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139 December, 2016

If you want a Dear farmer,
cheap and an The year is now coming to a happy
easy option ending. Looking back, we have a
to provide reason to celebrate! It has been a
successful farming year. Although
quality protein some parts of the country have
through experienced some drought; there is
insects to hope that crop yields might perform
well if the current rains continue.
your chickens, Farmers' food basket regions have
pigs and fish, silos with enough maize that may
you can now save the country from importing
food. It is our hope that the gov-
opt for black ernment will be able to buy the
soldier fly maize and provide starving families
larvae. They in parts of Northern Kenya, the
Coastal region and other regions
also help break where the rains failed.
down organic This magazine has remained true
waste to objectives of providing farmers
to compost for with practical information on eco-
logical sound practices of sustain-
use in able agriculture that use on-farm
agriculture. resources to improve soil, crop,
environment and human health.
The magazine shares information

Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae in simple language that farmers
can understand and apply. The

make good animal feed and compost
on-going Systems Comparison
Trials (SysCom) in Thika and Chuka
released significant findings in
June this year, which showed that
fore, unlike house flies, they
Beritah Mutune The Black a healthy environment. cannot carry disease between
organic farming is the best method
of crop production of improving
Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens), is As an essential decomposer,
the black soldier fly reduces wastes and foods consumed by income for farmers and taking care
one of the most beneficial insects of the environment (TOF No. 135,
the volume and weights of any humans. This also makes them
to humans. The larvae are an August 2016). It is now scientifically
waste obtained, reduce poten- safe to feed to our animals.
excellent source of food for proven that organic farming is the
many animals like poultry, bait tial pollutants such as organic best farming system that protects
for fish and pigs. At different chemicals in manure, prevent our biodiversity and ecosystems
stages of their life cycle, espe- houseflies from laying eggs in while improving farm productivity.
cially at larvae stage, the fol- the waste, cause a significant Seed companies also need to
Photo: Courtesy of ICIPE

lowing activities are observed; reduction of E. coli and Salmo- provide improved maize seed to
nella enterica in chicken manure offer quality and quantity to avert
they consume large quantities scarcity of food, in all regions in
of food wastes, agricultural and are not attracted to human
habitation and foods. They Kenya.
waste products are decomposed The price of maize purchased by
and eventually converted into inhibit flies and houseflies from
the National Cereals and Produce
manure which restores soil fer- flying around. Board (NCPB), is now at KSh
tility besides the maintenance of 3,000 per 90kg bag. This is great
Stages of black soldier news from the board on stabilizing
In this issue fly and their benefits to the prices. Farmers will no longer
Organic greenhouse input 3 be exploited by middlemen and
humans Fig: Breeding cage millers.
The larvae are dark, flat grubs The capping of interest rates
and the adults look like tiny Breeding cage for mating charged by banks at 14%; has
wasps, but they do not sting. however impacted negatively on
The adults only live for a few
process many farmers who obtain credit
days, their larvae can live for Black soldier flies require well- from financial institutions. This is
Pig feed formulation 3 likely to affect the future growth in
several days and during this lit cages. The best cage made of
the mesh is important since it the agricultural sector. It is our hope
How toxin binders work 7 time they can consume huge that banks will re-evaluate some
quantities of food waste or allows proper ventilation and of the strict conditions imposed to
TOF on the web manure. Moreover, neither the protects the flies from predators. make credit facilities more acces- larvae nor the flies are consid- For lighting purposes, two bulbs sible to farmers. ered pests or vectors. BSF grubs in lamp holders can be fitted Among other informative fea- inside the cage. tures, we have featured successful
theorganicfarmer can eat practically anything
except high cellulose items like greenhouse farming (page 2) and
TOFMagazine grasses, leaves and paper. How do you set a Organic certification which remains
a big hurdle for farmers due to the
TOF partners on the web BSF larvae go through seven production unit and costs involved (page 3). We hope stages before pupating. A few attract flies? that more farmers can take the ini- days before pupating they turn The appropriate equipment for tiative to produce organic products brown and this is when they are in groups to make certification and
use in preparation of a produc- marketing possible to benefit from
best to feed to animals. When the tion unit are bins, a dark lid the growing demand for organic
larvae are ready to pupate, they with an internal ramp inclined produce.
secrete their digestive system, We wish all farmers a merry Christ-
KBC Thursday 8.45 pm lose their mouth, and produce
Mbaitu FM Friday 8.30 pm Continues on page 6 mas and a Happy New Year!
an antibiotic coating. There-
TOF P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi 00100, Tel. +254 20 863 21 86, SMS: 0715 422 460, Email:

for organic farming have. Dr. Macharia. Sunday Ekesi (ICIPE). icipe@icipe. KENYA. she/he is Use of natural plants to solution to control pests and dis- trained on organic production for greenhouse and in open fields. in in the open fields. • Measure 1. Rongo). “Use of sodom apple with the company. Phymix® or Neem- Organic produce is in gold® are also provided for crop great demand by the nutrition. Simon Nathan. to form a thick porridge-like • The same solution can also be diseases within a greenhouse. Sodom apple fruits ground to extract tiative (ABI). Njiro Holy Family Parish. The Organic Farmer is an Unported License. For the last 10 years. • Put the porridge-like solution control pests and diseases. +254 20 863 20 00. based in Editorial Advisory Board Dr.• Bio-organic plant nutrients container with a lid. market amidst a hurdle in ascertaining certification Preparation for a high mark on organic produce.within a greenhouse safest and cheapest pest control Nature has a variety of wild gramme plants and fruits that farmers method which has no negative Following a contract with could prepare and spray on their impact on the health of human. Blight and • Harvest the sodom apple from the solution. a farmer the company. • Sieve the sodom apple shells come up with a range of products effect on the pests. duction within greenhouses and • Bio-organic plant protection. Regina Muthama (farmer. Administrator Lucy W. The Organic Farmer Organic input makes greenhouse farming possible Farmers can now produce make Farm Yard Manure (FYM). parts to ease juice extraction.5 litres of the solu- a greenhouse environment. control pest and diseases eases before and after planting any crop in a greenhouse is the Organic production pro. grow in. solution. Dr. tion and dilute it in 15-20 litres • Cut the fruit into two equal African Borehole Initiative (ABI). 020 863 21 86 foundation for the promotion of License This work is licensed ecological development. soil and the environ- company carries out soil tests control pest and diseases. Once organic • Nursery set. Dr.O. Switzerland.0 www. in a separate container and • The crop can be consumed the duction kit for use by farmers • 16-litre knap sack sprayer. For pest control. under a Creative Commons Zürich. ABI has • Water tank. for pest and disease control in fungal spores are the two notori. It is a farming Organic Copper and Bio-SPH are activity. that is well-composited. natural plants to control pest and • The greenhouse.icipe. • Pour this solution in the holes options to choose . Rumiah Tel: 0716 Farmers are trained on how to • Harvest many of the berries juice for spraying within a greenhouse 184 688 or Amdiel Tel: 0715 213 depending on the size of the or open field 597. is Greenhouse Kits have all-inclu- one such company. George Nyamu (KENAFF). of chemical fertilisers or use of gies: from the sodom apple fruit Planting can start a day after. The articles in Chief Editor Venter Mwongera Layout James Wathuge the The Organic Farmer do not necessarily reflect the Editor Peter Kamau Sponsor Biovision. a Swiss-based views of ICIPE nor Biovision Foundation. and supports discussions on all aspects of sustainable development. greenhouse farming or open field bacterial wilt and also assesses farming but embrace the above nutrient deficiencies. Publisher icipe-African Insect Science for Food Amudavi (BvAT). ability of the site for a greenhouse and the type of fertilisers to apply • Identify the areas they majorly Contact: Africam Borehole Ini- to correct nutrient deficiencies. Henry Kiara (ILRI). Alternatively. affiliated to Amiran (K) Ltd. Farmers have sive farming units that include • Using a pestle and a mortar. Dr. David independent magazine pro. various crops in a green. the crops within a greenhouse to animals. Increased interest in growing crops. William Makechi (farmer. This ensures farming is one of the most that fungal spores are eliminated popular agricultural enterprises before planting takes place. According to Mr. Peter Kamau and Venter Fosphite® is applied a week Mwongera Greenhouse before planting. produce Photo:Venter Mwongera To control early and late blight. either use some of the following technolo. extract to control pest and disease organic greenhouse farming has farmers can use PHYTO® which prompted many companies to has a knock-down (kills fast) greenhouse or open field. leave it for 72 hours cover the same day. P. to some Saft-cide® and Neem-Rach® extent. Ami in Kenya today. 00100 Nairobi. squeeze all the juice content before planting the crop. farmers enter into a contract Tanzania. Njoroge (KIOF). been promoting an organic pro. Machakos) and Rt It promotes organic farming www. Likuy- African farming community. Nguya Maniania (ICIPE). the pro- Farmers who have a passion gramme uses three inputs: Levo®. ithi (KALRO). ani). the Lead Expert in Kilimohai.” to make sure the farmers soil is a plant is sodom apple (Calotropis Farmers can opt for either free of common diseases such as procera) tree and their fruits. Arusha. sodom apple juice positive results. How to prepare the guidelines to arrive at similar the company advises on the suit. Therefore. Joseph Mure- Attribution-ShareAlike 3. berries from the plant. Indus- trial organic fertilisers such as house environment. attracting many farmers also applied in a rotation as a who want to diversify farming to preventive measure for control of increase their regular sources of fungal diseases. who want to practise organic pro. Box 30772. sprayed on the grown crop to • Drip irrigation system. income. Such ment. used chemicals to control to control whiteflies. . John duced monthly for the East and Health. The ous diseases that attack Snr Chief Josiah Arende (farmer. The Organic Amiran Farmers of water. thrips and pests and diseases within the other pests that may attack the Cherry tomatoes grown within a greenhouse and sprayed with Sodom apple greenhouses. Guanomat®.

is best suited for smallholder • A farmer needs to be commit- groups who sell their products ted to. training. • The farmer is knowledgeable polluted water and soils among where a farmer wants to export PGS is affordable about the organic standards. PGS year.acertservicesltd. tion.encert. from conventional farming tional market. these market countries. For Contact Person: Susan Njoroge they do not meet the organic stan- b) Participatory Guarantee a farmer to be certified or to be in Address: P. and within a short supply chain. In some cases. Where Organically grown vegetables. take certification include Acert. han- production process is dling and processing of organic assessed and a farmer is produce against the organic issued with a certification standards. products in the domestic market. product. issue third party certification for non-compliance with internal Contact Person: Sylvester Gule • It ensures that healthy mea.//www. 2016 Certification boosts sale of organic produce Buyers only know if to as organic certification. Once this level is approved. other impurities. measures isgeared towards ensur. domestic or regional markets. No. participatory and mentorship.O. • Signs a contract or takes a ing. The local companies that under. on sale in an organic store With the realisation of the risks a farmer or a group of farmers is that can cause contamination of selling products in the interna. PGS can contact Kenya Organic Email: info@encert. Systems Approach (PGS) an approved guarantee system. of shared vision. Soil Association. there are several locally or in farmers’ markets. sell their prod- measures are highly observed.nesvax- contamination. (Ugocert) and Africert. oped as a response to consumers’ ogy (IMO). the products are handled using to third party certification and dirty or contaminated surfaces. BOX 1175 Thika dards requirements. and capable of. Once they com. firms that the system conforms to the organic standards. On the farm. Below are some of the Uganda Organic Certification Ltd with East Africa Organic peer review and certification needs for the standard certifica. guarantee the integrity of organic • Their farm is inspected/peer before it is transported to the products and ensure compliance reviewed at least once per market. the companies accredited to undertake certifica. ucts with an organic system. clear management systems needs for a guarantee on the food Control Union. rules which are implemented. NAIROBI through a compliance check Groups willing to develop a Telephone: 254 724 910 240 using a credible guarantee organic mark (Kilimohai Mark). There organic products are are two ways of certification as genuine if they see a defined by International Federa- tion of Agriculture Movements certification mark on the (IFOAM Organics). may also and defined consequences for Nesvax Control Ltd place and are adhered antee system is normally referred farmers groups. These companies are as stipulated in the certifica. ECOCERT. 139. Agriculture Network (KOAN) for Website: www. • Develop internal rules and of their operation. PGS requires that: or the neighbouring as European Union. transport and onstrate compliance with the occur while in the farm. systems incorporates a func. a cer- Samuel Ndungu In the tificate of compliance is issued Photo: IN last KOAN is also in charge products can be accepted and Encert and Nesvax Control. Ceres. cessing and packaging levels and ance check using a defined guar. develop a PGS. integrated with the principles status. tion of their organic operation food. is assured the farmer is allowed to use the 00200. tion: • Develop a mechanism of Contacts for local certifica- • It guarantees proper envi. In Kenya. The towards ensuring food safety farmers therefore. it Telephone: 0723 857 373 is required that the farmer: Email: info@acertlimited. After harvest. at pro. ture system. safety measures are height. Organic standards nies which include. his/her produce. • A farmer establishes records Organic standards were devel. of assessing and approving PGS Acert services Limited labelled as organic or rejected if which have been developed. it is mandatory to ened to ensure healthy standards PGS is an elaborate system that (where chemicals are used).com grow natural food with no undertake certification using undertaking to uphold rules Website: Http.O. • Has adequate records to dem- Food contamination may in the destination countries such packaging services. a) Third Party Certification: In organic farmers need to this case. The compli. Contact Person: Musa Njoka organic standard require- plete the certification process. farmers need to. United States all other actors in the chain to standards. chemicals sprayed by the farmer ducted by companies which are trust. Farmers sell their • Has adequate physical separa- . horizontality (equality). with local staff. Address:14360-00100 Nairobi Local certification companies Telephone: +25473398550 sures are followed to suitably • Sign up each member to an Email: info@nesvax-control. To menting an organic agricul- international certifying compa. profit oriented.• Undergoes a conversion expensive tioning internal control system ing quality control and to reduce period before full organic contamination risks. The Institute for After the check for compliance. contamination may arise out of mally expensive since it is • It ensures that produce taken much cheaper than the interna. Adherence to standards International certification with organic standards. tion guidelines and actively tional companies since they work Encert Limited to the market comply with participate in training. go through this type of certifica- aren’t compromised.control. procedures. PGS is the better option for Website: www. December. BOX 74510- ments. the certifier con- permit. Product Standards. PGS certification process Address: P. imple- equipment and storage materials. The and procedures which comply • A farmer accepts inspection/ safety. the certifier who is a undergo a prequalification certification company checks process where the the system of production. transparency. contamination may occur if PGS is cheaper compared tion for such markets are from pledge. To achieve this. EAOPS. there has been an and this allows the farmer to use increase in products and market an organic mark authorised by standards valuation geared the certifying organisation. Local certification cheaper verifying compliance of every tion bodies: ronmental management and The East Africa Organic Product member with the internal rules sustainability measures are in Standards (EAOPS). It is a statutory requirement brings together organic farmers. which. Third party certification is nor.

one set of diets is lating a diet for pig. Farmers who invest more time into proper management Healthy piglets fed on well formulated feeds mature early of their pig farming enjoy many always. The energy pigs.” says Mr. • Bone meal: It is a good Feed formulation for pleasant to the pig. the The protein content is around possible when it has attained energy content is about 1800 45% crude proteins. the dry than that of bone meal. ensures mainte- nance of high hygienic condi- tions besides ensuring proper scheduling in quantity and a well-outlined feeding timetable. ents during feed formulation. The consumption but could also contains protein content of a) Ensure quality is metabolizable energy is about be used to feed the pig. Nutrient require. The Organic Farmer Improved feed formulation for pigs “With a professional spark in pig farming. My pigs have since repro. about 2500 Kcal/kg. around 37% and phosphorus improved accuracy of determin. The of pig requires modifica. cassava flour and cassava source of calcium and phos- pigs b) Balance ingredients chaff. Michael Wanyoike. But. ing and meeting all nutrient ingredients that constitute a source of energy. Michael • The feed given to pig should complimentary source of be well dried and stored to Wanyoike. low protein.” says Mr. Maize must be properly source of animal protein. protein content is about 45% proper feed formulation of my cessed and packaged. of oyster shell is lower factors. grown in most parts of protein. It is a to other feed ingredients. Again. It is a by-product avoid moldiness. be able to support optimum energy. 140 . The by-prod. The with other feeding ingredi- are key guidelines to follow about 2000 Kcal/kg. It is a compli- formulation and management of one of the major ingredients mentary source of energy. • The feed should be well bal. balanced pig feed for proper sweet potato could be given source of calcium. growth and development of of wheat after milling. tene. “At my farm where I Kenya. aflatoxin contamination. the Managing Direc. The energy value is For best results. good source of plant protein. The • Maize meal: It contains insufficient to meet the needs of sweet potato could be used calcium content is about 35% about 2500 kilocalorie (Kcal/ all pigs. The following are some of the • Sweet potato: It is a good content is about 17%. The following are best to replace maize to a large and contains no phosphorus. Cassava must be prop. They are grown primarily for human due to low cost compared benefits today: constituents of the feed. returns. When formu. product of extraction of palm to ensure the health of pig is Yellow maize contains caro. Hence. It is a by- protein content is about 10%. content is about 2600 Kcal/ duced from 100 to over 1000 anced with all the nutrients.• Fish meal: It is very good looked into for the expansion of kernel oil from palm kernel. within a shorter time frame. The ground cake must • Wheat meal: It is another pigs to date. for bone and skeleton. The • Soybean meal: It is another The idea is to get the pig into the pig. The ago. The price ments of pigs depend on many growth: to pig directly. The energy level is • Groundnut cake: It is a good started pig farming six years • Any pig feed formulated for the pig should be well pro. Soybean • The feed must be affordable. Boiled • Oyster shell: It is a good requirements. offer good housing. tor at Bell Farm Kenya Ltd. about 18% crude protein but assured 3400 Kcal/kg and it is widely yam tuber or peel could be the fibre is high. Managing Director. calcium content of bone is tion to optimize nutrition and feeds ents. • Yams: There are various types pig farming that Mr. the market at the shortest time • The feed should be tasty. • It must be attractive and uct includes cassava peel. It good source of energy. this farming could double as a hobby and a source of livelihoods. • Palm kernel cake: It forms in the food. energy value is low com. the following of Africa in particular. Wanyoike in formulating pig’s ration applied and he is reaping the • Maize: The grain forms major of yam in Africa. for formulation for pig tion with other feed ingredi. kg. the pig farming activity: dried before it can be used It is rich in both essential • The ingredients for the feed for the formulation to avoid and non-essential amino- must be available at all times. at about cultivated in almost all parts sun-dried and incorporated 12%. proper feed formulation. you can do it source of energy but with content of the former are proper digestion. higher than that of the latter. phorus which is responsible Feeding programs for a drift erly dried before incorpora. pared to maize but. substitute. acid. I ensured adherence to is scarce and expensive. The Kcal/kg. sorghum could be used as a crude proteins. • The pig feed should be high replace groundnut cake but standard period is normally in fibre content to allow • Cassava: Cassava is a good the methionine and lysine six months. The protein content is To be continued in the next TOF • Pig feed should be fresh • Sorghum: It is regularly between 60% and 72% crude Issue No. It can be a reliable farming activ- ity only if the farmer is dedi- cated to ensuring good choices of breeds selection are made. Bell Photo: IN Farm Kenya Ltd Karitu Njagi Pig farming is an activity undertaken by a farmer to fetch an income. meal could be used to the 90 to 100 kilogrammes. If maize source of plant protein. kg) count and calorie content practices to apply in pig feeds extent.

of getting the recommended Are there any precautions Dr. vegetables. stomach should feel good all etables to morning long. plete food. is over. Peter Mokaya. • Juicing allows one to consume of wealth while at the same nutrition and wellness by pro- an optimal amount of veg. Smoothies are drinks made from of all the nutrients from the tified organic sources. Ensure agement and weight loss. which milk (preferably organic milk) will receive most of the nutri. when shape and chemical composi. Why juice instead of of small scale organic farmer. may manifest in fruits and weight gain a precursor to many instead • It is very important to listen to non-communicable diseases juice more your body when juicing. the If one should be done. between juicing and easy way to guarantee that • It is important to note that organicconsumers. it is the best step the bad cholesterol. Eating the same vegetable contributing to the achieve- sensitive micronutrients • Ensures an adequate intake salads every day violates the ment of Sustainable Devel- become damaged when of chlorophyll. breaks from consuming nutrients and sugar in a liquid have very little sugar and zero • Stabilized healthy state of fructose. opment Goals (SDGs) by heated and cooked as foods. sure. Organic Consumers fruits per day. one’s health. you are probably juicing on something you should not be So. impaired digestion as a result able. Juices can be consumed the celebrating are acceptable. rebuild red blood cells. the metabolic complications. weight eating and drinking. Regular juicing with us and with it. pumpkin and nuts of making less-than-optimal • Remember. December. com . The one can juice a wide variety of health related and nutritional molecular structure of chloro. gence. of vegetable juice and most of liver. protein and virtually no fat. No. agricultural practices. they it comes with some measure of juicing are best taken in between health risks related to overindul. and fruits are from organic vitality by ensuring human phyll and other micronutrients. If it is churn- blood vessel diseases. like chia seeds. Lemons or limes are normal meals and juice to wellness. to your regular healthy meals. is advised with a balanced meal but for to limit maximum absorption. enjoyed when eaten whole. with merry making. is But not as a replacement to The festive season comes on diabe. loss plan or detoxification in moderation. proponents consider as liquid leafy vegetables that provide all or most of your vegetables • Provides more energy and gold. with juicing ents especially if overcooked For more information on juicing. Your (NCDs) like diabetes. heart and on veg. Peter Mokaya While all terol. some special fasting. Liquids like food choices. Chlorophyll can help to strengthen the blood and destroys useful micronutri. including heart of vegetables in the diet. juicing as a meal replace- Photo:IN Dr. sugars in fruits. if a smoothie. Chlorophyll principle of regular food or Mokaypm@gmail. family tes man. ers. The remaining also good at eliminating the restore and maintain good • Contributes to weight man. 2016 What are the health benefits of juicing? The end of year is here sparingly. improving health. or coconut water (an excellent ents rather than wasting them. One especially for the people with (PGS) certification is accept- from your body and thereby can add seeds. Website: www. juicing. green health and wellness. Do it blood pres. among other making its presence known. Juicing will help especially organic vegetables • Lowers cholesterol especially to "pre-digest" and the body and fruits. espe. they are to achieve their farming of removing all of the fiber and and related livelihood objectives. meals. in addition festive season beckons. you are able because valuable and diseases and diabetes. • Juicing helps in absorption Email: blending? you will reach your daily vegetable juice has very little Peter. • Moreover when you buy ferred produce. Director Is there any difference 6-8 servings of vegetables and and concerns with and CEO. form and discarding the rest of the remains. often loaded with chloro. which are What is the way forward? The nutritional and health ben. trients. liquid is the stuff that juicing bitter taste of the dark. preferably from cer- body absorbs enough micro. time improving the livelihood viding adequate micronutri. high program. ents. which. vegetables and fruits leaving an exception are lemons and behind a concentration of micro. Par- nutrients. weight. feel phyll is almost identical to a tion is altered. limes (not oranges!). • Has been associated with content juice from the pre- reversing many life threaten.• You can add a wider variety ing diseases. one ment. the fiber and proteins from the • Juicing should be applied and. • Unless a person is undergoing reunions and plenty of agement. for a rich mixture. etables in an efficient manner. blending whole foods together. Some people with poor eating whose livelihood and quality • Detoxifies and improves the blending or cooking? habits may take a quick glass health and functioning of the of life is improved when one • Juicing is the most advis. it is unwise to use choles. promoting ecological organic is the green pigment in tion and increases chances of Cooking and processing food missing some key micronu. This is important ticipatory guaranteed systems • Reduces and removes toxins usually fruits and veggies. you should All consumers. plants. most of the benefits of juicing. bles that you enjoy eating non- desire to maintain good health. buys organic vegetables for able way of extracting high all nutrients are found in one glass of vegetable juice. organic produce. 139.Mokaya@organicconsum- While blending is putting all target for vegetables. what does juicing cially fruc- eating! have to do with all these? Healthy juice extracted from vegetables tose which c a u s e s • To enjoy juicing. vegetables that wouldn’t be questions and clarifications. respiratory avoid the ing or growling or generally diseases and cancer. They • Consider taking frequent efits derived from juicing are. Juicing is an juicing? Alliance(OCA). chronic conditions. juiced. to take to be in control of includes triglycerides. This is a form • Contributes to overall good source of nutrients) can also be added to smoothies. meals or on their own. some of the protein from the • The only fruits. free to contact the author of the component of red blood cells • Juicing is a more practical way article at the address below: called hemin. flax seeds. juicing is a process including weight gain. including most of only start by juicing vegeta- vegetables and fruits to form small scale organic farmers. it is not really not a com. It is invalu.

When the to pupate. “Mr. the preparation bothered my husband to provide was low. because it is during school.tions to restore soil fertility in are a happy lot. These containers • Ensure coffee powder waste them safe to feed to our animals. farming activities. Front side of the bin Back side (collection area . BSF larvae go through 7 stages before pupating. an school. • The ideal size of the bin can waste by adding kitchen Their eggs hatch faster than be approximately two meters waste. Kweyu makes over KSh in the county embraced farming only harvest 12 kilogrammes of many years of poor returns in 60. or once the BSF larvae are estab. able farming lessons. Therefore. meter high. I’m in my farm through- Venter Mwongera Land is a out the day. an income. maize after three months.” Mrs. pay school fees for crop for each soil type.women. Kweyu traverses Busia change they dearly needed. those of soldier flies. Farmers in Esidede Village in digging. But. I didn’t our lives have been positively know what to do until I changed. I had to buy many bags of their land and earn a decent live. Mrs. has now completed her college Nambale Sub-County in Busia ity trench and partitioning land education. seedlings selection and best Mrs. The Organic Farmer Restoring ecosystem furthers bumper harvest “Knowledge is power. manure remains caged). Jane Kweyu showcasing her overgrown vegetables for seed col.” Says all women in my group shall live basis. • Fruit flies and house flies will • Afterwards. Kweyu says met Mr. Jane Kweyu produce says happily. open to attract the black weeks) (1-2 weeks) (1-2 weeks) (5-8 days) days) they enter a stage called the soldier flies especially the prepupa. Buluma and BvAT fertilisers rendered my land infer. To ensure the or other agricultural waste. black soldier flies are trapped Within two weeks.” she says happily. “After Mrs. have holes on the sides to allow is poured around and within the prepupae to climb out of the the bins since they are rotten fruit or vegetables. With a monthly income soil owing to haphazard from the sale of farm produce. The majority of farmers adding.” She says thankfully. returns. fertiliser during planting seasons lihood from tilling their land. Kweyu reveals. Proper land management County. and family fights have a long time. a facil. “Our health has for teaching me sustainable agri- tile. Once guidelines can help. How do you self-harvest cont'd frm pg. “The demand for naturally grown vegetables overwhelms me. cheerfully. She has managed to buy a ing. Photo: Venter Mwongera I’m now a happy farmer. 1 Black soldier larvae makes good quality animal feed the larvae? plane at an angle of 30 degrees The adult BSF lays its eggs in (this is to ensure the larvae Stages of a BSF (life cycle) rotting fruits. clothe. During this period. to remember. 2012 is a year of her vegetables on a monthly land preparation and partition. stop to eat. While this stage. the following simple and turn into mature larvae.. I suffered been abolished. vegetables. increased yields saved enough money to buy fer. supplement the be drawn to the bin first. bin. Kweyu regrettably. feed and maintain mechanisms.” she says happily. empty their stomachs and their mouth parts change • Keep vigil until female to an attachment that helps in soldier flies are drawn in the climbing. lection for subsequent planting season ondary Schools with naturally tematically and in the right way. make on a weekly basis. continuous She vividly remembers this her three children in secondary natural soil fertility restoration use of fertiliser decreases soil year. Umoja Self-Help Group.” and the importance of double school fees. Mrs. Simbembe and Munami Sec- livelihoods only if practised sys. I have supplies to natural resource that can gener. One of my children which are a source of revenue for their socio-economic activities. More often. and produce an antibiotic coating. competitors. “I struggled to educate to maximise in the refurbishment on one meal a day to ensure I Extension Officer from Biovision my first born child. unlike house flies. I never take pride in their vast lowlands into farming activity but returns nursery beds. the eggs hatch in the bins. they female ones. William Buluma. “To my disappointment. Majority of farmers iser in an acre of land and I could Help Group states adding. from the sale with scanty information about beans and four kilogrammes of farming activities. I frequently of soil fertility. This also makes can be done.” She reveals lack of school fees for my child. A few days before pupat.Africa Trust (BvAT). our children go to culture. places are in compost bins where flies are inside the bin. one meter wide and one • Add more coffee grounds. Buluma taught us how After I learnt the new and reli- in Western part of Kenya now I would invest all my resources to prepare compost manure. Food is plenty for domestic use and commercial the wrath of infertile purposes. For school. I supply ate a high income and improved Mrs. “I’d forego this year when her farmers’ group her three children in primary nisms of restoring the ecosystem many basic needs like surviving met with Mr. decided to bring the into segments. they dominate their attracted to coffee powder.” The Secretary to Umoja Self she testifies joyfully. best and According to her.” Mrs. lished. as net profit. 2012. “As grown vegetables of between 60 Farmers in Busia County have and many bags for top dress. quarrelled my husband due to and improved land use for better tiliser for my land. such dry ately the female black soldier larvae are ready to pupate. we believe in looking for to 120 kilogrammes besides 5 practised farming activities over ing to ensure improved harvest.000.. through the six stages. I solutions to support our fami.improved. they empty their stomachs. They County with an empowerment for improved returns formed a farmers’ self-help group Four years later. Friesian cow. “I’m “Each year.members in this farmers group grateful to Mr. all the 15 message to fellow farmers. long.” Ready market for organic Secretary.” a long period of time to generate invested a lot into chemical fertil. lose their mouth. the larvae have developed com- • Leave the bin with the lid BSF larvae (2 Pre-pupae BSF pupae BSF adult Eggs (4 pletely.. they prefer dry sheltered area • Then close the lid immedi. overuse of chemical whose mission was to find they turn brown this is when they are best to feed animals. various mecha. they cannot self-harvest of the mature larvae carry disease between wastes and foods we plan to eat.lies. litres of home-made yoghurt. heave a key-hole. William Buluma. fertility in her land.

No. pests is also very important. for farmers to sort maize after a • Cancer in humans. • Careful handling of ness toxin binders should be wheat. aflatoxin poisoning is to avoid seeds.into the human food body (in and pigs. groundnuts. 0721 of larvae can eat about 15 kilo. On average. organisms capable of binding Answer by Elkanah Isaboke .• They bind themselves with teria and fungi that can make aflatoxins by sticking them. Nzoia County. However it is not possible for dust. which form when cereals such ucts. sorting the maize to mini. that reduce poisonous fungal only way farmers can reduce • Use of high quality compounds called mycotox. The lowing practices. One square foot of larvae aflatoxin poisoning.natural aflatoxin binders and a waste and size of the composting How do you manage the ins. When people consume the opment during growth. farmers should insist The number of bins required with ease.All toxins completely because some maize as feed grains should be dried to of them cannot be eliminated by Aflatoxins can cause. BSF larvae by sterilising after two weeks late in the environment after an binders can contact the dealers decomposes food waste faster with any detergent. The decayed maize is • Stunted growth in both • Storage facilities should not types of mycotoxins present in put aside and milled or fed to animals and humans. prevent. Please enlighten milk. When buying toxin ing a colony is to buy a bin enough feed? which can allow BSF.Farmers interested in aflatoxin of food waste per day. produce less than a kilogramme binders because they are biode- • The bins can be maintained gradable and do not accumu. 2016 More about toxin binders and how to use them I am a cattle breeder in Trans. to crawl out into a collection toxins binders since the afla- container. excretion together with animal on the contact given below: than worms can do it. About 1-2kg of active yeast How many bins does • The binders and the afla. When the animal feeds How does toxin binders on the decomposed maize. later pass through animal feed. Nairobi. Natural aflatoxin binders detailed way on how to use bin. the • Suppressed immunity in humans and animals. as it is the most common in known as maozo) contains afla- • Diminished body weight. Some of the health prob. December. toxin binders which are safe and • Ensure all the waste is put This saves the animal from reliable. Aflatoxins are the • Suitable manage- effect in animals and people ment practices of crop most common fungi or mould who consume animal prod. Control of mycotoxins devel. 139. It is a common practice in Kenya moisture levels of below 13. by animals. The most common compost bin and drop into a col. work? Use organic toxin aflatoxins are digested.extract can bind up to 1 tonne of a farmer need to make • The easy route to establish- toxins. identify many species of bac- and even milk.aflatoxins harmless to animals selves on the surface of afla. water. fish depending on their chemi. per cent. a household will production unit? are more preferred to chemical them). binders toxin control is very important How many tonnes of Some of the toxin binders at this stage to stop the entry • Add food waste to the bin of the poisonous fungi into the compost can one bin and then take the larvae as are more effective than others livestock feed and eventually produce? feed for your poultry. etables and with an inclined bin can produce more than 30 plane that allows the larvae Types of aflatoxin farmers can still use chemical pounds of protein a year.386 604. pests which transmit feeds and human food. mize the amount of toxins and themselves with aflatoxins in a any of these cereal crops at the • Sorting of damaged cereal way that makes aflatoxins harm- growth stage. a) grammes in a day. waste and the demand of the in rotting fruits and veg- larvae. of them). (There are over 300 different harvest.contaminated feed and aflatoxin livestock while the good maize • Decreased appetite for feeds ture in such facilities should or Aspergillus flavus is just one is stored for use as human food. article. be humid and the tempera. Research has proved that 1 meter square • Clean the breeding cage waste (such as cow dung). going into the bloodstream where they Toxin binders are compounds binders are deposited into the tissues How can we prevent (adsorbents) that are mixed with Researchers have managed to mycotoxins animal feed. hence contami- nating the milk. cal composition and ability to the next issue we will feature The quantity of compost in one bin depends on the availability of bind themselves with aflatox.and humans. Farmers can Photo: IN where we can buy them. which degrade aflatoxins in grain. using cotton wool and They contain living micro.5 the use of toxin binders alone. removing other impurities in the crops to ensure broken grains less to humans and animals. ins or aflatoxins. measures. residue. the aflatoxins get into the harvest and distribution us on how toxin binders work body causing many complica. tive is to use aflatoxin binders the fungi from grain to ing them from being digested. is the most effective way and also give us information on tions as explained later in this of control. be low. toxins. during handling. a larval colony in a from being digested with the and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Essential Drugs Ltd Tel. homestead? feed in an animal’s intestines. Kenya. Some of the feeding animals with decayed • Controlling insect aflatoxins are found in animal maize. sorghum and related cereals including timely cereals are exposed to high used together with other control harvest of cereal crops moisture levels or temperature. The measures we have What farmers do not know is mentioned here are just meant • Poor feed conversion in • Controlling of all storage that the decomposed maize (also for the control of aflatoxin alone animals. from the animal's body as on buying organic or natural depends on the availability of animal waste (cow dung). If they are not available. to fly anima's gut and are removed binders.reduce the development of lems facing people are directly aflatoxins through the fol- Toxin binders are substances associated with aflatoxins. How do you establish toxins and stopping them natural toxin binders are yeast lection area. The only other alterna. feed such as small particles and or infected ones are removed. Some of the measures and cleaning of harvest- A toxin binder packed in a satchet Aflatoxins can also develop in are. in process reducing their the feed and reduce their toxic toxic effect. beans. harvesting or storage. Farmers use decomposed • Proper drying of all grains to toxin binder to remove myco- Effect of aflatoxins reduce moisture levels. For maximum effective- as maize. ing equipment.

join other TOF magazine readers WhatsApp group send your full Waste management in urban name and County to 0715 422 settings can be a major challenge Kitchen waste being recycled into compost manure 460. potassium smell. How to store compostable To ensure maximum benefits • Composting is a natural household food wastes for use in 6-8 weeks. which. • Empty the biodegradable soil-like smell. of mosquitoes which results micro-organisms found in soil. and eco-friendly farming methods. Fenugreek. can be used to grow and washable kitchen waste raised position. buying chemical fertilisers. 0723 158 680. of 4:1 to prevent bad smell and • An urban farmer can compost • Empty your containers daily sogginess. We have sukumawiki. To join send your full would be managed well to form name and county to 0721 245 compost manure. Compost manure improves tre. valuable soil food called not be recognisable. in urban residential areas mint. Proper waste manage. balanced inside the container with a between 40 – 50 degrees husks (cobs breakdown very condition rich in nutrients newspaper to reduce on filthy Celsius by turning and sprin- slowly) to easily form compost such as nitrogen. Contact Wanjiru’s only kitchen gardening but Park Farm and Resource Centre. egg shells • Always cover the food waste microorganisms. The impor. earthy. kling water. • Every time a bin is emptied. . • The compost should be ready after decomposing of waste. • Ensure the compost is moist smell starts permeating into but not wet by sprinkling a • The organic matter contained filter fruits and vegetable the kitchen. These nutri. corn cobs and • Keep the temperature range the soil in a healthy. spinach ama- ranth. in compost provides food for little water. Proper waste management Chammomile. broken used. Price negotiable. clean environment and improved ded biodegradable paper) to hygienic conditions maintained available foods due to every. provide 443. preferably in crumbly and mostly. An urban farmer can use Composting method is environmentally friendly. in the rapidly growing urban incurring unnecessary costs of • Sort and separate the materials towns. proper recycling. kitchen waste. Farmers can salvage kitchen waste into compost fruit and spices for sale. at household level. basil. are offering organic vegetables. pulp from juicing. rocket black. Taragon. raised by farmers in their correspondence to the radio program. The bio-degraded volume. plastic. the green materials at a ratio for improved human health. tube or dig a small composting every time additional waste • Keep the compost aerobically ditch where all kitchen wastes are materials are added. the temperature can be locally available materials to To achieve best compost manure. December. ensure a twigs. it is too low. also provide manure for Limuru Tel. application on the home garden flowers beds Joyce Mahui Many farmers in the urban areas dispose of the WhatsApp kitchen waste into a communal central place for weekly collec- tion by agencies responsible for Whatsapp Farmers Group: dirt collection in urban setups. and shred- as peels from various readily glass. No. 2016 answers your questions 0717 551 129 / 0738 390 715 TOFRadio is broadcast on KBC on Thursday at 8:45pm and Mbaitu FM on Friday at Chickens on sale: 2½ months old 8. asparagus. metal. organisms if too high and Composting structures clean water or detergent to decomposition is hampered if • It is a natural way of feeding Composting structures don't get rid of the awful smell. aera- make a composting bin. into biodegradables such as kitchen waste bucket into the ment practices would be best. Nairobi. • Sprinkle with wood ash to kitchen waste to form and spices waste including ing on how much waste you incorporate potash. Tune in and listen to farmer experiences and expert advice on agribusiness KARI chickens. chia seeds.30pm. kitchen waste buckets. for fruit and vegetable waste and compost bin. and put them into different day use. because it kills the micro- ents are essential for plant wash the bin thoroughly with growth and health. 139. batteries. • Identify a location for the is ready for use when it’s dark. which keep (crush well). Importance of recycling all unusable vegetables. tree tomato and Pepino fruit and compost manure for not Photo: IN seedlings. a poly. uncooked generate. monitored by feeling with the soil structure. are accrued from kitchen waste process (bio-degradation) of The original materials that were • Chop or shred waste during management and to form quality turning organic matter into put into the compost bin should meal preparation to reduce compost manure. fruits or every few days depend. The temperature manure which matures over a of your compost is important and phosphorus. This ensures that no waste grains. compost manure rinds and cores. beet- can provide rich root.sprinkle a handful of topsoil hand. texture. shovel or by rolling the bin 1-2 position process as a result of times a week. lemongrass. parsley. the soil at a low cost and it have to be commercially pro. • In the absence of a thermome- cured. Join farmers and agribusiness Whilst the kitchen garbage experts. tion and increases the soil’s water-holding capacity. On this page. most urban farmers sapp Group: Would you like to haven't benefited on this. if properly • Store in a securely covered outdoor bin. down with a pleasant. active by turning it using a • It is a better way of controlling thrown apart from polythene and tance of soil is to hasten decom- air pollution and breeding plastic waste. Compost humus. necessary nutrients much needed TOF Magazine Readers What- into the soil. Send your questions Organic produce for sale: We and comments via SMS 0715 916 136. tree leaves. we respond to some of the issues Contact 0710 247 281. coffee grounds. short period of time. kitchen vegetables without bucket with a handle. to restore vital • It is cheap to form compost manure from food waste such non-biodegradable including • Add dry materials (small nutrients into the soil.