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Module I
Introduction to quantum mechanics, potential well problem, energy momentum relation for electrons in solids,
effective mass and tunneling. Energy bands in solids, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Elemental and
compound semiconductors.Fermi-diracdistribution.Equilibrium and steady state conditions, Equilibrium
concentration of electrons and holes. Temperature dependence of carrier concentration.
Carrier transport in semiconductors – drift, conductivity and mobility, variation of mobility with temperature and
doping, High Field Effects, Hall effect.
Excess carriers in semiconductors – Generation and recombination mechanisms of excess carriers, quasi Fermi
levels, diffusion, Einstein relations. Continuity equations, Diffusion length - Gradient of quasi Fermi level.

Module II
PN junctions - Contact potential, Electrical Field, Potential and Charge Density at the junction, Energy band
diagram, Minority Carrier Distribution, Ideal diode equation, Electron and hole component of current in forward
biased p-n junction, piecewise linear model of a diode effect of Temperature on I-V characteristics. Diode
capacitances, switching transients. - Zener and avalanche break down, Metal Semiconductor contacts, Ohmic and
Rectifying Contacts, Hetero Junctions – Energy band diagram, Applications.

Module III
Field Effect Transistors: JFET - principle of operation, current equation, static I-V characteristics. MOS Capacitor –
Ideal MOS Capacitor-MOS Electrostatics -accumulation, depletion & inversion- Energy Band Diagram, C-V
characteristics, frequency effect- threshold voltage (derivation needed).
MOSFET- Basic structure and principle of operation, I-V characteristics, Derivation of Drain Current and device

Module IV
Bipolar junction transistor - current components, Minority Carrier Distributions basic parameters, relations between
alpha & beta - comparison Ebbers - Moll model, Switching, Base width modulation, Avalanche multiplication in
collector-base junction, Punch Through, Base resistance, Static I-V characteristics of CB and CE configurations-
frequency limitation of transistor - transit time effect

1. Ben G. Streetman: Solid State Electronic Devices, 5/e, Pearson Education. ISBN 9788120318403
2. Robert F. Pierret: Semiconductor Device Fundamentals, 4/e, Pearson Education. ISBN 0201543931
3. M.S.Tyagi: Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices, John Wiley &Sons,2000 ,ISBN: 978-0-
4. Warner and Grung: Semiconductor Device Electronics, Holt Rinhalt& Winston, 1991, ISBN
5. S.M.Sze: Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley India, 3/e, ISBN: 978-0-471-14323-9
6. Y.P.Tsividis: Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor, McGraw Hill, 1986.
7. Jasprit Sing Semiconductor Devices, Wiley India, 1/e, 2001, ISBN 81-265-1102-8
8. Donald Neamen, Semiconductor Physics And Devices , Tata McGraw hill ,3/e ISBN: 9780072321074

Type of Questions for University Examination

Q1. Eight short answer questions of 5 marks each with two questions from each of the four modules.
Q2 to Q5 : Two questions A & B of 15 marks from each module with option to answer either A or B.