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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

This chapter shows the results, data and its interpretations and

implications on the probability of Selliguea taeniata and Elaeagnus philippinensis

leaves extracts as an antioxidant based on DPPH readings. This also includes the

statistical analyses.

Phytochemical Components of Selliguea taeniata and


Elaeagnus philippinensis leaves

Based on the previous studies of Alindayo, et al and Capdos, the following

phytochemicals are found on Selliguea taeniata and Elaeagnus philippinensis

leaves.

Phytochemical Components of Selliguea taeniata leaf

Table 1 depicts the phytochemicals components tested on Selliguea

taeniata leaf and its results based on the study of Alindayo and Daoay (2013).

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Table1. Phytochemical components of Selliguea taeniata leaf

CONSTITUENTS TESTED RESULTS


Alkaloids Negative
Anthraquinone Negative
Saponins Negative
Phytosterols Negative
Phenolics Positive
Tanins Negative
Flavonoids Positive
Protiens Positive
Carbohydrates Positive
Diterpenes Negative
Triterpenes Negative

Table 1 shows that Selliguea taeniata leaf extract contains flavonoids and

polyphenols, phenolic, carbohydrates and proteins. Selliguea taeniata leaf extract

having flavonoids and phenolic proves that it has antiviral, anti-allergic,

antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities.

Phytochemical components of Elaeagnus philippinensis leaf

Table 2 depicts the phytochemicals tested on Elaeagnus philippinensis

leaf and its results based on the study of Capdos (2013).

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Table 2. Phytochemical components of Elaeagnus philippinensis leaf

CONSTITUENTS TESTED RESULT


Alkaloids Negative
Tannins Positive
Anthraquinones Negative
Flavonoids Positive
Steroids Positive
Saponins Positive
Cyanogenic Glycosides Negative

Table 2 shows that Elaeagnus philippinensis leaf extract contains tannins,

flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. Therefore, Elaeagnus philippinensis leaf

extract has antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and

antioxidant activities because of flavonoid. It is capable of reducing inflammation

because of steroids. And because of saponins it contains, it is capable of

producing soap.

Antioxidant Activity of Selliguea taeniata leaf and


Elaeagnus philippinensis leaf through DPPH

Absorbance Readings in DPPH


Table 3 depicts the results of the different treatments in DPPH assay.

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Table 3. Absorbance reading in DPPH as affected by Selliguea taeniata leaf and
Elaeagnus philippinensis leaf in µg/mL

ABSORBANCE % FREE
MEAN
READINGS RADICAL
SAMPLE ABSORBANC
INHIBITIO
I II III E
N
T1: Combined extract 1.13 1.13 1.12
1.132 4.926
(100 µg/ ml) 1 8 8
T2: Combined extract 1.07 1.07 1.07
1.075 9.768
(250 µg/ ml) 2 3 9
T3: Combined extract 1.01 1.00 1.01
1.012 15.057
(500 µg/ ml) 2 8 5
T4: Combined extract 0.89 0.88 0.88
0.888 25.413
(800 µg/ ml) 3 7 5
T5: Combined extract 0.77 0.77 0.77
0.774 35.013
(1000 µg/ ml)l) 4 7 1
T6: Ascorbic acid 1.03 1.02 1.02
1.029 13.630
(5.0 µg/ml) 5 7 4
T7: Ascorbic acid 0.91 0.92 0.95
0.928 22.054
(10 µg/ml) 1 0 4
T8: Ascorbic acid 0.68 0.63
0352 0.647 45.704
(30 µg/ml) 1 4
T9: Ascorbic acid 0.38 0.38 0.36
0.379 68.206
(60 µg/ml) 4 7 5
T10: Ascorbic acid 0.06 0.16 0.06
0.064 94.598
(100µg/ml) 1 5 7
T11: Blank 1.18 1.14 1.23
1.191 -
(negative control) 7 9 8

Table 3 shows that treatment 10, ascorbic acid (100µg/ml), has the highest

free radical inhibition of 94.598 % and lowest mean absorbance of 0.064. This

means that it has the highest antioxidant activity, because the lesser the mean

absorbance, the higher the activity in antioxidants.

It is then followed by treatment 9, also ascorbic acid, which has 68.206 % free

radical inhibition and 0.379 mean absorbance. Then followed by treatment 8, 5, 4,

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7, 3, 6, 2, 1, and lastly treatment 11, the negative control, which don’t have a zone

of inhibition.

Analysis of Variance
Using ANOVA, significant difference among the eleven different

treatments was determined.

Table 4 depicts the computed values in using ANOVA. These are the sum

of squares, mean sum of squares, degrees of freedom, and the f values.

Table 4. ANOVA table for absorbance readings in DPPH

SOURCES
SUM OF MEAN SUM OF
OF DF F-VALUES
SQUARES (SS) SQUARES (MSS)
VARIATION
Treatment
3.540 0.354 10 Fc = 50.571
Between (b)
Error Within
0.147 0.007 22 Ft =2.2967
(w)
Total 3.687 32

Table 4 shows that the computed f value, Fc = 50.571, is greater than the

tabulated f value, which is 2.2967 at .05 level. This means that there is a

significant difference between the different treatments.

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Duncan’s Multiple Range Test

Duncan’s test was used, since there is a significant difference between the

different treatments. It was used to determine which treatments have significant

difference.

Table 5. Duncan’s table for absorbance readings in DPPH

P 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
rp 2.881 3.028 3.123 3.192 3.243 3.284 3.317 3.344 3.366 3.385
Rp 0.139 0.146 0.151 0.154 0.157 0.159 0.160 0.162 0.163 0.164

Table 5 shows Duncan’s Multiple Range Test up to a range of

eleven treatments or sample means. With the treatments arranged from lowest to

highest mean absorbance as T11(negative control), T1, T2, T6, T3, T7, T4, T5, T8,

T9, T10 and it is seen that T11 has the highest mean absorbance while T10 or the

10µg ascorbic acid (positive control) has the lowest mean absorbance.

Table 6. Summary of Duncan’s analysis for the eleven treatments

COMPARED DIFFERENCE Rp
TREATMENTS/RANGE
T11 and T1 1.191-1.132=0.059 R2 = 0.139
T11 and T2 1.191-1.075=0.116 R3 = 0.146
T11 and T6 1.191-1.029=0.162 *R4= 0.151

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T11 and T3 1.191-1.012=0.172 *R5 = 0.154
T11 and T7 1.191-0.928=0.263 *R6 = 0.157
T11 and T4 1.191-0.888=0.303 *R7 = 0.159
T11 and T5 1.191-0.774=0.417 *R8 = 0.160
T11 and T8 1.191-0.647 =0.544 *R9 = 0.162
T11 and T9 1.191-0.379=0.812 *R10 = 0.163
T11 and T10 1.191-0.064=1.127 *R11 = 0.139
T1 and T2 1.132-1.075=0.057 R2 = 0.139
T1 and T6 1.132-1.029=0.103 R3 = 0.146
T1 and T3 1.132-1.012=0.120 R4 = 0.151
T1 and T7 1.132-0.928=0.204 *R5 = 0.154
T1 and T4 1.132-0.888=0.244 *R6 = 0.157
T1 and T5 1.132-0.774=0.358 *R7 = 0.159
T1 and T8 1.132-0.647=0.483 *R8 = 0.160
T1 and T9 1.132-0.379=0.753 *R9 = 0.162
T1 and T10 1.132-0.064=1.068 *R10 = 0.163
T2 and T6 1.075-1.029=0.046 R2 = 0.139
T2 and T3 1.075-1.012=0.063 R3 = 0.146
T2 and T7 1.075-0.928=0.147 R4 = 0.151
T2 and T4 1.075-0.888=0.187 *R5 = 0.154
T2 and T5 1.075-0.774=0.301 *R6 = 0.157
T2 and T8 1.075-0.647=0.428 *R7 = 0.159
T2 and T9 1.075-0.379=0.696 *R8 = 0.160
T2 and T10 1.075-0.064=1.011 *R9 = 0.162
T6 and T3 1.029-1.012=0.017 R2 = 0.139
T6 and T7 1.029-0.928=0.101 R3 = 0.146
T6 and T4 1.029-0.888=0.141 R4 = 0.151
T6 and T5 1.029-0.774=0.255 *R5 = 0.154
T6 and T8 1.029-0.647=0.382 *R6 = 0.157

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T6 and T9 1.029-0.379=0.650 *R7 = 0.159
T6 and T10 1.029-0.064=0.965 *R8 = 0.160
T3 and T7 1.012-0.928=0.084 R2 = 0.139
T3 and T4 1.012-0.888=0.124 R3 = 0.146
T3 and T5 1.012-0.774=0.238 *R4 = 0.151
T3 and T8 1.012-0.647=0.365 *R5 = 0.154
T3 and T9 1.012-0.379=0.633 *R6 = 0.157
T3 and T10 1.012-0.064=0.948 *R7 = 0.159
T7 and T4 0.928-0.888=0.040 R2 = 0.139
T7 and T5 0.928-0.774=0.154 R3 = 0.146
T7 and T8 0.928-0.647=0.281 *R4 = 0.151
T7 and T9 0.928-0.379=0.549 *R5 = 0.154
T7 and T10 0.928-0.064=0.864 *R6 = 0.157
T4 and T5 0.888-0.774=0.114 R2 = 0.139
T4 and T8 0.888-0.647=0.241 *R3 = 0.146
T4 and T9 0.888-0.379=0.509 *R4 = 0.151
T4 and T10 0.888-0.064=0.824 *R5 = 0.154
T5 and T8 0.774-0.647=0.127 R2 = 0.139
T5 and T9 0.774-0.379=0.395 *R3 = 0.146
T5 and T10 0.774-0.064=0.710 *R4 = 0.151
T8 and T9 0.647-0.379=0.268 *R2 = 0.139
T8 and T10 0.647-0.064=0.503 *R3 = 0.146
T9 and T10 0.379-0.064=0.315 *R2 = 0.139

Table 6 further summarizes the result of Duncan’s test. The difference

between T5 and T8 at 0.127 is lesser than the computed least significant range for

two samples, R2 at 0.139, it is concluded that there is no significant difference

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between the combination of extracts (1000µg/mL) and the positive control

(100µg).

In Table 6, those ranges (R) that have asterisk mean that the treatments

have significant difference to each other. And those ranges that do not have

asterisk mean that the treatments do not have significant difference.

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