# Eighth Edition

CHAPTER

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

STATICS
Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Rigid Bodies: Equivalent Systems of Forces

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Contents
Introduction

Moment of a Force About a Given Axis Sample Problem 3.5 Moment of a Couple Addition of Couples Couples Can Be Represented By Vectors Resolution of a Force Into a Force at O and a Couple Sample Problem 3.6 System of Forces: Reduction to a Force and a Couple Further Reduction of a System of Forces Sample Problem 3.8 Sample Problem 3.10

External and Internal Forces Principle of Transmissibility: Equivalent Forces Vector Products of Two Vectors Moment of a Force About a Point Varigon’s Theorem Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force Sample Problem 3.1 Scalar Product of Two Vectors Scalar Product of Two Vectors: Applications Mixed Triple Product of Three Vectors

3-2

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Introduction
• Treatment of a body as a single particle is not always possible. In general, the size of the body and the specific points of application of the forces must be considered. • Most bodies in elementary mechanics are assumed to be rigid, i.e., the actual deformations are small and do not affect the conditions of equilibrium or motion of the body. • Current chapter describes the effect of forces exerted on a rigid body and how to replace a given system of forces with a simpler equivalent system. - moment of a force about a point - moment of a force about an axis - moment due to a couple • Any system of forces acting on a rigid body can be replaced by an equivalent system consisting of one force acting at a given point and one couple.
3-3

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
External and Internal Forces
• Forces acting on rigid bodies are divided into two groups: - External forces - Internal forces

• External forces are shown in a free-body diagram.

• If unopposed, each external force can impart a motion of translation or rotation, or both.
3-4

All rights reserved. 3-5 . • Principle of transmissibility may not always apply in determining internal forces and deformations.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Principle of Transmissibility: Equivalent Forces • Principle of Transmissibility Conditions of equilibrium or motion are not affected by transmitting a force along its line of action. Inc. • Moving the point of application of the force F to the rear bumper does not affect the motion or the other forces acting on the truck. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. NOTE: F and F’ are equivalent forces.

are not commutative. • Vector product of two vectors P and Q is defined as the vector V which satisfies the following conditions: 1. Direction of V is obtained from the right-hand rule. • Vector products: . Inc. All rights reserved.are not associative. Magnitude of V is V = P Q sin θ 3. ( P × Q ) × S ≠ P × (Q × S ) © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.are distributive. Line of action of V is perpendicular to plane containing P and Q.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Vector Product of Two Vectors • Concept of the moment of a force about a point is more easily understood through applications of the vector product or cross product. Q × P = −( P × Q ) . 3-6 . P × (Q1 + Q2 ) = P × Q1 + P × Q2 . 2.

Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Vector Products: Rectangular Components • Vector products of Cartesian unit vectors. Inc. All rights reserved. i ×i = 0 i× j =k i ×k = − j j × i = −k j× j =0 j ×k = i k ×i = j k × j = −i k ×k = 0 • Vector products in terms of rectangular coordinates V = Px i + Py j + Pz k × Q x i + Q y j + Q z k ( ) ( ) = (Py Q z − Pz Q y )i + ( Pz Q x − Px Q z ) j + (Px Q y − Py Q x )k i = Px Qx j Py Qy k Pz Qz 3-7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

is equivalent if it also has the same line of action and therefore. M O = rF sin θ = Fd The sense of the moment may be determined by the right-hand rule. produces the same moment. • Magnitude of MO measures the tendency of the force to cause rotation of the body about an axis along MO.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Moment of a Force About a Point • A force vector is defined by its magnitude and direction. Its effect on the rigid body also depends on it point of application. All rights reserved. Inc. • The moment of F about O is defined as MO = r × F • The moment vector MO is perpendicular to the plane containing O and the force F. • Any force F’ that has the same magnitude and direction as F. 3-8 . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. the sense of the moment vector is into the plane of the structure and the magnitude of the moment is negative. the moment of the force about O is perpendicular to the plane. the sense of the moment vector is out of the plane of the structure and the magnitude of the moment is positive. 3-9 . • If the force tends to rotate the structure counterclockwise. MO. • The plane of the structure contains the point O and the force F. All rights reserved. • If the force tends to rotate the structure clockwise.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Moment of a Force About a Point • Two-dimensional structures have length and breadth but negligible depth and are subjected to forces contained in the plane of the structure. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved. 3 . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Varignon’s Theorem • The moment about a give point O of the resultant of several concurrent forces is equal to the sum of the moments of the various moments about the same point O. r × (F1 + F2 + ) = r × F1 + r × F2 + • Varigon’s Theorem makes it possible to replace the direct determination of the moment of a force F by the moments of two or more component forces of F. Inc.10 .

11 . 3 . Inc. All rights reserved. r = xi + yj + zk F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k M O = M xi + M y j + M z k i = x Fx j y Fy k z Fz = yFz − zFy i + ( zFx − xFz ) j + xFy − yFx k ( ) ( ) © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. MO = r × F.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force The moment of F about O.

Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force The moment of F about B. M B = rA / B × F rA / B = rA − rB = (x A − xB )i + ( y A − y B ) j + (z A − z B ) k F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k i M B = (x A − xB ) Fx j ( y A − yB ) Fy k (z A − z B ) Fz © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 . Inc. All rights reserved.12 .

All rights reserved. Inc. M O = xFy − yFz k MO = M Z = xFy − yFz ( ) M O = ( x A − x B )Fy − ( y A − y B )Fz k MO = M Z = ( x A − x B )Fy − ( y A − y B )Fz [ ] © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.13 .Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force For two-dimensional structures. 3 .

3 . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. Inc. Determine: a) moment about O. b) horizontal force at A which creates the same moment. All rights reserved. e) whether any of the forces from b. c. and d is equivalent to the original force.14 . d) location for a 240-N vertical force to produce the same moment.1 A 100-N vertical force is applied to the end of a lever which is attached to a shaft at O. c) smallest force at A which produces the same moment.

All rights reserved.1 a) Moment about O is equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and O. Since the force tends to rotate the lever clockwise. M O = Fd d = (24 cm ) cos 60° = 12 cm M O = (100 N )(12 cm ) M O = 1200 N ⋅ cm © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.15 . the moment vector is into the plane of the paper.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. 3 . Inc.

1 c) Horizontal force at A that produces the same moment. All rights reserved. Inc.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.7 N © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 cm M O = Fd 1200 N ⋅ cm = F (20. d = (24 cm )sin 60° = 20.8 cm ) 1200 N ⋅ cm F= 20.8 cm F = 57. 3 .16 .

17 . All rights reserved. 1200 N ⋅ cm = F (24 cm ) F= 1200 N ⋅ cm 24 cm F = 50 N M O = Fd © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 c) The smallest force A to produce the same moment occurs when the perpendicular distance is a maximum or when F is perpendicular to OA.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. Inc. 3 .

Inc. All rights reserved. 1200 N ⋅ cm = (240 N )d 1200 N ⋅ cm = 5 cm d= 240 N OB cos60° = 5 cm M O = Fd OB = 10 cm © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.18 .1 d) To determine the point of application of a 240 lb force to produce the same moment. 3 .Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.

c). Inc. none are of the same magnitude and sense. None of the forces is equivalent to the 100 N force. 3 .Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.1 e) Although each of the forces in parts b). © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and d) produces the same moment as the 100 N force. or on the same line of action.19 . All rights reserved.

Knowing that the tension in the wire is 200 N. M A = rC A × F The rectangular plate is supported by the brackets at A and B and by a wire CD. 3 . Inc.4 SOLUTION: The moment MA of the force F exerted by the wire is obtained by evaluating the vector product. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. determine the moment about A of the force exerted by the wire at C.20 .

4 SOLUTION: M A = rC A × F rC A = rC − rA = (0.8 N ⋅ m ) j + (28.8 N ⋅ m )k © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.08 M A = 0. All rights reserved.3 m )i + (0. 3 .3 m )i + (0.3 − 120 96 − 128 M A = −(7.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.24 m ) j − (0.08 m ) j F = Fλ = (200 N ) rC D rC D − (0.5 m = −(120 N ) i + (96 N ) j − (128 N )k i j k 0 0. Inc.68 N ⋅ m ) i + (28.21 .32 m )k = (200 N ) 0.

P • (Q1 + Q2 ) = P • Q1 + P • Q2 .22 . P • Q = Q • P .are not associative.are distributive.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Scalar Product of Two Vectors • The scalar product or dot product between two vectors P and Q is defined as P • Q = PQcosθ (scalar result) • Scalar products: . (P • Q )• S = undefined • Scalar products with Cartesian unit components.are commutative. 3 . Inc. P • Q = (Px i + Py j + Pz k )• (Qx i + Q y j + Qz k ) j • j =1 k •k =1 i • j = 0 i •i =1 j •k = 0 k •i = 0 P • Q = Px Qx + Py Q y + Pz Qz P • P = Px2 + Py2 + Pz2 = P 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. 3 . Inc.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Scalar Product of Two Vectors: Applications • Angle between two vectors: P • Q = PQ cosθ = Px Qx + Py Q y + Pz Qz cosθ = Px Qx + Py Q y + Pz Qz PQ • Projection of a vector on a given axis: POL = P cosθ = projection of P along OL P • Q = PQ cosθ P •Q = P cosθ = POL Q • For an axis defined by a unit vector: POL = P • λ = Px cosθ x + Py cosθ y + Pz cosθ z © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.23 .

Sy Py Qy Sz Pz Qz 3 . and Q have equal magnitudes but not the same sign. S • (P × Q ) = scalar result • The six mixed triple products formed from S. Inc. P. All rights reserved.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Mixed Triple Product of Three Vectors • Mixed triple product of three vectors. S • (P × Q ) = P • (Q × S ) = Q • (S × P ) = − S • (Q × P ) = − P • (S × Q ) = −Q • (P × S ) • Evaluating the mixed triple product. S • (P × Q ) = S x Py Qz − Pz Q y + S y ( Pz Q x − Px Q z ) + S z Px Q y − Py Q x ( ( ) ) Sx = Px Qx © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.24 .

M OL = λ • M O = λ • (r × F ) • Moments of F about the coordinate axes.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Moment of a Force About a Given Axis • Moment MO of a force F applied at the point A about a point O.25 . 3 . All rights reserved. Inc. MO = r × F • Scalar moment MOL about an axis OL is the projection of the moment vector MO onto the axis. M x = yFz − zFy M y = zFx − xFz M z = xFy − yFx © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

M BL = λ • M B rA B = rA − rB = λ • (rA B × F ) • The result is independent of the point B along the given axis.26 . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 3 . Inc.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Moment of a Force About a Given Axis • Moment of a force about an arbitrary axis.

3 . Determine the perpendicular distance between AG and FC. All rights reserved.5 A cube is acted on by a force P as shown. Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.27 . Determine the moment of P a) b) c) d) about A about the edge AB and about the diagonal AG of the cube.

M AB = i • M A = i • (aP 2 )(i + j + k ) M AB = aP 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 .28 . Inc. M A = rF A × P rF A M A = a (i − j )× P 2 (i + j ) P = P ( 2 i + 2 j ) = P 2 (i + j ) M A = (aP 2 )(i + j + k ) = ai − a j = a(i − j ) • Moment of P about AB.5 • Moment of P about A. All rights reserved.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.

M AG = λ • M A rA G rA G λ= MA = M AG = 1 ai − aj − ak (i − j − k ) = 3 a 3 aP (i + j + k ) 2 1 (i − j − k )• aP (i + j + k ) = 3 2 aP (1 − 1 − 1) = 6 M AG = − aP 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.5 • Moment of P about the diagonal AG.29 .Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. Inc. 3 .

M AG = aP = Pd 6 d= a 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. P•λ = P ( j − k )• 13 (i − j − k ) = P6 (0 − 1 + 1) 2 =0 Therefore.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. Inc.5 • Perpendicular distance between AG and FC.30 . 3 . All rights reserved. P is perpendicular to AG.

e. it is a free vector that can be applied at any point with the same effect. M = rA × F + rB × (− F ) = (rA − rB ) × F = r×F M = rF sin θ = Fd • The moment vector of the couple is independent of the choice of the origin of the coordinate axes. parallel lines of action.31 . i. 3 . Inc. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Moment of a Couple • Two forces F and -F having the same magnitude. • Moment of the couple. and opposite sense are said to form a couple..

32 .Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Moment of a Couple Two couples will have equal moments if • F1d1 = F2 d 2 • the two couples lie in parallel planes. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and • the two couples have the same sense or the tendency to cause rotation in the same direction. 3 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Addition of Couples • Consider two intersecting planes P1 and P2 with each containing a couple M 1 = r × F1 in plane P1 M 2 = r × F2 in plane P2 • Resultants of the vectors also form a couple M = r × R = r × (F1 + F2 ) • By Varigon’s theorem M = r × F1 + r × F2 = M1 + M 2 • Sum of two couples is also a couple that is equal to the vector sum of the two couples © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 3 . Inc.33 .

i. Inc. • Couple vectors may be resolved into component vectors..34 . 3 . All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the point of application is not significant. • Couple vectors are free vectors.e. • Couple vectors obey the law of addition of vectors.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Couples Can Be Represented by Vectors • A couple can be represented by a vector with magnitude and direction equal to the moment of the couple.

35 . • Attaching equal and opposite force vectors at O produces no net effect on the body. 3 . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. i.e. a force-couple system. Inc. All rights reserved. • The three forces may be replaced by an equivalent force vector and couple vector.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Resolution of a Force Into a Force at O and a Couple • Force vector F can not be simply moved to O without modifying its action on the body.

Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Resolution of a Force Into a Force at O and a Couple • Moving F from A to a different point O’ requires the addition of a different couple vector MO’ M O' = r ′ × F • The moments of F about O and O’ are related. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 . M O ' = r '× F = (r + s ) × F = r × F + s × F = MO + s × F • Moving the force-couple system from O to O’ requires the addition of the moment of the force at O about O’. Inc.36 . All rights reserved.

. The point D is a good choice as only two of the forces will produce non-zero moment contributions. All rights reserved. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.6 SOLUTION: • Attach equal and opposite 20 N forces in the +x direction at A.37 . Inc. compute the sum of the moments of the four forces about an arbitrary single point. 3 . • Alternatively. Determine the components of the single couple equivalent to the couples shown. thereby producing 3 couples for which the moment components are easily computed.

All rights reserved.6 • Attach equal and opposite 20 N forces in the +x direction at A • The three couples may be represented by three couple vectors.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. 3 . M x = −(30 N )(18 cm ) = −540 N ⋅ cm M y = +(20 N )(12 cm ) = +240 N ⋅ cm M z = +(20 N )(9 cm ) = +180 N ⋅ cm M = −(540 N ⋅ cm ) i + (240 N ⋅ cm ) j + (180 N ⋅ cm )k © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.38 . Inc.

39 . Inc.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. • Only the forces at C and E contribute to the moment about D. All rights reserved. M = M D = (18 cm ) j × (− 30 N )k + (9 cm ) j − (12 cm )k × (− 20 N ) i [ ] M = −(540 N ⋅ cm ) i + (240 N ⋅ cm ) j + (180 N ⋅ cm )k © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 .6 • Alternatively. compute the sum of the moments of the four forces about D.

All rights reserved. 3 . R R M O' = M O + s × R • Two systems of forces are equivalent if they can be reduced to the same force-couple system. R R = ∑F M O = ∑ (r × F ) • The force-couple system at O may be moved to O’ with the addition of the moment of R about O’ . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.40 .Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics System of Forces: Reduction to a Force and Couple • A system of forces may be replaced by a collection of force-couple systems acting a given point O • The force and couple vectors may be combined into a resultant force vector and a resultant couple vector.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.41 . All rights reserved. Inc.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Further Reduction of a System of Forces • If the resultant force and couple at O are mutually perpendicular. they can be replaced by a single force acting along a new line of action. • The resultant force-couple system for a system of forces will be mutually perpendicular if: 1) the forces are concurrent. or 3) the forces are parallel. 3 . 2) the forces are coplanar.

Inc. • System can be reduced to a single force by moving the line of action of R until R its moment about O becomes M O • In terms of rectangular coordinates. All rights reserved.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Further Reduction of a System of Forces • System of coplanar forces is reduced to a R force-couple system R and M O that is mutually perpendicular. 3 . R xR y − yRx = M O © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.42 .

Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. and (c) a single force or resultant. For the beam. Note: Since the support reactions are not included. b) Find an equivalent force-couple system at B based on the forcecouple system at A. reduce the system of forces shown to (a) an equivalent force-couple system at A. (b) an equivalent force couple system at B.8 SOLUTION: a) Compute the resultant force for the forces shown and the resultant couple for the moments of the forces about A.43 . © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the given system will not maintain the beam in equilibrium. c) Determine the point of application for the resultant force such that its moment about A is equal to the resultant couple at A. All rights reserved. Inc. 3 .

6 i )× (− 600 j ) + (2.8 SOLUTION: a) Compute the resultant force and the resultant couple at A.8 i )× (− 250 j ) R M A = −(1880 N ⋅ m )k © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 .44 . All rights reserved.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3. Inc.8 i )× (100 j ) + (4. R = ∑F = (150 N ) j − (600 N ) j + (100 N ) j − (250 N ) j R = −(600 N ) j R M A = ∑ (r × F ) = (1.

8 b) Find an equivalent force-couple system at B based on the force-couple system at A. Inc. R = −(600 N ) j The couple at B is equal to the moment about B of the force-couple system found at A. 3 . All rights reserved.8 m )i × (− 600 N ) j = −(1880 N ⋅ m )k + (2880 N ⋅ m )k R M B = +(1000 N ⋅ m )k © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The force is unchanged by the movement of the force-couple system from A to B.45 . R R M B = M A + rB A × R = −(1880 N ⋅ m )k + (− 4.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.

R = ∑F Three cables are attached to the bracket as shown. 3 . • Compute the equivalent force. R M A = ∑ (r × F ) © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Compute the equivalent couple. All rights reserved. • Resolve the forces into rectangular components.10 SOLUTION: • Determine the relative position vectors for the points of application of the cable forces with respect to A. Inc. Replace the forces with an equivalent forcecouple system at A.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.46 .

075 i − 0.289k FB = 300 i − 600 j + 200k ( N ) SOLUTION: • Determine the relative position vectors with respect to A. 3 . All rights reserved.10 • Resolve the forces into rectangular components.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.075 i + 0. FC = (1000 N )(cos 45 i − cos 45 j ) = 707 i − 707 j ( N ) FD = (1200 N )(cos 60 i + cos 30 j ) = 600 i + 1039 j ( N ) rB A = 0. FB = (700 N )λ λ= rE B rE B = 75 i − 150 j + 50k 175 = 0.429 i − 0.857 j + 0.47 .100 i − 0. Inc.050k (m ) rD A = 0.050k (m ) rC A = 0.100 j (m ) © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

075 300 − 600 200 i j k rC A × F c = 0.68 j + 118.9k © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Eighth Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 3.100 0 = 163.050 = 30i − 45k rB A × F B = 0. All rights reserved. 3 .100 − 0.9k 600 1039 0 R M A = 30 i + 17. R M A = ∑ (r × F ) = (300 + 707 + 600 ) i + (200 − 707 )k + (− 600 + 1039 ) j R = 1607i + 439 j − 507 k ( N ) i j k 0 0.050 = 17.075 0 − 0.10 • Compute the equivalent force.48 . R = ∑F • Compute the equivalent couple.68 j 707 0 − 707 i j k rD A × F D = 0. Inc.