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Sparse compressive sensing

Sivangi Ravikanth1, T.chalam2, K.Rajagopal3

1,2,3 Asst. Prof., CVR College of Engineering, ECE Dept, Hyderabad, India

-----------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract: Aiming at a massive multi-input multi-output various merits over the conventional MIMO. First, it uses a

(MIMO) system with unknown channel path number, a large number of antennas at the BS due to which the

sparse adaptive compressed sensing channel estimation simplest coherent-combiner and linear-precoder can be

algorithm is proposed, which is the block sparsity adaptive used for signal processing such MF or ZF. Second,

matching pursuit (BSAMP) algorithm. Based on the joint increasing the number of antennas increases the system

sparsity of sub channels in massive MIMO systems, the capacity substantially using the channel-reciprocity

initial set of support elements can be quickly and features and without increasing feedback-overhead. Third,

selectively selected by setting the threshold and finding the reduced power benefits in the uplink/downlink

the maximum backward difference position. At the same (UL/DL) provide the feasibility to shrink the cell-size,

time, the energy dispersal caused by the non orthogonality which can be used in micro and Pico-cells.

of the observation matrix is considered, and the estimation

performance of the algorithm is improved. The In massive MIMO systems, accurate Channel State

regularization of the elements secondary screening is Information (CSI) is required to utilize the full potential of

deployed, in order to improve the stability of the MIMO systems. However, such accurate CSI is not available

algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed in real communication environment [4]. With the

algorithm can quickly and accurately recover massive increasing number of antennas, the receiver has to

MIMO channel state information with unknown channel estimate more channel coefficients, which effectively

sparsity and high computational efficiency compared with increases the pilot overhead, computational complexity

other algorithms. and reduces the overall throughput of the system. This is a

challenging issue which has been addressed in

Keywords: 5G; massive MIMO; compressive sensing;

sparsity adaptive; channel estimation [3–6]. Massive MIMO channel has sparse characteristics

which can be utilized for computationally-efficient channel

Introduction estimation. Classical channel estimation methods include

least-square (LS) algorithm, minimum mean-squared error

Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) (MMSE) algorithm and linear minimum mean square error

technology is one of the key technologies of next- (LMMSE) and so on. The actual radio channel has certain

generation mobile cellular networks, which can form a multi-sparseness .In recent years, a large number of

massive antenna array by providing a large number of researchers applied compressive sensing to the pilot-aided

antennas at the cell base station. It will greatly improve the channel estimation.Research shows that compressed

channel capacity and spectrum utilization and has become channel estimation achieves better performance based on

a hotspot in the field of wireless communications in recent the same number of pilots in sparse channels.

years [1]. In a massive MIMO system, precise channel state

information (CSI) is critical, which is directly related to the 2. Sparse Multipath Channel Model

system signal detection, beam forming, resource allocation

and so on. The number of base station antennas in massive In a base station (BS) equipped with M transmitting

MIMO systems has reached hundreds of thousands, which antenna MIMO systems, the transmitting end sends

greatly deepens the complexity of system data processing. orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)

Therefore, in order to make full use of the potential signals, and the length of each OFDM signal transmitted by

advantages of massive MIMO technology, the more each antenna is N, where

efficient and low complexity channel estimation

algorithms are worthy of further study. Massive MIMO has P(0 < P < N) carriers are selected as the pilot for channel

estimation, and the channel length L. The pilot pattern of

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2147

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

the ith transmit antenna is p(i), I = 1, 2, ..., M, where, (𝑃 + 1)/2 , 𝑃 is odd (5)

p(i)∩p(j) = Φ, If i ≠ j. After the channel is transmitted, the

receiving end receives the pilot signal corresponding to Based on the above analysis, the number of non-zero taps

each antenna as y(p(i)), i = 1, 2, ..., M. Abbreviate y(p(i)) as in the channel vector does not exceed K, and at least 𝐿 − 𝐾

y(i), the basic channel model can be expressed as: elements can be regarded as noise. Therefore, we first

estimate the sparseness and then select the elements

y(i) = D(i)F(i)h(i) + m(i), i = 1, 2, L, M (1) within this range. At higher signal-to-noise ratios, since the

gain coefficients of the channel taps are higher than the

among them, D(i) = diag{p(i)} is a diagonal array of noise amplitudes, the restored vector elements are

selected pilot patterns, m(i) is a Gaussian White arranged in descending order. The difference between

adjacent elements is then used to determine the number of

Noise with mean 0 and variance σ2, F(i) is a P × L sub- elements selected for this iteration and to further estimate

matrix of a Fourier, corresponding to the the sparsity. The elements that precede the largest

backward difference are selected for the support set

dimensions N × N discrete Fourier transform (DFT) matrix because they may carry channel information.

pilot line elements and the first L

When the observation matrix satisfies certain conditions,

columns, h(i) = [h(i)(1), h(i)(2),..., h(i)(L)]T is the channel

the sparse signal restoration problem can be equivalent to

impulse response (CIR) corresponding to the ith antenna.

the following convex optimization problem. Define the

Make A(i) = D(i)F(i), Then, Equation (1) can be further

observation matrix A,the RIP parameter δk is the minimum

expressed as: value δ that satisfies Equation

y(i) = A(i)h(i) + m(i), i = 1, 2, L, M (2)

(1 − δ)‖𝒉‖𝟐 ≤ ‖𝑨𝒉‖𝟐 ≤ (1 + δ) ‖𝒉‖𝟐 (6)

3. Sparse Adaptive Matching Pursuit Algorithm

When matrix RIP parameters δk < √𝟐−1, the

3.1. Sparseness Estimation reconstruction problem can be transformed into the

following l1 norm minimum problem.

Using compressed sensing to solve channel estimation can

𝒉 = arg min ║𝒉║𝟏 , subject to ‖𝒚 − 𝑨𝒉‖𝟐 ≤ ε (7)

be equivalent to solving the following l0 norm minimum

problem.

3.2. Sparse Multipath Channel Estimation

𝒉 = arg min‖𝒉‖0, subject to ‖𝒚 − 𝑨𝒉‖2 ≤ ε (3)

Aiming at the joint sparseness presented by the massive

among them ║h║0 is the vector l0 norm of the vector h for MIMO channel, the transformed

the number of non-zero elements.

channel vector is defined as w = [w1T, w2T,..., wLT]T, where

only the channel impulse response (h) can be restored. wi = [h(1)(i), h(2)(i),..., h(M)(i)]T, i = 1, 2, ..., L, the i sub-

Among them, spark (A) is the least block for w. At this point, the non-zero elements in the

converted channel vector will be concentrated.

Linearly related column number in matrix .Because of the Correspondingly, the received pilot signal is warped z =

sparseness of the impulse response of the wireless [z1T, z2T... zpT]T. Among them, zi = [y(1)(i), y(2)(i), ...,

communication channel, most of the energy is y(M)(i) ]T, i = 1, 2, ..., P. Do the same for noise, n = [n1T, n2T,

concentrated on a few taps while a small part of the energy ..., nPT]T, where ni = [m(1)(i), m(2)(i), ..., m(M)(i)]T,

distribution is below the noise threshold. The number of

non-zero taps is much smaller than the channel length L. i = 1, 2... P. Considering all transmit antennas, the received

Making full use of the sparse characteristics of the channel, signal can be expressed as:

we can use fewer pilot symbols to get the ideal channel

z = Bw + n (8)

estimation effect, so as to improve the spectrum

utilization. An appropriate amount of pilot overhead among them, B = [B1, B2, ..., BL]; Bi = [a(1)(i), a(2)(i), ...,

satisfies Equation (5), so a(M)(i)], i = 1, 2, ..., L is the ith sub-block of matrix B, a(M)(i) is

the ith column of the matrix A(M). In the case of unknown

𝐾 = { 𝑃/2 , 𝑃 is even

channel sparsity, the compressed sensing is used to

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2148

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

estimate w in Equation (8), so multiply both sides of accuracy of the selected elements, the regularization

equation (8) simultaneously by BH, where BH is the process based on convex optimization is adopted to ensure

conjugate transpose of the matrix B. that the selected element energy is larger than the energy

of the unselected elements, and the noise is filtered out to

BHz = BH(Bw + n) = (I + BHB − I)w + BHn support the set.

among them, I denote ML × ML unit matrix. Due to the The MATLAB simulator is used for the analysis.

matrix B, there is no strict orthogonality; therefore, BHB −

I denote a nonzero matrix with a small elemental value. Table 1 mentioned the main simulation setup parameters

Consider the dispersion of energy caused by the non- for the proposed system. In the simulation, the system has

orthogonality of the observed matrix n’ = (BHB − I)w + 500 transmit antennas, using 64QAM modulation and low-

BHn, Then, density parity-check (LDPC) coding (coding efficiency

5/8). Each transmit antenna sends an OFDM signal with a

Equation (9) can be expressed as: signal length N of 256, with a cyclic prefix length of 64. The

OFDM signals transmitted by each transmitting antenna

BHz = w + n’ (10) have 16 pilot symbols, and all the algorithms use the same

pilot distribution method. The pilot positions are randomly

During iteration, define an ML × 1 vector R.

distributed and the pilots of different antennas are

R = |BHr| (11) orthogonal to each other. The channel length L is 60, and

the number of channel multipath is a random integer. The

among them, r denotes iterative residuals, its initial value multipath amplitude follows the Rayleigh distribution, and

is z, |.| represents the absolute value of the elements in the multipath positions follow a random distribution.

BHr. Now, define the element in vector T as the sum of the

squares of each set of M elements in the vector R

(𝑗−1)×𝑀+1 ,

channel sparsity is K. After the first iteration, the last L-K

elements in Ts are only generated by n’ inSo the energy of

the next L-K elements is set as the threshold f. The non-

zero tap energy in the channel is greater than the

threshold f. So in Ts, only elements above this threshold

are likely to be included in the support set. Figure 1. Comparison of mean square error of each

algorithm under different signal to noise ratios (SNRs).

At higher signal-to-noise ratios, since the gain coefficient of

MSE: mean square error; LS: least-square; SP: subspace

the channel tap is higher than the noise amplitude, at each

pursuit; OMP: orthogonal matching pursuit; SAMP:

iteration of the algorithm, Ts of the element amplitude

sparsity adaptive matching pursuit; ASSP: adaptive and

produces a larger

structured subspace pursuit; BSAMP: block sparsity

rate of change; then the element before this position has to adaptive matching pursuit

carry channel information. Therefore, calculating the

maximum backward difference between adjacent elements

determines the number of elements selected in this

iteration, and the elements before this position are

selected for the support set because they may carry

channel information. In order to further improve the

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2149

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July 2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

REFERENCES

unlimited numbers of base station antennas. IEEETrans.

Wirel. Commun. 2010

complexity polynomial channel estimation inlarge-scale

MIMO with arbitrary statistics. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Proc.

2014, 8, 815–830

3. Wen, C.K.; Jin, S.; Wong, K.K.; Chen, J.C.; Ting, P. Channel

Figure 2. Throughput comparison of each algorithm with

estimation for massive MIMO usingGaussian-mixture

increasing SNR.

Bayesian learning. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Proc. 2014

5. CONCLUSION

4. Zhen, J.; Rao, B.D. Capacity analysis of MIMO systems

This paper proposes a BSAMP algorithm with adaptive with unknown channel state information. In

sparsity-based on the joint sparsity of sub-channels in

Proceedings of the IEEE Information Theory Workshop,

massive MIMO systems. The algorithm chooses the

San Antonio, TX, USA, 24–29 October 2004

support elements as the first choice by setting the

threshold and finding the maximum backward difference 5. Marzetta, T.L. How much training is required for

position. The element is secondarily selected by multiuser MIMO? In Proceedings of the IEEE 2006

regularization to improve the accuracy of the selected

elements. The MSE, BER and throughput analysis is Fortieth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and

performed against the SNR and number of pilots. The Computers (ACSSC), Pacific Grove, CA, USA, 29 October–1

proposed BSAMP algorithm is compared with LS, OMP, SP, November 2006

SAMP, ASSP algorithms, and the corresponding system

parameters are analyzed for performance evaluations. The 6. Wu, S.; Kuang, L.; Ni, Z.; Huang, D.; Gao, Q.; Lu, J.

algorithm complexity analysis was also performed, which Message-passing receiver for joint channel estimation and

clearly estimated that the proposed BSAMP algorithm has decoding in 3D massive MIMO-OFDM systems. IEEE Trans.

a 0.01284 s average runtime, which is much smaller than Wirel. Commun. 2006

the other algorithms such as the average runtime of SAMP

algorithm, which is 93.3930 s and the ASSP algorithm 7. Khan, I.; Zafar, M.; Jan, M.; Lloret, J.; Basheri, M.; Singh, D.

which has an average runtime of 15.3610 s. With such a Spectral and Energy Efficient Low-Overhead Uplink and

computationally-efficient behavior, the proposed BSAMP Downlink Channel Estimation for 5G Massive MIMO

algorithm provides efficient sparse channel estimation Systems. Entropy 2018,

capability for 5G massive MIMO systems which also

enables us to deploy it in practical usage scenarios.

Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the

BSAMP algorithm has good channel estimation

performance, high throughput and low computational

complexity as compared to other algorithms. This research

work can further be extended by incorporating the

proposed BSAMP algorithm in TDD, FDD Massive MIMO

for Energy Efficiency Analysis versus different

performance metrics such as the distance between the BS

and mobile users, antenna element spacing and hardware

impairments.

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