed by teachers.
Harris, 1966). The behaviors so modified have Breakfast, story time, and group time were
included verbal (Risley and Wolf, 1967), teacher-structured situations. At group time,
motor Johnston, Kelley, Harris, and Wolf, eight or fewer children sat on a rug with a
1966), social (Allen, Hart, Buell, Harris, and teacher who formally presented stimuli for
Wolf, 1964), and academic behaviors (Wolf, identification and description. Children were
Giles, and Hall, 1968; Birnbrauer, Wolf, Kid- called on individually by the teacher, and
der, and Tague, 1965). The general principles were presented with a food snack and teacher
of reinforcement, which were the basis of all praise for correct responses. The classes of re-
of the above-mentioned studies, were also the sponses reinforced at group time were first,
basis of the present study. That is, the present identification of pictures and objects, then de-
investigation involved: defining an observable scription of objects in terms of color, and
terminal behavior, the use of descriptive ad- finally description of objects in terms of num-
jectives during free play; devising a method of ber. Stimuli for a given class of responses, such
recording and measuring important categories as identification, were presented daily at vary-
of spontaneous verbal behavior; and manipu- ing levels of difficulty for several months, until
lating the consequences of the children's use all children in the group had attained a cer-
of language, the presentation of social rein- tain criterion of response accuracy.
forcement and access to materials contingent
on a specified form of verbal behavior. The
effectiveness of these procedures is evaluated Recording. At group time throughout the
in terms of the behavioral goals defined, and year an observer recorded on a check sheet
compared to the effectiveness of traditional whether each response of each child in the
preschool procedures in the attainment of group was designated by teacher feedback to
these goals. The implications of the study thus the child as "right" or "wrong".
relate not only to the problem of cultural de- During four periods within the school year,
privation, but to preschool practice in general. daily samples were taken of children's verbali-
zations during free play. A sample was re-
METHOD corded by one of four observers, who moved
with the child being observed from one activ-
Setting and Subjects ity to another, and for 15 min wrote down in
The study was conducted at the Turner longhand "everything" the child said. Two
House preschool of the Juniper Gardens Chil- observers recorded throughout the school

year; the third was replaced by the fourth ob- one", "He is big", "long time".
server for two months in mid-year (February All shape adjectives: e.g., "round",
and March). "square one", "round circle".
Each child in the group was assigned for (2) All adjective-noun combinations of that
observation approximately every other day category. Every use of an adjective in
during the periods of sampling; roughly two each of the four categories was counted
observations were made indoors for every one only if it was followed by a noun. The
made outdoors because of the sequence of the categories of descriptive adjectives so
preschool program. Observation was discon- counted were defined as:
tinued whenever free play ended; therefore All color-noun combinations, as "red
samples were occasionally of less than 15 min paint".
when, for example, outdoor play was curtailed All number-noun combinations, as
by rain, or a child was removed from the "two blocks".
group for a test. Usually a given child was All size-noun combinations, as "long
assigned for observation to each of the observ- time".
ers in turn. This was done to minimize the All shape-noun combinations, as
development of any observer bias concerning "round circle".
a given child, and to distribute the writing (3) All new adjective-noun combinations of
load of high-rate verbalizers versus low-rate. that category. Every use of an adjective
The sampling periods were: in each of the four categories was
(1) 7 days (August 31-September 9; days 3 counted for a given child only if it was
through 9 of school). followed by a noun and that combina-
(2) 18 days (October 3-October 26; days 25 tion of adjective and noun had never
through 42 of school). been recorded in any previous sample
(3) 10 days (December 12-December 23; on that child. The categories of descrip-
days 71 through 80 of school). tive adjectives so counted were defined
(4) 99 days (January 17-June 9; days 91 as:
through 189 of school). New color-noun combinations.
New number-noun combinations.
From the samples were extracted for each New size-noun combinations.
child lists of vocabulary entries in the classes New shape-noun combinations.
of nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Only certain
categories of adjectives were counted: size, Thus, for example, if an observer recorded
color, number, and shape, i.e., the descriptive a child's having said, "I want red paint",
categories usually directly taught in preschool and the adjective-noun combination red
programs. Within each of the categories of paint had never appeared in any prior sam-
descriptive adjectives (color, number, size, and ple on that child, it would be listed as a new
shape) separate counts were made for: color-noun combination (in addition to be-
ing counted as another use in all color ad-
(1) All adjectives of that category. Every jectives and in all color-noun combina-
use of an adjective in each of the four tions).
categories was counted regardless of the
context in which it appeared, i.e., Periodic reliability checks were taken
whether or not it was followed by a among the three observers (the third and
noun, or was used with a verb. The cat- fourth observers were considered, over the
egories of descriptive adjectives thus year, as a single observer). Periodically, two or
counted were defined as: more observers were assigned to observe the
All color adjectives: e.g., "red", "red same child at the same time, each observer
one", "red paint". recording independently all that child's ver-
All number adjectives: e.g., "one", balizations during a given 15-min period. In
"two blocks", "three billion" (counted addition, a volunteer observer made once-
as a single number), "one-two-three" weekly reliability checks, in the same manner,
(counted as three numbers). with one or more of the regular observers; this
All size adjectives: e.g., "big", "little volunteer had almost no contact with either

the teachers, the other observers, or any without naming the object, the teacher praised
changes in preschool conditions. From the two him and told him he was right, and then asked
or more records obtained, all instances of ad- for the complete sentence before passing him
jective usage in any of the four categories of a snack.
color, number, size, and shape, were totaled. Thus, in the group-time situation, teachers
The record of Observer 1 was always taken as prescribed the terminal form of the behavior
standard, whenever she and any other observer which they hoped to see in the free-play situa-
recorded on the same child. When Observers tion, that is, color-noun combination. Only by
2 and 3 took reliability checks together the requiring that the referent for an adjective be
record of that observer who had taken the named can a teacher be (fairly) certain that a
majority of samples on the given child was child has made an appropriate discrimination.
taken as standard. Product-moment correla- Subsequently, a teacher can judge the extent
tions of the reliability of the total adjective to which a child is forming a concept of a
usage over samples was calculated for the reg- given property (such as "redness") only on the
ular observers in relation to one another, and basis of that child's verbal behavior of attrib-
for the volunteer observer in relation to the uting that property ("red") to a variety of
three regular observers. objects ("apple", "car", etc.). When a child
Baseline. From the beginning of the school merely names the property ("red") or names
year, teachers attended to children when they the property with an indefinite word such as
heard them use descriptive adjectives during "one" ("the red one"), the teacher must make
free play. The appropriate use of such adjec- an assumption concerning the referent, and
tives was thus followed intermittently by thus guess both that the child is making a dis-
teacher approval, and incorrect use was fol- crimination and that he is forming a concept.
lowed intermittently by teacher correction. If At group time, while presenting colors in
the adjective used was part of a request for a the general manner described above, the
material, the child almost always obtained the teacher employed various levels of prompts in
object requested; no differential attention was order to ensure each child's giving a correct
given for use of adjective-noun combinations. response each time he was called on to name
The observer samples of the children's verbali- an object and its color. The level of prompt
zations during free play, however, revealed was adjusted to each child's need for such
continuously low rates of use of all descriptive prompts, and every time a new color was in-
adjectives, whether of color, number, size, or troduced, the teacher dropped back, for the
shape. Teachers hypothesized that the limited whole group, to the more obvious levels of
use of these adjectives might be due to limited prompts. In the most obvious prompt, the
repertoires of appropriate labels. Therefore it teacher gave the child the correct response
was decided to systematically teach adjectival immediately before the question, i.e., "The
labels, starting with colors. car is red. What color is the car?". In less obvi-
Baseline: color naming at group time. Be- ous prompts, the teacher asked a child to name
ginning on day 103 of school, colors were pre- a color and then if he hesitated, mouthed the
sented every day at group time. The number color word, or gave its initial sound; often,
of colors presented simultaneously was gradu- she asked a child to name the color of an ob-
ally increased from the initial three up to ject which another child had named correctly
nine, but the manner of presentation re- immediately before.
mained essentially the same. In presenting Throughout the period of naming colors at
each color, the teacher first named each object group time, any color naming during free play
of that color (i.e., "The car is red"), and was attended to by teachers, whether the child
placed it with others of the same color. Then specified a referent for the color named or not.
she indicated, or had a child indicate, one The teacher praised the child who named a
object in a group and name it and its color color and told him he was right if this were
(i.e., "The car is red"). Every time a child cor- the case, or corrected him and then praised his
rectly identified both an object and its color, repetition of the appropriate color name.
the teacher praised him and passed him a After two months (50 school days) of nam-
snack. A complete sentence was always re- ing colors daily at group time, seven of the 15
quired; if a child named the correct color children were reliably naming nine colors in

that situation (red, yellow, blue, green, purple, not respond or responded incorrectly. After
orange, brown, white, and black). The other the third day teachers no longer prompted; if
eight children were being presented only six a child asked for an object without naming its
colors at group time (red, yellow, blue, green, color, or reached for certain objects, the
purple, and orange). teacher simply put her hand on the object and
During this time, the children's rate of using looked expectantly at the child until he
color adjectives in the free-play situation named the object and its color.
showed no general change; however, teachers Certain materials such as paint and water,
did note on two occasions late in this period which had never been freely available to chil-
sudden and marked increases in color naming dren, were dispensed only when asked for by
by several children in the free-play situation. color-noun combination, the teacher being
Both of these occasions involved a teacher dis- "too busy" to attend to requests stated in any
pensing vari-colored pegboard materials to other form. The water which children regu-
children who, in order to obtain a specific larly used to "cook" in the doll house was col-
item, had to ask for it by color. This proce- ored with food coloring, so that children had
dure, of a teacher withholding materials until to specify the color or colors of water they
they were requested by a color-noun combina- wanted to use.
tion, appeared effective, at least on these oc- This procedure was continued for 19 days.
casions, in generating use of such combina- Throughout, teachers praised every use of
tions by children in the free situation. color adjectives. Whenever a child asked for
Materials contingent on color naming. It a material by naming its color, the teacher
was decided to apply this procedure through- verbalized her approval simultaneously with
out the preschool situation, and have teachers either dispensing the material to him or re-
withhold materials until children asked for moving her hand so that he could take the
them by a color-noun combination. Therefore, object he had asked for. Spontaneous use of
beginning on day 153 of school, all of the chil- color adjectives on occasions unrelated to the
dren in the group could obtain a snack out- contingency (i.e., occasions other than those
doors and certain materials and equipment in- when the child "wanted something") were also
doors and out only if they named the desired praised; praise for such usage was given
object and described it by its color. Outdoor whether or not the child named a noun refer-
items such as trikes, wagons, balls, and shovels ent for the color.
were not placed outside the storage shed as Five days after introducing the requirement
usual; rather, a child wanting to use them had for naming colors in free play, the naming of
to ask a teacher for them and employ an ap- colors at group time was discontinued for
propriate color-noun combination. A child those seven children reliably discriminating
desiring a snack from the basket held by the all nine colors, and naming objects by number
teacher had to ask, not for a snack or a cookie, (counting) was substituted. A second group of
but for a "brown" cookie (if the cookies were eight children continued to have colors pre-
of that color), or a "yellow" banana. Indoors, sented at group time; children moved from
items such as dress-up clothes in the doll this group into the number-naming group as
house, pegboard materials, parquetry blocks, soon as they had demonstrated mastery of all
toy animals, and cars, etc., all had to be named nine colors. At the end of the school year 10
by a color-noun combination before a child children were naming objects by number at
was allowed to use them. These materials were group time and four children were naming
not removed from the children's reach; rather, objects by color at group time. One child was
when a child approached one of these materi- sick for the last month of school.
als, a teacher put her hand on the material the Materials not contingent on color naming.
child was reaching for. During the first three When stable changes were noted in all of the
days of the procedure, the teacher prompted children's spontaneous vocabularies of color
the desired behavior, asking the child, "What adjectives, the contingency of naming colors
do you want?", and then, if the child named to obtain materials in the free-play situation
the object without naming its color, the was removed. This was done in order to eval-
teacher asked, "What color of a ...... ?", and uate whether the use of color-noun combina-
supplied the color name if the child either did tions during free play was maintained solely

by the contingencies presented by teachers. child taken by the three observers on different
Thus, from the 172nd to the 189th and final days during each experimental condition.
day of school, all requirements for color nam- This child, whose individual data are plotted
ing during free play were discontinued; chil- in Fig. 3, is the median child in the group
dren were given snack and materials when- (number 8 in Table 1) in terms of overall rate
ever they asked for them either with a noun of using color adjectives across all conditions;
alone or with an adjective-noun combination. he is representative of the group also in terms
None of the materials ordinarily made avail- of correspondence between observers in each
able in the free-play situation were withheld condition.
by teachers. The consequences of color nam-
ing were essentially those which existed during Baseline
the first baseline period. That is, correct color Figure 2 shows the average rate of use of
naming in the free situation was followed in- descriptive adjectives of color, number, and
termittently by teacher approval and usually size per sample hour by all the children during
by obtaining an object (if the color name was each of the four experimental conditions of
part of a request for a material). Incorrect the study. In each case, the white bar (all ad-
naming of a color was followed intermittently jectives) includes the black bar (adjective-
by correction from a teacher, and often by ob- noun combinations). Use of adjectives of
taining an object (whatever object the teacher shape was not graphed, since the total was
assumed the child to be requesting). only 19 instances over the whole year for the
whole group.
RESULTS During the first baseline (102 school days),
the average use of all color adjectives was 0.5
Recording per sample hour, with a range from 0 to 2.3
Reliability checks taken periodically over per sample hour. Table 1 presents the exact
the year by having two observers simulta- rates per sample hour for each child in the
neously record the behavior of a given child group. The average rate of all color-noun com-
yielded the following product-moment corre- binations was 0.2 per sample hour, the highest
lation coefficients between observers for the rate being one color-noun combination used
total number of descriptive adjectives of color, per sample hour by one child, the lowest rate
number, size, and shape used by all the chil- zero per sample hour by 10 children. The av-
dren in the group: erage rate of new color-noun combinations
(those not previously recorded for the given
Observer 1-Observer 2 0.96 child) was 0.1 per sample hour (range 0 to 0.7
Observer 1-Observer 3 0.99 per sample hour). Average use of all number
Observer 2-Observer 3 0.86. adjectives was 3.4 per sample hour (range 0 to
The correlation between the volunteer ob- 8.8) with average use of all number-noun com-
server and all of the three regular observers binations at 0.5 per sample hour (range 0 to
was 0.89. 1.4). All size adjectives were used at an average
Since most of the children were rotated for rate of two per sample hour (range 0.9 to 7.5);
observation among the three observers, the all size-noun combinations were used at an
correspondence of observations taken by the average rate of 1.5 per sample hour (range 0
different observers during each of the four to 7.1). Thus, the rates of using descriptive
conditions provides another assessment of reli- adjectives as a class were low, and rates of
ability. Figure 1 (top) shows the correspon- naming colors were considerably lower than
dence of observations taken by the three ob- rates of naming number and size attributes.
servers on all children in the group during For a third of the children, use of a color ad-
each experimental condition. In each of the jective had never been recorded during five
conditions the total number of color adjectives months of school. No trend toward increased
used per sample hour, and the total number use of descriptive adjectives was observed for
of color-noun combinations used per sample any of the children.
hour for all children, as recorded by each ob- Figure 3 shows use of color adjectives by the
server, is shown. The bottom of Fig. 1 shows child (child 8, Table 1) with the median over-
the correspondence of observations of a single all rate across all experimental conditions. For

TOTAL GROUP * Observer 1

ol Observer 2
* Observer 3
20 AV

C- 01 O01 "Ii


20 201

t0 0
gasoline Boswline Materials Matrils W Baseline Baseline Materials Materials Not
Contingent Contingent Contingent Contingent

Al I Color Adjectives Color-Noun Combinations

Fig. 1. Correspondence of observations by the three observers across conditions for the total group and for the
representative median child. Top shows the correspondence of observations taken by each of the three observers
on all the children in the group during each experimental condition. Bottom shows the correspondence of ob-
servations of a single child taken by the three observers on different days during each experimental condition.

this child only two instances of usage of a (range 0 to 0.9). The average rate of using
color adjective had been recorded during the all number adjectives rose from 3.4 to 4.9 per
first baseline period, and there were no in- sample hour (range 0.5 to 14.7), and all num-
stances of color adjectives used with a noun. ber-noun combinations were used at an aver-
age rate of 0.9 per sample hour (range 0 to
Baseline: Color Naming at Group Time 3.2). These average increases in use of number
During the 50-school-day period of naming adjectives, in which no training was given,
colors at group time, the group average for use were as great as the increases in use of color
of all color adjectives increased to 1.8 per sam- adjectives; the rate of using color adjectives
ple hour. The range was from 0 (for two chil- during this period was most comparable to the
Iren) to 4.2 color adjectives used per sample average rate of using size adjectives (1.5 per
hour. The average rate of using all color-noun sample hour, range 0 to 5.6) in which, like
combinations rose from 0.2 to 0.4 per sample number adjectives, no training had been
hour; the range was from a low of zero com- given. Thus, it is not demonstrated that the
parable to the first baseline condition to a increased use of color adjectives during this
high of 1.2 as compared to the high of 1.0 per condition was affected by the group time pro-
sample hour during the first baseline condi- cedures.
tion. New color-noun combinations were used Figure 3 shows an increased rate of spon-
at an average rate of 0.3 per sample hour taneous usage of color adjectives in the free-

20 * Adjective-Noun Combinations

0 All Adjectives



color number size color number size color number size color number size

Baseline Baseline Materials Materials Not

(color naming Contingent on Contingent on
at grouptime) Color Naming Color Naming
Fig. 2. Average use per sample hour of descriptive adjectives of color, number, and size for a group of 15 chil-
dren. The first baseline was from the first to the 102nd day of school. The second baseline (color naming at group
time) was from school days 103 through 152. The condition of access to materials contingent on color-naming
was from school days 153 through 171. From school days 172 through 189 materials were no longer contingent on
color naming. All samples were of approximately 15 min.

play situation by the child with the median

rate. The increase however, was entirely in Materials Contingent on Color Naming
color adjectives used without a succeeding During the 19 days when access to snack and
noun, a form which did not correspond to the materials was contingent upon use of a color-
behavioral goal (color-noun combinations) set noun combination, there was a marked in-
by the teachers. This child was among the crease in such usage. As can be seen in Fig. 2,
seven children who had demonstrated mastery the average use of all color adjectives rose to
of nine colors by the end of the second base- 18.6 per sample hour (ranging from 2.1 to
line condition. Table 1, however, shows that 56.7). The average rate of using all color-noun
increased color naming was not restricted to combinations was 14.2 per sample hour (range
those children (marked by asterisks) who had 2.1 to 30.5). In contrast, the use of number and
mastered naming of all nine colors at group size adjectives during this period showed lit-
time. It can be seen that the greatest increase tle change from the preceding periods; aver-
in color naming was by a child (7) who was age use of number adjectives was 5.5 per sam-
not yet correctly naming nine colors at group ple hour while size adjectives were used on an
time. There seemed to be little continuity be- average of 2.1 per sample hour.
tween "knowing" colors, as demonstrated at During the second baseline condition, only
group time, and "using" them in the free sit- 22% of color adjectives were followed by noun
uation. referents. When obtaining an object required

Table 1
Use of Color Adjectives per Sample Hour

Baseline (Color Materials Materials Not Con-

Naming at Group Contingent tingent on Color
Baseline Time) on Color Naming Naming
A 11 New All New All New All New
All Color- Color- All Color- Color- A 11 Color- Color- A 11 Color- Color-
Child Color Noun Noun Color Noun Noun Color Noun Noun Color Noun Noun
* 1. 1.1 1.0 0.7 2.0 0.0 0.0 46.7 30.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 1.1
* 2. 1.3 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.4 0.4 8.2 5.4 2.9 54.5 33.1 6.8
3. 0.4 0.1 0.1 1.3 0.2 0.2 23.3 17.4 8.9 25.6 7.8 1.1
* 4. 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.3 0.3 33.5 30.5 13.0 13.0 12.0 1.0
5. 1.3 0.7 0.4 3.1 1.2 0.6 25.7 24.5 1.0 0.7 0.0 0.0
6. 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.2 31.2 15.9 7.7 15.0 15.0 4.5
7. 0.5 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.9 0.9 7.5 2.2 2.2 3.1 3.1 2.1
* 8. 0.3 0.0 0.0 3.1 0.4 0.2 18.2 15.3 7.7 2.2 1.1 1.1
* 9. 0.2 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.6 0.6 15.9 13.6 3.6 2.2 1.7 1.7
10. 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 29.2 25.0 12.3 11.8 3.2 1.4
*11. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 8.9 8.4 3.2 21.6 16.3 4.5
* 12. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 11.1 11.1 4.8 10.8 3.8 2.3
13. 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.6 0.6 2.1 2.1 2.1 3.8 0.8 0.8
14. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 8.7 1.3 0.7
*15. 2.3 0.5 0.4 1.1 0.3 0.3 14.5 9.3 3.1 Not in school
Average 0.5 0.2 0.1 1.8 0.4 0.3 18.6 14.2 5.1 12.7 7.4 1.9
High 2.3 1.0 0.7 4.2 1.2 0.9 46.7 30.5 13.0 54.5 33.1 6.8
Low 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 2.1 1.0 0.7 0.0 0.0

naming the object and its color, 75% of the an average of 12.7 per sample hour. The rate
color adjectives used were followed by a noun. of using all color-noun combinations de-
The marked rise in new color-noun combina- creased to an average of 7.4 per sample hour;
tions (to an average of 5.1 per sample hour) that is, 58% of colors named were followed by
can be seen in Fig. 4; more than a third of the the name of an object referred to. Though
objects named by color during the condition both of these rates show declines from the con-
of making materials contingent on color-nam- dition of making materials contingent on
ing constituted new color-noun combinations. color naming, they are well above the rates
Table 1 shows the changes in rate for indi- during either the first or second baseline con-
vidual children (luring this experimental con- ditions, indicating that once the behavior was
dition. Though the magnitudes of the in- generated in the free-play situation it tended
creases vary, the increase in use of color to be maintained, at least in some children.
adjectives can be seen to be general across the Table 1 shows that there was more inter-sub-
group. The new color-noun combinations, as ject variation when materials were no longer
they appear in Fig. 3 for the representative contingent on color naming, than in any prior
median child, indicate usage of a variety of condition. The highest rates of color naming,
color names, applied to a variety of objects, 54.5 per sample hour for all color adjectives
in most cases appropriately. The onset of this used and 33.1 per sample hour for all color-
behavior among the children during this ex- noun combinations used, were higher than
perimental condition permitted an empirical during the condition of making materials con-
assessment of the extent of their knowledge of tingent on color naming; the lowest rate, zero
the different colors. per sample hour for all color-noun combina-
tions, was at the level of the first baseline.
Materials Not Contingent on Color Naming The overall rate of new color-noun combi-
During the 18 days after the contingencies nations was 1.9 per sample hour (see Fig. 4),
for color naming were removed, the overall with the highest rate 6.8 per sample hour for
rate of using all color adjectives decreased to one child and the lowest rate zero for one


-a -wwith Noun
New Combinotions


*11 25

0 ight
blue car
white popcorn
_ black hotdog
red Peg
green peg
orange peg
purple peg
yellow block
e|eieseesn blue water
green water
white water
red soap
I.................................... orange apron

10 20 30 40 sol 160 70

Fig. 3. Cumulative use of color adjectives by the child with the median rate. The dotted line shows use of all
color adjectives; the solid line shows use of all color-noun combinations. New color-noun combinations are printed
in above the samples in which they were first recorded. Samples 1-6 were taken during days 3-9 of school. Sam-
ples 7-21 were taken during days 25-42 of school. Samples 22-26 were taken during days 71-80 of school. Samples
27-65 were taken during days 91-189 of school. All samples were of approximately 15 min. Baseline is samples 1-29.
At A the naming of colors at group time was begun. At B access to materials was contingent on use of color-noun
combinations. At C materials were not contingent on color naming.

child. That is, even after the contingency was ing the children's spontaneous speech. These
removed, one quarter of all the color-noun methods assume, as it was assumed by teachers
combinations employed were new combina- in this study, that what is "known" will be
tions. "used", given the appropriate stimulus condi-
Figure 2 shows that even with an overall tions. Thus, in the usual preschool during and
decrease the rates of using color adjectives after teaching a skill in a group situation,
were markedly higher than the rates of using teachers arrange stimuli in the free situation-
adjectives of size and number. Average use of a variety of sizes, colors, and shapes of materi-
size adjectives continued at approximately the als, for instance, and social attention and ap-
same rate as during the first baseline condi- proval-so as to foster usage in that situation
tion: 1.6 per sample hour. All number adjec- of the skill trained in the group situation.
tives were used at an average rate of 7.3 per The present study gives evidence that, despite
sample hour. this usual arrangement, such usage in the free
situation seldom occurred. An examination of
the group and free-play stimulus situations,
DISCUSSION however, indicates that they may have been so
This study demonstrated that traditional dissimilar as to make transfer between them
preschool methods were ineffective in modify- difficult and hence unlikely.

NEW 0l function casually, over time, both inside and

IToTAI - outside of preschools, and often even before
z they "know" the precise meaning of the de-
scriptive language used. Since the children in
the present study were termed "culturally de-
prived", an appellation indicating that their
environment was in some way deficient in the
V u
stimulus conditions conducive to the develop-
ment and maintenance of complex language
skills, it seemed contradictory to teach them a
skill such as color naming and then rely on
unsystematic environmental events to make
that skill functional. Rather, the environment
was deliberately structured so that the chil-
dren would come into contact with the func-
tion of descriptive adjectives: the stimulus sit-
uation which hopefully would control some
rate of the behavior outside of school was cre-
ated on a massive scale inside of school when
access to materials was made contingent on
(oonr naming them by color.
That the behavior continued in some
Fig. 4. Average new and all color-noun combinations
strength after the contingencies were removed
used per sample hour for a group of 15 children. The
seems to indicate that once color description
conditions were: baseline, (color naming at group was generated, there were enough "natural"
time), materials contingent on color naming, and ma- contingencies in the preschool situation to
terials no longer contingent on color naming. maintain it. Even after removal of the contin-
gency, children did obtain an object when
The verbal behavior reinforced in the group they asked for it by color; though teachers dis-
situation was of the form: noun-verb-adjective criminated the removal of the contingency,
("the car is red"). This form, in which the not all of the children may have done so. By
adjective stands alone as predicate adjective the end of the contingency period teachers
rather than as a modifier, is the form called were rarely withholding materials in the obvi-
for by the stimulus question, "What color is ous manner of the beginning of that period;
this (car)?". There is no simple stimulus ques- rather, most of the children were spontane-
tion in English which necessarily calls for a ously naming the color of the object whenever
response form in which an adjective, such as a they requested an object from a teacher. This
color name, modifies a noun: the question, verbal topography was the one most regularly
"What is this?", calls for a noun response ("a and promptly reinforced. Even after removal
car") rather than, necessarily, for a modified of the contingency for color naming this was
noun ("a red car"). In group teaching, prompt- probably often the case.
ing the response form of a modlifiedl noun con- There are two implications of this study for
currently with prompting color responses, preschool practice. The first is that of creating
while feasible, is rarely done in traditional for children a functional environment where
preschool practice. the contingencies for pre-academic behavior
For descriptive speech to be "spontaneous", approximate those applied to such behavior
however, the stimulus situation controlling in the "beyond-preschool" environment. The
the behavior cannot be a direct question con- teachers in this study felt, in fact, that the
cerning an object. Rather, the stimulus situa- whole process of teaching colors could have
tion must involve an object plus the necessity been more efficiently and painlessly done by
(not provoked by a question) of singling out making access to materials contingent on color
that object from one or more other objects. naming even before the children knew the
This is the function of descriptive language. names of any colors. Prompting and reinforc-
Most children come into contact with this ing in the free situation was little different

than that done at group time, except that chil- Tague, Cecilia E. Classroom behavior of retarded
dren did not have to wait for their "turn", and pupils with token reinforcement. Journal of Experi-
mental Child Psychology, 1965, 2, 219-235.
teachers were able to make use of reinforcers Brown, P. and Elliott, R. Control of aggression in a
such as materials in the free-play situation. nursery school class. Journal of Experimental Child
The generalization from free-situation naming Psychology, 1965, 2, 103-107.
to test-situation naming seemed more easily Harris, Florence R., Wolf, M. M., and Baer, D. M.
Effects of adult social reinforcement on child be-
made, perhaps because the spontaneous re- havior. Young Children, 1964, 20, 8-17.
sponse form is appropriate to both stimulus Hess, R. D. and Shipman, Virginia C. Early experience
situations. and the socialization of cognitive modes in children.
The second implication is that preschool Child Development, 1965, 36, 869-886.
materials may function as reinforcers for many Johnston, Margaret K., Kelley, C. Susan; Harris, Flor-
ence R., and Wolf, M. M. An application of rein-
children, and for some children may be even forcement principles to development of motor skills
more powerful than the social reinforcement in a young child. Child Development, 1966, 37,
and/or food presented in the preschool situa- 379-387.
tion. Some of the children in the present study Lindsley, 0. R. Experimental analysis of cooperation
and competition. In T. Verhave (Ed.), The experi-
appeared to teachers to have "really learned" mental analysis of behavior. New York: Appleton-
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group time situation was not well controlled ment of social reinforcers in two schizophrenic chil-
dren on the basis of food. Journal of Experimental
by the praise and food presented there (for Child Psychology, 1966, 4, 109-125.
neither of which they were deprived, at least Riessman, F. The culturally deprived child. New York:
in the preschool environment). As reinforcers, Harper & Row, 1962.
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in echolalic children. Behaviour Research and Ther-
school, but are uniquely appropriate to the apy, 1967, 5, 73-88.
development of descriptive vocabulary since Wahler, R. G., Winkel, G. H., Peterson, R. F., and
they are the same class of reinforcers which Morrison, D. C. Mothers as behavior therapists for
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Weikart, D. P. Results of preschool intervention pro-
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