You are on page 1of 3

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Irisan comes from the Ibaloi term “idisan” meaning a wood used to grind something to
make it fine. In the book Ibaloi conversations: on identity, community and well- being by Jill
Carino Titling of lands in Irisan that started as early as 1922 included the Igorot claims known as
the 211 titles. The land of the original ibaloi settlers in irisan was designated as a resettlement
area for the urban poor so the land was to be paid by the settlers to the ancestral landowners at
P2.00 per square meter. This started the influx of thousands of settlers and squatters into Irisan.
The number of houses in Irisan increased rapidly and all these developments brought drastic
changes to Irisan. Where before were thick pine forests and a few scattered houses, are now
stripped mountains filled with houses that have mushroomed all over the place. Through the
years, roads, schools, bridges and other infrastructure were developed by the city government to
serve the fast-growing population of Irisan. The situation of the Ibaloi in Irisan is an indication of
the trend happening all over the City of Baguio. In Irisan is proof of the, marginalization,
dislocation, of the Ibalois in the face of rapid urbanization and migration of other cultures.

In recent years, urbanization in many advancing economies has been rapid, continual, and
excessive. The uncontrolled growth of cities has resulted in deteriorating urban environments,
inadequate water supply and sanitation, and an increase in poverty among those living in slums
without access to many of the social amenities and infrastructure of the surrounding city. Such
means of urbanization have also been destructive of local ecologies, natural resources, including
land and water bodies, and cultural resources including built heritage, building crafts, traditional
knowledge and creative industries. The cultural heritage and creativity are valuable cultural
resources for sustainable development in urban areas. The built heritage, both monumental and
ordinary, as well as cultural forms, expressions, practices, elements, values, and forms of
knowledge, are all cultural resources that can contribute to development (UNESCO Culture Sector,
2012).
.
However, Abdelhamid (2001) pointed out that it is important to place the issues of
heritage and culture within the overall process of urban development, as well as to join it with
other issues such as tourism development, revitalization of the local economy and local
governance. As a result it would highlight the significance of physical planning as a tool for
dealing with all the issues both to present solution for the continuous urban growth and
development of the community. Conservation planning uses historic contexts to help identify
critical issues. And also Conservation planning involves the public in plan development and
implementation, an approach to public participation that is appropriate for the different identities
and roles of the plan-maker and planning participant which is the commuty memebers.
Sustainable community development involves a holistic view of community, embracing
nature, culture, and politics, as well as economy. According to Chansomsak and Vale (2008),
Involvement of local people in the design and planning process is also design strategy for
moving towards the sustainable condition of a community. This indicates that the pattern of
community development is also dependent on the visions and actions of community members
and their situation. Moreover, Apart from community members, the built environment is also a
fundamental component of every community. The architectural profession, which vary from
design to planning, support the physical development and progress of a community. Architects
can gain the necessary knowledge from involving themselves in the community to ensure that
their design or planning will meet the objectives the community members are facing in the most
successful way.
According to Wilson (2015) Participation has increasingly become one of the most vital
ingredients of urban planning and development participatory planning plays a fundamental role
in planning processes making it vital for physical planning. This study thus provides insights into
the potential of urban participation for sustainable urban development. It therefore calls for
community participation to be taken into account in efforts to promote planning process as an
integral part of physical planning.

Aditionally, The people in the community provide the wisdom to create a great
community. The everyday citizens who live, work, and engage in leisure pursuits are the people
most affected by the plan. The elected officials, appointed officials or volunteers on boards and
committees are the people who maintain and implement the plan. When the people affected by
the plan participate in creating the plan, it is a Community Based Plan. Successful public
involvement is not simply measured by the number of people who attend a meeting but The
quality of the input and the ways in which the valuable opinions and concerns are incorporated
into the plan will live on long after the meetings are over. This evaluation of success will only be
possible after the plan is adopted and only if the citizens who contributed to writing the plan
regularly consult and use the plan to improve the quality of life in their community.

a qualitative research is done because researchers need a complex, detailed


understanding of the issue. According to Cresswell (2012 This detail can only be establishs by
talking directly with people, going to their homes or work place, and allowing them to tell the
stories that are not present in the literatures .qualitative research is conducted because it
empower individuals to share their stories, hear their voices. Further, qualitative research entails
to understand the contexts in which participants in a study address a problem or issue. Since
quantitative measures and the statistical analyses simply do not fit the problem qualitative
research intend Interactions among people which is difficult to capture with existing measures
found in a quantitative method of research. and these measures may not be sensitive to issues
such as differences in race, economic status, and individuality.

Based from Heinonen, et. al. (2014) study, For the purpose of data collection, focus
groups were organised to bring an interactive discussions. The groups are ‘focused’ in the sense
that all interviewees take part in explicit use if group interaction. Their data collection comprises
of group discussions, each approximately an hour in length, the group descussions were audio
recorded and manually transcribed. the recordings were noted with the participants reaction and
the atmosphere during the interview.

additionally, Based from Sullivan, et.al. (2009). The snowball technique that is used in
picking responents for a study is a non random sample of people interested in community
involvement. These individuals are likely to be better able (and more willing) to participate than
a randomized sample from the general public. A limitation of this method was that the focus
groups did not include representatives of all community interests. A further limitation of this
study was the small number of participants. The results reflect only the participants’ perceptions
and cannot be generalized to a larger population.
After which A thematic analysis was conducted on the data that emerged from the the
recordings, the transcripts and the notes made by the moderators. In Braun, V. and Clarke, V.
(2006), Using thematic analysis in psychology Thematic analysis is a method for identifying,
analysing, and reporting patterns (themes) within data. It minimally organises and describes your
data set in (rich) detail. After that the data were interpreted and then is derived from the three
levels of data analysis:Articulated data arises in participants’ direct responses to the questions .
The resulting attributional data extends beyond the questions posed, and is derived instead from
the research, with the expectation that the most critical issues will surface in the conversation.
emergent data contributes to new insights formulation and is the unanticipated product of group
interaction. the analysis of data should neither confuse nor conflate the information that arises
from each of the three levels introduced above.
However, it also often goes further than this, and interprets various aspects of the
research topic. A theme captures something important about the data in relation to the research
question, and represents some level of patterned response or meaning within the data set. The
different phases are usefully summarised in Table 1. It is important to recognise that qualitative
analysis guidelines are not rules, and, following the basic precepts, will need to be applied
flexibility to fit the research questions and data.
Traditional knowledge is more than a simple compilation of facts drawn from local, and
often remote, environments. In the book Towards Understanding the Peoples of Cordillera: A
review of research on history, governance, resources, institutions, and living traditions by June
Prill- Brett on the role of indigenous knowledge in environmental knowledge and development,
Traditional knowlege is a complex and sophisticated system of knowledge drawing on centuries
of wisdom and experience. It also constantly grows and changes with new information. To use
this sophistication one must include the indigenous peoples themselves as practitioners.
Indigenous knowledge is more developed in agriculture than in any other fields of activity,
largely because it deals primarily with the most basic of human needs –which is food. Many
indigenous farming techniques have been documented; and a growing body of literature exists on
subjects like soil and water conservation, ethnoveterinary practices, the use of natural pesticides,
intercropping, food preservation, human health and agroforestry, among others.3 Another
indigenous practice of soil erosion control is the technique of terracing, using the gen-gen40
method. Among swidden farmers the traditional fallow periods range from eight to ten years,
allowing the forest to regenerate and promoting regeneration of soil fertility and the control of
soil erosion.