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Testing Journal

H. Jebali,1 W. Frikha,1 and M. Bouassida2

DOI: 10.1520/GTJ20160067

Clay Improved by Geodrains

VOL. 40 NO. 3 / MAY 2017

Geotechnical Testing Journal

by Geodrains

Reference

Jebali, H., Frikha, W., and Bouassida, M., “3D Consolidation of Tunis Soft Clay Improved by Geodrains,”

Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2017, pp. 1–10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/GTJ20160067.

ISSN 0149-6115

ABSTRACT

Manuscript received April 5, 2016; This paper presents an experimental study carried out on undisturbed cored samples of

accepted for publication December 20,

2016; published online February 16, Tunis soft soil extracted at 17.25 m depth at the lagoon of Sejoumi. Three series of

2017. oedometer tests were performed: the ﬁrst one was a standard test on Tunis soft soil, the

1

Université de Tunis El Manar – Ecole second one was performed on the same soil improved by a prefabricated vertical drain

Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis. Mebradrain 88 (Mb88) type during which vertical drainage was prevented. The third series

LR14ES03-Ingénierie Géotechnique. BP

comprised similar tests to those of series two, during which horizontal and vertical drainage

37 Le Belvédère, 1002 Tunis, Tunisie

2

were allowed. The assessment of Carillo’s theory was studied by quantifying the effect of

Université de Tunis El Manar – Ecole

radial and vertical consolidation from the observed global degree of consolidation of

Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis.

LR14ES03-Ingénierie Géotechnique. BP improved Tunis soft soil specimens by geodrains. The rate in decrease of coefﬁcients cr and

37 Le Belvédère, 1002 Tunis, Tunisie, kr was greater than that recorded for coefﬁcients cv and kr, respectively. Using the Carillo’s

(Corresponding author), e-mail:

mounir.bouassida@fulbrightmail.org theory, a lower degree of consolidation which starts from 10 % is obtained; however, when

using simple approximate methods by considering recorded measures from series 3, higher

degrees of consolidation starting from 70 % were obtained.

Keywords

coefﬁcient of consolidation, hydraulic conductivity, geodrains, degree of consolidation

Nomenclature

Cc ¼ compression index

Cs ¼ swelling index

cr ¼ radial coefﬁcient of consolidation

cv ¼ vertical coefﬁcient of consolidation

e(0) ¼ (initial) void ratio

Ic ¼ consistency index

Copyright V

C 2017 by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. 1

2 Geotechnical Testing Journal

Ip ¼ plasticity index The obtained results from tests performed by Jia (2010)

kr ¼ radial hydraulic conductivity showed that the horizontal coefﬁcient of consolidation (cr) is

kv ¼ vertical hydraulic conductivity greater than the vertical coefﬁcient of consolidation (cv). This

PVD ¼ Prefabricated Vertical Drain result is almost due to the recorded anisotropy of hydraulic con-

RD ¼ radial drainage ductivity. The ratio between the horizontal and vertical hydrau-

VD ¼ vertical drainage lic conductivities is about 1.65. Hsu and Tsai (2016) presented

U ¼ global degree of consolidation analytical and experimental investigations of the combined and

Ur ¼ radial degree of consolidation radial consolidation drainage under linear time-dependent load-

Uv ¼ vertical degree of consolidation ing by taking account of the loading-dependent coefﬁcients of

V & RD ¼ vertical and radial drainage vertical and radial consolidation using a viscoelastic approach.

Wl ¼ liquid limit The results indicate that for any given effective pressure, the

Wp ¼ plastic limit coefﬁcient of radial permeability kr exhibited higher values com-

r0 ¼ Vertical effective stress. pared with the coefﬁcients of vertical permeability kv for the

tested soils. Likewise, cr values were generally higher than cv val-

ues owing to higher values of kr. Azari et al. (2016) applied an

Introduction elastic–viscoplastic model to model a soft soil improved by ver-

In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted world- tical drains and compared their simulation results with ﬁeld

wide to the problem of building structures on highly compress- measurements. Their results showed that the distribution of the

ible saturated soils and to the development of soil improvement overconsolidation ratios in the disturbed zone greatly inﬂu-

techniques for increasing bearing capacity, reducing settle- enced the viscoplastic strain rates, creep strain limits, and

ments, and accelerating consolidation of soft soils. consolidation.

Prefabricated verticals drains (PVD) with preloading Parsa-Pajouh et al. (2016) evaluated the efﬁciency of several

method was considered the most practiced improvement tech- proposed formulations for plane-strain modeling of vertical

nique to accelerate the consolidation of soft soils and, hence, to drain-assisted consolidation through an integrated numerical

increase their bearing capacity (Indraratna et al. 2009). In Tuni- and experimental investigation. By comparing the predicted

sia, the PVD associated with preloading became of current use and measured pore pressures in well-controlled laboratory tests,

since the 1990s to accelerate the consolidation of Tunis soft soil the advantages and disadvantages of these formulations were

for numerous infrastructure projects (Bouassida and Hazzar discussed. The authors mentioned that the stress–strain behav-

2008; Kanoun and Bouassida 2008). ior of natural soft soils is highly nonlinear and very complex

Sridhar and Robinson (2011) proposed a method for the owing to different fundamental features of soil, such as anisot-

determination of the coefﬁcient of radial consolidation (cr) ropy and creep.

using the “log t” method from the compression data obtained Rujikiatkamjorn et al. (2016) mentioned that previous stud-

from radial drainage consolidation tests. The method is vali- ies on different aspects of soil disturbance due to driving vertical

dated by comparing the experimental data with theoretical drains are limited. An extensive soil characterization was carried

predictions. out while installing drains at Ballina (Australia), to obtain more

Yune and Chung (2005) developed a consolidometer for realistic smear zone. Soil disturbance was evaluated by deter-

peripheral radial drainage measurement of Korea reconstituted mining the change in the coefﬁcient of permeability, the water

and undisturbed clays. These authors concluded that there is no content, and volume compressibility away from the drain. The

noticeable difference in compression curves recorded either characteristics of the smear zone were compared to the data

from radial and vertical drainage. In the over-consolidated state, available from past literatures and indicated that the radius of

the effect of drainage direction is hardly observed; cr values for the smear zone was about 6.3 times the equivalent mandrel

the normally consolidated state are higher than cv values. Such a radius, which was larger than that observed in the laboratory

result reﬂects that the anisotropy of permeability (i.e., higher using reconstituted specimens.

permeability in horizontal direction) revealed noticeable in virgin The objective of this paper is to measure the coefﬁcient of

compression. A higher anisotropy is also observed for undisturbed consolidation and hydraulic conductivity of improved Tunis

samples (cr/cv ¼ 1.7) than for reconstituted ones (cr/cv ¼ 1.3). soft soil by geodrains when subjected to vertical and horizon-

From the tests carried out by Seah and Juirnarongrit tal drainage. These measurements will serve to compare

(2003), it was concluded that the ratios of kr/kv and cr/cv between the predictions of global degree of consolidation

increased from 1.5 to 3 with increased effective vertical stress using the Carillo’s theory and measurements from the

from 20 to 500 kPa. The ratios of kr/kv and cr/cv are close to oedometer test performed on Tunis soft soil improved by

unity at in situ effective stress with an over-consolidation ratio central geodrain. Obtained results are discussed and then

of 2. interpreted.

ON JEBALI ET AL. ON IMPROVEMENT OF TUNIS SOFT SOIL 3

Determination of Radial and was suggested by combining the vertical and radial drainage

effects to predict the global degree of consolidation, U as:

Vertical Coefficients of

ð1 UÞ ¼ ð1 Ur Þð1 Uv Þ (1)

Consolidation

in which Ur and Uv are the radial and the vertical degree of con-

In the presence of PVD (Prefabricated Vertical Drain), the

solidation, respectively.

radial drainage mostly controls the consolidation of soft soil

Theoretically speaking, Carillo’s formula given by Eq 1 is

while the role of vertical drainage is negligible.

only valid for an instantaneously applied load.

Therefore, the commonly adopted consolidation theories for

The consolidation of soft soil is related to the dissipation of

designing prefabricated vertical drains using the unit cell model

excess pore pressure generated by the surcharge load. For radial

were those of Barron (1948) (Kjellman, 1948a) and Hansbo

consolidation problem with centered vertical drain in oedome-

(1981). Because the solutions considering both vertical and radial

ter cell, the governing differential equation of excess pore pres-

drainage are complicated, those most used in practice ignore the

sure is written (Sridharan et al. 1996):

effect of vertical drainage, such as Barron’s theory (Kjellman, 2

1948b). Barron (1948) developed solutions for two types of bound- @ðDur Þ @ ðDur Þ 1 @ðDur Þ

¼ cr þ (2)

ary conditions at the surface of improved soil: (i) “free vertical @t @r 2 r @r

strain,” resulting from a uniform distribution of vertical load, and where:

(ii) “equal vertical strain,” which results from imposing the same cr ¼ the coefﬁcient of radial consolidation of soft soil, and

vertical deformation. However, in some cases, the vertical drainage Dður Þ ¼ Du(r, t) is the excess of pore pressure at radius r

by PVD has a considerable effect on the degree of consolidation of from the drain axis, at time t.

improved soil; Terzaghi (1943) initially suggested the well-known The solution of Eq 2 that uses the condition of equal verti-

simple method for one-dimensional (1D) vertical consolidation cal strain without smear effect is given by (Barron 1948):

theory, which applies for unimproved soil. Theory which applies

8Tr

for unimproved soil when subjected to such load the dissipation of Ur ¼ 1 exp (3)

FðnÞ

excess pore pressure is assumed to occur vertically.

Furthermore, for most cases in practice, the soil is not The smear zone is deﬁned as the disturbed zone of soft soil

homogeneous, and the deformation of PVD improved soil does immediately adjacent to the vertical drain. F(n) is a Barron’s

not occur in 1D condition. Carillo’s theoretical solution (1942) function given by:

FIG. 1

Gradation curve of Tunis soft soil.

4 Geotechnical Testing Journal

2

TABLE 1 Atterberg limits of Tunis soft soil extracted at the lagoon @ðDuz Þ @ ðDuz Þ

of Sejoumi. ¼ cv (7)

@t @z 2

WL (%) Wp (%) Ip (%) Ic

where:

48.5 28.7 19.8 0.5 D(uz) ¼ Du(z, t) is the excess pore pressure depending on

2 the depth z and time t, and

n2 3n 1 cv ¼ the coefﬁcient of vertical consolidation.

FðnÞ ¼ lnðnÞ (4)

n2 1 4n2

The solution of differential Eq 7 leads to the equation of

where n is the drain spacing ratio given by: vertical degree of consolidation Uv as follows:

Uv < 50 %:

D rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

n¼ (5)

dw 2 TV

UV ¼ (8)

p

D and dw denote the equivalent diameters of unit cell and of

PVD, respectively. Uv > 50 %:

Tr is the dimensionless time factor of radial consolidation

8 TV p2

deﬁned by: UV ¼ 1 exp (9)

p2 4

cr t

Tr ¼ (6) Tv denotes the time factor of vertical drainage:

D2

cv t

where t denotes the time. Tv ¼ (10)

H2

For the vertical consolidation problem, the differential

equation of one-dimensional consolidation for the excess pore where H is the drainage distance that is equal half of the thick-

pressure is written (Terzaghi 1943): ness of specimen drained at top and bottom sides.

ON JEBALI ET AL. ON IMPROVEMENT OF TUNIS SOFT SOIL 5

FIG. 3 Impervious membrane covering the porous stone. until the maximum required load is attained (50, 100, 200, 400,

800 kPa). The specimen was again unloaded. At the end of the

test, the sample was carefully removed, then its thickness and

water content were measured.

Series 1 (VD): It included two standard oedometer tests

performed according to XP P 94-90-1 (AFNOR 1997). Each test

was carried out on a cylindrical sample of saturated soil with

70 mm diameter and 19 mm thickness. The soil sample was

logged in a metal ring and was placed on a porous stone. The

loading cap also has a porous stone, so the sample was sand-

wiched between two porous stones at the top and bottom of the

sample to allow vertical drainage (VD) (Fig. 2a). When prepar-

ing the sample, ﬁlter papers were placed between the soil and

the porous stones. The sample was then placed in the consolida-

tion cell that was mounted a testing apparatus. Water was

added into the cell around the sample, so the sample remains

Studied Soil saturated during the test.

Tunis soft soil specimens investigated in this study were Series 2 (RD): It included two oedometer tests performed

extracted from the Sejoumi’s lagoon at depth of 17.25 m. Those on Tunis soft soil improved by a single geodrain (Mebradrain

assumed undisturbed samples are gray colored, having a charac- 88) of sizes (thickness ¼ 0.5 cm, width ¼ 1 cm, and

teristic smell and containing shell debris. From the grain size length ¼ 19 mm). The portion of geodrain was placed before the

analysis performed by hydrometer and sieve methods in accor- placement of soft soil sample. Hence, the disturbance of soft soil

dance with standards NF P 94-056 (AFNOR 1995a) and NFP and consequent smear zone are not taken into account in the

94-057 (AFNOR 1995b), it was found that Tunis soft soil present study. In those tests, only radial drainage (RD) was

presents 85 % of particles with dimension less than 80 lm; it

also includes non-negligible fraction of silt (Fig. 1).

Atterberg limits’ tests had been performed according to the FIG. 4 Tunis soft soil improved by geodrain.

NF P 94-051(AFNOR 1995c) on extracted specimen. Obtained

results in Table 1 indicate that the tested Tunis soft soil is mod-

erately plastic and has medium consistency.

Consolidation Tests

Three series of oedometer tests were carried out on the

extracted Tunis soft soil specimens (Fig. 2). Those tests con-

sisted in gradually applied increments of vertical load subjected

to the specimen and measurements of the settlement versus

time. For each increment load, the decrease in thickness of the

sample versus time was recorded. Duration of the applied incre-

ment of load depends on the soil and its consolidation proper-

ties; it often required 24 h, which was considered a sufﬁcient

time for the primary consolidation that ends when constant set-

tlement is observed. Accordingly, the creep settlement is not

addressed in the present study, which only focused on the pri-

mary consolidation. The next increment of load was applied

(roughly the double of previous load) up to the maximum load

(25, 50, 100, 200 kPa).

When the primary consolidation at prescribed stress level

was completed (200 kPa) the sample was unloaded in one or

several steps until the increment of load of 25 kPa was dis-

mounted and the swelling of specimen can be measured.

6 Geotechnical Testing Journal

FIG. 5 Standard oedometer test results of series 1. soil.

Cc 0.16 0.16 0.30

Cs 0.022 0.022 0.023

and swelling indexes and preconsolidated stress are determined.

The initial void ratio e(0) is equal to 0.85 for the three series.

The curves of all performed oedomter tests in the three

Series (1, 2, and 3) plotted in (e-logr0 ) plan are shown in Fig. 5.

Measured compression Cc and swelling Cs indices are deter-

mined from the three series of tests (VD, RD, and V&RD) and

plotted in Fig. 6. Table 2 summarizes the obtained values of Cc

and Cs. It has been noticed that the compression index obtained

from series 3 (V&RD) is roughly the double of that recoded in

series 1 (VD) and 2 (RD). This can be explained by the allowed

allowed; vertical drainage was prevented by means of an imper- vertical and radial drainage paths from which follows enhanced

vious membrane, which covered the porous stone at the top consolidation of the compressible soil. From Table 2, it is under-

and the bottom sides of the specimen (Figs. 2b and 3). stood that the swelling is only attributed to vertical inﬁltration

Series 3 (V&RD): It included oedometer tests performed on of water during unloading of samples.

Tunis soft soil improved by a single geodrain (Mebradrain 88)

type sized identical to that used in Series 2. In those

tests, the vertical and radial drainage were both allowed (Figs. 2c Study of Three Dimensional (3D)

and 4). Consolidation

Results of standard oedometer test carried out on Tunis soft

soil (series 1) are displayed in Fig. 5. They show the variation of COEFFICIENTS OF CONSOLIDATION

void ratio e plotted as a function of the vertical effective stress in The coefﬁcient of vertical and radial consolidation cv and cr

the logarithmic scale for loading-unloading-reloading sequences. were determined from the evolution of settlement versus time

FIG. 6

Oedometer curves obtained from three

experimental series.

ON JEBALI ET AL. ON IMPROVEMENT OF TUNIS SOFT SOIL 7

levels of load (50 to 800 kPa) plotted in Fig. 8. This result shows

FIG. 7 Determination of cr by Casagrande’s method. a decreased trend of cr and cv as the consolidation stress

increases.

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITIES

Vertical and radial hydraulic conductivities (kv and kr) are

determined by the variable head permeability test. In fact, oed-

ometer apparatus (in series 1 and 2) is equipped with a conven-

tional measuring device (tubing connected to the base of the

specimen). The measurements are performed for different levels

of applied load from 100 to 800 kPa (100, 200, 400, and

800 kPa). The minimum value of 100 kPa was chosen to avoid

any swelling of the specimen when subjected to moderate con-

solidation stress.

Fig. 9 shows the variations of vertical and radial hydraulic

conductivities in function of applied load. It is noticed that each

permeability decreases when the consolidation stress increases

for each increment of recorded loading (from 50 to 800 kPa). in similar trend as observed for the respective coefﬁcients of

The results obtained from series 1 and 2: cv and cr were deter- consolidation.

mined by the logarithmic method, which uses the plot of sample Fig. 10 shows opposite variations of the ratios cr/cv and kr/kv

thickness of sample versus the logarithm of time: log (t) (Casa- when the consolidation stress varies from 100 to 800 kPa.

grande 1938). Hence, as shown for example in Fig. 7, one can Variation of ratio cr/cv in function of the consolidation

determine t50 that is the time corresponding to 50 % of primary stress shows that as the applied load increases the ratio cr/cv

consolidation. Fig. 7 illustrates an example of determination of decreases. The rate in decrease of coefﬁcient cr is greater

cr by the Casagrande’s (logarithmic) method for an applied load than that recorded for coefﬁcient cv. In fact, the ratio cr/cv

of 100 kPa. equals 36 for a consolidation stress of 100 kPa and slows

Coefﬁcient of vertical consolidation cv has been determined down up to 12 when the consolidations stress equals

from tests performed in series 1 (VD) and the coefﬁcient of 800 kPa.

radial consolidation cr has been determined from the test per- Fig. 10 also shows the variation of ratio kr/kv in function of

formed in series 2 (RD) by the Casagrande’s method for all the effective consolidation stress. It is noticed that this ratio is

FIG. 8

Coefﬁcients of consolidation cr and cv versus

consolidation stress.

8 Geotechnical Testing Journal

FIG. 9

Radial and vertical coefﬁcient of permeability versus

consolidation stress.

variable when the applied load increases. The rate in decrease settlement at different levels of applied load in series 3 (case of

for kv is greater than that recorded for kr. It is also remarked vertical and radial drainage, V&RD):

that the kr/kv ratio increases with the consolidation stress. Ratio

sðtÞ

kr/kv is equal to 4 for the consolidation stress of 100 kPa and UðtÞ ¼ (11)

s1

tends to 12 when the consolidation stress equals 800 kPa.

Obtained results show that the assumption made by many where s(t) and s1 denote the settlements at given time, t, and at

authors, e.g., cr/cv ¼ kr/kv is only valid at high levels of consoli- the end of consolidation, respectively.

dation stress (Jia and Chai 2010). The second method consists in calculating U by the Caril-

lo’s Eq 1. The radial degree of consolidation Ur is estimated

from the experimental results of series 2 (case of radial consoli-

DEGREE OF CONSOLIDATION dation RC) and Eq 3. The vertical consolidation Uv is obtained

In this paper, the global degree of consolidation U(t) is pre- from recorded results in series 1 (case of vertical consolidation

dicted by two methods. The ﬁrst one uses the measured VC) by using Eqs 8 and 9.

FIG. 10

Ratios kr/kv and cr/cv versus consolidation stress.

ON JEBALI ET AL. ON IMPROVEMENT OF TUNIS SOFT SOIL 9

FIG. 11

Variation of global degree of consolidation.

Figs. 11a, 11b, 11c, and 11d illustrate the variation of global similar test to the second one where horizontal and vertical

degree of consolidation U in function of time for vertical con- drainage were allowed. Measurements of coefﬁcients of per-

solidation stress of 100, 200, 400, and 800 kPa. meability kv and kr were determined by the variable head

For applied loads (100, 200, 400, and 800 kPa), it is noted permeability test. In addition, coefﬁcients of vertical and

that the degree of consolidation as predicted by the Carillo’s radial coefﬁcients of consolidation cv and cr were determined

theory reaches 100 % at a time less than 24 h, while the global from the evolution in time of settlement at different levels of

degree of consolidation U, estimated from Eq 11 by using meas- consolidation stress. Comparison between the ratios kr/ kv

urements of Series 3 results, reaches 100 % in 24 h. and cr/cv demonstrated that equality between the two ratios

One can also noticed that using the Carillo’s theory, a lower only happens at high level of stress consolidation, contrarily

degree of consolidation, which starts from 10 %, is predicted; to the common assumption made in previous studies. Pre-

however, when using simple approximate methods by consider- dictions of the global degree of consolidation showed that

ing recorded measures from series 3, higher degrees of consoli- the Carillo’s theory leads to overestimated results with

dation starting from 70 % are obtained. Comparing the respect to predictions from recorded settlements. Further-

recorded and predicted global degree of consolidation U, it fol- more, the effect of vertical and radial consolidations from

lows that the evolution of global degree of consolidation U pre- the observed global consolidation of improved Tunis soft

dicted by the Carillo’s theory is overestimated with respect to soils was discussed. Subsequent researches were conducted to

that deduced from the recorded settlement from series 3. The study the soft soil creep, such as the study carried out by

ﬁnal global consolidation degree U is identical using the two Mitchell and Soga (2007), who found that different soil types

methods.

exhibit viscoelastic behavior with varying amounts of time-

dependent deformation, as exhibited by secondary compres-

Conclusions sion or creep. Moreover, they showed that more plastic clay

This paper presented an experimental study conducted on soil results in more pronounced viscoelastic behavior. In

Tunis soft soil, in which three types of oedometer tests were addition, the specimens with higher plasticity indices exhib-

executed: ﬁrst, a standard oedometer test; second, an oedom- ited more volumetric strain in the steady-state creep rates.

eter test on soil specimen improved by a geodrain element Due to this, the creep behavior of Tunis soft soil should be

during which vertical drainage was prevented; and third, a studied in forthcoming research work.

10 Geotechnical Testing Journal

The authors gratefully appreciate the help provided by Dr. ing, Egypt, 5–9 October 2009. (Eds. Hamza, M., Shahien, M.

Samia Boussetta during the experimental work carried out at and El-Mossallamy, Y.), 2204–2207.

Jia, R., 2010, “Consolidation Behavior of Ariake Clay Under

the soil mechanics laboratory of the National Engineering

Constant Rate of Strain,” Ph.D. thesis, Saga University, Saga,

School of Tunis. Japan.

Jia, R. and Chai, J. C., 2010, “Effect of Strain Distribution

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