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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies, both local and foreign.

One of the areas that were focused in the field of Physical Education is Health. Since

kindergarten to college, this is a part in the school curriculum system.

Health is the condition of being well or free from diseases, also covered the over all

conditions of one’s person body and mind. Therefore, any activities or part of educational

system can affect the condition of a person intellectually, spiritually, physically, socially

and one’s behavior through proper education with a quality performance of every teachers.

Health conditions may a result to the various students performance.

Conceptual Literature

Engaging students and cultivating understanding in a world of diversity, examines the

rich diversity found in human sexuality. More significantly, places an emphasis on

cultivating understanding in a world of increasing diversity through personal engagement.

Students are encouraged to reflect upon their own beliefs and experiences throughout the

text in order to foster a more personal and impact on their learning experience. This also

helps students develop their own opinions by promoting critical thinking skills, personal

sexual health awareness, and responsible decision-making. (Human Sexuality in a World of

Diversity/ Edition 9).

Parents and guardians should be the primary sexuality educators of their children. As

with other complex issues, many parents may need support, resources, and expertise from
schools and other organizations. It is important that young people receive age-appropriate

sexual health information and develop practical skills for keeping healthy. Educators can

help families by providing culturally meaningful learning opportunities in safe and

nonjudgmental environments so that young people can learn about sexuality in a healthy

and positive context (plannedparenthood.org).

In contrary mothers and conservative groups against the implementation of sex

education in schools (Jimenez,Fidel).

Common knowledge that kids learn about sex by whispering through bathroom stalls or

in huddled, shamed masses in the corners of the playground. Everyone knows how it works

— one kid has parents, an older sibling, or cousin who tells them the facts, and upon

learning the mechanics scurries off to inform the other kids.

In an age of increasing sex-positivity, it is unsurprising to find that about 82 percent of

parents have discussed issues regarding sexuality with their children according to the poll

“Let’s Talk: Are Parents Tackling Crucial Conversations about Sex?”. However, these

results are not as promising as they seem. Seventy four percent of parents have discussed

saying no with their teens, but only 60 percent have talked about birth control. Even if

teens decide to remain celibate until after high school, they should still be educated about

birth control for the future. Even more concerning, despite the fact that 94 percent of

parents feel they have the power to influence their teen’s sexual choices, 57 percent of

parents are uncomfortable having discussions about these issues with their kids. Why are so

many parents reluctant to have these important conversations?


A common reason parents give for their reticence is that they themselves are

uncomfortable discussing sex. This is understandable; our society does not take kindly to

open discussions about sexuality, especially not with children. But parents’ choice to stay

silent often passes their own discomfort around sex on to their children, who in turn will

propagate the cycle of secrecy and guilt. However, the most common answer that I’ve

received when asking parents the reason for their secrecy is fear of shattering a child’s

innocence (Wolpe, Samanta). (year, no first name anymore) Apelyido then close

parenthsesis and year

Perhaps the answer lies in what the child, who will grow into a teenager, might do with

that knowledge. This trepidation, which is similar to the panic that drives fear-based

educational techniques such as abstinence-only education, causes parents to avoid

discussing sex with their kids. Maybe parents believe if they don’t mention sex until they

are much older, the child will never think about sex, and then will never do it. (no citation)

The outcome of creating an environment where sex is taboo is that teens learn to distrust

their parents, become secretive, and even fearful when it comes to sexuality. Furthermore,

restricting information about how to have safe sex has been shown to increase rates of

teenage pregnancy and STIs, as explained in Youtuber Laci Green’s video “A is for

Abstinence.” Telling children pretty lies about procreation may have undesirable results. A

study conducted at MIT found that children distrust adults who lie or deliberately withhold

information, an attitude that can be dangerous when children grow into teens and need

someone to turn to for guidance. How can teens be expected to talk with their parents about

sex, or even to trust their parents with sensitive information, if parents make it clear that

they are not comfortable discussing sex? (no citation)


Having a parent to talk with about sex and birth control eliminates many dangers, such

as false or harmful information gleaned from peers, neglect of protective measures, and

attempting to solve serious problems alone such as an unwanted pregnancy or an STD

(Wolpe). year

Research Literature

In the Philippines there are some studies found which is slightly related to the present

study, after expansive research, some relations are mentioned below.

Salome Amboy (1978) studied the curricular offerings in Health 1 on value clarification

in sex education for the first year students in the Philippine Normal College. After a try out

test on freshmen not included in the final administration, the questionnaires were

distributed to the first year college students of the Philippine Normal college, during the

last week of February of the school year 1976-1977. To avoid disclosure of identity, the

students were told not to write their names and thus they could write freely their true and

honest answers. There were 170 questionnaires given out and all were returned.

The sources of information were about love, sex and marriage. Their basic reading

materials and stories of friends were their basic sources of information on sex. Also found

out that classroom instruction provided additional sex information but in limited degree.

The least percentage was information from movies and televisions. This findings showed

that adolescent students were not getting adequate information at school on sex topics

which they had a need of an interest in knowing. It was the concern of the home, school

and church to disseminate accurate and pertinent information regarding sex.


Parents should not forbid their children in gaining sex information. On the other hand,

school should make sex education widely available to pupils and students, and the church

should supplement what the home and the school cannot disseminate.

If the young had frank and direct sex education, they would better prepared to meet the

challenges and freedom of college, employment and even armed services (Hurst,

1973,p.84). (kuhaa ang page)

Block(1972,p.273) established the role of the school as he said: “Sex education is a

continuing process throughout life and therefore must be planned for during the entire

school experience of the child. Schools are important agencies in the development of

healthy habits of living and moral values. Therefore, the Department of Education

recommends that appropriate programs in sex education be developed by educational

institutions cognizant of what is desirable, what is possible and what is wise.”

In connection with this, in late 2007, UNESCO began a programme of work on sexuality

education, primarily as a platform for strengthening HIV prevention efforts with children

and young people but also to address broader sexual and reproductive health objectives,

such as the prevention of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended

pregnancies. Their work was guided by recommendations from a Global Advisory Group

on Sexuality Education, which identified the need to work in the following areas: establish

international standards on sexuality education; document good practice; analyze the cost

and cost-effectiveness of sexuality education programmes; and assess the implications of

scaling up good quality sexuality education (UNESCO-org,2011).


These studies were similar to the present study with all respects. Both are concerned

with the sexual behavior and methods used but what it differs is that this study involved the

adolescents with limited study of first year students of Philippine Normal College while

this present study involves the limited study among grade 8 students of Sta. Josefa National

High School that focuses on their perception on sex education as part of the curriculum

under the K-12 educational system using different content of questionnaire from the past

studies conducted.

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