Hi! Welcome to CWTk Community Devellpment Planning link.

I As a CWTS student, you are expected to:

"Tell me and I'll forget; show me anti I may remember, involve me and l'll understand." (A Chinese Proverb)


• be acquainted with the terms and concepts on Community Development Plarming

• give importance to Community Development Plarming as yow.' initial step to community development

• apply the approaches and guidelines in community development plarming

• construct a Community Development Plan/Proposal based on the guide and samples that are discussed here.

Community Development Planning is a process which helps institutions and private/public sectors to work together with the community to plan, develop, and deliver enhanced services which make a real difference to people's lives. It is about organizations and communities working together to improve services and quality of life. (Sconish Executive: Guidance In Community Planning, 20(4)

To begin our journey let lIS know tuhat is \AJ"""l"",I,UY Development Planning?

In the previous module on Community Development, you have recognized the significance of empowerment and participation in community development. 'You have learned that community development is always "people centered". We always take into consideration the people's welfare, people's capability and people's participation. Therefore, the heart of Community Development Planning is also "listening to and communicating with the people in the communities:. tt is also about involving them in decisions and making them more

responsive to the needs and asplratiolns of their com . This will require the

par)nership not only to seek the views of i ' also to s their

lnvolvement as partners In Community


In sports we see many examples of the need to plan. Often this

inmlves a "game plan." A game plan is simply a series of steps which the team must follow in order to be able to accomplish its goal of winning the game. In fact most winning teams are able to win, because they plan to win. Losing teams are often the team that had no game plan, or a poor plan at best Failing to plan to win is the same as planning to lose. Or put another way, "Failing to plan is planning to fail." (Robert Foreman, rchitect and Author: The Importance of Planning)

Good planning conserves resources, prevents wasted effort and saves time and money. Good planning prevents small problems from becoming big problems.

A decision to plan is a community commitment to consciously head in a certain direction. The path should lead to an increase in the public interest According to Brian W. Ohm, author of "Guide to ~ommunity Planning in Wisconsin" the following types of benefits

T""O"''''' how ,',"0'09 h""~ to 'O"''''~' public ''''''lO

decisions made on community services which affect them; and

»0 secure a commitment from communities and Institutions to work together, not apart, in providing betler services for the com mon good.


"Suppose one of you wants to build a tower. Will he not first sit down and estimate the cost to see if he has enough money to complete it? For ifhe lays the foundation and is not able to finish it, everyone who sees it will ridicule him, saying, "This fellow began to build and was not able to finish," Luk« 14:28·30,

Good planning Is good stewardship. Success in any endeavor

• It helps the future of communities by crleating

and mai ntai ni ng a sense place

It protects natural and agricultural resources.

I • It provides predictability regarding future development.

Good planning provides community developers with information about where and what type of development the community will allow. It also provides a standard process by which development proposals are accepted or rejected. This standardization increases the consistency and the fairness of the development

r process.

• It saves money. Communities can save money by good planning Not only can planning prevent the expenditure of public resources on unnecessary facilities, it can help to organize new

growth in more financially efficient ways It is less expensive for a local community to provide public services to an orderly and phased pattern of development than it is to provide those services to scattered low density development

• It promotes economic development. Planning promotes economic development by helping the comrmmty keep ~xisting

livelihoods like farming, fiShing or . i and attract ones

By planni a community can attract and I local

•. It can e sustainable development. "Sustainabls

development" has been defined as development designed "to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs . ., (The World Commission on Environment andlDevelopment, The Brundtland Commission, Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, 1987, p 43) Planning is recognized as a critical action step towards more sustainable development Planning to promote sustainability can help achieve more efficient use of land, decrease traffic congestion, conserve important natural resources, engage citizens, and provide for economic prosperity By pursuing a sustainable pattern of development, planning helps promote the public good

How do you get statted with community development planning? How do you decide which approach to use, and when? How do you design an overall strategy geared to fwn circumstances?

Approaches to CommunlryOevelopment Planning (B,I.n Ohm, '997)

The Blank Slate Approach -- Planning as a Learning Process


One way of thinking about planning is to think of it as a learning

process through which the community learns as much as possible about what is happening in the community ard why. Community members also discover what might be done to influence future changes In this approach, a primary goal is to collect as much data and information as possible, and to develop an understanding of a comprehensive range of substantive issues and topics. Collecting data and information, and thinking about what that data means, is in

I fact a good way of deciding what the problems and issues are that need to be address.

There are a number of different approaches to the planning process especially in community development They differ depending upon the issues the community seeks to address. They also call for different levels of professional expertise and citizen participation The diagram below shows the different approaches that you may use when planning

Often, p~nning is by the recognitio.n that ~ serious .

problem exists that needs to be addressed as menlioned In Module 3, hke poverty and unemployment. Similarly, planning is often precipitated by a sense of crisis, and/or by dissatisfaction with current conditions and/or trend, like to the eruption of the Mayon Volcano in Albay, the government clearing up a squatters/slum for a project leaving thousands of homeless families, or the issues regarding Reproductive Health Bill. People may feel that development is out of control- that too much development is occurring too fast and too much farmland and open space is being lost. Or the spark lhat prompts a community to feel that it needs a plan may arise from a major development proposal that promises to have a significant impact on ~ community.

Another limitation is that the solutions produced may with the

symptoms of the problem, but do not treat the deeper root causes .in a way that could achieve a more lasting solution. In addition to these. beginning the planning process by identifying problems and dl'ficiencles is a fundamentally negative way of approaching planning. It focuses attention on what IS wrong with a community. rather than on what is right and good.

The Strategic Issues Approach

When planning is prompted by a problem or crisis, the focus of

planning, not surprisingly, is typically on soMng that particular problem.

Using planning as a way of soMng current problems can be effective in mobilizing community support-for the planning process.

A third way of approaching planning is to drop the comprehensive approach, instead focusing on identifying strategic issues. What distinguish this approach are its selectivity and its pragmatism. It . . restricts the number and range of issues dealt with at any single pomt In time-- and focuses attention and energy on issues and concerns which are most strategically important and timely

Strategic issues are typically identified by conducting an analysis aimed at identifying Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and -+--'T""h:C-r-eats (S.w.O.T). First. the community or organization looks at its own Strengths and Weaknesses

For example, the community project to outses and

visitors-- is it What IS the community's cJmpetltlve

advantage (or disadvantage) relative to other communities in Ithf! regIOn?

A fourth way of identifying planning issues and of beginning the planning process is to formulate a vision of an ideal future, unconstrained by current conditions. Under this approach, citizens

I engage in a creative "Visioning process" through which they attempt to produce mental images and rich verbal descriptions of what they would ideally like their community to be. Formulation of this "vision" then sets the basic framework that defines the issues that the planning process seeks to address.

The Vision-Oriented Approach

Vision-oriented planning can be effective when there is general agreement about what makes a community special, and about what

ltbe...community should look like in the future. It can also work well in settings and communitieswh~re citizens are Inot afraid of cl;]ange. where citizens are receptive to new Ideas, a~d where there I a

climate of for on of i views

I....- _

This approach leads to better and more sustainable outcomes by

raoalyzlDg and addressinq the inequalities, discnrrmatory practices and unjust power relations w~lch are often at the heart of ,

development Adopting a human n!i)hts-based

I may not nly change what we dOJ,:t~~~::._

about how do it. As before, a human rights-based ap~roach

provides a vision of w development should strive to achieve (to

secure the freedom, well-being and dignity of all people everywhere), and a set of tools and essential references (human rights standards and principles). H is essentially based on the values, standards and principles captured in the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and subsequent legally binding human rights conventions/treaties. H not only defines the subjects of development, but it also translates people's needs into rights, recognizing the human person as the active subject and claim-holder. Human rights provides a policy focus crosscutting development sectors, which is to be Incorporated in all programs Including within agriculture, health, education, justice etc. Thus this approach to community development planning is about safeguarding basic rights both during planning and implementation and should be a guide in program design and resource allocation at all levels. Also it is about promotional measures where needed for rights of indigenous peoples, children, workers or the right to Information.

Human rights are not only a concern of the courts or the Human Rights Cor'nmisslon but shall be respected and promoted at all levels including ge~er-nmeAts-;{lrganizations, community developers and by you as an individual.

(frotp: "A Human Rights-based Approac~ to Development In UNDP-

Adding the MIssing Link")


i of communities Is althe heart of

Community Planning. unity designers draw out of people their

heroic Insights and find ways with them to implement plans." Richard Meier, Architect, Community Design Primer, 1990

z.u Identify the issues facing the community in or~er to select an approach to

planning. Go back to the Approaches to Community Development Planning and choose an appropriate approach/es to your chosen community

3.0 Collect and analyze data


For example, during strategic planning, planners often conduct a "SWOT analysis". (SWOT is an acronym for

cons ide ring the organization's strengths and weaknesses, and the opportunities and threats faced by the orqanlzatlon.) During this analysis, planners also can use a variety of methods

~; Strengths






individual approaches presented here

need not be pursued in a pure to the exclusion of all others. In fact, in

pursuing community based planning processes, it is quite legitim~te and appropriate to employ a mixture of these approaches, andlor to employ different approaches at different points in time. T~e secret to effective and successful planning is to design the planning process to fit local circumstances.


In his article, "To Produce an Effective Plan You Need a Plan for Planning"(Depar1ment of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Extension Report 97-2, 1997), Gene Bunnell identified steps or procedures on community development planning. You may consider all elements simultaneously but carefully wtlen you develop a plan for a specific community:

_ _r:I-.tCD-Planning should be people-centered, lnvolve citizens in all

steps of the CD Planning process to it parti and

Based on the analysis and alignment to the overall mission of plan, community development planners establish a set of goals that build on strengths to take advantage of opportunities, while building up weaknesses and warding off threats. Objectives are selected to be timely and indicative of progress toward goals.

5. Evaluate aHernatives.

A variety of approaches to solving existing problems should always be considered. These alternatives and their predicted impacts provide the community with options for both accommodating and Instigating change. Evaluation of the alternatives focuses on their physical and financial impact on the community and the prospects for developing strategies that could feasibly implement them. The evaluation should also be the focus of public review and discussion.

After examining the implications of each alternative, the next step is to select the one alternative that provides the best combination of creating ,_.._--,.-_PllsitiyeJuture conditions and solving current problems. Often the alternative selected may be a combination of the various alternajlves

examined. I

Here, policies and programs are developed to be implemented. Planning involves more than just coloring a map or filling up vacant areas with uses. Policies and programs ne1d to be articulated that will be a meaningful guide to local decision making. Plans should therefore include written text and tables summarizing the reasons supporting those policies and programs. The plan document may also contain maps and other graphics which depict existing conditions and the future objectives of the community.

Plans are not meant to be static documents. Monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the plan is a critical, yet often forgotten, step in the planning process. Communities need continually to reassess the relevance and meaning of the plan to ensure its effectiveness.

Plans need to be updated as situations change. tt is Important that mechanisms be built into the planning process so that existing plans can be 'altered to meet emerging challenges. At a minimum, communities should \Update plans every five to ten years especially for those with long-term programs.

Once a plan is adopted, no decisions related to development, public facility development and budgeting should be made without considering whether the decisions are consistent with the plan. 1m plementation tools also need to be developed and adopted as outlined in the plan to ensure that the day-to-day decisions of the local government carry

. .J--1r--=-0:::ut the plan's goals. Plans that acknowledge the ways in which local decisions are made and which provide real guidance for local declslon-makinq Jill

be the most meaningful. I

8.DAcknowledgement and Celebration of Resu~s

This critical step is often ignored - which can eventually undermine the success of many of your future planning efforts. The purpose of a plan is to address a current problem or pursue a development goal. ~ seems ,simplistic to assert that you should acknowledge if the problem was

fs()lved or the goal met. However, this step in ng process is often

lignored in lieu of moving on the hext p goal to .

kipping this can cu~ivate apathy and skepficisrn

Community are developed based on the logic and structures of the

strategic planning process. The logic of this process takes you fr6m a broadbased vision to specific actions and action plans. The process links vision" goals, objectives and action into a logical and inter-related structure.


As future community developers, you need to Ipay special attention to several factors whenever you make a plan. Involving the people, identifying their resources, issues and needs will make a big difference to a successful plan. A good background of the community will also provide you with ample infonmation to help you plan for an excellent project for them.

In Civic Welfare Training Service, a Community Development Plan (COP) is necessary to enable you to design and implement a good project in your chosen/partner communities. A community development plan is a written dotument, a tool created by community members dnd organizers (Flo Frank and Anne Smith, The Community Deo,elopment Handbook, A Tool to Build Community capacity). tt outlines the following things:

00 where the communities are now (community strengths, weaknesses, resources);

00 where the communities want to be (the Ideal future for your community);

00 the general direction that the community want to take to close the gap between where they are now and where they want to be; 00 the specific actions within each general direction required to close the gap;

00 the resource and capacity issues that need to be addressed; and

~ how success will look like, and how to tell when they have been

I successful. I '

On the next page is a community development plan fonmat which will guide you in preparing

for a program that will benefit your chosen community. This has been inspired by the University's Office for Community

Development matrix on community development plan, and is revised and desiqred according to the needs of the CWTS program.

B. Objectives:

Project Title: (What you wi II call your project, example" Cleao.and Green")

Target Community/Beneficiaries: (InCIUdb the race/group and location)

Community Background:

General Objective:

State the over-all direction/long -term objective in the I of the community. (Use the Bloom's Taxonomy of Objectives as your guide in making objectives)

Specific Objective:

Briefly describe the situation in the community You may conduct an ocular inspection, intelView key persons in the community, consult your college community coordi nator and review the community profile

.[Specific Objectives are the short term, more immediate and are component details of the general or long-term objective. Specific objectives must show output and specific performance indicators.

Outline the problems and needs of the target beneficiaries and briefly describe how the project intends to address these.

.[Specific Objectives must be "SMARTER"; Specific, Measurable,

Describe other projects/program in community and how this ~roject will contribute to the over-all development objectives in the

I selected community I •

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Activities Time Output Resourc es/Materlals Cost
Fram. Actual ActiVities: (How it will be ifll)lemented7 What are the roles of each

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Post.implementation Activities: (How it will be assessedl evaluated? Review your stated project objectives. expected outputs, phasing and direction.


Generalization: I I

The heart of Community Development Planning is about collective!

collaborative working and it should be integral to the various planning and ~ervice delivery functions of an institution and its partner communities.Through Community Development Planning, you will become aware of rea~life situations in different communities. You will experience a change within yourselves and soon your studies, researches and whatever resources you have are eagerly used to find ways to improve the lives of the people in the community. This becomes apparent when you start planning, do ~Iunteer work, and give off your time and talent for the betterment of the oommunity.

Remember that planning is a tool, and it is people and their commitments to action that make a plan come alive and make It work. A desirable outcome of all these is the contribution that you can give to the community and that is empowerment. The community slowly realizes that it has the power, the skills and the confidence to take care of itsef and be sef-

1 ,Wfu;l"'. because "'" have planned 0.' p~rnm for frem.


Naturally it would be ishful thinking to assume that thi can happen overnight but YOU, as learners are reassured when you will rbalize that you have helped in planting the seeds of empowerment.

I end this lesson on community deveiopmentiplanning with a reflection note from one of our former CWTS student.

Service is something that comes from the heart. tt can never be taken. tt caJ never be forced out of a person. We were there a~d I felt the urge for my service. I had to do something and we had to do it all together 10 make the most out of our stay there. (Dandela Mari Cortes, UST CWTS 2008·2009)

'Mav\'~ are tnt plaV\,s tV\, the ~tv\'d of a ~av\',

bt,(t tt £s tne pt,(rpose of tne Lord tnat wtLL staV\,d: (Proverbs :1j :21)

The best scene i can remember was when I and my groupm ate s were working hand in hand with the people in NTA. Montalban, Rizal. Suddenly I forgot about my plates, school, money, and everything else that didn't matter at that time. We were so focused doing the [ob, our mural painting for school rehabilitation because we wanted to help. We wanted to be able to do something, maybe for the first time, not for ourselves but for other people. It was the reality, for in our hands lie the future of other people. It seems like it would be hard to do what ",\-_1- __ we have done when we first started. But with the guidance of our facilitator, and by preparing a simple yet attainable plan, we were able to execute the kind of se)vice that we have in mind to help 0' t these people.

That's the end of Module 5 for the CWTS program. But the journey is still ongoing.

Good luck on the adventure and learning.