# A clipping circuit consists of linear elements like resistors and non-linear elements like junction diodes or transistors

, but it does not contain energy-storage elements like capacitors. Clipping circuits are used to select for purposes of transmission, that part of a signal wave form which lies above or below a certain reference voltage level. Thus a clipper circuit can remove certain portions of an arbitrary waveform near the positive or negative peaks. Clipping may be achieved either at one level or two levels. Usually under the section of clipping, there is a change brought about in the wave shape of the signal. There are different types of clippers e.g. series clipper, parallel clipper etc. but the method for solving all the type of circuits are same. Now let us discuss the procedure with the help of a problem. For a clipping circuit at least two components an ideal diode and resistor are required and sometimes a dc battery is also employed for fixing the clipping level. The diode acts as a closed switch when forward biased and an open switch when reverse biased. The input waveform can be clipped at different levels by simply changing the voltage of the battery and by interchanging the positions of the various elements. Depending on the orientation of the diode, the positive or negative region of the input signal is clipped off and accordingly the diode clippers may be positive or negative clippers. There are two general categories of clippers: series and parallel (or shunt). The series configuration is defined as one where diode is in series with the load, while the shunt clipper has the diode in a branch parallel to the load.

1. Positive Clipper The clipper which removes the positive half cycles of the input voltage is called the positive clipper. The circuit arrangements for a positive clipper are illustrated in the figure given below.

The figure illustrates the positive series clipper circuit (that is, diode in series with the load). From the figure (a) it is seen that while the input is posi tive, diode D is reverse biased and so the out put remains at zero that is, positive half cycle is clipped off. Dur ing the negative half cycle of the input, the diode is forward biased and so the nega tive half cycle appears across the output. Figure (b) illustrates the positive shunt clipper circuit (that is, diode in parallel with the load). From the figure (b) it is seen that while input side is positive, the diode D is forward biased and conducts heavily (that is, diode acts as a closed switch). So the voltage drop across the diode or across the load resistance RL is zero. Thus output voltage during the positive half cycles is zero, as shown in the output waveform. During the negative half cycles of the

the diode is considered to be ideal one. . Then the output wave forms for positive and negative clippers will be of the shape shown in the figure below. the diode D is reverse biased and behaves as an open switch. Biased Clipper Sometimes it is desired to remove a small portion of positive or negative half cycles of the signal voltage.input signal voltage. When the input signal voltage is positive. as illustrated by output wave form [figure (a)]. The negative series and nega tive shunt clip pers are shown in figures (a) and (b) as given below. Biased clippers are employed for this purpose. the signal voltage exceeds the battery voltage V. The output voltage is equal to V and stays at V as long as the input signal voltage is greater than battery voltage V in magnitude. 2. the diode D is forward biased i.7 V for silicon and 0. the diode D is reverse-biased and behaves as an open-switch. The action of the circuit is explained below. Thus a biased negative clipper removes input voltage when the input signal voltage exceeds the battery voltage. Consequently the entire input voltage appears across the diode or across the load resistance RL if R is much smaller than RL Actually the circuit behaves as a voltage divider with an output voltage of [RL / R+ RL] Vmax = -Vmax when RL >> R Note: If the diode in figures (a) and (b) is reconnected with reversed polarity. as illustrated in figure (b). When the input signal volt age is negative but does not exceed battery voltage V. Clipping can be changed by reversing the battery and diode connections. the di ode D remains reverse-biased and most of the input voltage ap pears across the output. the cir cuits will become for a negative series clipper and negative shunt clipper respec tively. When during the nega tive half cycle of input signal.e conducts heavily. The circuit diagram for a biased negative clipper (that is for removing a small portion of each negative half cycle) is illustrated in figure (a). If second approximation for diode is considered the barrier potential (0.3 V for Germanium) of diode. the entire positive half cycle appears across the load. will be taken into account. In the above discussion.

combination clipper is employed. While drawing the wave-shape of the output basic principle discussed above are followed. The diode has been considered as an ideal one. the input signal voltage exceeds + V1. The circuit for such a clipper is given in the figure below. On the other hand for the negative input voltage signal. . For positive input voltage signal when input voltage exceeds battery voltage + V1 diode D1 conducts heavily while diode D2 is reversed biased and so voltage + V1 appears across the output. Different Clipping Circuits 3.Some of other biased clipper circuits are given below in the figure. This output voltage + V1 stays as long as. The action of the circuit is summarized below. Combination Clipper When a portion of both positive and negative of each half cycle of the input voltage is to be clipped (or removed). Thus during the negative half cycle the output stays at V2 so long as the input signal voltage is greater than -V2. the diode D1remains reverse biased and diode D2 conducts heavily only when input voltage exceeds battery voltage V2 in magnitude.