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CHAPTER 1

MANGLA DAM

1.1 BACKGROUND
As a result of Indus Water Treaty which was signed in 1960, India gained rights to the waters of
Ravi, Sutlej and Beas Rivers, while Pakistan gained the rights to the waters of Jhelum, Chenab
and Indus rivers. The agricultural yield in Pakistan was very low due to several reasons, the most
important of which was the lack of water during critical growing periods.
The Mangla Dam was one of the major two dams which was constructed to strengthen the
irrigation system of the country and to reduce water scarcity as part of Indus Basin Project, the
other being Terbela Dam on River Indus.

Fig 1.1: Mangala Dam from the top of Ramkot fortress

1.2 LOCATION
Manga dam islocated on the Jhelum River in the Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. It
is the seventh largest dam in the world. The dam got its name from the village of Mangla.
Fig 1.2 : Location of Mangla Dam in Pakistan (33.142083°N 73.645015°E)

1.3 COST
Mangla Dam was constructed with the funding being provided by the World Bank and Asian
Development Bank at a cost of Rs.15.587 billion.
The major contractors were a consortium of 8 Companies led by Guy.F.Atkinson Co. (USA)
while the other consultants were Binnie & Partners (UK), Harza Engineering Co. International
(USA) and Preece Cardew & Rider (UK).
Fig 1.3 : President Ayyub Khan inaugurates the Mangla Dam, 1967

1.4 OPERATION
The project was designed primarily for irrigation from the flow of River Jehlum. Its secondary
function was to generate electricity. This project though not initially designed, is also being used
to control floods in monsoon season.
On December 5, 1971, the dam was damaged due to a bombing raid conducted by the Indian Air
Force during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. This was against the international convention that
large water reservoirs would not be targeted in war. As a consequence, the hydro project was
temporarily out of service.

1.5POWER HOUSE
According to the report published by WAPDA, the power house, which consists of turbines,
generators and transformers, has been constructed at the toe of an intake embankment at the
ground surface elevation of 865 feet SPD. The water to the power house is supplied through five
steel-lined tunnels of 30/26 feet diameter. Each tunnel is designed to feed two generating units.
The power house tailrace discharges into New Bong Canal, which has a length of 25,000 feet
with discharge capacity of about 49,000 cusecs, and terminates at an automatic gate control
headworks at about 12 km downstream located near old Bong Escape Headworks.
There are ten vertical Francis Type turbines in the power house. Each of these turbines has an
output of 138,00 bhp with a rated head of 295 feet of water. The first four turbines were
manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric, Japan and were installed in 1969, turbines 5 and 6 are
manufactured by CKD Blansko, Czech Republic and were installed in 1974, turbines 7-8 were
manufactured by ACEC, Belgium and were installed in 1981, while the remaining two turbines
are a make of Skoda, Czech Republic and were commissioned in 1994.
These turbines are connected to umbrella-type generators which have a generation capacity of
100 MW. Hitachi, Japan had provided generators for turbines 1–4 and 7-8 while Škoda
generators are connected to turbines 5-6 and 9-10.
These generators are in turn connected to three-phase transformers. The transformers connected
to turbine 1, 4 and 7 were manufactured by the Italy-based Savigliano. The transformers for
turbine 5 and 6 are a make of Italtrafo, another Italian company, while the remaining five
transformers were provided by Škoda.

Fig. 1.4: A view of turbine relief valve operation at Mangla Power House
CHAPTER 2
POWER GENERATION FROM MANGLA POWER STATION

2.1 General Power Information


According to a report published by WAPDA, the total installed capacity of Mangla power station
is 1000MW which is being generated by 10 units each generating 100MW. The following facts
and figures are given by WAPDA on their website.

Table 2.1 : Facts and figures about power generation from Mangla

2.2 Commissioning Dates


The following table provides the commissioning Dates of the 10 operational units
of Mangla power station which have an installed capacity of 1000MW.
Table 2.2 Commissioning Dates

2.3 E&M Equipment of Mangla

The major equipment being used in Mangla Power station comprised of Turbines , Generators

and Power transformers whose specifications will be explained via tables individually.
2.3.1 TURBINE

Table 2.3: Specifications of turbines installed in Mangla Power Station

2.3.2 GENERATOR

Table 2.4: Specifications of generators installed in Mangla power Station


2.3.3 POWER TRANSFORMERS
Table 2.5 Specifications of Power Transformers being installed in Mangla Power Station

THE RAISING OF MANGLA DAM:

A joint venture of consultants comprising NESPAK, Barqaab, Binnie and Partners and Harza has been

awarded the contract to undertake the feasibility for raising Mangla Dam by 40 feet. The proposal for

raising of Mangla Dam was part of the Final Completion Report submitted by Binnie and Partners in

1971. This will raise the elevation of the dam from 1,234 feet to 1,274 feet and subsequently increase

the conservation level from 1,202 feet to 1,252 feet and the minimum operating level from 5.88 MAF to

9.6 MAF. Year Water Power Total Benefits Storage Releases Rs. 900 per Ac-Ft Generation Rs. 0.3 per Ac-

Ft July to June MAF Benefit, Rs. Million MKWH Benefit, Rs. Million Rs. Million 1996-97 4.98 4,482

5,665.63 1,699.69 6,181.69 1997-98 4.36 3,924 6,103.72 1,831.11 5,755.11 1998-99 5.10 4,590 4,778.53

1,433.56 6,023.56 1999-00 4.21 3,789 3,184.77 955.43 4,744.43 According to recent investigations

(1999), the capacity of Mangla has reduced by 19.22% due to silting i.e from 5.88 MAF to 4.75 MAF.

Concerned by this, the government initiated the raising of Mangla Dam as a fast-track project on August

14, 2000. The raising of Mangla dam will make the main dam 494 feet high, providing an additional

1,000 GWh or an 18% enhancement and 3.1 MAF of additional storage under normal conditions. The

Government of Pakistan has allocated 53 billion rupees for this project between 2001-06.
THE RESSETLEMENT ISSUE:

During the construction of the Mangla dam, 65,100 acres of land was submerged. This led to the

resettlement of the residents of old Mirpur town and the affected people were provided

accommodation in the newly designed and developed town of Mirpur. Most of the people were

accommodated however, some grudges remained after resettlement. An important concern on the

raising of Mangla dam is the resettlement of an estimated 40,000 people living in 7,000 houses. Some of

these may be the same people or their descendants who would forced to leave their hometown for the

second time. Rs. 20 billion have been allocated for population resettlement in the Rs 53 billion project.

WAPDA is developing a policy and compensation package for resettlement of the affectees